Science.gov

Sample records for artificial life system

  1. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  2. Knowledge Based Simulation: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to System Modeling and Automating the Simulation Life Cycle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-13

    Simulation: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to System Modeling and Automating the Simulation Life Cycle Mark S. Fox, Nizwer Husain, Malcolm...years of research in the application of Artificial Intelligence to Simulation. Our focus has been in two areas: the use of Al knowledge representation...this problem by using Artificial Intelligence (Al) knowledge representation techniques, such as frames, to represent the objects and their

  3. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  4. Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

  5. Synthetic biology with artificially expanded genetic information systems. From personalized medicine to extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Hutter, Daniel; Sismour, A Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over 15 years ago, the Benner group noticed that the DNA alphabet need not be limited to the four standard nucleotides known in natural DNA. Rather, twelve nucleobases forming six base pairs joined by mutually exclusive hydrogen bonding patterns are possible within the geometry of the Watson-Crick pair (Fig. 1). Synthesis and studies on these compounds have brought us to the threshold of a synthetic biology, an artificial chemical system that does basic processes needed for life (in particular, Darwinian evolution), but with unnatural chemical structures. At the same time, the artificial genetic information systems (AEGIS) that we have developed have been used in FDA-approved commercial tests for managing HIV and hepatitis C infections in individual patients, and in a tool that seeks the virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). AEGIS also supports the next generation of robotic probes to search for genetic molecules on Mars, Europa, and elsewhere where NASA probes will travel.

  6. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies. PMID:26853918

  7. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-08

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  8. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  9. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Belin, A.d'A. )

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  11. An artificial life approach to language.

    PubMed

    Parisi, D

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that an Artificial Life approach to language tends to change the research agenda on language which has been shared by both the symbolic paradigm and classical connectionism. Artificial Life Neural Networks (ALNNs) are different from classical connectionist networks because they interact with an independent physical environment; are subject to evolutionary, developmental, and cultural change, and not only to learning; and are part of organisms that have a physical body, have a life (are born, develop, and die), and are members of genetic and sometimes, cultural populations. Using ALNNs to study language shifts the emphasis from research on linguistic forms and laboratory-like tasks to the investigation of the emergence and transmission of language, the use of language, its role in cognition, and language as a populational rather than as an individual phenomenon.

  12. Performative Apparatus and Diffractive Practices: An Account of Artificial Life Art.

    PubMed

    Prophet, Jane; Pritchard, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on our own art/science practices and a series of interviews with artificial life practitioners, we explore the entanglement of developments at the artistic edges of artificial life. We start by defining key terms from Karen Barad's agential realism. We then diffractively read artificial life together with agential realism to discuss the potential for interventions in the field. Through a discussion of artificial life computer simulations, ideas of agency are problematized, and artificial life's single purposeful actor, the agent, is replaced by agential, an adjective denoting a relationship rather than a subject-object duality. We then seek to reinterpret the difficult-to-define term "emergence." Agency in artificial life emerges through what Barad calls entanglement, in this case between observers and their apparatus, a perpetual engagement between observations of a system and their interpretations. The article explores the differences that this diffractive perspective makes to artificial life and accounts of its materialization.

  13. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  14. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  15. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of 'artificial life,' and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses.

  16. A comprehensive overview of the applications of artificial life.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2006-01-01

    We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers to study, simulate, and understand living systems. The definition and features of ALife are shown by application studies. ALife application fields treated include robot control, robot manufacturing, practical robots, computer graphics, natural phenomenon modeling, entertainment, games, music, economics, Internet, information processing, industrial design, simulation software, electronics, security, data mining, and telecommunications. In order to show the status of ALife application research, this review primarily features a survey of about 180 ALife application articles rather than a selected representation of a few articles. Evolutionary computation is the most popular method for designing such applications, but recently swarm intelligence, artificial immune network, and agent-based modeling have also produced results. Applications were initially restricted to the robotics and computer graphics, but presently, many different applications in engineering areas are of interest.

  17. Symbol grounding: a bridge from artificial life, to artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E

    1997-06-01

    This paper develops a bridge from AL issues about the symbol-matter relation to AI issues about symbol-grounding by focusing on the concepts of formality and syntactic interpretability. Using the DNA triplet-amino acid specification relation as a paradigm, it is argued that syntactic properties can be grounded as high-level features of the non-syntactic interactions in a physical dynamical system. This argument provides the basis for a rebuttal of John Searle's recent assertion that syntax is observer-relative (1990, 1992). But the argument as developed also challenges the classic symbol-processing theory of mind against which Searle is arguing, as well as the strong AL thesis that life is realizable in a purely computational medium. Finally, it provides a new line of support for the autonomous systems approach in AL and AI (Varela & Bourgine 1992a, 1992b).

  18. Indirectly Encoding Running and Jumping Sodarace Creatures for Artificial Life.

    PubMed

    Szerlip, Paul; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lightweight platform for evolving two-dimensional artificial creatures. The aim of providing such a platform is to reduce the barrier to entry for researchers interested in evolving creatures for artificial life experiments. In effect the novel platform, which is inspired by the Sodarace construction set, makes it easy to set up creative scenarios that test the abilities of Sodarace-like creatures made of masses and springs. In this way it allows the researcher to focus on evolutionary algorithms and dynamics. The new indirectly encoded Sodarace (IESoR) system introduced in this article extends the original Sodarace by enabling the evolution of significantly more complex and regular creature morphologies. These morphologies are themselves encoded by compositional pattern-producing networks (CPPNs), an indirect encoding previously shown effective at encoding regularities and symmetries in structure. The capability of this lightweight system to facilitate research in artificial life is then demonstrated through both walking and jumping domains, in which IESoR discovers a wide breadth of strategies through novelty search with local competition.

  19. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  20. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  1. An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.

  2. The ulam Programming Language for Artificial Life.

    PubMed

    Ackley, David H; Ackley, Elena S

    2016-01-01

    Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply. This expanded article presents ulam, a language designed to balance concurrency and programmability upon best-effort hardware, using lifelike strategies to achieve robust and scalable computations. The article reviews challenges for traditional architecture, introduces the active-media computational model for which ulam is designed, and then presents the language itself, touching on its nomenclature and surface appearance as well as some broader aspects of robust software engineering. Several ulam examples are presented; then the article concludes with a brief consideration of the couplings between a computational model and its physical implementation.

  3. "Life is a verb": inflections of artificial life in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    This review essay surveys recent literature in the history of science, literary theory, anthropology, and art criticism dedicated to exploring how the artificial life enterprise has been inflected by--and might also reshape--existing social, historical, cognitive, and cultural frames of thought and action. The piece works through various possible interpretations of Kevin Kelly's phrase "life is a verb," in order to track recent shifts in cultural studies of artificial life from an aesthetic of critique to an aesthetic of conversation, discerning in the process different styles of translating between the concerns of the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and sciences of the artificial.

  4. Microbial ecology of the closed artificial ecosystem MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative): reinventing and compartmentalizing the Earth's food and oxygen regeneration system for long-haul space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Larissa; De Wever, Heleen; Hermans, Veronik; Mastroleo, Felice; Morin, Nicolas; Wilmotte, Annick; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    2006-01-01

    MELiSSA is a bioregenerative life support system designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the complete recycling of gas, liquid and solid wastes during long distance space exploration. The system uses the combined activity of different living organisms: microbial cultures in bioreactors, a plant compartment and a human crew. In this minireview, the development of a short-cut ecological system for the biotransformation of organic waste is discussed from a microorganism's perspective. The artificial ecological model--still in full development--that is inspired by Earth's own geomicrobiological ecosystem serves as an ideal study object on microbial ecology and will become an indispensable travel companion in manned space exploration.

  5. [Current progress of the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, G; Gengenbach, U; Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Fliedner, J; Koker, L; Krug, M; Martin, T; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2014-12-01

    In case of presbyopia or cataract the "artificial accommodation system" represents one future possibility to durably restore the ability to accommodate. The work presented describes recent progress in the development of the artificial accommodation system. Major advances were achieved in the fields of the actuator system for the active optics, the pupil near reflex sensor, the communication system, the power supply system as well as in system integration. Beside the technical advances, first trials were performed to implant the artificial accommodation system into animals. These trials showed that the new lens shaped design and the C-shaped haptics are beneficial for implantation and secure fixation of the implant inside the capsular bag.

  6. Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

  7. Artificial-life researchers try to create social reality.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1994-08-12

    Some scientists, among them cosmologist Stephen Hawking, argue that computer viruses are alive. A better case might be made for many of the self-replicating silicon-based creatures featured at the fourth Conference on Artificial Life, held on 5 to 8 July in Boston. Researchers from computer science, biology, and other disciplines presented computer programs that, among other things, evolved cooperative strategies in a selfish world and recreated themselves in ever more complex forms.

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  9. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  10. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life It is very common for doctors to provide ... or recovering from surgery. This is called “artificial nutrition and hydration” and like all medical treatments, it ...

  11. The dilemma of the symbols: analogies between philosophy, biology and artificial life.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes some analogies going from Artificial Life questions about the symbol-matter connection to Artificial Intelligence questions about symbol-grounding. It focuses on the notion of the interpretability of syntax and how the symbols are integrated in a unity ("binding problem"). Utilizing the DNA code as a model, this paper discusses how syntactic features could be defined as high-grade characteristics of the non syntactic relations in a material-dynamic structure, by using an emergentist approach. This topic furnishes the ground for a confutation of J. Searle's statement that syntax is observer-relative, as he wrote in his book "Mind: A Brief Introduction". Moreover the evolving discussion also modifies the classic symbol-processing doctrine in the mind which Searle attacks as a strong AL argument, that life could be implemented in a computational mode. Lastly, this paper furnishes a new way of support for the autonomous systems thesis in Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence, using, inter alia, the "adaptive resonance theory" (ART).

  12. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  13. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  14. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  15. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  16. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Artificial stall barrier system. 23.691... Construction Control Systems § 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system. If the function of an artificial stall... pitching motion. (d) Each system must be designed so that the artificial stall barrier can be quickly...

  17. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable.

  18. Counseling, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems in counseling. Limitations are explored; candidates for counseling versus those for expert systems are discussed; programming considerations are reviewed; and techniques for dealing with rational, nonrational, and irrational thoughts and feelings are described. (Contains 46…

  19. Artificial Cells: Synthetic Compartments with Life-like Functionality and Adaptivity.

    PubMed

    Buddingh', Bastiaan C; van Hest, Jan C M

    2017-01-17

    Cells are highly advanced microreactors that form the basis of all life. Their fascinating complexity has inspired scientists to create analogs from synthetic and natural components using a bottom-up approach. The ultimate goal here is to assemble a fully man-made cell that displays functionality and adaptivity as advanced as that found in nature, which will not only provide insight into the fundamental processes in natural cells but also pave the way for new applications of such artificial cells. In this Account, we highlight our recent work and that of others on the construction of artificial cells. First, we will introduce the key features that characterize a living system; next, we will discuss how these have been imitated in artificial cells. First, compartmentalization is crucial to separate the inner chemical milieu from the external environment. Current state-of-the-art artificial cells comprise subcompartments to mimic the hierarchical architecture of eukaryotic cells and tissue. Furthermore, synthetic gene circuits have been used to encode genetic information that creates complex behavior like pulses or feedback. Additionally, artificial cells have to reproduce to maintain a population. Controlled growth and fission of synthetic compartments have been demonstrated, but the extensive regulation of cell division in nature is still unmatched. Here, we also point out important challenges the field needs to overcome to realize its full potential. As artificial cells integrate increasing orders of functionality, maintaining a supporting metabolism that can regenerate key metabolites becomes crucial. Furthermore, life does not operate in isolation. Natural cells constantly sense their environment, exchange (chemical) signals, and can move toward a chemoattractant. Here, we specifically explore recent efforts to reproduce such adaptivity in artificial cells. For instance, synthetic compartments have been produced that can recruit proteins to the membrane upon an

  20. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Target detection, multi-target tracking and threat identification of ICBM and its warheads by sensor fusion and data fusion of sensors in a fuzzy neural network system based on the compound eye of a fly.

  1. Collective intelligence of the artificial life community on its own successes, failures, and future.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Steen; Raven, Michael J; Keating, Gordon N; Bedau, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel Internet-based method for building consensus and clarifying conflicts in large stakeholder groups facing complex issues, and we use the method to survey and map the scientific and organizational perspectives of the artificial life community during the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life (summer 2000). The issues addressed in this survey included artificial life's main successes, main failures, main open scientific questions, and main strategies for the future, as well as the benefits and pitfalls of creating a professional society for artificial life. By illuminating the artificial life community's collective perspective on these issues, this survey illustrates the value of such methods of harnessing the collective intelligence of large stakeholder groups.

  2. Missileborne artificial vision system (MAVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

    1994-03-01

    The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a Companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different Corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of Corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

  3. Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

  4. A completely implantable total artificial heart system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W; Pierce, W; Pae, W; Marlotte, J; Nazarian, R; Ford, S

    1991-01-01

    The authors developed, built, and tested in vivo a completely implanted total artificial heart (TAH) system. The system used a reduced size version of a roller screw energy converter and mating sac blood pumps. The motor drive, pumps, and a compliance chamber were implanted intrathoracically. A canister containing controlling electronics and an emergency battery was implanted in the abdomen. The secondary coil of an inductive energy transmission and telemetry system was placed over the ribs. The system was implanted in three calves, that survived 0.5-13 days with the system. The system maintained safe left atrial pressures and adequate cardiac outputs during each animal's entire course.

  5. From Artificial Chemistries to Systems Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleta, Christoph

    Artificial Chemistries abstract from real-world chemistries by reducing them to systems of interacting and reacting molecules. They have been used to study phenomena in a wide array of fields like social and ecological modelling, evolution or chemical computing. Artificial Chemistries are inherently difficult to study and, thus, methods have been proposed to analyze their complexity. This chapter outlines how the concept of chemical organization and software dedicated at their analysis can help to ease this task. The chemical organizations of a reaction network correspond to sets of molecules that can coexist over long periods of (simulation-) time. Thus, they can be used to study the full dynamic behavior a system can exhibit without the need to simulate it in every detail. Due to this appealing property, Chemical Organization Theory has been used in the study of a wide array of systems ranging from Artificial Chemistries to real-world chemistries and biological systems. Especially the analysis of biological systems motivated an integration of the tools dedicated to the study of chemical organizations into an application framework from Systems Biology. The benefit of this integration is that tools from Systems Biology can be used without much effort along with the tools for the computation of chemical organizations and vice versa. Thus, software for the analysis of chemical organizations seamlessly integrates into a framework covering almost any aspect of network design and analysis.

  6. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H; Evers, Jörg

    2016-03-24

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This "reverse engineering" of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  7. Tailoring superradiance to design artificial quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Paolo; Keitel, Christoph H.; Evers, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena arising due to the coupling of individual atoms via the radiation field are a cornerstone of modern quantum and optical physics. Recent experiments on x-ray quantum optics added a new twist to this line of research by exploiting superradiance in order to construct artificial quantum systems. However, so far, systematic approaches to deliberately design superradiance properties are lacking, impeding the desired implementation of more advanced quantum optical schemes. Here, we develop an analytical framework for the engineering of single-photon superradiance in extended media applicable across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and show how it can be used to tailor the properties of an artificial quantum system. This “reverse engineering” of superradiance not only provides an avenue towards non-linear and quantum mechanical phenomena at x-ray energies, but also leads to a unified view on and a better understanding of superradiance across different physical systems.

  8. Artificial intelligence and space power systems automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Various applications of artificial intelligence to space electrical power systems are discussed. An overview is given of completed, on-going, and planned knowledge-based system activities. These applications include the Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) (the expert system interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the early work with the Space Station Experiment Scheduler (SSES); the three expert systems under development in the space station advanced development effort in the core module power management and distribution system test bed; planned cooperation of expert systems in the Core Module Power Management and Distribution (CM/PMAD) system breadboard with expert systems for the space station at other research centers; and the intelligent data reduction expert system under development.

  9. Agency in natural and artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alvaro; Etxeberria, Arantza

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the conditions for agency in natural and artificial systems. In the case of basic (natural) autonomous systems, self-construction and activity in the environment are two aspects of the same organization, the distinction between which is entirely conceptual: their sensorimotor activities are metabolic, realized according to the same principles and through the same material transformations as those typical of internal processes (such as energy transduction). The two aspects begin to be distinguishable in a particular evolutionary trend, related to the size increase of some groups of organisms whose adaptive abilities depend on motility. Here a specialized system develops, which, in the sensorimotor aspect, is decoupled from the metabolic basis, although it remains dependent on it in the self-constructive aspect. This decoupling reveals a complexification of the organization. In the last section of the article this approach to natural agency is used to analyze artificial systems by posing two problems: whether it is possible to artificially build an organization similar to the natural, and whether this notion of agency can be grounded on different organizing principles.

  10. Reactively and Anticipatory Behaving Agents for Artificial Life Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Karel; Nahodil, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Reactive behavior is still considered and the exact opposite for the anticipatory one. Despite the advances on the field of anticipation there are little thoughts on relation with the reactive behavior, the similarities and where the boundary is. In this article we will present our viewpoint and we will try to show that reactive and anticipatory behavior can be combined. This is the basic ground of our unified theory for anticipatory behavior architecture. We still miss such compact theory, which would integrate multiple aspects of anticipation. My multi-level anticipatory behavior approach is based on the current understanding of anticipation from both the artificial intelligence and biology point of view. As part of the explanation we will also elaborate on the topic of weak and strong artificial life. Anticipation is not matter of a single mechanism in a living organism. It was noted already that it happens on many different levels even in the very simple creatures. What we consider to be important for our work and what is our original though is that it happens even without voluntary control. We believe that this is novelty though for the anticipation theory. Naturally research of anticipation was in the beginning of this decade focused on the anticipatory principles bringing advances on the field itself. This allowed us to build on those, look at them from higher perspective, and use not one but multiple levels of anticipation in a creature design. This presents second original though and that is composition of the agent architecture that has anticipation built in almost every function. In this article we will focus only on first two levels within the 8-factor anticipation framework. We will introduce them as defined categories of anticipation and describe them from theory and implementation algorithm point of view. We will also present an experiment conducted, however this experiment serves more as explanatory example. These first two levels may seem trivial

  11. A category theoretical argument against the possibility of artificial life: Robert Rosen's central proof revisited.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique; Ho, Weng Kin

    2006-01-01

    One of Robert Rosen's main contributions to the scientific community is summarized in his book Life itself. There Rosen presents a theoretical framework to define living systems; given this definition, he goes on to show that living systems are not realizable in computational universes. Despite being well known and often cited, Rosen's central proof has so far not been evaluated by the scientific community. In this article we review the essence of Rosen's ideas leading up to his rejection of the possibility of real artificial life in silico. We also evaluate his arguments and point out that some of Rosen's central notions are ill defined. The conclusion of this article is that Rosen's central proof is wrong.

  12. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  13. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  14. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  15. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  16. Artificial Aging as a Predictor of Paper's Future Useful Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansa, Helmut; Hofer, Hans-H.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment with the artificial aging of paper which--in contrast with the usual practice--was carried out at relatively low temperatures (i.e., 50-95 degrees Celsius), and not on laboratory handsheets, but on naturally aged paper from the commercial production of four centuries, produced results justifying the thesis that there may be at best…

  17. Life detection systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Some promising newer approaches for detecting microorganisms are discussed, giving particular attention to the integration of different methods into a single instrument. Life detection methods may be divided into biological, chemical, and cytological methods. Biological methods are based on the biological properties of assimilation, metabolism, and growth. Devices for the detection of organic materials are considered, taking into account an instrument which volatilizes, separates, and analyzes a sample sequentially. Other instrumental systems described make use of a microscope and the cytochemical staining principle.

  18. Educational Game Systems in Artificial Intelligence Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubarkova, Elena V.; Sadchikov, Ilya A.; Suslova, Irina A.; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrey ?.; Milova, Larisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Article actuality based on fact that existing knowledge system aimed at future professional life of students: a skillful use game activity in educational process will teach students to look for alternative ways solving of real problems. The purpose of article lies in theoretical substantiation, development and testing of criteria, which must be…

  19. Artificial Intelligence for VHSIC Systems Design (AIVD) User Reference Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    AD-A259 518 C;ý I RESEARCH TRIANGLE INSTITUTE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR IVHSIC SYSTEMS DESIGN (AIVD) DTIC USER REFERENCE MANUAL * ScELECTE fl2...Report 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. MUMBER OF PAGES VHSIC, Software/hardware codesign, Artificial Intelligence graph transformation, ADAS 14. PRICE CODE 17... ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR I VHSIC SYSTEMS DESIGN (AIVD) USER REFERENCE MANUAL December 1988 I Department of the Army ,,’ U.S. Army Electronics Research

  20. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  1. Vehicle detection system using artificial retina chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Koichi; Tamura, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Kyuma, Kazuo

    2001-05-01

    The AR chip is a versatile CMOS image sensor, functions are not only normal image acquisition but also on-chip image processing. Such features can accelerate algorithms of image processing and the controls of proper image. We have developed the low-cost and compact vehicle detection system using he AR chips. The system is composed of a processing module and an AR camera module. The AR Camera module has dual artificial retina chips to cover the wide dynamic range of the outdoor brightness environment. The ND filter is coated on the lens of one of the chips, each AR chip covers different range of the brightness. The control algorithm of image acquisition is designed to select an adequate chip based on the image quality. The images of the selected chip are processed by on-chip functions for pre-processing and they are transferred to the processing module. Finally the processing module judges the existence of vehicles and detects several kinds of attributive information of the detected vehicle such as moving direction. In our paper, we describe details of the system and the algorithm and we show several result data through field experiments under the real road environment.

  2. A study of creep-fatigue life prediction using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Il; Lim, Byeong Soo

    2001-07-01

    In this study, using AISI 316 stainless steel, creep-fatigue tests were carried out under various test conditions (different total strain ranges and hold times) to verify the applicability of the artificial neural network method to creep-fatigue life prediction. Life prediction was also made by the modified Coffin-Manson method and the modified Ostegren method using 21 data points out of a total 27 experimental data points. The six verification data points were carefully chosen for the purpose of evaluating the predictability of each method. The predicted lives were compared with the experimental results and the following conclusions were obtained within the scope of this study. While the creep-fatigue life prediction by the modified Coffin-Manson method and the modified Ostegren method had average errors of 35.8% and 47.7% respectively, the artificial neural network method had only 15.6%. As a result, the artificial neural network method with the adaptive learning rate was found to be far more accurate and effective than any of the others. The validity of the artificial neural network method for life prediction checked with the six verification data points also proved to be very satisfactory.

  3. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ2H and δ18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and δ18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme

  4. From natural to bioassisted and biomimetic artificial water channel systems.

    PubMed

    Barboiu, Mihail; Gilles, Arnaud

    2013-12-17

    Within biological systems, natural channels and pores transport metabolites across the cell membranes. Researchers have explored artificial ion-channel architectures as potential mimics of natural ionic conduction. All these synthetic systems have produced an impressive collection of alternative artificial ion-channels. Amazingly, researchers have made far less progress in the area of synthetic water channels. The development of synthetic biomimetic water channels and pores could contribute to a better understanding of the natural function of protein channels and could offer new strategies to generate highly selective, advanced water purification systems. Despite the imaginative work by synthetic chemists to produce sophisticated architectures that confine water clusters, most synthetic water channels have used natural proteins channels as the selectivity components, embedded in the diverse arrays of bioassisted artificial systems. These systems combine natural proteins that present high water conductance states under natural conditions with artificial lipidic or polymeric matrixes. Experimental results have demonstrated that natural biomolecules can be used as bioassisted building blocks for the construction of highly selective water transport through artificial membranes. A next step to further the potential of these systems was the design and construction of simpler compounds that maintain the high conduction activity obtained with natural compounds leading to fully synthetic artificial biomimetic systems. Such studies aim to use constitutional selective artificial superstructures for water/proton transport to select functions similar to the natural structures. Moving to simpler water channel systems offers a chance to better understand mechanistic and structural behaviors and to uncover novel interactive water-channels that might parallel those in biomolecular systems. This Account discusses the incipient development of the first artificial water channels

  5. A toxicity test in artificial soil based on the life-history strategy of the nematode Plectus acuminatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kammenga, J.E.; Van Koert, P.H.G.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Korthals, G.W.; Bakker, J.

    1996-05-01

    The ecological risk assessment of toxicants in soil requires reproducible and relevant test systems using a wide range of species. To supplement present test methods from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in artificial soil with earthworms and springtails, a toxicity test in OECD artificial soil has been developed using the bacterivorous nematode Plectus acuminatus (Bastian, 1865) (Nematoda; Plectidae). The juvenile to adult ratio was used as a test parameter since previous life-cycle studies pointed out that fitness of P. acuminatus was strongly determined by changes in both reproduction and juvenile survival. Optimal conditions for the performance of nematodes in OECD artificial soil were determined (pH{sub KCl} = 5.5, temperature = 20C, and a moisture content of 70% dry wt. artificial soil), and tests were conducted with cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol. After an exposure period of 3 weeks the EC50 for cadmium was 321.0 {+-} 1.7 mg/kg dry wt., and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 32 mg/kg dry wt. The EC50 for pentachlorophenol was 47.9 {+-} 1.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was <10 mg/kg dry wt. For copper the EC50 was 162 {+-} 0.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was 32 mg/kg dry wt. It is concluded that the nematode test may well supplement current coil test systems using earthworms and springtails.

  6. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    LeCun, Yann

    2011-02-23

    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  7. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  8. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  9. An overview of the artificial intelligence and expert systems component of RICIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems are the important component of RICIS (Research Institute and Information Systems) research program. For space applications, a number of problem areas that should be able to make good use of the above tools include: resource allocation and management, control and monitoring, environmental control and life support, power distribution, communications scheduling, orbit and attitude maintenance, redundancy management, intelligent man-machine interfaces and fault detection, isolation and recovery.

  10. Artificial cells: building bioinspired systems using small-scale biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ruder, Warren C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2008-01-01

    Artificial cells have generated much interest since the concept was introduced by Aleksandr Oparin in the 1920s, and they have had an impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in various areas, including potential therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss the development of small-scale, bio-inspired artificial cell components that recreate the function of key cellular and physiological systems. We describe artificial cells, selected current applications and how small-scale biology could be used to provide what might be a next-generation approach in this area. We believe that this type of work is in its infancy and that exploiting small-scale biological inspiration in the field of artificial cells has great potential for successes in the future.

  11. Structural colors: from natural to artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yulan; Tippets, Cary A; Donev, Eugenii U; Lopez, Rene

    2016-09-01

    Structural coloration has attracted great interest from scientists and engineers in recent years, owing to fascination with various brilliant examples displayed in nature as well as to promising applications of bio-inspired functional photonic structures and materials. Much research has been done to reveal and emulate the physical mechanisms that underlie the structural colors found in nature. In this article, we review the fundamental physics of many natural structural colors displayed by living organisms as well as their bio-inspired artificial counterparts, with emphasis on their connections, tunability strategies, and proposed applications, which aim to maximize the technological benefits one could derive from these photonic nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:758-775. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1396 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  13. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  14. Multivariable adaptive identification and control for artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Laurie; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-03-01

    A constrained weighted recursive least squares method is proposed to provide recursive models with guaranteed stability and better performance than models based on regular identification methods in predicting the variations of blood glucose concentration in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Use of physiological information from a sports armband improves glucose concentration prediction and enables earlier recognition of the effects of physical activity on glucose concentration. Generalized predictive controllers (GPC) based on these recursive models are developed. The performance of GPC for artificial pancreas systems is illustrated by simulations with UVa-Padova simulator and clinical studies. The controllers developed are good candidates for artificial pancreas systems with no announcements from patients.

  15. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  16. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  17. Artificial Cochlea Design Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the design of an artificial cochlea is investigated in depth. Interdigitated finger (comb), cantilever... INTERDIGITATED FINGER (COMB) RESONATOR DESIGN .............................................. 3-9 3.2.1 Calculating Comb Resonance...frequency. 1.4.1.4 MEMS Description Cantilever, bridge, interdigitated finger (comb), and mirror type resonators are considered for the MEMS devices

  18. Artificial intelligence technologies for power system operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Talukdar, S.N.; Cardozo, E.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers in this study examined the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies for improving problem-solving strategies in 16 power system operations. To demonstrate the use of AI in the area they considered most promising, contingency selection-security assessment, they also developed two programs - one to simulate network protection schemes, the other to diagnose faults.

  19. Integrated Photobioelectrochemical Systems: A Paradigm Shift in Artificial Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Pavel; Pant, Deepak; Patra, Snehangshu

    2017-04-01

    Recent breakthroughs have reinvigorated the century-old research domain of artificial photosynthesis. Here, we highlight CO2-reducing and O2-liberating integrated photobioelectrochemical systems that contain novel enzymatic cathodes and photoanodes. These devices, which are completely self-driven by solar energy with unprecedented efficiency and stability, have important implications for biotechnological research communities.

  20. An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed…

  1. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  2. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

  3. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

  4. Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence for Professional Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes expert systems which are computer programs which use inference schemes to apply generalized human expertise to the facts of a specific case. Basic concepts, potentials and implications are presented along with the issues involved in their development and use. A simple expert system, written in BASIC, is included to illustrate the…

  5. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  6. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-17

    difficulty Veit and Callero (1981) have Aq developed an evaluation technique called the Subjective Transfer Function (STF) ’-~ ~approach. In the STF...Information Retrieval, Montreal, Canada. Veit, C.T., M. Callero . (1981) Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Complex System " 4Analysis. Rand Corp

  8. An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems.A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00295d

  9. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  10. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  11. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  12. Home care artificial heart monitoring system via internet.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Lee, J H; Choi, J; Lee, J; Kim, W G; Sun, K; Min, B G

    2004-10-01

    The availability of a remote management system, which provides both physiological-related information about the patient and device-related information about the implanted device, would be helpful during in vivo experiments or clinical trials involving artificial heart implantation. In order to be able to monitor the course of the in vivo experiment continuously regardless of the patient's location, an internet-based remote monitoring system was developed, which can monitor physiological-related information such as pressure (AoP, LAP, RAP, PAP) and flow data, as well as device-related information such as current, direction and pump operating conditions. The home care artificial heart monitoring system which we developed consists of four main components, which are the transcutaneous information transmission system (TITS), local monitoring station (LMS), data server station (DSS), and client monitoring station (CMS). The device-related information and physiological-related information can be transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote non-clinical environment to the specialist situated in a clinic depending on the current capabilities and availability of the internet. The local monitoring station situated at the remote site is composed of a data acquisition and preprocessing unit connected to a computer via its RS-232 port, and which communicate using a Java-based client-server architecture. The remote monitoring system so developed was used during an in vivo experiment of the artificial heart implantation for 2 months and performed successfully according to design specifications.

  13. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  14. Present and future of the artificial heart driving system.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Itkin, G P; Sumin, A V; Mordashov, V M; Kiselev, U M; Zimin, N K; Drobyshev, A A

    1991-10-01

    The totally artificial heart (TAH) is now in development in two trends. First, there is the development of a bridge system for temporary support of cardiac function. The TAH with the extracorporeal pneumatic driving system Sinus-IS is more efficient and safer. Parallel with this, a portable pneumatic driving system has been developed. That can be considered a stage in the development of the second trend: a totally implantable TAH. This article reviews problems of building of the Micron energy system to be used in implantable TAH designs.

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, Harold

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  17. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  18. Artificial Immunity Based Cooperative Sustainment Framework for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R. C. M.; Lau, H. Y. K.

    Many studies show that the modelling concept of multi-agent systems (MAS) can be very useful for many industries, such as automated production systems, modern distribution centres and warehouses, port container terminals and transportation systems, etc. However, when applying them to real life where unpredictable factors exists that lead to agent failures, they will not be able to perform as expected or even failed completely. A MAS that can withstand and recover from unpredictable failures is much welcomed by many industries that adopt automation as an integral part of their businesses. Therefore, we propose a cooperative sustainment framework to help MAS to recover the failed agent nodes and extend the system life using artificial immunity inspired design. To verify the usefulness of the design, we carry out some experiments and the result is encouraging.

  19. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  20. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced.

  1. Assuring Life in Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos c.

    2008-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to assure life in composite systems by using dynamic buckling of smart composite shells as an example. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 9% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load. The uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects and thereby in the assured life of the shell.

  2. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  3. Life beyond the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of some of the highlights and more recent developments in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The first major problem is one of the generality of the formation of planetary systems. Observations of the nearest stars which are not members of binary or multiple stars indicates that fully half have companions of planetary mass. The presence of organic compounds in meteorites, probably in Jovian planets, in comets, in the interstellar medium, and in cool stars implies that the production of organic compounds essential for the origin of life should be pervasive throughout the universe. Possibilities of interstellar communication are discussed.

  4. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  5. Pathway to artificial pancreas systems revisited: moving downstream.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems, a long-sought quest to replicate mechanically islet physiology that is lost in diabetes, are reaching the clinic, and the potential of automating insulin delivery is about to be realized. Significant progress has been made, and the safety and feasibility of AP systems have been demonstrated in the clinical research center and more recently in outpatient "real-world" environments. An iterative road map to AP system development has guided AP research since 2009, but progress in the field indicates that it needs updating. While it is now clear that AP systems are technically feasible, it remains much less certain that they will be widely adopted by clinicians and patients. Ultimately, the true success of AP systems will be defined by successful integration into the diabetes health care system and by the ultimate metric: improved diabetes outcomes.

  6. An artificial compound eye system for large field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Lifang; Shi, Ruiying; Dong, Xiaochun; Deng, Qiling; Du, Chunlei

    2012-11-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, optical imaging system has been widely used, and the performance requirements are getting higher and higher such as lighter weight, smaller size, larger field of view and more sensitive to the moving targets. With the advantages of large field of view, high agility and multi-channels, compound eye is more and more concerned by academia and industry. In this work, an artificial spherical compound eye imaging system is proposed, which is formed by several mini cameras to get a large field of view. By analyzing the relationship of the view field between every single camera and the whole system, the geometric arrangement of cameras is studied and the compound eye structure is designed. By using the precision machining technology, the system can be manufactured. To verify the performance of this system, experiments were carried out, where the compound eye was formed by seven mini cameras which were placed centripetally along a spherical surface so that each camera points in a different direction. Pictures taken by these cameras were mosaiced into a complete image with large field of view. The results of the experiments prove the validity of the design method and the fabrication technology. By increasing the number of the cameras, larger view field even panoramic imaging can be realized by using this artificial compound eye.

  7. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  8. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  9. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  10. Artificial hydration and alimentation at the end of life: a reply to Craig.

    PubMed

    Ashby, M; Stoffell, B

    1995-06-01

    Dr Gillian Craig (1) has argued that palliative medicine services have tended to adopt a policy of sedation without hydration, which under certain circumstances may be medically inappropriate, causative of death and distressing to family and friends. We welcome this opportunity to defend, with an important modification, the approach we proposed without substantive background argument in our original article (2). We maintain that slowing and eventual cessation of oral intake is a normal part of a natural dying process, that artificial hydration and alimentation (AHA) are not justified unless thirst or hunger are present and cannot be relieved by other means, but food and fluids for (natural) oral consumption should never be 'withdrawn'. The intention of this practice is not to alter the timing of an inevitable death, and sedation is not used, as has been alleged, to mask the effects of dehydration or starvation. The artificial provision of hydration and alimentation is now widely accepted as medical treatment. We believe that arguments that it is not have led to confusion as to whether or not non-provision or withdrawal of AHA constitutes a cause of death in law. Arguments that it is such a cause appear to be tenuously based on an extraordinary/ordinary categorisation of treatments by Kelly (3) which has subsequently been interpreted as prescriptive in a way quite inconsistent with the Catholic moral theological tradition from which the distinction is derived. The focus of ethical discourse on decisions at the end of life should be shifted to an analysis of care, needs, proportionality of medical interventions, and processes of communication.

  11. Adaptive conventional power system stabilizer based on artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, M.L.; Segal, R.; Ghodki, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with an artificial neural network (ANN) based adaptive conventional power system stabilizer (PSS). The ANN comprises an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer. The input vector to the ANN comprises real power (P) and reactive power (Q), while the output vector comprises optimum PSS parameters. A systematic approach for generating training set covering wide range of operating conditions, is presented. The ANN has been trained using back-propagation training algorithm. Investigations reveal that the dynamic performance of ANN based adaptive conventional PSS is quite insensitive to wide variations in loading conditions.

  12. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  13. Vaccine-enhanced artificial immune system for multimodal function optimization.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Kumlachew M; Yen, Gary G

    2010-02-01

    This paper emulates a biological notion in vaccines to promote exploration in the search space for solving multimodal function optimization problems using artificial immune systems (AISs). In this method, we first divide the decision space into equal subspaces. The vaccine is then randomly extracted from each subspace. A few of these vaccines, in the form of weakened antigens, are then injected into the algorithm to enhance the exploration of global and local optima. The goal of this process is to lead the antibodies to unexplored areas. Using this biologically motivated notion, we design the vaccine-enhanced AIS for multimodal function optimization, achieving promising performance.

  14. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  15. The role of artificial intelligence techniques in scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoffroy, Amy L.; Britt, Daniel L.; Gohring, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques provide good solutions for many of the problems which are characteristic of scheduling applications. However, scheduling is a large, complex heterogeneous problem. Different applications will require different solutions. Any individual application will require the use of a variety of techniques, including both AI and conventional software methods. The operational context of the scheduling system will also play a large role in design considerations. The key is to identify those places where a specific AI technique is in fact the preferable solution, and to integrate that technique into the overall architecture.

  16. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth

    PubMed Central

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  17. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.

  18. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed Central

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  19. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    TWO STRATEGIES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED TO AVOID NEGATIVE GENETIC EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIALLY PROPAGATED INDIVIDUALS ON WILD POPULATIONS: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10-20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations.

  20. Evaluation of articulation simulation system using artificial maxillectomy models.

    PubMed

    Elbashti, M E; Hattori, M; Sumita, Y I; Taniguchi, H

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic evaluation is valuable for guiding the treatment of maxillofacial defects and determining the effectiveness of rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis. Model simulations are important in terms of pre-surgical planning and pre- and post-operative speech function. This study aimed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice generated by an articulation simulation system using a vocal tract model with or without artificial maxillectomy defects. More specifically, we aimed to establish a speech simulation system for maxillectomy defect models that both surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists can use in guiding treatment planning. Artificially simulated maxillectomy defects were prepared according to Aramany's classification (Classes I-VI) in a three-dimensional vocal tract plaster model of a subject uttering the vowel /a/. Formant and nasalance acoustic data were analysed using Computerized Speech Lab and the Nasometer, respectively. Formants and nasalance of simulated /a/ sounds were successfully detected and analysed. Values of Formants 1 and 2 for the non-defect model were 675.43 and 976.64 Hz, respectively. Median values of Formants 1 and 2 for the defect models were 634.36 and 1026.84 Hz, respectively. Nasalance was 11% in the non-defect model, whereas median nasalance was 28% in the defect models. The results suggest that an articulation simulation system can be used to help surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists to plan post-surgical defects that will be facilitate maxillofacial rehabilitation.

  1. Life history and cost analysis for continuous rearing of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on a zoophytophagous artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Coudron, T A; Wittmeyer, J; Kim, Y

    2002-12-01

    The impact of a zoophytophagous, insect-free artificial diet upon the developmental rate, life table parameters, and fertility table parameters was examined over 11 consecutive generations for domesticated and wild colonies of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that the developmental time, preoviposition period, fecundity, and nymphal survival improved in the domestic colony when fed an insect-free artificial diet for 11 consecutive generations, but remained relatively constant for the wild colony, as did reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase. Although, after 11 generations of adaptation to an artificial diet feeding regime, all reproductive and fertility table parameters were still significantly lower than when fed on T. ni larvae as the natural prey, the realized cost of rearing either colony on the artificial diet approached 1.2 times the cost of rearing these insects on a natural prey. This is a significant achievement in the effort to develop cost-effective artificial diets for the mass-rearing of beneficial pentatomids, and has positive implications for the use of one artificial diet to efficiently rear several beneficial insects.

  2. ANUBIS: artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Saaj, Chakravarthini M; Allouis, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Gain tuning is a crucial part of controller design and depends not only on an accurate understanding of the system in question, but also on the designer's ability to predict what disturbances and other perturbations the system will encounter throughout its operation. This letter presents ANUBIS (artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system), a novel biologically inspired technique for automatically tuning controller parameters in real time. ANUBIS is based on the Bayesian brain concept and modifies it by incorporating a model of the neuromodulatory system comprising four artificial neuromodulators. It has been applied to the controller of EchinoBot, a prototype walking rover for Martian exploration. ANUBIS has been implemented at three levels of the controller; gait generation, foot trajectory planning using Bézier curves, and foot trajectory tracking using a terminal sliding mode controller. We compare the results to a similar system that has been tuned using a multilayer perceptron. The use of Bayesian inference means that the system retains mathematical interpretability, unlike other intelligent tuning techniques, which use neural networks, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary algorithms. The simulation results show that ANUBIS provides significant improvements in efficiency and adaptability of the three controller components; it allows the robot to react to obstacles and uncertainties faster than the system tuned with the MLP, while maintaining stability and accuracy. As well as advancing rover autonomy, ANUBIS could also be applied to other situations where operating conditions are likely to change or cannot be accurately modeled in advance, such as process control. In addition, it demonstrates one way in which neuromodulation could fit into the Bayesian brain framework.

  3. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  4. Origins of life systems chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, J.

    2015-10-01

    By reconciling previously conflicting views about the origin of life - in which one or other cellular subsystem emerges first, and then 'invents' the others - a new modus operandi for its study is suggested. Guided by this, a cyanosulfidic protometabolism is uncovered which uses UV light and the stoichiometric reducing power of hydrogen sulfide to convert hydrogen cyanide, and a couple of other prebiotic feedstock molecules which can be derived therefrom, into nucleic acid, peptide and lipid building blocks. Copper plays several key roles in this chemistry, thus, for example, copper(I) catalysed cross coupling and copper(II) driven oxidative crosscoupling reactions generate key feedstock molecules. Geochemical scenarios consistent with this protometabolism are outlined. Finally, the transition of a system from the inanimate to the animate state is considered in the context of there being intermediate stages of partial 'aliveness'.

  5. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  6. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  7. Ultrathin Alvarez lens system actuated by artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Petsch, S; Grewe, A; Köbele, L; Sinzinger, S; Zappe, H

    2016-04-01

    A key feature of Alvarez lenses is that they may be tuned in focal length using lateral rather than axial translation, thus reducing the overall length of a focus-tunable optical system. Nevertheless the bulk of classical microsystems actuators limits further miniaturization. We present here a new, ultrathin focus-tunable Alvarez lens fabricated using molding techniques and actuated using liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) artificial muscle actuators. The large deformation generated by the LCE actuators permits the integration of the actuators in-plane with the mechanical and optical system and thus reduces the device thickness to only 1.6 mm. Movement of the Alvarez lens pair of 178 μm results in a focal length change of 3.3 mm, based on an initial focal length of 28.4 mm. This design is of considerable interest for realization of ultraflat focus-tunable and zoom systems.

  8. Development of an Electrohydraulic Total Artificial Heart System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Akihiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Shioya, Kyoko; Lee, Hwan Sung; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Nishinaka, Tomohiro; Koshiji, Kohji

    An electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) system has been developed. The EHTAH system consists of diaphragm-type blood pumps, an electrohydraulic actuator, an internal control unit, a transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS), a transcutaneous optical telemetry system (TOTS), and an internal battery. The reciprocating rotation of the impeller generates oil pressure which drives the blood pumps at alternating intervals. The blood pumps and the actuator were successfully integrated into the pump unit without oil conduits. As a result of miniaturizing the blood pumps and the actuator, the displacement volume and weight of the EHTAH system decreased to 872 ml and 2492g, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum flow rate and efficiency increased up to 12 L/min and 15.4%. The pump units and the EHTAH systems were successfully implanted in 36 calves weighing from 55 to 87kg. In the longest case, the ca1f with the pump unit survived for 87 days and the calf with the EHTAH system survived for 70 days. The EHTAH system was powered by the TETS, and was powered everyday by the internal battery for 40 minutes. These results indicate that the EHTAH system has the potential to become a fully implantable cardiac replacement system.

  9. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  11. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  12. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  13. A Bio-Inspired Electromechanical System: Artificial Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kang-Hun

    Inspired by recent biophysical study on the auditory sensory organs, we study electromechanical system which functions similar to the hair cell of the ear. One of the important mechanisms of hair cells, adaptation, is mimicked by an electromechanical feedback loop. The proposed artificial hair cell functions similar to a living sensory organ in the sense that it senses input force signal in spite of the relatively strong noise. Numerical simulation of the proposed system shows otoacoustic sound emission, which was observed in the experiments on the hair cells of the bullfrog. This spontaneous motion is noise-induced periodic motion which is controlled by the time scale of adaptation process and the mechanical damping.

  14. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results. PMID:20936152

  15. Bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C A

    1994-11-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  16. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  17. VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

    How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

  18. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  19. Artificial life and speciation, a case study: heterochromatin and speciation in the Microtus savii Group (Rodentia-Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Cordelli, Alessandro; Cerrai, Paola; Galleni, Lodovico

    2003-01-01

    Artificial life is a tool which is used for simulation of peculiar cases of evolutionary events. The main characteristic of artificial life is that with this technique it is possible to simulate for a high number of generations the evolution of a population of individuals. Each individual is characterised by a small number of parameters, but each individual has its own evolutive story. So far it is possible to simulate the evolution of a population of some thousands specimens, for a high number of generations. The realistic aspect of the simulation is that each specimen is taken individually. In our opinion this instrument is very useful to simulate the evolution of the hybrids barrier during speciation. For this reason it is applied to a peculiar case of speciation, that of the Savi pine vole (Microtus savii) whose experimental data were recently investigated.

  20. WebAL Comes of Age: A Review of the First 21 Years of Artificial Life on the Web.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tim; Auerbach, Joshua E; Bongard, Josh; Clune, Jeff; Hickinbotham, Simon; Ofria, Charles; Oka, Mizuki; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O; Yosinski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey of the first 21 years of web-based artificial life (WebAL) research and applications, broadly construed to include the many different ways in which artificial life and web technologies might intersect. Our survey covers the period from 1994-when the first WebAL work appeared-up to the present day, together with a brief discussion of relevant precursors. We examine recent projects, from 2010-2015, in greater detail in order to highlight the current state of the art. We follow the survey with a discussion of common themes and methodologies that can be observed in recent work and identify a number of likely directions for future work in this exciting area.

  1. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  2. Visual system based on artificial retina for motion detection.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Francisco; Díaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo; del Pino, Begoña

    2009-06-01

    We present a bioinspired model for detecting spatiotemporal features based on artificial retina response models. Event-driven processing is implemented using four kinds of cells encoding image contrast and temporal information. We have evaluated how the accuracy of motion processing depends on local contrast by using a multiscale and rank-order coding scheme to select the most important cues from retinal inputs. We have also developed some alternatives by integrating temporal feature results and obtained a new improved bioinspired matching algorithm with high stability, low error and low cost. Finally, we define a dynamic and versatile multimodal attention operator with which the system is driven to focus on different target features such as motion, colors, and textures.

  3. IPMC cilia system for artificial muscle applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taeseon; Palmre, Viljar; Stalbaum, Tyler P.; Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Kim, Kwang Jin

    2016-04-01

    Artificial muscle (AM) technology is an excellent candidate for creating cilia-based structures for bio-inspired locomotion, maneuvering, and acoustic systems. We developed an AM based cilia fiber which are soft, flexible, easily shaped and low power consumption. The developed cilium has a diameter of around 200 µm and prepared through polymer injection technique. Nafion was used for base polymer for cilia and fabricated IPMCs via platinum electroless plating process. The prepared cilia were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The 2 point probe was conducted to measure electrode surface resistance of prepared IPMCs. We further characterized the cross-sectional morphology and studied the electromechanical performances (displacement and blocking force) of the prepared IPMC actuators. Also we created prototype mm-sized AM fiber cilia array (3x20) and tested the actuation of AM cilia fiber under external electric field.

  4. Artificial carrier for oxygen supply in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Dey, E S; Norrlöw, O; Liu, Y

    2004-04-01

    Several poly (dimethylsiloxanes) (PDMS) copolymers of dimethylsiloxane (DMS) with ethylene or propylene oxide were tested as artificial carriers for the delivery of oxygen to biological systems. Copolymers with a DMS content of 33% or lower enhanced glucose oxidation by 200% in contrast to the 25% increase produced by the same concentration of perfluorodecalin. When 0.05% of the copolymer with 18% DMS was included in the growth media of Bacillus thuriginensis, the biomass (growth rate) increased 1.5-fold. With 0.1% of this copolymer, actinorhodin production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) occurred in half the normal time and with an increased yield. In conclusion, these PDMS copolymers are a good alternative to perfluorodecalin as oxygen carriers in biotechnological processes.

  5. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  6. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  7. Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

    1990-09-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Ion-exchange polymer artificial muscle and actuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Dominique; Tondu, Bertrand; Lopez, Pierre; Aurelle, Yves; Ricard, Alain

    1996-04-01

    Chemomechanical transformations are used to produce a mechanical force from a reversible chemical reaction in order to generate artificial muscular contraction, on the model of the biological muscle. The design and experimentation of an original artificial muscle using an ion-exchange polymer which reacts inside a soft envelope, derived from research on pneumatic artificial McKibben muscle, is presented. Then a chemomechanical actuator constituted of two artificial muscles has been conceived: first results are shown on position control in open-loop mode.

  10. Adaptive control of artificial pancreas systems - a review.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Cinar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems offer an important improvement in regulating blood glucose concentration for patients with type 1 diabetes, compared to current approaches. AP consists of sensors, control algorithms and an insulin pump. Different AP control algorithms such as proportional-integral-derivative, model-predictive control, adaptive control, and fuzzy logic control have been investigated in simulation and clinical studies in the past three decades. The variability over time and complexity of the dynamics of blood glucose concentration, unsteady disturbances such as meals, time-varying delays on measurements and insulin infusion, and noisy data from sensors create a challenging system to AP. Adaptive control is a powerful control technique that can deal with such challenges. In this paper, a review of adaptive control techniques for blood glucose regulation with an AP system is presented. The investigations and advances in technology produced impressive results, but there is still a need for a reliable AP system that is both commercially viable and appealing to patients with type 1 diabetes.

  11. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  12. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  13. Predicting the Need to Perform Life-Saving Interventions in Trauma Patients by Using New Vital Signs and Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Patients by Using New Vital Signs and Artificial Neural Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...to Perform Life-Saving Interventions in Trauma Patients Using New Vital Signs and Artificial Neural Networks P R O J E C T - S U S T A IN IN

  14. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  15. Physiological Characterization of the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart in a Mock Circulation System

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Jessica R.; DeCook, Katrina J.; Tran, Phat L.; Smith, Richard G.; Larson, Douglas F.; Khalpey, Zain I.; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) has emerged as an effective, life-saving bi-ventricular replacement system for a wide variety of patients with end-stage heart failure. While the clinical performance of the TAH is established, modern physiologic characterization, in terms of elastance behavior and pressure-volume characterization has not been defined. Herein we examine the TAH in terms of elastance using a non-ejecting left-ventricle, and then characterize the pressure-volume relationship of the TAH by varying preload and afterload parameters using a Donovan Mock Circulatory System. We demonstrate that the TAH does not operate with time-varying elastance, differing from the human heart. Further, we show that the TAH has a pressure-volume relationship behavior that also differs from that of the human heart. The TAH does exhibit Starling-like behavior, with output increasing via preload dependent mechanisms, without reliance on an alteration of inotropic state within the operating window of the TAH. Within our testing range, the TAH is insensitive to variations in afterload, however this insensitivity has a limit, the limit being the maximum driving pressure of the pneumatic driver. Understanding the physiology of the TAH affords insight into the functional parameters that govern artificial heart behavior providing perspective on differences compared to the human heart. PMID:25551416

  16. A model for a knowledge-based system's life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has initiated a Committee on Standards for Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are the initial efforts of one of the working groups of that committee. The purpose here is to present a candidate model for the development life cycle of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The intent is for the model to be used by the Aerospace Community and eventually be evolved into a standard. The model is rooted in the evolutionary model, borrows from the spiral model, and is embedded in the standard Waterfall model for software development. Its intent is to satisfy the development of both stand-alone and embedded KBSs. The phases of the life cycle are detailed as are and the review points that constitute the key milestones throughout the development process. The applicability and strengths of the model are discussed along with areas needing further development and refinement by the aerospace community.

  17. The Twin Bikes System for artificial gravity in space.

    PubMed

    di Prampero, P E

    1994-05-01

    Exposure to microgravity (microgravity < or = 10(-4) g), beside affecting the neurovestibular and respiratory systems, greatly alters the dynamics of the circulation and leads to bone demineralization and muscle atrophy (Grigoriev and Egorov, 1991; Nicogossian, 1989a). When taken together, circulatory deconditioning and muscle atrophy lead to a reduced exercise capacity and tolerance. It is generally believed that the above modifications are completely reversible upon reentry to normal 1 g conditions, even if it is still a matter of debate whether this is really the case after very long space flights. In any case, appropriate countermeasures appear necessary for long term space flights (Nicogossian, 1989b). These countermeasures are generally based on: i) exercise training programmes, ii) appropriate suits maintaining the lower part of the body at a pressure below cabin level, thus partially reversing the headward fluid shift and iii) elastic cords pulling the subject's body towards the floor of the cabin to simulate Earth gravity. In addition, iv) artificial gravity obtained by rotation of the spacecraft, or parts thereof, was proposed since the beginning of the space era to prevent cardiovascular deconditioning and bone and muscle loss. This paper describes the Twin Bikes System and studies testing its usefulness as a tool for maintaining astronauts' physical fitness during microgravity.

  18. Phosphorus fate, management, and modeling in artificially drained systems.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Smith, Douglas R; Bolster, Carl H; Easton, Zachary M

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses in agricultural drainage waters, both surface and subsurface, are among the most difficult form of nonpoint source pollution to mitigate. This special collection of papers on P in drainage waters documents the range of field conditions leading to P loss in drainage water, the potential for drainage and nutrient management practices to control drainage losses of P, and the ability of models to represent P loss to drainage systems. A review of P in tile drainage and case studies from North America, Europe, and New Zealand highlight the potential for artificial drainage to exacerbate watershed loads of dissolved and particulate P via rapid, bypass flow and shorter flow path distances. Trade-offs are identified in association with drainage intensification, tillage, cover crops, and manure management. While P in drainage waters tends to be tied to surface sources of P (soil, amendments or vegetation) that are in highest concentration, legacy sources of P may occur at deeper depths or other points along drainage flow paths. Most startling, none of the major fate-and-transport models used to predict management impacts on watershed P losses simulate the dominant processes of P loss to drainage waters. Because P losses to drainage waters can be so difficult to manage and to model, major investment are needed (i) in systems that can provide necessary drainage for agronomic production while detaining peak flows and promoting P retention and (ii) in models that can adequately describe P loss to drainage waters.

  19. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  20. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edwin L

    2010-03-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the

  1. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the

  2. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  3. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  4. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  5. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry.

  6. Artificial intelligence approach for spot application project system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, M. J.; Fisse, G.; Martin, E.; de Boissezon, H.; Galaup, M.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past four years, CNES has been engaged in a major programme focusing on the development of SPOT Operational Application Projects. With a total of sixty projects now complete, we can draw a number of meaningful conclusions and identify a number of objectives to be satisfied by advanced remote sensing methodology. One of the main conclusions points to the importance of human vision in studies on natural complex space imagery. This being so, visual recognition must be one of the main phases of the ``Pilot Project for the Application of Remote Sensing to Agricultural Statistics'': only human experts have the ability to make a meaningful analysis of Spot TM imagery. Non-expert operators will not be able to manage the subsequent rational production phase alone. The first part of this paper describes an approach to the formalization and modelling of expert know-how based on the use of artificial intelligence. The second part puts forward a cooperative operator/computer system based on a cognitive structure. Our proposal comprises 1) a specific knowledge base, 2) an ergonomic interface associated with functional software that is based on automatic image enhancement coupled with perception support functions.

  7. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F

    2011-01-01

    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  8. Model systems for life processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

  9. Embodied artificial evolution: Artificial evolutionary systems in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Eiben, A E; Kernbach, S; Haasdijk, Evert

    2012-12-01

    Evolution is one of the major omnipresent powers in the universe that has been studied for about two centuries. Recent scientific and technical developments make it possible to make the transition from passively understanding to actively using evolutionary processes. Today this is possible in Evolutionary Computing, where human experimenters can design and manipulate all components of evolutionary processes in digital spaces. We argue that in the near future it will be possible to implement artificial evolutionary processes outside such imaginary spaces and make them physically embodied. In other words, we envision the "Evolution of Things", rather than just the evolution of digital objects, leading to a new field of Embodied Artificial Evolution (EAE). The main objective of this paper is to present a unifying vision in order to aid the development of this high potential research area. To this end, we introduce the notion of EAE, discuss a few examples and applications, and elaborate on the expected benefits as well as the grand challenges this developing field will have to address.

  10. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  11. Multifunctional astronomical self-organizing system of autonomous navigation and orientation for artificial Earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. I.; Danilova, T. V.

    2017-03-01

    We describe the methods and algorithms of a multifunctional astronomical system of the autonomous navigation and orientation for artificial Earth satellites based on the automatization of the system approach to the design and programming problems of the subject area.

  12. Hydrothermal systems and the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews current thought about life originating in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Hyperthermophiles obtain food from chemosynthesis of sulfur and have an RNA nucleotide sequence different from bacteria and eucarya. It is postulated that a hyperthermophile may be the common ancestor of all life. Current research efforts focus on the synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems.

  13. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  14. Using Decision Support System to Find Suitable Sites for Groundwater Artificial Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemian, D.; Winter, C. L.; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, M. M.; Moradi, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Some parts of Iran are considered as one of the driest regions of the world, where water is a limiting factor for lasting life therefore using seasonal floodwaters is very important in these arid regions. On the other hand, special attention has been paid to artificial groundwater recharge in these regions. Floodwater spreading on the permeable terrain is one of the flood control and utilization methods. Determination of appropriate site for water spreading is one of the most important stages of this project. Parameters considered in the selection of groundwater artificial recharge locations are diverse and complex. These factors consist of earth sciences (geology, geomorphology and soils), hydrology (runoff, sediment yield, infiltration and groundwater conditions) and socio-economic aspects (irrigated agriculture, flood damage mitigation, environment, job creation and so on). Hence, decision making depends on criteria of diverse nature. The goal of this study is defining a Decision Support System for floodwater site selection in Shahriary area. Four main criteria were selected in this research which are floodwater characters, infiltration, water applications and flood damage. In order to determine the weight of factors, Analytical Hierarchy Process was used. The results showed that soil texture and floodwater volume of infiltration are the most important factors. After providing output maps which had been defined in five scenarios, Kappa Index was used to evaluate the model. Based on the obtained results, the maps showed an acceptable agreement with control zones.

  15. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  16. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  17. Development of an implantable high-energy and compact battery system for artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, E; Inoue, T; Watanabe, K; Hashimoto, T; Iwazawa, E; Abe, Y; Chinzei, T; Isoyama, T; Kobayashi, S; Saito, I; Sato, F; Matsuki, H; Imachi, K; Mitamura, Y

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of the use of an implantable, high-energy, and compact battery system for an undulation pump total artificial heart (UPTAH). The implantable battery system tested consists of six lithium-ion batteries in series, a charge unit, and a charge/discharge control unit. A lithium-ion battery is currently the best energy-storage device because it has more energy density, a better life cycle, and a smaller temperature rise than those of other secondary batteries. The performance of the implantable battery system was evaluated in an in vitro experiment using an electric load that simulated the UPTAH. Also, sufficiently reliable operation of a system for supplying energy to a UPTAH consisting of a transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) and an implantable battery system was confirmed in three experiments using goats. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the implantable battery system supplied sufficient current to the UPTAH for maintenance of physiological conditions in the goat with maximum rise in temperature to less than 43 degrees C.

  18. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  19. Earth life support for aquatic organisms, system and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, B.; Dünne, M.; Slenzka, K.

    The importance of the research on Bioregenerative Life Support has increased dramatically in the last decade not only with regard to possible space flight application but also as a way to obtain a better understanding of our Earth's ecology. A major goal was to reach long-term stability of artificial model systems. Preliminary data are presented on the development of an improved aquatic system, currently dedicated for ground-based research. Closed aquatic ecosystems require reliability of the key parameters of pH, O 2 and CO 2 concentration and stability of sensors for monitoring. Besides the integration of an artificial lung (holofiber system and air pump with valves, allowing controlled oxygen uptake of air), in parallel to the oxygen producing water plants. Our new approach is to implement opto-chemical sensors, for such environmental monitoring. One major advantage of the new sensor technique is their better long-term reliability as compared to the electrochemical sensors. Our experiment with the new sensor technique has demonstrated satisfactory performance in closed aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  1. In vitro selection with artificial expanded genetic information systems.

    PubMed

    Sefah, Kwame; Yang, Zunyi; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Zhang, Liqin; Zhu, Guizhi; Shanker, Savita; Yu, Fahong; Turek, Diane; Tan, Weihong; Benner, Steven A

    2014-01-28

    Artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGISs) are unnatural forms of DNA that increase the number of independently replicating nucleotide building blocks. To do this, AEGIS pairs are joined by different arrangements of hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups, all while retaining their Watson-Crick geometries. We report here a unique case where AEGIS DNA has been used to execute a systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) experiment. This AEGIS-SELEX was designed to create AEGIS oligonucleotides that bind to a line of breast cancer cells. AEGIS-SELEX delivered an AEGIS aptamer (ZAP-2012) built from six different kinds of nucleotides (the standard G, A, C, and T, and the AEGIS nonstandard P and Z nucleotides, the last having a nitro functionality not found in standard DNA). ZAP-2012 has a dissociation constant of 30 nM against these cells. The affinity is diminished or lost when Z or P (or both) is replaced by standard nucleotides and compares well with affinities of standard GACT aptamers selected against cell lines using standard SELEX. The success of AEGIS-SELEX relies on various innovations, including (i) the ability to synthesize GACTZP libraries, (ii) polymerases that PCR amplify GACTZP DNA with little loss of the AEGIS nonstandard nucleotides, and (iii) technologies to deep sequence GACTZP DNA survivors. These results take the next step toward expanding the power and utility of SELEX and offer an AEGIS-SELEX that could possibly generate receptors, ligands, and catalysts having sequence diversities nearer to that displayed by proteins.

  2. Artificial Pancreas Device Systems for the Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Trevitt, Sara; Simpson, Sue; Wood, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Closed-loop artificial pancreas device (APD) systems are externally worn medical devices that are being developed to enable people with type 1 diabetes to regulate their blood glucose levels in a more automated way. The innovative concept of this emerging technology is that hands-free, continuous, glycemic control can be achieved by using digital communication technology and advanced computer algorithms. Methods: A horizon scanning review of this field was conducted using online sources of intelligence to identify systems in development. The systems were classified into subtypes according to their level of automation, the hormonal and glycemic control approaches used, and their research setting. Results: Eighteen closed-loop APD systems were identified. All were being tested in clinical trials prior to potential commercialization. Six were being studied in the home setting, 5 in outpatient settings, and 7 in inpatient settings. It is estimated that 2 systems may become commercially available in the EU by the end of 2016, 1 during 2017, and 2 more in 2018. Conclusions: There are around 18 closed-loop APD systems progressing through early stages of clinical development. Only a few of these are currently in phase 3 trials and in settings that replicate real life. PMID:26589628

  3. Development of built-in type and noninvasive sensor systems for smart artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiromasa; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamane, Takashi; Jikuya, Tomoaki; Tsutsui, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    It is very important to grasp the artificial heart condition and the physiologic conditions for the implantable artificial heart. In our laboratory, a smart artificial heart (SAH) has been proposed and developed. An SAH is an artificial heart with a noninvasive sensor; it is a sensorized and intelligent artificial heart for safe and effective treatment. In this study, the following sensor systems for SAH are described: noninvasive blood temperature sensor system, noninvasive blood pressure sensor system, and noninvasive small blood flow sensor system. These noninvasive sensor systems are integrated and included around the artificial heart to evaluate these sensor systems for SAH by the mockup experiments and the animal experiments. The blood temperature could be measured stably by the temperature sensor system. Aortic pressure was estimated, and sucking condition was detected by the pressure sensor system. The blood flow was measured by the flow meter system within 10% error. As a result of these experiments, we confirmed the effectiveness of the sensor systems for SAH.

  4. Network intrusion detection by the coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamatova, T.; Zhukov, V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the artificial immune systems apparatus as a heuristic method of network intrusion detection for algorithmic provision of intrusion detection systems. The coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection was elaborated. In testing different datasets the empirical results of evaluation of the algorithm effectiveness were achieved. To identify the degree of efficiency the algorithm was compared with analogs. The fundamental rules based of solutions generated by this algorithm are described in the article.

  5. The LIFE Dynamic Chamber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Latkowski, Jeffery; Cook, Andrew; Divol, Laurent; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Scott, Howard; Scullard, Christian; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott; Moses, Gregory; Heltemes, Thad; Sacks, Ryan; Pantano, Carlos; Kramer, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Dry-wall IFE designs such as LIFE utilize Xe fill gas to protect the target chamber first wall from x-ray heating and ionic debris. A key question is how cool, settled and clean the Xe must be to permit beam propagation and target transport, and how to reach this state at a 10+ Hz shot repetition rate. Xe is at low density in the target chamber, and purified Xe is reinjected at higher density and lower temperature into the larger outer chamber. Maintenance of this density difference due to blast waves generated by implosion of the target capsules is being assessed with HYDRA and 3D VTF, and possible validation experiments are being investigated. Detailed gas response near the wall is being studied using 3D Miranda. A laboratory-scale theta pinch experiment will study cooling and beam propagation in Xe. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  7. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  8. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation.

  9. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  10. Artificial Intelligence: Expert Systems for Corps Tactical Planning and Other Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Artificial intelligence is fast becoming a part of everyday life. How much it can eventually do remains to be seen but only an intellectual simpleton can doubt...us --Look for AA which avoids hitting enemy hond on (we must project enemri locos. - Does it mapri st moueint? - Does it W k m c (Dde forword ad Dde

  11. Modeling molecular computing systems by an artificial chemistry - its expressive power and application.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tooru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Nakamura, Masaki; Kishi, Koji; Kazuno, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Artificial chemistries are mainly used to construct virtual systems that are expected to show behavior similar to living systems. In this study, we explore possibilities of applying an artificial chemistry to modeling natural biochemical systems-or, to be specific, molecular computing systems-and show that it may be a useful modeling tool for molecular computation. We previously proposed an artificial chemistry based on string pattern matching and recombination. This article first demonstrates that this artificial chemistry is computationally universal if it has only rules that have one reactant or two reactants. We think this is a good property of an artificial chemistry that models molecular computing, because natural elementary chemical reactions, on which molecular computing is based, are mostly unimolecular or bimolecular. Then we give two illustrative example models for DNA computing in our artificial chemistry: one is for the type of computation called the Adleman-Lipton paradigm, and the other is for a DNA implementation of a finite automaton. Through the construction of these models we observe preferred properties of the artificial chemistry for modeling molecular computing, such as having no spatial structure and being flexible in choosing levels of abstraction.

  12. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  13. Far Forward Life Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    device to a replaceable NBC filter (c) IV fluids infusion pump with functional display and alarm (d) User interface for inputs from external devices... input settings, power, alarm resets, and sensor calibrations (e) Pulse oximeter sensor for monitoring oxygen saturation in blood stream 14 (f...monitoring (i) Controller to sensor interface (j) Data acquisition and recording system that will: 1. accept user inputs on patient identification

  14. [Current state and development of artificial lungs].

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaoxian; Sun, Xin; Wu, Qi

    2010-12-01

    The artificial lung is a technical device for providing life support; it will be put in use when the natural lungs are failing and are not able to maintain sufficient oxygenation of the body's organ systems. From the viewpoint of long-term development, the artificial lung should be permanently implanted in the body, so that it will substitute for the human pulmonary function partially or completely. In this paper, four artificial lung technologies were expounded with reference to the development and research process of artificial lung. They were extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, intravascular artificial lung, implantable artificial lung, and pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. In this paper were described the structure of the four kinds of artificial lung, the working principle, and their advantages, disadvantages and indications. The prospect of artificial lung was evaluated in the light of the data from the existing animal experiments and from the clinical experience of the centers.

  15. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  16. Performance and management of implantable lithium battery systems for left ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J.; Kishiyama, C.; Mukainakano, Hiroshi; Nagata, M.; Tsukamoto, H.

    A lithium ion cell designed for implantable medical devices was tested for its performance as a power source for left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) or total artificial hearts (TAH). These two cardiovascular devices require high power, and thus a high current (0.5-3 A) and high voltage (20-30 V). Since these are implantable medical devices, in addition to high power capability, the power source should have long cycle life and calendar life, as well as high safety. The QL0700I, a 700 mAh cell, was cycled at 0.5 C rate as well as at 1.5 C rate, and the cycle life capacity retention was evaluated after numerous cycles. A battery pack consisting of seven QL0700I cells in series, with a battery management system (BMS) connected, was tested for rate capability as well as safety protection.

  17. The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, C.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

  18. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  19. A Parallelized Pumpless Artificial Placenta System Significantly Prolonged Survival Time in a Preterm Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Tadashi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2016-05-01

    An artificial placenta (AP) is an arterio-venous extracorporeal life support system that is connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical vasculature. Previously, we published an article describing a pumpless AP system with a small priming volume. We subsequently developed a parallelized system, hypothesizing that the reduced circuit resistance conveyed by this modification would enable healthy fetal survival time to be prolonged. We conducted experiments using a premature lamb model to test this hypothesis. As a result, the fetal survival period was significantly prolonged (60.4 ± 3.8 vs. 18.2 ± 3.2 h, P < 0.01), and circuit resistance and minimal blood lactate levels were significantly lower in the parallel circuit group, compared with our previous single circuit group. Fetal physiological parameters remained stable until the conclusion of the experiments. In summary, parallelization of the AP system was associated with reduced circuit resistance and lactate levels and allowed preterm lamb fetuses to survive for a significantly longer period when compared with previous studies.

  20. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  1. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for interpreting complex medical datasets.

    PubMed

    Altman, R B

    2017-02-09

    Advances in machine intelligence have created powerful capabilities in algorithms that find hidden patterns in data, classify objects based on their measured characteristics, and associate similar patients/diseases/drugs based on common features. However, artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medical data have several technical challenges: complex and heterogeneous datasets, noisy medical datasets, and explaining their output to users. There are also social challenges related to intellectual property, data provenance, regulatory issues, economics, and liability.

  2. Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

  3. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  4. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  5. Long life reliability thermal control systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

  6. An automated diagnosis system of liver disease using artificial immune and genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chunlin; Peng, Lingxi

    2013-04-01

    The rise of health care cost is one of the world's most important problems. Disease prediction is also a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as support vector machine, artificial neural network, etc. This study typically exploits the immune system's characteristics of learning and memory to solve the problem of liver disease diagnosis. The proposed system applies a combination of two methods of artificial immune and genetic algorithm to diagnose the liver disease. The system architecture is based on artificial immune system. The learning procedure of system adopts genetic algorithm to interfere the evolution of antibody population. The experiments use two benchmark datasets in our study, which are acquired from the famous UCI machine learning repository. The obtained diagnosis accuracies are very promising with regard to the other diagnosis system in the literatures. These results suggest that this system may be a useful automatic diagnosis tool for liver disease.

  7. A Framework for Intelligent Instructional Systems: An Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents and develops a general model of the nature of a learning system and a classification for learning systems. Highlights include the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; computer-based instructional systems; intelligent instructional systems; and the role of the learner's knowledge base in an intelligent…

  8. Life support systems for Mars transit.

    PubMed

    MacElroy, R D; Kliss, M; Straight, C

    1992-01-01

    The long-held human dream of travel to the stars and planets will probably be realized within the next quarter century. Preliminary analyses by U.S. scientists and engineers suggests that a first trip to Mars could begin as early as 2016. A proposal by U.S.S.R. space planners has suggested that an effort involving the cooperation and collaboration of many nations could begin by 2011. Among the major considerations that must be made in preparation for such an excursion are solidification of the scientific, economic and philosophical rationales for such a trip made by humans, and realistic evaluations of current and projected technical capabilities. Issues in the latter category include launch and propulsion systems, long term system stability and reliability, the psychological and physiological consequences of long term exposure to the space environment, the development and use of countermeasures to deleterious human physiological responses to the space environment, and life support systems that are both capable of the immense journey and reliable enough to assure their continued operation for the duration of the voyage. Many of the issues important in the design of a life support system for a Mars trip are based on reasonably well understood data: the human requirements for food, oxygen and water. However, other issues are less well-defined, such as the demands that will be made on the system for personal cleanliness and hygiene, environmental cleanliness, prevention or reduction of environmental toxins, and psychological responses to the environment and to the diet. It is much too early to make final decisions about the characteristics of the long-duration life support system needed for travel to Mars, or for use on its surface. However, it is clear that life support systems will evolve during the next few decades form the relatively straightforward systems that are used on Shuttle and Soyuz, to increasingly more complex and regenerative systems. The Soviet Union

  9. A New Rule-Based System for the Construction and Structural Characterization of Artificial Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štambuk, Nikola; Konjevoda, Paško; Gotovac, Nikola

    In this paper, we present a new rule-based system for an artificial protein design incorporating ternary amino acid polarity (polar, nonpolar, and neutral). It may be used to design de novo α and β protein fold structures and mixed class proteins. The targeted molecules are artificial proteins with important industrial and biomedical applications, related to the development of diagnostic-therapeutic peptide pharmaceuticals, antibody mimetics, peptide vaccines, new nanobiomaterials and engineered protein scaffolds.

  10. Artificial neural networks and the effects of loading conditions on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pleune, T.T. |; Chopra, O.K.

    1996-11-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code contains rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figure 1-90 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data indicate significant decreases in the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments when five conditions are satisfied simultaneously. When applied strain range, temperature, dissolved oxygen in the water, and sulfur content of the steel are above a minimum threshold level, and the loading strain rate is below a threshold value, environmentally assisted fatigue occurs. For this study, a data base of 1036 fatigue tests was used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). Once the optimal ANN was designed, ANN were trained and used to predict fatigue life for specified sets of loading and environmental conditions. By finding patterns and trends in the data, the ANN can find the fatigue lifetime for any set of conditions. Artificial neural networks show great potential for predicting environmentally assisted corrosion. Their main benefits are that the fit of the data is based purely on data and not on preconceptions and that the network can interpolate effects by learning trends and patterns when data are not available.

  11. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  12. A Simple Artificial Life Model Explains Irrational Behavior in Human Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Feher da Silva, Carolina; Baldo, Marcus Vinícius Chrysóstomo

    2012-01-01

    Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal) depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats’ neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments. PMID:22563454

  13. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  14. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  15. Ham Tries Out His Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Ham tries out his combination couch and life support system in preparation for his flight in Mercury Redstone-2 (MR-2). The couch is plugged into the circuit that normally would supply the astronaut's full pressure suit. The MR-2 flight was one in a series of flights that led to the manned orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program.

  16. Life systems for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mark; Hawes, Philip B.; Augustine, Margret

    1992-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 project is pioneering work on life systems that can serve as a prototype for long-term habitation on the Moon. This project will also facilitate the understanding of the smaller systems that will be needed for initial lunar base life-support functions. In its recommendation for a policy for the next 50 years in space, the National Commission on Space urged, 'To explore and settle the inner Solar System, we must develop biospheres of smaller size, and learn how to build and maintain them' (National Commission on Space, 1986). The Biosphere 2 project, along with its Biospheric Research and Development Center, is a materially closed and informationally and energetically open system capable of supporting a human crew of eight, undertaking work to meet this need. This paper gives an overview of the Space Biospheres Ventures' endeavor and its lunar applications.

  17. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  18. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  20. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  1. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  2. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  3. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  4. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  5. Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems: Engineering the Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huyett, Lauren M.; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C.; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  6. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  7. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  8. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    SciTech Connect

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-05-09

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

  9. Design of a hydraulic analog of the circulatory system for evaluating artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Donovan, F M

    1975-01-01

    A major problem in improving artificial heart designs is the absence of methods for accurate in vitro testing of artificial heart systems. A mock circulatory system has been constructed which hydraulically simulates the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the normal human. The device is constructed of 1/2 in. acrylic sheet and has overall dimensions of 24 in. wide, 16 in. tall, and 8 in. deep. The artificial heart to be tested is attached to the front of the device, and pumps fluid from the systemic venous chamber into the pulmonary arterial chamber and from the pulmonary venous chamber into the systemic arterial chamber. Each of the four chambers is hermetically sealed. The compliance of each chamber is determined by the volume of air trapped above the fluid in that chamber. The pulmonary and systemic resistances are set automatically by bellows-operated valves to simulate the barroreceptor response in the systemic arteries and the passive pulmonary resistance response in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiac output is measured by a turbine flowmeter in the systemic circulation. Results using the Kwan-Gett artificial heart show a good comparison between the mock circulatory system response and the calf response.

  10. A Paradigmatic Example of an Artificially Intelligent Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Burton, Richard R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the philosophy of intelligent instructional systems and presents an example of such a system, BLOCKS. The notion of BLOCKS as a paradigmatic system is explicated from both the system development and educational points of view. (Author/VT)

  11. Benefits and Limitations of factitious prey and artificial diets on life parameters of predatory beetles, bugs, and lacewings: A mini-review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary, peer-reviewed literature, published from 1998-2007, pertaining to rearing of predatory beetles, true bugs and lacewings was reviewed and synthesized. Advances in rearing were revealed in relation to the influence of factitious prey and artificial diets on predator life parameters. Egg...

  12. Evolution of Collective Behaviour in an Artificial World Using Linguistic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a fascinating and easily observable phenomenon, attractive to a wide range of researchers. In biology, computational models have been extensively used to investigate various properties of collective behaviour, such as: transfer of information across the group, benefits of grouping (defence against predation, foraging), group decision-making process, and group behaviour types. The question ‘why,’ however remains largely unanswered. Here the interest goes into which pressures led to the evolution of such behaviour, and evolutionary computational models have already been used to test various biological hypotheses. Most of these models use genetic algorithms to tune the parameters of previously presented non-evolutionary models, but very few attempt to evolve collective behaviour from scratch. Of these last, the successful attempts display clumping or swarming behaviour. Empirical evidence suggests that in fish schools there exist three classes of behaviour; swarming, milling and polarized. In this paper we present a novel, artificial life-like evolutionary model, where individual agents are governed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, which is capable of evolving all three classes of behaviour. PMID:28045964

  13. Evolution of Collective Behaviour in an Artificial World Using Linguistic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems.

    PubMed

    Demšar, Jure; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a fascinating and easily observable phenomenon, attractive to a wide range of researchers. In biology, computational models have been extensively used to investigate various properties of collective behaviour, such as: transfer of information across the group, benefits of grouping (defence against predation, foraging), group decision-making process, and group behaviour types. The question 'why,' however remains largely unanswered. Here the interest goes into which pressures led to the evolution of such behaviour, and evolutionary computational models have already been used to test various biological hypotheses. Most of these models use genetic algorithms to tune the parameters of previously presented non-evolutionary models, but very few attempt to evolve collective behaviour from scratch. Of these last, the successful attempts display clumping or swarming behaviour. Empirical evidence suggests that in fish schools there exist three classes of behaviour; swarming, milling and polarized. In this paper we present a novel, artificial life-like evolutionary model, where individual agents are governed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, which is capable of evolving all three classes of behaviour.

  14. Artificial intelligence guides system's best practices, cutting costs and improving services.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    One for the history books. Clinical care improvement initiatives guided by a sophisticated artificial intelligence program have helped a major Virginia integrated health system make dramatic improvements in the cost and quality of its health care services. Find out how the technological innovation has earned Sentara Health System a place in the permanent collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.

  15. Implications of Artificial Intelligence for End User Use of Online Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed are several studies which demonstrate how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied in the design of end user-oriented interfaces (which would eliminate the need for an intermediary) to existing online systems, as well as in the development of future generations of online systems intended for the end user. (Author/SW)

  16. Development of the CODER System: A Testbed for Artificial Intelligence Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the CODER system, which was developed to investigate the application of artificial intelligence methods to increase the effectiveness of information retrieval systems, particularly those involving heterogeneous documents. Highlights include the use of PROLOG programing, blackboard-based designs, knowledge engineering, lexicological…

  17. Far-forward life support system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenstrand, Douglas S.; Smith, Dexter G.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.

    2001-08-01

    The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) is intended for US Army use in far forward, battlefield situations. The primary patient population is young, otherwise healthy, adult males. The FFLSS must provide stabilizing medical care in the far forward environment. The device must be easily operated, highly mobile, compact and rugged, and provide automated, definitive support for a minimum of one hour. This project design, fabricated and tested a prototype FFLSS.

  18. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  19. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  20. Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes, and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. Therefore, the decision in design is making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. LeRC has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the area of life prediction technology for over 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. At the present time, emphasis is being placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of LeRC's strain-range partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed cyclic damage accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the development of a more accurate cumulative fatigue damage rule - the double damage curve approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy in comparison with usual cumulative fatigue design rules. Other accomplishments in the area of high-temperature fatigue crack growth may also be mentioned. Finally, we are looking to the future and are beginning to do research on the advanced methods which will be required for development of advanced materials and propulsion systems over the next 10-20 years.

  1. Novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission system tested in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongbing; Liu, Hua; Xu, Qianqian; Yan, Guozheng

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) for severe fecal incontinence. The AASS is composed of an artificial anal sphincter (AAS), an external transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS), and an external control device. The AAS is composed of a cuff, a micropump, a reservoir, and a remote control device. It is designed to be implanted into the body of the patient. The function of the AAS is to open and close the patient's natural anus. Patients suffering from loss of their natural sphincter lose rectal sensation and are thus unable to perceive imminent fecal incontinence. In order to restore rectal sensation, a pressure sensor in the AAS cuff is designed to detect pressure in the colon. The pressure reflects the present quantity of colon contents, allowing patients to control the AAS to open or close the anus according to the pressure. The TETS is designed to provide electrical energy to the implanted AAS without wire connections. The external control device is designed to receive the pressure information from the AAS and send the patient's command to the implanted device. This paper provides a thorough discussion of the design of the novel AASS and describes the performance of the AASS when tested in vivo on two Beagle dogs who were chosen to be the subjects for receiving the implant. The experimental results verified that the performance of the AASS met the functional requirements it was designed for; however, the trial also revealed some challenges to be further studied.

  2. How to build an information gathering and processing system: lessons from naturally and artificially intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jackie; Demery, Zoe P; Arriola-Rios, Veronica; Sloman, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Imagine a situation in which you had to design a physical agent that could collect information from its environment, then store and process that information to help it respond appropriately to novel situations. What kinds of information should it attend to? How should the information be represented so as to allow efficient use and re-use? What kinds of constraints and trade-offs would there be? There are no unique answers. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways in which the need to be able to address problems of varying kinds and complexity can be met by different information processing systems. We also discuss different ways in which relevant information can be obtained, and how different kinds of information can be processed and used, by both biological organisms and artificial agents. We analyse several constraints and design features, and show how they relate both to biological organisms, and to lessons that can be learned from building artificial systems. Our standpoint overlaps with Karmiloff-Smith (1992) in that we assume that a collection of mechanisms geared to learning and developing in biological environments are available in forms that constrain, but do not determine, what can or will be learnt by individuals.

  3. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed F; Elarini, Mahdi M; Othman, Ahmed M

    2014-05-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt.

  4. Signal processing using artificial neural network for BOTDA sensor system.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Wang, Liang; Guo, Nan; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao

    2016-03-21

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to process sensing signals obtained from Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). The distributed temperature information is extracted directly from the local Brillouin gain spectra (BGSs) along the fiber under test without the process of determination of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) and hence conversion from BFS to temperature. Unlike our previous work for short sensing distance where ANN is trained by measured BGSs, here we employ ideal BGSs with different linewidths to train the ANN in order to take the linewidth variation due to different conditions from the training and testing phases into account, making it feasible for long distance sensing. Moreover, the performance of ANN is compared with other two techniques, Lorentzian curve fitting and cross-correlation method, and our results show that ANN has higher accuracy and larger tolerance to measurement error, especially at large frequency scanning step. We also show that the temperature extraction from BOTDA measurements employing ANN is significantly faster than the other two approaches. Hence ANN can be an excellent alternative tool to process BGSs measured by BOTDA and obtain temperature distribution along the fiber, especially when large frequency scanning step is adopted to significantly reduce the measurement time but without sacrifice of sensing accuracy.

  5. A Paradigmatic Example of an Artificially Intelligent Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Burton, Richard R.

    This paper describes the philosophy of intelligent instructional systems and presents an example of one such system in the domain of manipulative mathematics--BLOCKS. The notion of BLOCKS as a paradigmatic system is explicated from both the system development and educational viewpoints. From a developmental point of view, the modular design of…

  6. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  7. Artificial feel system using magneto-rheological fluid on aircraft control stick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Vignesh; Kim, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    The conventional feel system in aircraft occupies large space in the cockpit and has complicated designs. The primary objective of this research is to develop an artificial feel force system that can overcome some drawbacks of the current system. A novel feel system using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is constructed to precisely control the shear stress under the magnetic field. To validate the functionality of the MR artificial feel system, the final system is fabricated and multiple tests are performed to acquire force-velocity characteristics that are compared to the mathematical model derived. In addition, the PID closed loop control algorithm is developed to simulate the dynamic system model. Both experimental and simulation results are compared to validate the derived system model. The system response time and sampling rates are evaluated and compared to the conventional system at the end. It is concluded that the developed artificial feel system can precisely control and acts as a fail proof system when incorporated with a modern fly-by-wire aircraft system.

  8. A multiuser detector based on artificial bee colony algorithm for DS-UWB systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity.

  9. Detection Technique for Artificially Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10−3. Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope α ≡ (d log F/d log D)=−4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit α=−2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of α for thousands of KBOs. If objects with α=−2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. Key Words: Astrobiology—SETI—Kuiper belt objects—Artificial illumination. Astrobiology 12, 290–294. PMID:22490065

  10. Development of a control system for artificially rehabilitated limbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S H; Choudhury, I A; Dahari, M

    2015-04-01

    Development of an advanced control system for prostheses (artificial limbs) is necessary to provide functionality, effectiveness, and preferably the feeling of a sound living limb. The development of the control system has introduced varieties of control strategies depending on the application. This paper reviews some control systems used for prosthetics, orthotics, and exoskeletons. The advantages and limitations of different control systems for particular applications have been discussed and presented in a comparative manner to help in deciding the appropriate method for pertinent application.

  11. Progress in cybernetics and systems research. Vol. XI. Data base design. International Information Systems. Semiotic Systems. Artificial Intelligence. Cybernetics and Philosophy. Special aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Trappl, R.; Findler, N.V.; Horn, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book covers current research topics in six areas. These are data base design, international information systems, semiotic systems, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and philosophy, and special aspects of systems research. 1326 references.

  12. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  13. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  14. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  15. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  16. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  17. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  18. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  19. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  20. Accurate bearing remaining useful life prediction based on Weibull distribution and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ali, Jaouher; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Saidi, Lotfi; Malinowski, Simon; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of critical assets is an important challenge in condition based maintenance to improve reliability and decrease machine's breakdown and maintenance's cost. Bearing is one of the most important components in industries which need to be monitored and the user should predict its RUL. The challenge of this study is to propose an original feature able to evaluate the health state of bearings and to estimate their RUL by Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) techniques. In this paper, the proposed method is based on the data-driven prognostic approach. The combination of Simplified Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map (SFAM) neural network and Weibull distribution (WD) is explored. WD is used just in the training phase to fit measurement and to avoid areas of fluctuation in the time domain. SFAM training process is based on fitted measurements at present and previous inspection time points as input. However, the SFAM testing process is based on real measurements at present and previous inspections. Thanks to the fuzzy learning process, SFAM has an important ability and a good performance to learn nonlinear time series. As output, seven classes are defined; healthy bearing and six states for bearing degradation. In order to find the optimal RUL prediction, a smoothing phase is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reliably predict the RUL of rolling element bearings (REBs) based on vibration signals. The proposed prediction approach can be applied to prognostic other various mechanical assets.

  1. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  2. Artificial Immune System for Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-31

    consists of two equally important components: the innate system and the adaptive system1. The former is an inherited system that functions as the... innate immune system is always active and responds immediately to any class of pathogen without distinction. On the other hand, the adaptive immune...are macrophages (MΦs), dendritic cells (DCs), T-cells, and B-cells. The MΦ and DC populations form what is known as phagocytes (part of the innate

  3. Studies of zeolite-based artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoyu

    Y were obtained. The Ru complexes were anchored on the surface of zeolites via ion-exchange or "ship-in-bottle" synthesis. The spectroscopic properties of the NanoY-entrapped species including methyl viologen (MV2+), RuL were measured via transmission techniques. The zeolite-encapsulated species were found to have red-shift absorption and emission bands and longer MLCT life times. By incorporating both donors Ru complexes and acceptors MV2+ in NanoY, electron transfer kinetics was examined. LFP study showed a slower back-electron-transfer rate as compared to forward electron transfer. Photochemically generated long-lived charge separation is the key step in processes that aim for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. We incorporated RuL complex on the surface of a pinhole-free zeolite membrane by quaternization of L and surrounded with intrazeolitic bipyridinium ions (N,N'-trimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium ion, 3DQ2+). Visible-light irradiation of the Ru complex side of the membrane in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor led to formation of PVS-· on the other side. Pore-blocking disilazane-based chemistry allows for Na+ to migrate through the membrane to maintain charge balance, while keeping the 3DQ2+ entrapped in the zeolite. These results provided encouragement that the zeolite membrane based architecture has the necessary features for not only incorporating molecular assemblies with long-lived charge separation but also for ready exploitation of the spatially separated charges to store visible light energy in chemical species. The pore-narrowing strategy applied under mild conditions can be used in control-release of active substances such as drug, pesticides, and herbicides. Methyl viologen (MV2+) was chosen as the guest molecule, since it is widely used as an herbicide and its release is of interest in agricultural applications. To explore the controlled-release capability of the surface-modified zeolite, MV2+-encapsulated zeolite Y particles were

  4. Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, V. Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

  5. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, and risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline); (2) standalone expert systems; (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS); and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  6. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  7. Intelligent Tutoring System: A Tool for Testing the Research Curiosities of Artificial Intelligence Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaratan, Huseyin

    2003-01-01

    An ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) is a teaching-learning medium that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technology for instruction. Roberts and Park (1983) defines AI as the attempt to get computers to perform tasks that if performed by a human-being, intelligence would be required to perform the task. The design of an ITS comprises two distinct…

  8. An Artificial Neural Network-Based Decision-Support System for Integrated Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK-BASED DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATED NETWORK SECURITY THESIS ...The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force... THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force

  9. Automatic Keyword Identification by Artificial Neural Networks Compared to Manual Identification by Users of Filtering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Zvi; Kuflik, Tsvi; Shoval, Peretz; Shapira, Bracha

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information filtering (IF) and information retrieval focuses on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as an alternative method for both IF and term selection and compares its effectiveness to that of traditional methods. Results show that the ANN relevance prediction out-performs the prediction of an IF system. (Author/LRW)

  10. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms.

    PubMed

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  11. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  12. An Artificial Neural System for Autonomous Undersea Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    behavior across a number of species, while the third column lists new features of the nervous systems that likely support the advances in capability. Note...Scale. Phylum Example Advance Ability Protozoa Paramecium No Nervous System Swim Food Discrimination Coelenterata Hydra Nerve Nets Spontaneity Anemone...Structure and Function in the Nervous System of Invertebrates. (2 volumes), W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1965. 2. Camhi, J.M. Neuroethology

  13. Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system

    PubMed Central

    Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

  14. Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

  15. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  16. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  17. An artificial system for selecting the optimal surgical team.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Nahid; Mahvash, Mohsen; Zenati, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an intelligent system to optimize a team composition based on the team's historical outcomes and apply this system to compose a surgical team. The system relies on a record of the procedures performed in the past. The optimal team composition is the one with the lowest probability of unfavorable outcome. We use the theory of probability and the inclusion exclusion principle to model the probability of team outcome for a given composition. A probability value is assigned to each person of database and the probability of a team composition is calculated from them. The model allows to determine the probability of all possible team compositions even if there is no recoded procedure for some team compositions. From an analytical perspective, assembling an optimal team is equivalent to minimizing the overlap of team members who have a recurring tendency to be involved with procedures of unfavorable results. A conceptual example shows the accuracy of the proposed system on obtaining the optimal team.

  18. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  19. Hybrid Intelligent Perception System: Intelligent perception through combining Artificial Neural Networks and an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, C.W.; Spelt, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a report of work-in-progress on a project to combine Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Expert Systems (ESs) into a hybrid, self-improving pattern recognition system. The purpose of this project is to explore methods of combining multiple classifiers into a Hybrid Intelligent Perception (HIP) System. The central research issue to be addressed for a multiclassifier hybrid system is whether such a system can perform better than the two classifiers taken by themselves. ANNs and ESs have different strengths and weaknesses, which are being exploited in this project in such a way that they are complementary to each other: Strengths in one system make up for weaknesses in the other, and vice versa. There is presently considerable interest in the AI community in ways to exploit the strengths of these methodologies to produce an intelligent system which is more robust and flexible than one using either technology alone. Perception, which involves both data-driven (bottom-up) and concept-driven (top-down) processing, is a process which seems especially well-suited to displaying the capabilities of such a hybrid system. This work has been funded for the past six months by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory seed grant, and most of the system components are operating in both the PC and the hypercube computer environments. Here we report on the efforts to develop the low-level ANNs and a graphic representation of their knowledge, and discuss ways of using an ES to integrate and supervise the entire system. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  1. METEOR - an artificial intelligence system for convective storm forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Elio, R.; De haan, J.; Strong, G.S.

    1987-03-01

    An AI system called METEOR, which uses the meteorologist's heuristics, strategies, and statistical tools to forecast severe hailstorms in Alberta, is described, emphasizing the information and knowledge that METEOR uses to mimic the forecasting procedure of an expert meteorologist. METEOR is then discussed as an AI system, emphasizing the ways in which it is qualitatively different from algorithmic or statistical approaches to prediction. Some features of METEOR's design and the AI techniques for representing meteorological knowledge and for reasoning and inference are presented. Finally, some observations on designing and implementing intelligent consultants for meteorological applications are made. 7 references.

  2. Guidance for human interface with artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Scott S.; Woods, David D.

    1991-01-01

    The beginning of a research effort to collect and integrate existing research findings about how to combine computer power and people is discussed, including problems and pitfalls as well as desirable features. The goal of the research is to develop guidance for the design of human interfaces with intelligent systems. Fault management tasks in NASA domains are the focus of the investigation. Research is being conducted to support the development of guidance for designers that will enable them to make human interface considerations into account during the creation of intelligent systems.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  4. A Review of Intelligent Driving Style Analysis Systems and Related Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Gys Albertus Marthinus; Myburgh, Hermanus Carel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the various driving style analysis solutions are investigated. An in-depth investigation is performed to identify the relevant machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms utilised in current driver behaviour and driving style analysis systems. This review therefore serves as a trove of information, and will inform the specialist and the student regarding the current state of the art in driver style analysis systems, the application of these systems and the underlying artificial intelligence algorithms applied to these applications. The aim of the investigation is to evaluate the possibilities for unique driver identification utilizing the approaches identified in other driver behaviour studies. It was found that Fuzzy Logic inference systems, Hidden Markov Models and Support Vector Machines consist of promising capabilities to address unique driver identification algorithms if model complexity can be reduced. PMID:26690164

  5. A Review of Intelligent Driving Style Analysis Systems and Related Artificial Intelligence Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Gys Albertus Marthinus; Myburgh, Hermanus Carel

    2015-12-04

    In this paper the various driving style analysis solutions are investigated. An in-depth investigation is performed to identify the relevant machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms utilised in current driver behaviour and driving style analysis systems. This review therefore serves as a trove of information, and will inform the specialist and the student regarding the current state of the art in driver style analysis systems, the application of these systems and the underlying artificial intelligence algorithms applied to these applications. The aim of the investigation is to evaluate the possibilities for unique driver identification utilizing the approaches identified in other driver behaviour studies. It was found that Fuzzy Logic inference systems, Hidden Markov Models and Support Vector Machines consist of promising capabilities to address unique driver identification algorithms if model complexity can be reduced.

  6. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  7. Development of a Through Tubing (Microhole) Artificial Lift System

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Bodden

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop a small diameter pump system capable of being deployed through existing production tubing strings in oil/gas wells. The pump system would then pump water up an inner tubing string (likely coil tubing) and allow gas to flow in the annulus between the coil tubing and production tubing. Accomplishing this would allow wells that are currently loaded up (unable to flow at high enough rates to lift the fluid out of the wellbore) to continue to produce additional gas/oil reserves. The project was unable to complete a working test system due to unforeseen complexities in coupling the system components together in part due to the small diameter. Although several of the individual components were sourced and secured, coupling them together and getting electricity to the motor proved technically more difficult than expected. Thus, the project is no longer active due primarily to the complications realized in coupling the components and the difficulties in getting electricity to the submersible motor in a slimhole system. The other problem in finishing this project was the lack of financial resources. When the grant was first applied for it was expected that it would be awarded in early 2004. Since the grant was not actually awarded until the end of August 2004, GPS had basically run out of $$$ and the principle developer (Steve Bodden) had to find a full time job which began in late July 2004. When the grant was finally awarded in late August, it was still hoped that the project could proceed as a part time development but with less financial exposure to the partners in GPS. This became very problematic as it still had many technical obstacles to overcome to get it to the stage of prototype testing.

  8. Development of an electro-stethoscope system and design of an optimum filter based on tissue sound transmission for noninvasive early diagnosis of malfunction of an implanted mechanical total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Inoue, Taku; Hashimoto, Takuya; Saito, Itsuro; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Isoyama, Takashi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2004-02-01

    Early diagnosis of the malfunction of a mechanical artificial heart implanted in a patient who has been discharged from hospital is very important. We have developed an electro-stethoscope system that enables the malfunction of an artificial heart to be detected from the analysis of sound signals from the artificial heart. The sound data can be transmitted to a hospital via a mobile telephone or the Internet, so that doctors can examine the condition of the artificial heart. The optimum frequency characteristics of a low-pass filter for the elimination of ambient sound through the electro-stethoscope casing were obtained by simulating sound transmission through tissue. We evaluated the usefulness of the electro-stethoscope system using a goat in which an undulation pump total artificial heart had been implanted. A frequency analysis of the sound signal provided information on the degree of degradation of each mechanical component of the artificial heart. The results of this study showed that the electro-stethoscope system is useful for the early detection of the malfunction of an artificial heart at home, and that the use of the system contributes to improvement in the quality of life of patients.

  9. Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-04-01

    Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope α ≡ (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit α=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of α for thousands of KBOs. If objects with α=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars.

  10. Groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Ferreira, Joao-Paulo; Oliveira, Luís.; Diamantino, Catarina

    2010-05-01

    The paper addresses groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios. The conceptual idea of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is considered as one of the scientific based solutions towards scientific based mitigation measures to climate variability and change in many parts of the world. In Portugal two European Union sponsored 6th Framework Programme for Research Projects have been addressing this topic, namely GABARDINE Project on "Groundwater artificial recharge based on alternative sources of water: Advanced integrated technologies and management" and the Coordinated Action ASEMWATERNet, a "Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ASEM S&T Cooperation on Sustainable Water Use". An application of Aquifer Storage and Recovery methodologies aiming drought mitigation and Integrated Water Resource Management of the Algarve (Portugal). The technique of artificial recharge of groundwater is used in many parts of the world with several aims, e.g. water storing in appropriate aquifers for the mitigation of future water needs during droughts or as protection against pollution or even for the recovery of groundwater quality. Artificial recharge of the aquifer systems of Campina de Faro and Silves-Querença is addressed in this paper, proposed to be an alternative to decrease the vulnerability of the Algarve to a future drought. Integrated management of water resources in the Algarve is not a clear issue since the last decade, when groundwater resources that supplied almost all water needs, have been drastically replaced by surface water stored in new reservoirs.

  11. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  12. An Artificial Neural Network Control System for Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    training is based on the concept of enforced performance. A neural network will learn to meet a specific performance goal if the performance standard...is the only solution to a problem. Performance index training is devised to teach the neural network the time-optimal control law for the system. Real...time adaptation of a neural network in closed loop control of the Crew/Equipment Retriever was demonstrated in computer simulations.

  13. Precise Selenodetic Coordinate System on Artificial Light Refers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin

    Historically a coordinate system for the Moon was established on the base of telescopic observations from the Earth. As the angular resolution of Earth-to-Space telescopic observations is limited by Earth atmosphere, and is ordinary worse then 1 ang. second, the mean accuracy of selenodetic coordinates is some angular minutes, which corresponds to errors about 900 meters for positions of lunar objects near center of visible lunar disk, and at least twice more when objects are near lunar poles. As there are no Global Positioning System nor any astronomical observation instruments on the Moon, we proposed to use an autonomous light beacon on the Luna-Globe landing module to fix its position on the surface of the moon ant to use it as refer point for fixation of spherical coordinates system for the Moon. The light beacon is designed to be surely visible by orbiting probe TV-camera. As any space probe has its own stars-orientation system, there is not a problem to calculate a set of directions to the beacon and to the referent stars in probe-centered coordinate system during flight over the beacon. Large number of measured angular positions and time of each observation will be enough to calculate both orbital parameters of the probe and selenodetic coordinates of the beacon by methods of geodesy. All this will allow fixing angular coordinates of any feature of lunar surface in one global coordinate system, referred to the beacon. The satellite’s orbit plane contains ever the center mass of main body, so if the beacon will be placed closely to a lunar pole, we shall determine pole point position of the Moon with accuracy tens times better then it is known now. When angular accuracy of self-orientation by stars of the orbital module of Luna-Glob mission will be 6 angular seconds, then being in circular orbit with height of 200 km the on-board TV-camera will allow calculation of the beacon position as well as 6" corresponding to spatial resolution of the camera. It mean

  14. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  15. Testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system with artificial retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, N.; Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Merli, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present the testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm. The tracking system prototype is capable of fast track reconstruction with a latency of the response below 1 μs and track parameter resolutions that are comparable with the offline results. The artificial retina algorithm was implemented in hardware in a custom data acquisition board based on commercial FPGA. The system was tested successfully using a 180 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS with a maximum track rate of about 280 kHz. Online track parameters were found in good agreement with offline results and with the simulated response.

  16. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  17. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IV. Correlated responses in behavioral isolation to artificial selection on a life-history trait.

    PubMed

    Etges, W J

    1998-07-01

    Studies of behavioral isolation among geographically isolated populations of Drosophila mojavensis have provided an understanding of incipient speciation wherein phylogeny and ecology play a prominent role. Populations of D. mojavensis in mainland Mexico and southern Arizona exhibit low but significant premating isolation from Baja California populations in laboratory mate choice tests. These same populations have undergone considerable life-history evolution in response to use of different host plants, suggesting that behavioral isolation between populations is a pleiotropic consequence of adaptation to different environments, or Mayr's geographic speciation hypothesis. This hypothesis was tested using bidirectional artificial selection on egg-to-adult development time in replicate lines of a mainland and Baja population cultured on two host cacti for 13 generations. Response to selection was greatest in the slow lines cultured on one host, yet there was uneven response in some lines due to variation in cactus tissue quality. Realized heritabilities for development time ranged from 0.04 to 0.16, which is consistent with previous estimates from half-sib/full-sib analyses of genetic variation. In most lines that responded to selection, premating isolation decreased to near zero. Correlated responses in behavioral isolation suggest that adaptation to contrasting environments can cause secondary responses in mate recognition systems that can influence the formation of new species.

  18. An innovative artificial recharge system to enhance groundwater storage in basaltic terrain: example from Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The management of groundwater poses challenges in basaltic terrain as its availability is not uniform due to the absence of primary porosity. Indiscriminate excessive withdrawal from shallow as well as deep aquifers for meeting increased demand can be higher than natural recharge, causing imbalance in demand and supply and leading to a scarcity condition. An innovative artificial recharge system has been conceived and implemented to augment the groundwater sources at the villages of Saoli and Sastabad in Wardha district of Maharashtra, India. The scheme involves resectioning of a stream bed to achieve a reverse gradient, building a subsurface dam to arrest subsurface flow, and installation of recharge shafts to recharge the deeper aquifers. The paper focuses on analysis of hydrogeological parameters like porosity, specific yield and transmissivity, and on temporal groundwater status. Results indicate that after the construction of the artificial recharge system, a rise of 0.8-2.8 m was recorded in the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels in 12 dug wells in the study area; an increase in the yield was also noticed which solved the drinking water and irrigation problems. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographic information system to demarcate the area of influence of the recharge system due to increase in yields of the wells. The study demonstrates efficacy, technical viability and applicability of an innovative artificial recharge system constructed in an area of basaltic terrain prone to water scarcity.

  19. Artificial frame filling using adaptive neural fuzzy inference system for particle image velocimetry dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Bayram; Doǧan, Sercan; Aksoy, Muharrem H.; Canli, Eyüp; Özgören, Muammer

    2015-03-01

    Liquid behaviors are very important for many areas especially for Mechanical Engineering. Fast camera is a way to observe and search the liquid behaviors. Camera traces the dust or colored markers travelling in the liquid and takes many pictures in a second as possible as. Every image has large data structure due to resolution. For fast liquid velocity, there is not easy to evaluate or make a fluent frame after the taken images. Artificial intelligence has much popularity in science to solve the nonlinear problems. Adaptive neural fuzzy inference system is a common artificial intelligence in literature. Any particle velocity in a liquid has two dimension speed and its derivatives. Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System has been used to create an artificial frame between previous and post frames as offline. Adaptive neural fuzzy inference system uses velocities and vorticities to create a crossing point vector between previous and post points. In this study, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System has been used to fill virtual frames among the real frames in order to improve image continuity. So this evaluation makes the images much understandable at chaotic or vorticity points. After executed adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the image dataset increase two times and has a sequence as virtual and real, respectively. The obtained success is evaluated using R2 testing and mean squared error. R2 testing has a statistical importance about similarity and 0.82, 0.81, 0.85 and 0.8 were obtained for velocities and derivatives, respectively.

  20. Wear Characteristics of a Novel Bearing System for Artificial Knee Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Aneta Nicoleta; Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Matsuda, Mitsumasa; Nishino, Takashi

    This paper presents an experimental investigation upon the wear characteristics of a novel bearing system proposed for the artificial knee joints. Such bearing system is original in the meaning that micro-pockets are machined on surface of the rigid femoral component; a poro-elastic-hydrated layer, called artificial cartilage, covers the rigid tibial substrate. Under compression, the fluid exudes from the artificial cartilage, fills and pressurizes the micro-pockets. In this way, a poro-elasto-hydrodynamic regime of lubrication is developed. Wear tests are performed with different types of artificial cartilages made in PVA hydrogel, articulating against smooth and micro-pocket-covered femoral components. Influence of the number of walking cycles, femoral porosity, depth of the micro-pockets, water content and polymerization degree of the PVA hydrogel upon its wear factor is illustrated. For wear tests performed until 106 walking cycles, in the case of PVA hydrogel with 12300 polymerization degree and 77% water content versus smooth component, the wear factor is on order of 10-6-10-5mm3/Nm for the same artificial cartilage against a femoral component uniformly covered by identical micro-pockets of 50µm depth, on 15% of its surface, the wear factor drops in the range 10-7-10-6mm3/Nm, i. e., the wear factor reduces with 80%. The highest wear reduction due to the micro-pockets presence is obtained in the case of PVA hydrogel with 77% water content, i. e., for a fluid amount similar to that of the natural cartilage.

  1. A portable life support system for use in mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

  2. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  3. Efficient production of artificially designed gelatins with a Bacillus brevis system.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Takahashi, H; Hirai, M; Yamada, Y

    2000-01-01

    Artificially designed gelatins comprising tandemly repeated 30-amino-acid peptide units derived from human alphaI collagen were successfully produced with a Bacillus brevis system. The DNA encoding the peptide unit was synthesized by taking into consideration the codon usage of the host cells, but no clones having a tandemly repeated gene were obtained through the above-mentioned strategy. Minirepeat genes could be selected in vivo from a mixture of every possible sequence encoding an artificial gelatin by randomly ligating the mixed sequence unit and transforming it into Escherichia coli. Larger repeat genes constructed by connecting minirepeat genes obtained by in vivo selection were also stable in the expression host cells. Gelatins derived from the eight-unit and six-unit repeat genes were extracellularly produced at the level of 0.5 g/liter and easily purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified artificial gelatins had the predicted N-terminal sequences and amino acid compositions and a solgel property similar to that of the native gelatin. These results suggest that the selection of a repeat unit sequence stable in an expression host is a shortcut for the efficient production of repetitive proteins and that it can conveniently be achieved by the in vivo selection method. This study revealed the possible industrial application of artificially designed repetitive proteins.

  4. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  5. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times.

  6. Life support systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamponnet, C.

    Future Lunar missions envision three successive scenarios: (i) robotic preparatory missions, (ii) Lunar outpost (man-tended), and (iii) a permanently inhabited Lunar base. As soon as man appears as a key element (i.e. the second and third scenario), development and building of adequate Life Support Systems (LSS) become mandatory. Life Support covers basically all the techniques that enable the crew of the Lunar outpost or base to survive in this hostile environment. The internal structures of these LSS are highly dependent upon the type of missions. Indeed, there are three non-exclusive ways to ensure the autonomy of man on the Moon: (i) provide all the required consumables (oxygen, water, food) at the start of the mission or replenish them during the mission, (ii) regenerate these consumables from waste during the mission, or (iii) use Lunar resources. Man-tended Lunar missions will require Shuttle-like or International Space Station-like types of LSS although continuosly inhabited Lunar bases will require an autonomous (i.e. totally regenerative) type of LSS. Therefore, first manned Lunar missions will use non-regenerative LSS. These LSS will progressively evolve towards a total regeneration of materials using in a first step purely physico-chemical technologies, then using more and more biologically-based technologies and relying more and more on Lunar resources. Moreover, first Lunar outposts and Lunar bases will serve as testbed for the development of the LSS of respectively the future Lunar bases and the future Mars (or other planetary) bases.

  7. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  8. Glucagon in artificial pancreas systems: Potential benefits and safety profile of future chronic use.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Nadine; Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Gingras, Véronique; Legault, Laurent; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    The role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of diabetes has long been recognized, although its approved clinical use has so far been limited to the emergency treatment of severe hypoglycaemia. A novel use of glucagon as intermittent mini-boluses is proposed in the dual-hormone version (insulin and glucagon) of the external artificial pancreas. Short-term studies suggest that the incorporation of glucagon into artificial pancreas systems has the potential to further decrease hypoglycaemic risk and improve overall glucose control; however, the potential long-term safety and benefits also need to be investigated given the recognized systemic effects of glucagon. In the present report, we review the available animal and human data on the physiological functions of glucagon, as well as its pharmacological use, according to dosing and duration (acute and chronic). Along with its main role in hepatic glucose metabolism, glucagon affects the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems. It has a potential role in weight reduction through its central satiety function and its role in increasing energy expenditure. Most of the pharmacological studies investigating the effects of glucagon have used doses exceeding 1 mg, in contrast to the mini-boluses used in the artificial pancreas. The available data are reassuring but comprehensive human studies using small but chronic glucagon doses that are close to the physiological ranges are lacking. We propose a list of variables that could be monitored during long-term trials of the artificial pancreas. Such trials should address the questions about the risk-benefit ratio of chronic glucagon use.

  9. Artificial intelligence system for the realtime monitoring and analysis of textural information

    SciTech Connect

    Clippinger, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype artificial intelligence system for the monitoring, filtering, and interpretation of realtime textual information. The user sets alerts for topics of interest and the system scans, parses, and interprets the texts and triggers an alert when an appropriate topic is found. Features and limitations of the system are discussed. Syntactically directed parses were found to be too weak for unrestricted texts. An expectations directed approach using discourse and case frame semantics is proposed as a more efficient and practical alternative. 3 references.

  10. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-05-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  11. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  12. Periodic Pattern of Genetic and Fitness Diversity during Evolution of an Artificial Cell-Like System.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Aita, Takuyo; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity are the basis of evolution. Despite their importance, however, little is known about how they change over the course of evolution. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the adaptive evolution of a simple evolvable artificial cell-like system using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology that reads an entire single artificial genome. We found that the genomic RNA population increases in fitness intermittently, correlating with a periodic pattern of genetic and fitness diversity produced by repeated diversification and domination. In the diversification phase, a genomic RNA population spreads within a genetic space by accumulating mutations until mutants with higher fitness are generated, resulting in an increase in fitness diversity. In the domination phase, the mutants with higher fitness dominate, decreasing both the fitness and genetic diversity. This study reveals the dynamic nature of genetic and fitness diversity during adaptive evolution and demonstrates the utility of a simplified artificial cell-like system to study evolution at an unprecedented resolution.

  13. An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time. PMID:22194721

  14. A special purpose embedded system for neural machine interface for artificial legs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design and implementation of a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial legs that can decode amputee's intended movement in real time. The newly designed NMI integrates an FPGA chip for fast processing and a microcontroller unit (MCU) with multiple on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for real-time data sampling. The resulting embedded system is able to sample in real time 12 EMG signals and 6 mechanical signals and execute a special complex phase-dependent classifier for accurate recognition of the user's intended locomotion modes. The implementation and evaluation are based on Altera's Stratix III 3S150 FPGA device coupled with Freescale's MPC5566 MCU. The experimental results for classifying three locomotion modes (level-ground walking, stairs ascent, and stairs descent) based on data collected from an able-bodied human subject have shown acceptable performance for real-time controlling of artificial legs.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  16. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  17. Artificial quantum thermal bath: Engineering temperature for a many-body quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    Temperature determines the relative probability of observing a physical system in an energy state when that system is energetically in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when coupled to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H , drives the system to the equilibrium state e/-H/TTr (e-H /T) with a tunable parameter T . This is basically an analog counterpart of the digital quantum metropolis algorithm. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. Our proposal opens the path to simulate thermodynamical properties of many-body quantum systems of size not accessible to classical simulations. Also we discuss how an artificial thermal bath can serve as a temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  18. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  19. Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    de Callatay, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

  20. Selectivity Control of CO2 Reduction in an Inorganic Artificial Photosynthesis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Hiroshi; Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Yamada, Yuka; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrated that the selectivity of photo electrochemical CO2 reduction can be controlled in an inorganic artificial photosynthesis system using an AlGaN/GaN photo electrode. By increasing input light intensity and the use of a gold cathode, the Faradaic efficiency of CO dramatically increases from 30% to over 80% while that of H2 decreases. We observed that the cathode potential resulting from illumination determines the ratio of CO and H2. With this system, it is possible to switch the main reaction product from CO to HCOOH, which is also effective even under intense illumination.

  1. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Souza, Lucas M DE; Andow, David A; Sousa, Alex A T Cortês DE; Pires, Carmen S S; Sujii, Edison R

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  2. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.; Applequist, C. A.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  3. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  4. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  5. Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1995-01-01

    The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

  6. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail. PMID:28036364

  7. Fuzzy learning vector quantization neural network and its application for artificial odor recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoputro, Benyamin; Budiarto, Hary; Jatmiko, Wisnu

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, a kind of fuzzy algorithm for learning vector quantization is developed and used as pattern classifiers with a supervised learning paradigm in artificial odor discrimination system. In this type of FLVQ, the neuron activation is derived through fuzziness of the input data, so that the neural system could deal with the statistical of the measurement error directly. During learning,the similarity between the training vector and the reference vectors are calculated, and the winning reference vector is updated in two ways. Firstly, by shifting the central position of the fuzzy reference vector toward or away from the input vector, and secondly, by modifying its fuzziness. Two types of fuzziness modifications are used, i.e., a constant modification factor and a variable modification factor. This type of FLVQ is different in nature with FALVQ, and in this paper, the performance of FNLVQ network is compared with that of FALVQ in artificial odor recognition system. Experimental results show that both FALVQ and FNLVQ provided high recognition probability in determining various learn-category of odors, however, the FNLVQ neural system has the ability to recognize the unlearn-category of odor that could not recognized by FALVQ neural system.

  8. The INCA system: a further step towards a telemedical artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando Pérez, M Elena; Vering, Thomas; Rigla Cros, Mercedes; Bott, Oliver; García-Sáez, Gema; Pretschner, Peter; Brugués, Eulalia; Schnell, Oliver; Patte, Caroline; Bergmann, Joachim; Dudde, Ralf; de Leiva, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    Biomedical engineering research efforts have accomplished another level of a "technological solution" for diabetes: an artificial pancreas to be used by patients and supervised by healthcare professionals at any time and place. Reliability of continuous glucose monitoring, availability of real-time programmable insulin pumps, and validation of safe and efficient control algorithms are critical components for achieving that goal. Nevertheless, the development and integration of these new technologies within a telemedicine system can be the basis of a future artificial pancreas. This paper introduces the concept, design, and evaluation of the "intelligent control assistant for diabetes, INCA" system. INCA is a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based personal smart assistant to provide patients with closed-loop control strategies (personal and remote loop), based on a real-time continuous glucose sensor (Guardian RT, Medtronic), an insulin pump (D-TRON, Disetronic Medical Systems), and a mobile general packet radio service (GPRS)-based telemedicine communication system. Patient therapeutic decision making is supervised by doctors through a multiaccess telemedicine central server that provides to diabetics and doctors a Web-based access to continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion data. The INCA system has been technically and clinically evaluated in two randomized and crossover clinical trials showing an improvement on glycaemic control of diabetic patients.

  9. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  10. Promise of a Low Power Mobile CPU based Embedded System in Artificial Leg Control

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:23367113

  11. Artificial intelligence and the law: will expert systems replace expert lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The commercial availability of expert systems utilizing specially developed knowledge bases raises significant questions about their potential utility in the practice of law. These systems, built with the aid of recent developments in artificial intelligence research, may only prove useful in certain areas of legal practice. Counselling and interviewing are areas where expert systems are likely to effect marked changes in the practice of law. In contract, computerized legal research using a knowledge-based system is more difficult to envision. This is due to complexities presented by the multiplicity of sources of the law, and by conflicting opinions and interpretations in the common law. In the coming decade, use of expert systems in science and medicine will grow rapidly, and attempts will continue to be made to automate the legal reasoning process. As past research efforts have demonstrated, this will not be an easy task.

  12. Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses.

  13. A survey of life support system automation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory K.

    1993-01-01

    The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

  14. Optimal Solution for an Engineering Applications Using Modified Artificial Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ganesan, S.; patan, Mahamed Naveed Khan; Navakanth, Polina

    2017-03-01

    An Engineering optimization leads a essential role in several engineering application areas like process design, product design, re-engineering and new product development, etc. In engineering, an awfully best answer is achieved by comparison to some completely different solutions by utilization previous downside information. An optimization algorithms provide systematic associate degreed economical ways that within which of constructing and comparison new design solutions so on understand at best vogue, thus on best solution efficiency and acquire the foremost wonderful design impact. In this paper, a new evolutionary based Modified Artificial Immune System (MAIS) algorithm used to optimize an engineering application of gear drive design. The results are compared with existing design.

  15. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  16. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  17. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    SciTech Connect

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Kolesnick, Richard N.

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  18. Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

  19. Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. The design decision is therefore in making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. The NASA Lewis Research Center has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the areas of life prediction technology for 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of Lewis' Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the Double Damage Curve Approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy for cumulative fatigue design rules.

  20. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  1. Demonstrating artificial intelligence for space systems - Integration and project management issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Edmund C.; Difilippo, Denise M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of its Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP), NASA has recently demonstrated the Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS). Advanced real-time expert system and human interface technology was successfully developed and integrated with conventional controllers of prototype space hardware to provide intelligent fault detection, isolation, and recovery capability. Many specialized skills were required, and responsibility for the various phases of the project therefore spanned multiple NASA centers, internal departments and contractor organizations. The test environment required communication among many types of hardware and software as well as between many people. The integration, testing, and configuration management tools and methodologies which were applied to the TEXSYS project to assure its safe and successful completion are detailed. The project demonstrated that artificial intelligence technology, including model-based reasoning, is capable of the monitoring and control of a large, complex system in real time.

  2. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  3. A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

  4. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-30

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  5. Inverse simulation system for manual-controlled rendezvous and docking based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wanmeng; Wang, Hua; Tang, Guojin; Guo, Shuai

    2016-09-01

    The time-consuming experimental method for handling qualities assessment cannot meet the increasing fast design requirements for the manned space flight. As a tool for the aircraft handling qualities research, the model-predictive-control structured inverse simulation (MPC-IS) has potential applications in the aerospace field to guide the astronauts' operations and evaluate the handling qualities more effectively. Therefore, this paper establishes MPC-IS for the manual-controlled rendezvous and docking (RVD) and proposes a novel artificial neural network inverse simulation system (ANN-IS) to further decrease the computational cost. The novel system was obtained by replacing the inverse model of MPC-IS with the artificial neural network. The optimal neural network was trained by the genetic Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and finally determined by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. In order to validate MPC-IS and ANN-IS, the manual-controlled RVD experiments on the simulator were carried out. The comparisons between simulation results and experimental data demonstrated the validity of two systems and the high computational efficiency of ANN-IS.

  6. Balance of a multijoint biomechanical system in natural and artificial environments: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Shestakov, Mikhail P

    2007-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a neurobionic simulation model for controlling balance in a biomechanical pendulum. The model is realized by a complex of fuzzy regulators and an artificial neural network. Fuzzy regulators are used for simulating the physiological characteristics of the motor system and the functions of the sensory systems. The second level of control is the central integrator. It is realized as an artificial neural network (ANN), which simulates a real process of analysis and synthesis of afferent signals, formation of the model of action, etc.Equilibrium control in a multijoint biomechanical object is a specific example of a self-developing multilevel system of movement control. In the course of elaboration of the model and further examination of its behavior we have received model results which revealed correspondence with the results demonstrated by real subjects in stabilographic tests performed after long-term space flights. We concluded that the model permits us to simulate the peculiarities of human movement control and can be used for creating individual plans of recovery and rehabilitation of patients after long-term motionless or learning movement control in unknown environments.

  7. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System.

    PubMed

    Duan, Litian; Wang, Zizhong John; Duan, Fu

    2016-11-16

    In the multiple-reader environment (MRE) of radio frequency identification (RFID) system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS) is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression) quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  8. Toward an artificial sensory feedback system for prosthetic mobility rehabilitation: examination of sensorimotor responses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aman; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    People with lower-limb amputation have reduced mobility due to loss of sensory information, which may be restored by artificial sensory feedback systems built into prostheses. For an effective system, it is important to understand how humans sense, interpret, and respond to the feedback that would be provided. The goal of this study was to examine sensorimotor responses to mobility-relevant stimuli. Three experiments were performed to examine the effects of location of stimuli, frequency of stimuli, and means for providing the response. Stimuli, given as vibrations, were applied to the thigh region, and responses involved leg movements. Sensorimotor reaction time (RT) was measured as the duration between application of the stimulus and initiation of the response. Accuracy of response was also measured. Overall average RTs for one response option were 0.808 +/- 0.142 s, and response accuracies were >90%. Higher frequencies (220 vs 140 Hz) of vibration stimulus provided in anterior regions of the thigh produced the fastest RTs. When participants were presented with more than one stimulus and response option, RTs increased. Findings suggest that long sensorimotor responses may be a limiting factor in the development of an artificial feedback system for mobility rehabilitation applications; however, feed-forward techniques could potentially help to address these limitations.

  9. Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.

    PubMed

    Strbac, Matija; Kočović, Slobodan; Marković, Marko; Popović, Dejan B

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES.

  10. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Litian; Wang, Zizhong John; Duan, Fu

    2016-01-01

    In the multiple-reader environment (MRE) of radio frequency identification (RFID) system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS) is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression) quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range. PMID:27854342

  11. Risk assessment and life prediction of complex engineering systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.D.; Varma, R.; Heger, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Many complex engineering systems will exceed their design life expectancy within the next 10 to 15 years. It is also expected that these systems must be maintained and operated beyond their design life. This paper presents a integrated approach for managing the risks associated with aging effects and predicting the residually expectancy these systems, The approach unifies risk assessment, enhanced surveillance and testing, and robust computational models to assess the risk, predict age, and develop a life-extension management procedure. It also relies on the state of the art in life-extension and risk assessment methods from the nuclear power industry. Borrowing from the developments in decision analysis, this approach should systematically identify the options available for managing the existing aging systems beyond their intended design life.

  12. The Search for Life in the Solar System*

    PubMed Central

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

  13. NASA Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan; Cardenas, Jeffery

    1994-01-01

    The Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) at JSC, which manages human life sciences flight experiments for the NASA Life Sciences Division, augmented its Life Sciences Data System (LSDS) in support of the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission, October 1993. The LSDS is a portable ground system supporting Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir based life sciences experiments. The LSDS supports acquisition, processing, display, and storage of real-time experiment telemetry in a workstation environment. The system may acquire digital or analog data, storing the data in experiment packet format. Data packets from any acquisition source are archived and meta-parameters are derived through the application of mathematical and logical operators. Parameters may be displayed in text and/or graphical form, or output to analog devices. Experiment data packets may be retransmitted through the network interface and database applications may be developed to support virtually any data packet format. The user interface provides menu- and icon-driven program control and the LSDS system can be integrated with other workstations to perform a variety of functions. The generic capabilities, adaptability, and ease of use make the LSDS a cost-effective solution to many experiment data processing requirements. The same system is used for experiment systems functional and integration tests, flight crew training sessions and mission simulations. In addition, the system has provided the infrastructure for the development of the JSC Life Sciences Data Archive System scheduled for completion in December 1994.

  14. How to Establish a Bioregenerative Life Support System for Long-Term Crewed Missions to the Moon or Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuming; Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Wang, Mingjuan; Jia, Boyang; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Yingying; Deng, Shengda; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Bojie; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014. The results show that environmental conditions as well as the gas balance between O2 and CO2 in the system were well maintained during the 105-day experiment. A total of 21 plant species in this system kept a harmonious coexistent relationship, and 20.5% nitrogen recovery from urine, 41% solid waste degradation, and a small amount of insect in situ production were achieved. During the 105-day experiment, oxygen and water were recycled, and 55% of the food was regenerated.

  15. Early life exposure to artificial light at night affects the physiological condition: An experimental study on the ecophysiology of free-living nestling songbirds.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognised to be an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife, affecting animal behaviour and physiology. Early life experiences are extremely important for the development, physiological status and health of organisms, and as such, early exposure to artificial light may have detrimental consequences for organism fitness. We experimentally manipulated the light environment of free-living great tit nestlings (Parus major), an important model species in evolutionary and environmental research. Haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx), as important indicators of immunity, health, and physiological condition, were quantified in nestlings at baseline (13 days after hatching) and after a two night exposure to ALAN. We found that ALAN increased Hp and decreased NOx. ALAN may increase stress and oxidative stress and reduce melatonin which could subsequently lead to increased Hp and decreased NOx. Haptoglobin is part of the immune response and mounting an immune response is costly in energy and resources and, trade-offs are likely to occur with other energetically demanding tasks, such as survival or reproduction. Acute inhibition of NOx may have a cascading effect as it also affects other physiological aspects and may negatively affect immunocompetence. The consequences of the observed effects on Hp and NOx remain to be examined. Our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN affects nestlings' physiology during development and early life exposure to ALAN could therefore have long lasting effects throughout adulthood.

  16. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  17. Light driven hydrogen production in protein based semi-artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Martin; Kawelke, Steffen; Happe, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production has recently attracted interest in terms of being a potential source for an alternative energy carrier. Especially the natural light driven hydrogen metabolism of unicellular green algae appears as an attractive blueprint for a clean and potentially unlimited dihydrogen source. However, the efficiency of in vivo systems is limited by physiological and evolutionary constraints and scientists only begin to understand the regulatory networks influencing cellular hydrogen production. A growing number of projects aim at circumventing these limitations by focusing on semi-artificial systems. They reconstitute parts of the native electron transfer chains in vitro, combining photosystem I as a photoactive element with a proton reducing catalytic element such as hydrogenase enzymes or noble metal nanoparticles. This review summarizes various approaches and discusses limitations that have to be overcome in order to establish economically applicable systems.

  18. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  19. Development of a microcontroller-based automatic control system for the electrohydraulic total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Khanwilkar, P S; Bearnson, G B; Olsen, D B

    1997-01-01

    An automatic physiological control system for the actively filled, alternately pumped ventricles of the volumetrically coupled, electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) was developed for long-term use. The automatic control system must ensure that the device: 1) maintains a physiological response of cardiac output, 2) compensates for an nonphysiological condition, and 3) is stable, reliable, and operates at a high power efficiency. The developed automatic control system met these requirements both in vitro, in week-long continuous mock circulation tests, and in vivo, in acute open-chested animals (calves). Satisfactory results were also obtained in a series of chronic animal experiments, including 21 days of continuous operation of the fully automatic control mode, and 138 days of operation in a manual mode, in a 159-day calf implant.

  20. A movable-mass attitude stabilization system for cable-connected artificial-g space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.; Hardison, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    The development of an active, momentum-exchange system to be used for attitude stabilization of a class of cable-connected artificial-g space stations is studied. A system which employs a single movable control mass is examined for the control of a space station which has the physical appearance of two cylinders connected axially by cables. The dynamic model for the space station includes its aggregate rigid body rotation and relative torsional rotation between the bodies. A zero torsional stiffness design (one cable) and a maximum torsional stiffness design (eight cables) are examined in various stages of deployment, for selected spin velocities ranging from 4 rpm upwards. A linear, time-invariant, feed-back control system is employed, with gains calculated via a root-specification procedure. The movable mass controller provides critical wobble-damping capability for the crew quarters for all configurations and spin velocity.

  1. A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

  2. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  3. AITSO: A Tool for Spatial Optimization Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge facing geocomputation and spatial analysis is spatial optimization, given that it involves various high-dimensional, nonlinear, and complicated relationships. Many efforts have been made with regard to this specific issue, and the strong ability of artificial immune system algorithms has been proven in previous studies. However, user-friendly professional software is still unavailable, which is a great impediment to the popularity of artificial immune systems. This paper describes a free, universal tool, named AITSO, which is capable of solving various optimization problems. It provides a series of standard application programming interfaces (APIs) which can (1) assist researchers in the development of their own problem-specific application plugins to solve practical problems and (2) allow the implementation of some advanced immune operators into the platform to improve the performance of an algorithm. As an integrated, flexible, and convenient tool, AITSO contributes to knowledge sharing and practical problem solving. It is therefore believed that it will advance the development and popularity of spatial optimization in geocomputation and spatial analysis. PMID:25678911

  4. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  5. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  6. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity paradigms may offer effective, efficient, multi-system protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) has recently been utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This presentation will review preliminary results of a 41 day study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. During the first eleven days of the protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. They began a carefully controlled diet, and participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the twelfth day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6deg head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received one hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3.0 m radius SRC. They were oriented radially in the supine position so that the centrifugal force was aligned with their long body axis, and while spinning, they "stood" on a force plate, supporting the centrifugal loading (2.5 g at the feet, 1.0 g at the heart). The subject station allowed free translation over approximately 10 cm to ensure full loading of the lower extremities and to allow for anti-orthostatic muscle contractions. Control subjects were positioned on the centrifuge but did not spin. Following the bed rest phase, subjects were allowed to ambulate again, but remained within the facility for an additional 9 days and participated in multiple follow-up tests of physiological function.

  7. Physical and Physiological Responses of Amateur Football Players on Third-Generation Artificial Turf Systems During Simulated Game Situations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier; García-Unanue, Jorge; Felipe, José L; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Viejo-Romero, David; Gómez-López, Maite; Hernando, Enrique; Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-11-01

    Sánchez-Sánchez, J, García-Unanue, J, Felipe, JL, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Viejo-Romero, D, Gómez-López, M, Hernando, E, Burillo, P, and Gallardo, L. Physical and physiological responses of amateur football players on third generation artificial turf systems during simulated game situations. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3165-3177, 2016-The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical and physiological load imposed on amateur football players in a simulated game situation on different artificial turf systems. For that purpose, 20 football players (21.65 ± 3.10 year old) were monitored with Global Positioning Systems and heart rate bands during 45-minutes games on 4 selected artificial turf systems. The results show more covered distance in high-intensity ranges on the system with lower levels of damping and higher rates of rotational traction (p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, this system of artificial turf demonstrated a high number of sprints (12.65 ± 5.67) and more elevated maximum speed peaks during the last part of the game (28.16 ± 2.90 km·h) in contrast to the systems with better damping capacity (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, the physiological load was similar across the 4 artificial turf systems (p > 0.05). Finally, the regression analysis demonstrated a significant influence of the mechanical properties of the surface on global distance (15.4%), number (12.6%), and maximum speed (16.6%) of the sprints. To conclude, the mechanical variability of the artificial turf systems resulted in differences in the activity profiles and the players' perceptions during simulated football games.

  8. Theoretical and experimental decisions in the creation of an artificial ecosystem for human life support in space.

    PubMed

    Kirensky, L V; Gitelson, I I; Terskov, I A; Kovrov, B G; Lisovsky, G M; Okladnikov, Y N

    1971-01-01

    All of man's former space flights were not real ventures into space in the biological sense, as his life was supported with unregenerated earth supplies. The coming stage of space exploration requires man's long existence in the cosmos and on the other planets. This stage of man's activity outside the earth become possible only by creating small man-made ecosystems, permitting the support of his metabolism by the recycling of substances of the terrestrial biosphere. Creation of such systems is a new scientific and technical task. Man-made ecosystems are a new product of man's activity, which have no complete analogy, either in nature, or in technology. Stochastic mechanisms, which stabilize biogeocenosis, cannot be effective in small ecosystems. A technique of parametric control over biosynthesis made it possible to calculate, and put to practice, an ecosystem for man with a cyclic regeneration of the atmosphere, water and, partially, food. The specific bio-technological properties of small man-made ecosystems are being analysed. The possibility of their application for man's excursions into space and for the settlement of other planets is being considered.

  9. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  10. Development and evaluation of components for a totally implantable artificial heart system.

    PubMed

    Taenaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, F; Anai, H; Toda, K; Akagi, H; Nakatani, T; Baba, Y; Fya, K; Wakisaka, Y

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been developing an electrohydraulic (EH) artificial heart system for total implantation. This system consists of intrathoracic ventricles, an abdominally placed EH actuator, flexible silicone oil conduits, externally coupled transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system, transcutaneous optical telemetry (TOT) system, internal battery, and internal control drive unit. Fitting was evaluated in chronic animal experiments as a pneumatic system in 11 goats weighing 55.2 +/- 4.2 kg and 3 calves of 52.3 +/- 1.2 kg. The longest survival time in calves was 111 days, and that in goats was 51 days. The assembled EH pump was implanted in two goats of 49 and 50 kg as an acute experiment, and 4.2-6.7 L/min of cardiac output was maintained. For the TET system, an internal coil 3 cm in diameter was implanted to make an arch covered by skin. Electric energy was transmitted from the external to the internal coil, and energy of about 20 W was carried through wires to an external load. The DC-to-DC efficiency of the system was 76-83% for 40 days. The TOT system with internal light emitting diodes and external photodiodes also was evaluated in a goat. Disalignment of up to 12 mm was tolerated. Although more improvement is necessary, most of the components showed characteristics desirable for a totally implantable system.

  11. Use of artificial neural networks for analysis of complex physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.; Altman, B.; O`Gorman, C.; Rodeman, R.; Paez, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Mathematical models of physical systems are used, among other purposes, to improve our understanding of the behavior of physical systems, predict physical system response, and control the responses of systems. Phenomenological models are frequently used to simulate system behavior, but an alternative is available - the artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is an inductive, or data-based model for the simulation of input/output mappings. The ANN can be used in numerous frameworks to simulate physical system behavior. ANNs require training data to learn patterns of input/output behavior, and once trained, they can be used to simulate system behavior within the space where they were trained.They do this by interpolating specified inputs among the training inputs to yield outputs that are interpolations of =Ming outputs. The reason for using ANNs for the simulation of system response is that they provide accurate approximations of system behavior and are typically much more efficient than phenomenological models. This efficiency is very important in situations where multiple response computations are required, as in, for example, Monte Carlo analysis of probabilistic system response. This paper describes two frameworks in which we have used ANNs to good advantage in the approximate simulation of the behavior of physical system response. These frameworks are the non-recurrent and recurrent frameworks. It is assumed in these applications that physical experiments have been performed to obtain data characterizing the behavior of a system, or that an accurate finite element model has been run to establish system response. The paper provides brief discussions on the operation of ANNs, the operation of two different types of mechanical systems, and approaches to the solution of some special problems that occur in connection with ANN simulation of physical system response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate system simulation with ANNs.

  12. The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, John

    2006-12-01

    Since Earth is the only planet that unequivocally supports living ecosystems, it is logical to first look for life elsewhere that resembles Earth-life. Earth-life requires liquid water, either light or a chemical energy source, other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and a large number of elements in trace concentration. Additionally, chemical disequilibria are required to fuel the maintenance and growth of organisms. Thus the search for extraterrestrial life is focused on planets and moons that currently have or have had liquid water; that have a history of geological and geophysical properties that favor the synthesis of organic compounds and their polymerization; and that provide the energy sources and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, inasmuch as we can use Earth-life as a point of comparison, we are also limited by our almost complete lack of data about possible alternative biochemistries. We begin any extraterrestrial search by assuming carbon-based life. The key arguments in favor of carbon-based life are the ubiquity of organic compounds in the universe and the ability of carbon to form stable compounds with a high number of different inorganic elements, thus creating the wide variety of structural, catalytic and informational macromolecules that make up Earth-life. But how versatile and adequate is the carbon-based life model to environmental conditions that have either not been adequately explored on Earth, or that extend beyond the bounds found on Earth? Are there alternate carbon-based biochemistries that would allow organisms to exist under more extreme conditions than can Earth-life? What are the limitations to evolutionary innovations in carbon-based life? These questions will be discussed with emphasis on our search for life on planets and moons that have environmental conditions that are outside the bounds of Earth life including Titan, deep subsurface of Europa and Earth-like planets in other solar systems.

  13. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  14. Thermal phase transition in artificial spin ice systems induces the formation and migration of monopole-like magnetic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Artificial spin ice systems exhibit monopole-like magnetic excitations. We develop here a theoretical study of the thermal phase transition of an artificial spin ice system, and we elucidate the role of the monopole excitations in the transition temperature. The dynamics of the spin ice is described by an efficient model based on cellular automata, which considers both thermal effects and dipolar interactions. We have established the critical temperature of the phase transition as function of the magnetic moment and the energy barrier of reversion. In addition, we predict that thermal gradients in the system induce the motion of elementary excitations, which could permit to manipulate monopole-like states.

  15. Fault tolerance of artificial neural networks with applications in critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Arras, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the fault tolerance characteristics of time continuous recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN) that can be used to solve optimization problems. The principle of operations and performance of these networks are first illustrated by using well-known model problems like the traveling salesman problem and the assignment problem. The ANNs are then subjected to 13 simultaneous 'stuck at 1' or 'stuck at 0' faults for network sizes of up to 900 'neurons'. The effects of these faults is demonstrated and the cause for the observed fault tolerance is discussed. An application is presented in which a network performs a critical task for a real-time distributed processing system by generating new task allocations during the reconfiguration of the system. The performance degradation of the ANN under the presence of faults is investigated by large-scale simulations, and the potential benefits of delegating a critical task to a fault tolerant network are discussed.

  16. Concurrent study of stability and cytotoxicity of a novel nanoemulsion system - an artificial neural networks approach.

    PubMed

    Seyedhassantehrani, Negar; Karimi, Roya; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Amani, Amir

    2017-05-01

    Problems commonly associated with using nanoemulsions are their cytotoxic effects and low stability profiles. Here, for the first time, concentrations of ingredients of a nanoemulsion system were investigated to obtain the most stable nanoemulsion system with the least cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell line. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to model the experimentally obtained data. Surfactant concentration was found to be the dominant factor in determining the stability - surfactant concentration above a critical point made the preparation unstable, while it appeared not to be influencing the cytotoxicity. Concentration of oil showed a direct relationship to the cytotoxicity with a minimum value required to provide an acceptable safety profile for the preparation. Co-surfactant appeared not to be considerably effective on neither stability nor cytotoxicity. To obtain the optimum preparation with maximum stability and minimum cytotoxicity, surfactant and oil values need to be kept at their maximum and minimum possible, respectively.

  17. Fault diagnosis using noise modeling and a new artificial immune system based algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Farshid; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    A new fault classification/diagnosis method based on artificial immune system (AIS) algorithms for the structural systems is proposed. In order to improve the accuracy of the proposed method, i.e., higher success rate, Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise generating models are applied to simulate environmental noise. The identification of noise model, known as training process, is based on the estimation of the noise model parameters by genetic algorithms (GA) utilizing real experimental features. The proposed fault classification/diagnosis algorithm is applied to the noise contaminated features. Then, the results are compared to that obtained without noise modeling. The performance of the proposed method is examined using three laboratory case studies in two healthy and damaged conditions. Finally three different types of noise models are studied and it is shown experimentally that the proposed algorithm with non-Gaussian noise modeling leads to more accurate clustering of memory cells as the major part of the fault classification procedure.

  18. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Place, J F; Truchaud, A; Ozawa, K; Pardue, H; Schnipelsky, P

    1995-01-01

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI), both as expert systems and as neural networks.This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation, and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system.In the second part of the paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories.It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual propery, and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used in clinical laboratories.

  19. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Truchaud, Alain; Ozawa, Kyoichi; Pardue, Harry; Schnipelsky, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI), both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation, and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of the paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual propery, and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used in clinical laboratories. PMID:18924784

  20. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.

  1. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  2. Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I

    1992-01-01

    Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed.

  3. Development of an artificial compound eye system for three-dimensional object detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengchao; Guo, Fang; Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi

    2014-02-20

    A compound eye has the advantages of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and compact structure, showing that it can be applicable for 3D object detection. In this work, an artificial compound eye system is developed for 3D object detection, consisting of a layer of lenslets and a prism-like beam-steering lens. A calibration method is developed for this system, with which the correspondences between incident light rays and the relevant image points can be obtained precisely using an active calibration pattern at multiple positions. Theoretically, calibration patterns at two positions are sufficient for system calibration, although more positions will increase the accuracy of the result. 3D positions of point objects are calculated to evaluate the system, which are obtained by the intersection of multiple incident light rays in the least-squares sense. Experimental results show that the system can detect an object with angular accuracy of better than 1 mrad, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed compound eye system. With a 2D scanning device, the system can be extended for general object detection in 3D space.

  4. Two artificial neural systems for generation of gait swing by means of neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, F; Granat, M H; Cliquet, A

    1997-01-01

    A three-layer artificial neural network was used for adaptive control of gait swing generated by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in a spinal cord injured subject. Network inputs consisted of knee and ankle goniometer signals for System 1, and knee and hip angular data for System 2. Controller output was proportional to changes in applied NMES pulse width (PW). Stimulation was applied to the left femoral and common peroneal nerves. The neural networks were trained off-line and on-line. Network performance was assessed by applying a number of different stimulation PWs and later comparing the resulting motion to a sample good step observed during the same test session. On-line training consisted of negative and positive reinforcement applied at chosen times. Both on-line and off-line training algorithms consisted of an enhanced supervised backpropagation scheme. Performance evaluation results favour the use of System 1 over System 2. Also, a network trained off-line and later submitted to on-line punishment appears to be more reliable (in automatic mode) than the same network after it is submitted to on-line reward or to off-line training alone. Finally, the systems' immediate response to on-line learning was favourable in all cases. Based on the results, a version of System 1 was used to generate walking in the test subject. This test indicated that the system is promising.

  5. A photocatalyst-enzyme coupled artificial photosynthesis system for solar energy in production of formic acid from CO2.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh K; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Oh, Gyu Hwan; Park, No-Joong; Kong, Ki-jeong; Kim, Jinheung; Hwang, Dong Won; Biswas, Soumya K

    2012-07-18

    The photocatalyst-enzyme coupled system for artificial photosynthesis process is one of the most promising methods of solar energy conversion for the synthesis of organic chemicals or fuel. Here we report the synthesis of a novel graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst which covalently bonded the chromophore, such as multianthraquinone substituted porphyrin with the chemically converted graphene as a photocatalyst of the artificial photosynthesis system for an efficient photosynthetic production of formic acid from CO(2). The results not only show a benchmark example of the graphene-based material used as a photocatalyst in general artificial photosynthesis but also the benchmark example of the selective production system of solar chemicals/solar fuel directly from CO(2).

  6. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  7. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  8. Similarities of artificial photosystems by ruthenium oxo complexes and native water splitting systems

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Koji; Isobe, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2012-01-01

    The nature of chemical bonds of ruthenium(Ru)–quinine(Q) complexes, mononuclear [Ru(trpy)(3,5-t-Bu2Q)(OH2)](ClO4)2 (trpy = 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (1), and binuclear [Ru2(btpyan)(3,6-di-Bu2Q)2(OH2)]2+ (btpyan = 1,8-bis(2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyrid-4′-yl)anthracene, 3,6-t-Bu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (2), has been investigated by broken-symmetry (BS) hybrid density functional (DFT) methods. BS DFT computations for the Ru complexes have elucidated that the closed-shell structure (2b) Ru(II)–Q complex is less stable than the open-shell structure (2bb) consisting of Ru(III) and semiquinone (SQ) radical fragments. These computations have also elucidated eight different electronic and spin structures of tetraradical intermediates that may be generated in the course of water splitting reaction. The Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian model for these species has been derived to elucidate six different effective exchange interactions (J) for four spin systems. Six J values have been determined using total energies of the eight (or seven) BS solutions for different spin configurations. The natural orbital analyses of these BS DFT solutions have also been performed in order to obtain natural orbitals and their occupation numbers, which are useful for the lucid understanding of the nature of chemical bonds of the Ru complexes. Implications of the computational results are discussed in relation to the proposed reaction mechanisms of water splitting reaction in artificial photosynthesis systems and the similarity between artificial and native water splitting systems. PMID:22761310

  9. Use of Wearable Sensors and Biometric Variables in an Artificial Pancreas System

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Monforti, Colleen; Park, Minsun; Griffith, Garett; Quinn, Laurie; Cinar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    An artificial pancreas (AP) computes the optimal insulin dose to be infused through an insulin pump in people with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) based on information received from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. It has been recognized that exercise is a major challenge in the development of an AP system. The use of biometric physiological variables in an AP system may be beneficial for prevention of exercise-induced challenges and better glucose regulation. The goal of the present study is to find a correlation between biometric variables such as heart rate (HR), heat flux (HF), skin temperature (ST), near-body temperature (NBT), galvanic skin response (GSR), and energy expenditure (EE), 2D acceleration-mean of absolute difference (MAD) and changes in glucose concentrations during exercise via partial least squares (PLS) regression and variable importance in projection (VIP) in order to determine which variables would be most useful to include in a future artificial pancreas. PLS and VIP analyses were performed on data sets that included seven different types of exercises. Data were collected from 26 clinical experiments. Clinical results indicate ST to be the most consistently important (important for six out of seven tested exercises) variable over all different exercises tested. EE and HR are also found to be important variables over several types of exercise. We also found that the importance of GSR and NBT observed in our experiments might be related to stress and the effect of changes in environmental temperature on glucose concentrations. The use of the biometric measurements in an AP system may provide better control of glucose concentration. PMID:28272368

  10. Use of Wearable Sensors and Biometric Variables in an Artificial Pancreas System.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Monforti, Colleen; Park, Minsun; Griffith, Garett; Quinn, Laurie; Cinar, Ali

    2017-03-07

    An artificial pancreas (AP) computes the optimal insulin dose to be infused through an insulin pump in people with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) based on information received from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. It has been recognized that exercise is a major challenge in the development of an AP system. The use of biometric physiological variables in an AP system may be beneficial for prevention of exercise-induced challenges and better glucose regulation. The goal of the present study is to find a correlation between biometric variables such as heart rate (HR), heat flux (HF), skin temperature (ST), near-body temperature (NBT), galvanic skin response (GSR), and energy expenditure (EE), 2D acceleration-mean of absolute difference (MAD) and changes in glucose concentrations during exercise via partial least squares (PLS) regression and variable importance in projection (VIP) in order to determine which variables would be most useful to include in a future artificial pancreas. PLS and VIP analyses were performed on data sets that included seven different types of exercises. Data were collected from 26 clinical experiments. Clinical results indicate ST to be the most consistently important (important for six out of seven tested exercises) variable over all different exercises tested. EE and HR are also found to be important variables over several types of exercise. We also found that the importance of GSR and NBT observed in our experiments might be related to stress and the effect of changes in environmental temperature on glucose concentrations. The use of the biometric measurements in an AP system may provide better control of glucose concentration.

  11. Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

  12. Life in our Solar System and Beyond: Astrobiology in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, C. F.

    2001-12-01

    There is no broadly accepted definition of life, although spacecraft searches for extraterrestrial biology implicitly assume some operational definition. Most search strategies rapidly fall back on the idea of "life as we know it" based on a liquid water solvent, a suite of biogenic elements (most famously carbon) and a useful source of free energy. Searches for life within our solar system naturally focus on those objects that hold the prospect of liquid water, but we must also then consider the availability of biogenic elements and free energy sources on these worlds. Mars and Europa represent the most interesting venues, because of strong evidence for liquid water at the present time, but offer special challenges to biology as well. More exotic possibilities, for example life based on a liquid hydrocarbon solvent, will in effect begin to be explored with the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Decades of radio astronomical detection of interstellar molecules have provided an empirical probe into speculations about silicon-based life, as a rich interstellar carbon chemistry has been revealed without comparable silicon analogues. Beyond the solar system, searches for signs of life can be pursued in two ways: detection and spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets, and targeted or all-sky surveys for artificial electromagnetic signals. The current SETI Institute search, examining the thousand nearest Sun-like stars from 1 to 3 GHz, should soon (in 2004) be expanded through the completion of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). The ATA will demonstrate great reductions in the cost of constructing large radio telescopes (the ATA will have 1 hectare of collecting area, but be composed of over 350 6-meter dishes), and will permit the one hundred thousand to one million nearest Sun-like stars to be searched from 1 to 10 GHz over a period of about a decade. This research is supported in part by a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers and the NASA

  13. The Search for Life in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the origins of life on Earth and possibly elsewhere remains one of mankind's most important discoveries. Basic building blocks of life are widespread in planetary systems in our Milky Way and other galaxies. Extraterrestrial material delivered to young terrestrial planetary surfaces in the early history of our solar system through asteroids, comets and meteorites may have provided significant raw material for the emergence of life on Earth. Since August 2014 the comet rendezvous mission Rosetta has monitored the evolution of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its approach to the Sun and observed numerous volatiles and complex organic compounds on the comet surface. Several asteroid sample return missions as well as the improved analyses of key meteorites increase our knowledge about the organic inventory that seeded the young planets. Prokaryotic, anaerobic bacteria, which are approximately 3.5 billion years old, represent the first evidence for life on Earth. Since then, life has evolved to high complexity and adapted to nearly every explored environment on our planet. Extreme life on Earth has expanded the list of potentially habitable solar system environments. However, our neighbor planet Mars is the most promising target to search for life within our solar system. Data from the Curiosity rover show regions that were habitable in the past, traces of organic carbon and active CH_4 in the Martian atmosphere at present. Recent discoveries such as the plumes from the southern polar region of Enceladus and plume activity on Europa strengthen the long-standing hypothesis that moons in our solar system contain substantial bodies of water and are probably habitable. Since decades, a fleet of robotic space missions target planets, moons and small bodies to reveal clues on the origin of our solar system and life beyond Earth. This lecture will review and discuss past, current and future space missions investigating habitability and biosignatures in our

  14. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  15. Development of a Safeguard System Using an Episomal Mammalian Artificial Chromosome for Gene and Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Narumi; Uno, Katsuhiro; Komoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a safeguard system to remove tumorigenic cells would allow safer clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of patients with an intractable disease including genetic disorders. Such safeguard systems should not disrupt the host genome and should have long-term stability. Here, we attempted to develop a tumor-suppressing mammalian artificial chromosome containing a safeguard system that uses the immune rejection system against allogeneic tissue from the host. For proof-of-concept of the safeguard system, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells expressing the introduced H2-K(d) major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I)-allogenic haplotype were transplanted into recipient C57BL/6J mice expressing MHC H2-K(b). Subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 cells into C57BL/6J mice resulted in high tumorigenicity. The volume of tumors derived from B16F10 cells expressing allogenic MHC H2-K(d) was decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Suppression of MHC H2-K(d)-expressing tumors in C57BL/6J mice was enhanced by immunization with MHC H2-K(d)-expressing splenocytes (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the safeguard system is capable of suppressing tumor formation by the transplanted cells. PMID:26670279

  16. Systematically In Silico Comparison of Unihormonal and Bihormonal Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoteng; Ning, Huangjiang; Wang, Youqing

    2013-01-01

    Automated closed-loop control of blood glucose concentration is a daily challenge for type 1 diabetes mellitus, where insulin and glucagon are two critical hormones for glucose regulation. According to whether glucagon is included, all artificial pancreas (AP) systems can be divided into two types: unihormonal AP (infuse only insulin) and bihormonal AP (infuse both insulin and glucagon). Even though the bihormonal AP is widely considered a promising direction, related studies are very scarce due to this system's short research history. More importantly, there are few studies to compare these two kinds of AP systems fairly and systematically. In this paper, two switching rules, P-type and PD-type, were proposed to design the logic of orchestrates switching between insulin and glucagon subsystems, where the delivery rates of both insulin and glucagon were designed by using IMC-PID method. These proposed algorithms have been compared with an optimal unihormonal system on virtual type 1 diabetic subjects. The in silico results demonstrate that the proposed bihormonal AP systems have outstanding superiorities in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, smoothing the glucose level, and robustness with respect to insulin/glucagon sensitivity variations, compared with the optimal unihormonal AP system. PMID:24260042

  17. Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-08-21

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  18. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  19. A Clinical Support System Based on Quality of Life Estimation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Reis, Luis Paulo; Rocha, Álvaro

    2015-10-01

    Quality of life is a concept influenced by social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state factors. More specifically, the perceived quality of an individual's daily life is an assessment of their well-being or lack of it. In this context, information technologies may help on the management of services for healthcare of chronic patients such as estimating the patient quality of life and helping the medical staff to take appropriate measures to increase each patient quality of life. This paper describes a Quality of Life estimation system developed using information technologies and the application of data mining algorithms to access the information of clinical data of patients with cancer from Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck services of an oncology institution. The system was evaluated with a sample composed of 3013 patients. The results achieved show that there are variables that may be significant predictors for the Quality of Life of the patient: years of smoking (p value 0.049) and size of the tumor (p value < 0.001). In order to assign the variables to the classification of the quality of life the best accuracy was obtained by applying the John Platt's sequential minimal optimization algorithm for training a support vector classifier. In conclusion data mining techniques allow having access to patients additional information helping the physicians to be able to know the quality of life and produce a well-informed clinical decision.

  20. Survival test of submersible life support systems.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, L A; Ackles, K N; Cole, J D

    1977-04-01

    An experiment to validate predictions concerning submersible survivability was performed in December, 1975, by members of the Canadian Forces in the CF Submersible Lockout Vehicle SDL-1 in Halifax Harbour in water of 4 degrees C temperature at a depth of 40 ft. Data was collected relevant to the life support equipment to determine if it would operate for a simulated 6-h mission followed by a 24-h immobility period, at the end of which rescue was presumed to have occurred. Physiological data was collected from the submersible occupants in order to assess the degree of thermal stress experienced in this exercise. The experiment was terminated after a duration of approximately 25 h at 1 atm internal pressure due to exhaustion of two of the three on-board power supplies, causing the CO2 scrubbers to be inoperative and the CO2 content in the breathing gas to increase to toxic levels. Only two of the three submersible occupants experienced cold stress, one in the forward sphere and one in the aft sphere. At the end of 24 h, the core temperatures of both individuals had decreased by 0.5 degrees C and, during this time, skin temperatures, particularly of the extremities, had steadily and slowly decreased. Neither individual was hypothermic, but it was considered likely that after a 3-d exposure, at least two of the crew members would have had core temperatures of 35 degrees C or lower, assuming that CO2 poisoning had not occurred earlier.

  1. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life.

    PubMed

    Shock, E L

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

  2. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

  3. Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating

  4. A distributed optical fiber sensing system for dynamic strain measurement based on artificial reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenhong; Shan, Yuanyuan; Li, Yanting; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-10-01

    Phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) has been widely used in many applications for its distributed sensing ability on weak disturbance all along the sensing fiber. However, traditional Φ-OTDR cannot make quantitative measurement on the external disturbance due to the randomly distributed position and reflectivity of scatters within the optical fiber. Recently, some methods have been proposed to realize quantitative measurement of dynamic strain. In these literatures, the fiber with or without FBGs in practice was easily damaged and with difficulty of maintenance. PZT is employed to generate strain event in the fiber. There is a large gap compared with the real detecting environment, which will not reveal the full performance of the sensing system. In this paper, a distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) system for dynamic strain measurement based on artificial reflector is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The fiber under test (FUT) is composed by four 20-meter long single mode optical fiber patch cords (OFPCs), which are cascaded with ferrule contactor/physical contact (FC/PC) connectors via fiber flanges. The fiber facet of FC/PC connector forms an artificial reflector. When the interval between the two reflectors is changed, the phase of the interference signal will also be changed. A symmetric 3×3 coupler with table-look-up scheme is introduced to discriminate the phase change through interference intensity. In our experiment, the center 10m section of the second OFPC is attached to the bottom of an aluminum alloy plate. An ordinary loudspeaker box was located on the top of the aluminum alloy plate. The dynamic strain generated by the loudspeaker box is transmitted from the aluminum alloy plate to the OFPC. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a good frequency response characteristic up to 3.2 kHz and a linear intensity response of R2=0.9986 while the optical probe pulse width and repetition rate were 100ns

  5. Artificial hydrogenases: biohybrid and supramolecular systems for catalytic hydrogen production or uptake.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Giorgio; Roy, Souvik; Atta, Mohamed; Artero, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for cheap, abundant and efficient catalysts as an alternative to platinum for hydrogen production and oxidation in (photo)electrolyzers and fuel cells. Hydrogenases are attractive solutions. These enzymes use exclusively nickel and iron in their active sites and function with high catalytic rates at the thermodynamic equilibrium. As an alternative, a number of biomimetic and bioinspired catalysts for H2 production and/or uptake, based on Ni, Fe and Co, have been developed and shown to display encouraging performances. In this review we discuss specifically recent approaches aiming at incorporating these compounds within oligomeric and polymeric hosts. The latter are most often biological compounds (peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) but we also discuss non-biological scaffolds (synthetic polymers, Metal-organic-Frameworks, etc.) which can provide the appropriate environment to tune the activity and stability of the synthetic catalysts. These supramolecular catalytic systems thus define a class of original compounds so-called artificial hydrogenases.

  6. Spectral pattern recognition of controlled substances in street samples using artificial neural network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Aleksejev, Valeri; Babichenko, Sergey M.; Ivkina, Tatjana

    2011-04-01

    The NarTest fluorescent technique is aimed at the detection of analyte of interest in street samples by recognition of its specific spectral patterns in 3-dimentional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS) measured with NTX2000 analyzer without chromatographic or other separation of controlled substances from a mixture with cutting agents. The illicit drugs have their own characteristic SFS features which can be used for detection and identification of narcotics, however typical street sample consists of a mixture with cutting agents: adulterants and diluents. Many of them interfere the spectral shape of SFS. The expert system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been developed and applied for such pattern recognition in SFS of street samples of illicit drugs.

  7. A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie

    1989-01-01

    Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

  8. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  9. Learning ensembles of neural networks by means of a Bayesian artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Castro, Pablo A Dalbem; Von Zuben, Fernando José

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we apply an immune-inspired approach to design ensembles of heterogeneous neural networks for classification problems. Our proposal, called Bayesian artificial immune system, is an estimation of distribution algorithm that replaces the traditional mutation and cloning operators with a probabilistic model, more specifically a Bayesian network, representing the joint distribution of promising solutions. Among the additional attributes provided by the Bayesian framework inserted into an immune-inspired search algorithm are the automatic control of the population size along the search and the inherent ability to promote and preserve diversity among the candidate solutions. Both are attributes generally absent from alternative estimation of distribution algorithms, and both were shown to be useful attributes when implementing the generation and selection of components of the ensemble, thus leading to high-performance classifiers. Several aspects of the design are illustrated in practical applications, including a comparative analysis with other attempts to synthesize ensembles.

  10. Design and implementation of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system for artificial leg control.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Robert; Yang, Qing; Huang, He; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a new neural-machine-interface (NMI) for control of artificial legs. The requirements of high accuracy, real-time processing, low power consumption, and mobility of the NMI place great challenges on the computation engine of the system. By utilizing the architectural features of a mobile embedded CPU, we are able to implement our decision-making algorithm, based on neuromuscular phase-dependant support vector machines (SVM), with exceptional accuracy and processing speed. To demonstrate the superiority of our NMI, real-time experiments were performed on an able bodied subject with a 20 ms window increment. The 20 ms testing yielded accuracies of 99.94% while executing our algorithm efficiently with less than 11% processor loads.

  11. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  12. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  13. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  14. Muscle contracture emulating system for studying artificially induced pathological gait in intact individuals.

    PubMed

    Olensek, Andrej; Matjacic, Zlatko; Bajd, Tadej

    2005-11-01

    When studying pathological gait it is important to correctly identify primary gait anomalies originating from damage to the central nervous and musculoskeletal system and separate them from compensatory changes of gait pattern, which is often challenging due to the lack of knowledge related to biomechanics of pathological gait. A mechanical system consisting of specially designed trousers, special shoe arrangement, and elastic ropes attached to selected locations on the trousers and shoes is proposed to allow emulation of muscle contractures of soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles and both SOL-GAS. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gait variability as recorded in normal gait and when being constrained with the proposed system. Six neurologically and orthopedically intact volunteers walked along a 7-m walkway while gait kinematics and kinetics were recorded using VICON motion analysis system and two AMTI forceplates. Statistical analysis of coefficient of variation of kinematics and kinetics as recorded in normal walking and during the most constrained SOL-GAS condition showed comparable gait variability. Inspection of resulting group averaged gait patterns revealed considerable resemblance to a selected clinical example of spastic diplegia, indicating that the proposed mechanical system potentially represents a novel method for studying emulated pathological gait arising from artificially induced muscle contractures in neurologically intact individuals.

  15. Use of kernel functions in artificial immune systems for the nonlinear classification problems.

    PubMed

    Ozşen, Seral; Güneş, Salih; Kara, Sadik; Latifoğlu, Fatma

    2009-07-01

    Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune systems (AISs) that solve nonlinear problems, there is a need to develop nonlinear AIS approaches that would be among the well-known solution methods. In this study, we developed a kernel-based AIS to compensate for this deficiency by providing a nonlinear structure via transformation of distance calculations in the clonal selection models of classical AIS to kernel space. Applications of the developed system were conducted on Statlog heart disease dataset, which was taken from the University of California, Irvine Machine-Learning Repository, and on Doppler sonograms to diagnose atherosclerosis disease. The system obtained a classification accuracy of 85.93% for the Statlog heart disease dataset, while it achieved a 99.09% classification success for the Doppler dataset. With these results, our system seems to be a potential solution method, and it may be considered as a suitable method for hard nonlinear classification problems.

  16. Is artificial recharge promoting microbial activity and biodegradation processes in groundwater systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Ferrer, Carme; Folch, Albert; Gaju, Núria; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Carrasquilla, Marc; Grau-Martínez, Alba; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) represents a strategic tool for managing water resources, especially during scarce periods. On one hand, it can increase water stored in aquifers and extract it when weather conditions do not permit exclusive exploitation of surface resources. On the other, it allows improve water quality due the processes occurring into the soil whereas water crosses vadose zone. Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) conurbation is suffering significant quantitative and qualitative groundwater disturbances. For this reason, Sant Vicenç MAR system, constituted by a sedimentation and an infiltration pond, was constructed in 2009 as the strategic water management infrastructure. Compared with other MAR facilities, this infiltration pond has a reactive bed formed by organic compost and local material. The objective is to promote different redox states allowing more and different degradation of chemical compounds than regular MAR systems. In previous studies in the site, physical and hydrochemical parameters demonstrated that there was indeed a degradation of different pollutants. However, to go a step further understanding the different biogeochemical processes and the related degradation processes occurring in the system, we studied the existing microbial communities. So, molecular techniques were applied in water and soil samples in two different scenarios; the first one, when the system was fully operating and the second when the system was not operating during some months. We have specifically compared microbial diversity and richness indexes and both cluster dendrograms obtained from DGGEs analysis made in each sampling campaign.

  17. [Current status of the use of the artificial heart and ventricular assist systems].

    PubMed

    Urbaszek, W; Schmitz, K P; Emmrich, K; Klinkmann, H

    1989-11-01

    The state of the technical development of the mechanical assist systems and the artificial heart, respectively, guarantees a sufficient support of the circulatory system up to the improvement of the own heart function or to the possible heart transplantation. There is the necessity for the temporarily limited support of the heart, but also for the long-term one. Independent of the underlying etiology in acute conditions of cardiac failure in many cases the external supporting system may be sufficiently helpful. The antithrombotic therapy and the prophylaxis of infections demands particular carefulness. There is still no representable release for the long-term use of the hitherto available cardiovascular supporting systems. The question is controversial, whether then an experiment on patients or an already accepted therapeutic intervention is still taken into consideration. Essential prerequisites for the long-term use would be a full implantability of the systems in transcutaneous energy transmission, a further biologization of the blood-contacting materials, a clarification of the immune phenomena, a possibly automatic mode of action adapted to the need as well as a reliable strategy of antithrombotic therapy. The increased risk of infection should be taken into consideration.

  18. Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for every possible contingency seems daunting, but with teamwork and some help from the government, it's almost do-able. There is a great system out there that will help business professionals and educators develop a strong, effective emergency preparedness plan. If they haven't done a good job of implementing a solid emergency response…

  19. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  20. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  1. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years.

  2. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  3. Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous System)

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C; Zimliki, Charles L; Stevens, LCDR Alan; Beaston, Patricia; Pinkos, Arleen; Choe, Sally Y; Arreaza-Rubín, Guillermo; Heetderks, William

    2011-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health presented a public workshop to facilitate medical device innovation in the development of the artificial pancreas (or autonomous system) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus on November 10, 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss four aspects of artificial pancreas research and development, including: (1) the current state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus; (2) challenges in developing this expert device system using existing technology; (3) clinical expectations for these systems; and (4) development plans for the transition of this device system toward an outpatient setting. The patients discussed how clinical science, system components, and regulatory policies will all need to harmonize in order to achieve the goal of seeing an AP product brought forward to the marketplace for patients to use. PMID:21722597

  4. The nanotechnology of life-inspired systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2016-07-01

    For some decades now, nanotechnology has been touted as the 'next big thing' with potential impact comparable to the steam, electricity or Internet revolutions -- but has it lived up to these expectations? While advances in top-down nanolithography, now reaching 10-nm resolution, have resulted in devices that are rapidly approaching mass production, attempts to produce nanoscale devices using bottom-up approaches have met with only limited success. We have been inundated with nanoparticles of almost any shape, material and composition, but their societal impact has been far from revolutionary, with growing concerns over their toxicity. Despite nebulous hopes that making hierarchical nanomaterials will lead to new, emergent properties, no breakthrough applications seem imminent. In this Perspective, we argue that the time is ripe to look beyond individual nano-objects and their static assemblies, and instead focus on systems comprising different types of 'nanoparts' interacting and/or communicating with one another to perform desired functions. Such systems are interesting for a variety of reasons: they can act autonomously without external electrical or optical connections, can be dynamic and reconfigurable, and can act as 'nanomachines' by directing the flow of mass, energy or information . In thinking how this systems nanoscience approach could be implemented to design useful -- as opposed to toy-model -- nanosystems, our choice of applications and our nanoengineering should be inspired by living matter.

  5. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  6. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  7. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  8. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  9. Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Averner, M. M. (Editor); Tibbits, T. W. (Editor); Bugbee, B. B. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Dunlop, E. H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  11. Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

  12. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  13. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  14. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  15. Long life high reliability thermal control systems study data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Carpitella, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The development of thermal control systems with high reliability and long service life is discussed. Various passive and semi-active thermal control systems which have been installed on space vehicles are described. The properties of the various coatings are presented in tabular form.

  16. Artificial Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Algorithms as a systems biology approach to a data-base on fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Street, Maria E; Buscema, Massimo; Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Grossi, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    One of the specific aims of systems biology is to model and discover properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning. A systems biology approach was undertaken to investigate possibly the entire system of intra-uterine growth we had available, to assess the variables of interest, discriminate those which were effectively related with appropriate or restricted intrauterine growth, and achieve an understanding of the systems in these two conditions. The Artificial Adaptive Systems, which include Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Algorithms lead us to the first analyses. These analyses identified the importance of the biochemical variables IL-6, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 protein concentrations in placental lysates, and offered a new insight into placental markers of fetal growth within the IGF and cytokine systems, confirmed they had relationships and offered a critical assessment of studies previously performed.

  17. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  18. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  19. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  20. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  1. An Investigation of the Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Recurrent and feedforward artificial neural networks are developed as wavefront reconstructors. The recurrent neural network studied is the Hopfield...input features are just the wavefront sensor slope outputs. Both artificial neural networks use their inputs to calculate deformable mirror actuator commands. The effects of training are examined.

  2. DiAs User Interface: A Patient-Centric Interface for Mobile Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Guerlain, Stephanie; Mize, Benton; Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Khan, Momin; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent in-hospital studies of artificial pancreas (AP) systems have shown promising results in improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The next logical step in AP development is to conduct transitional outpatient clinical trials with a mobile system that is controlled by the patient. In this article, we present the user interface (UI) of the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), an experimental smartphone-based mobile AP system, and describe the reactions of a round of focus groups to the UI. This work is an initial inquiry involving a relatively small number of potential users, many of whom had never seen an AP system before, and the results should be understood in that light. Methods We began by considering how the UI of an AP system could be designed to make use of the familiar touch-based graphical UI of a consumer smartphone. After developing a working prototype UI, we enlisted a human factors specialist to perform a heuristic expert analysis. Next we conducted a formative evaluation of the UI through a series of three focus groups with N = 13 potential end users as participants. The UI was modified based upon the results of these studies, and the resulting DiAs system was used in transitional outpatient AP studies of adults in the United States and Europe. Results The DiAs UI was modified based on focus group feedback from potential users. The DiAs was subsequently used in JDRF- and AP@Home-sponsored transitional outpatient AP studies in the United States and Europe by 40 subjects for 2400 h with no adverse events. Conclusions Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are able to control an AP system successfully using a patient-centric UI on a commercial smartphone in a transitional outpatient environment. PMID:24351168

  3. Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

  4. Artificial-vision stereo system as a source of visual information for preventing the collision of vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Machtovoi, I.A.

    1994-10-01

    This paper explains the principle of automatically determining the position of extended and point objects in 2-D space of recognizing them by means of an artificial-vision stereo system from the measured coordinates of conjugate points in stereo pairs, and also analyzes methods of identifying these points.

  5. A Short Version of SIS (Support Intensity Scale): The Utility of the Application of Artificial Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomiero, Tiziano; Croce, Luigi; Grossi, Enzo; Luc, De Vreese; Buscema, Massimo; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a shortened version of the SIS (support intensity scale) obtained by the application of mathematical models and instruments, adopting special algorithms based on the most recent developments in artificial adaptive systems. All the variables of SIS applied to 1,052 subjects with ID (intellectual disabilities)…

  6. Influence of cadmium on life-history characteristics of Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Crommentuijn, T.; Brils, J.; Van Straalen, N.M. )

    1993-10-01

    To understand the consequences of soil pollution on higher levels of biological organization, the chain of effects of cadmium on several interrelated responses was studied in a chronic toxicity experiment using the collembolan species Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil. The individual parameters survival, growth, and number of offspring were determined after different time intervals up to 9 weeks. The accumulation of cadmium in springtails and the population increase during the experimental period were also determined. By combining all the mentioned parameters and their development in time, a detailed picture of the action of cadmium on F. candida was obtained. In order of decreasing sensitivity the EC50 values for Von Bertalanffy growth, number of offspring, population increase, and survival were 256, > 326, 475, and 850 micrograms Cd/g dry soil, respectively. The ultimate LC50 value and also the equilibrium body burden were reached after about 20 days. Reproduction started later because of retarded growth, but was not affected directly and eventually reached the control level. The results are discussed in light of the seemingly contradictory ideas of Halbach (1984, Hydrobiologia 109, 79-96) and Meyer et al. (1987, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 115-126) about the sensitivity of individual and population parameters. It appears to be very important to know how individual parameters develop in time so that the most sensitive parameter and the consequences for higher levels of biological organization can be determined.

  7. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  8. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pieck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  9. Classification of Physical Activity: Information to Artificial Pancreas Control Systems in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C; Cinar, Ali

    2015-10-06

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise.

  10. A multilayer perceptron solution to the match phase problem in rule-based artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartori, Michael A.; Passino, Kevin M.; Antsaklis, Panos J.

    1992-01-01

    In rule-based AI planning, expert, and learning systems, it is often the case that the left-hand-sides of the rules must be repeatedly compared to the contents of some 'working memory'. The traditional approach to solve such a 'match phase problem' for production systems is to use the Rete Match Algorithm. Here, a new technique using a multilayer perceptron, a particular artificial neural network model, is presented to solve the match phase problem for rule-based AI systems. A syntax for premise formulas (i.e., the left-hand-sides of the rules) is defined, and working memory is specified. From this, it is shown how to construct a multilayer perceptron that finds all of the rules which can be executed for the current situation in working memory. The complexity of the constructed multilayer perceptron is derived in terms of the maximum number of nodes and the required number of layers. A method for reducing the number of layers to at most three is also presented.

  11. Biological model of vision for an artificial system that learns to perceive its environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, M.R.; Nguyen, H.G.

    1989-06-01

    The objective is to design an artificial vision system for use in robotics applications. Because the desired performance is equivalent to that achieved by nature, the authors anticipate that the objective will be accomplished most efficiently through modeling aspects of the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the biological visual system. Information enters the biological visual system through the retina and is passed to the lateral geniculate and optic tectum. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) also receives information from the cerebral cortex and the result of these two inflows is returned to the cortex. The optic tectum likewise receives the retinal information in a context of other converging signals and organizes motor responses. A computer algorithm is described which implements models of the biological visual mechanisms of the retina, thalamic lateral geniculate and perigeniculate nuclei, and primary visual cortex. Motion and pattern analyses are performed in parallel and interact in the cortex to construct perceptions. We hypothesize that motion reflexes serve as unconditioned pathways for the learning and recall of pattern information. The algorithm demonstrates this conditioning through a learning function approximating heterosynaptic facilitation.

  12. Optimal Design of Litz Wire Coils With Sandwich Structure Wirelessly Powering an Artificial Anal Sphincter System.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoyang

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) is widely used to energize implantable biomedical devices. As a key part of the TETS, a pair of applicable coils with low losses, high unloaded Q factor, and strong coupling is required to realize an efficient TETS. This article presents an optimal design methodology of planar litz wire coils sandwiched between two ferrite substrates wirelessly powering a novel mechanical artificial anal sphincter system for treating severe fecal incontinence, with focus on the main parameters of the coils such as the wire diameter, number of turns, geometry, and the properties of the ferrite substrate. The theoretical basis of optimal power transfer efficiency in an inductive link was analyzed. A set of analytical expressions are outlined to calculate the winding resistance of a litz wire coil on ferrite substrate, taking into account eddy-current losses, including conduction losses and induction losses. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductance are derived. The influence of ferrite substrate relative permeability and dimensions is also considered. We have used this foundation to devise an applicable coil design method that starts with a set of realistic constraints and ends with the optimal coil pair geometries. All theoretical predictions are verified with measurements using different types of fabricated coils. The results indicate that the analysis is useful for optimizing the geometry design of windings and the ferrite substrate in a sandwich structure as part of which, in addition to providing design insight, allows speeding up the system efficiency-optimizing design process.

  13. Nano-sized layered Mn oxides as promising and biomimetic water oxidizing catalysts for water splitting in artificial photosynthetic systems.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Heidari, Sima; Amini, Emad; Khatamian, Masoumeh; Carpentier, Robert; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-04-05

    One challenge in artificial photosynthetic systems is the development of artificial model compounds to oxidize water. The water-oxidizing complex of Photosystem II which is responsible for biological water oxidation contains a cluster of four Mn ions bridged by five oxygen atoms. Layered Mn oxides as efficient, stable, low cost, environmentally friendly and easy to use, synthesize, and manufacture compounds could be considered as functional and structural models for the site. Because of the related structure of these Mn oxides and the catalytic centre of the active site of the water oxidizing complex of Photosystem II, the study of layered Mn oxides may also help to understand more about the mechanism of water oxidation by the natural site. This review provides an overview of the current status of layered Mn oxides in artificial photosynthesis and discuss the sophisticated design strategies for Mn oxides as water oxidizing catalysts.

  14. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  15. How to Establish a Bioregenerative Life Support System for Long-Term Crewed Missions to the Moon or Mars.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuming; Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Wang, Mingjuan; Jia, Boyang; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Yingying; Deng, Shengda; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Bojie; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014. The results show that environmental conditions as well as the gas balance between O2 and CO2 in the system were well maintained during the 105-day experiment. A total of 21 plant species in this system kept a harmonious coexistent relationship, and 20.5% nitrogen recovery from urine, 41% solid waste degradation, and a small amount of insect in situ production were achieved. During the 105-day experiment, oxygen and water were recycled, and 55% of the food was regenerated. Key Words: Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS)-Space agriculture-Space life support-Waste recycle-Water recycle. Astrobiology 16, 925-936.

  16. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  17. Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1994-11-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  18. Life support systems research at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The bioregenerative life support systems research at Johnson Space Center focuses on the use of lunar regolith as a plant growth medium. Current dissolution experiments are being conducted to ascertain the response of lunar regolith to various solvents and weathering environments. The transformation of lunar minerals into minerals such as zeolites which would be more conducive to plant growth is also investigated. A study is currently underway to examine the ability of zeolite/apatite mixtures to provide N, P, and K through dissolution and ion exchange. The development and characterization of simulated lunar regolith for preliminary experimentation are also discussed. The life support systems technology used on the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle missions is reviewed and current research on regenerative life support systems technology for potential use in Space Station Freedom is discussed.

  19. Regenerative life support systems - why do we need them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As missions durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  20. Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

  1. Response of life-history traits to artificial and natural selection for virulence and nonvirulence in a Drosophila parastitoid, Asobara tabida.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Joffrey; van Baaren, Joan; Poyet, Mathilde; Couty, Aude; Eslin, Patrice; Prévost, Geneviève; Séguin, Jérémy; Le Roux, Vincent

    2016-12-12

    Co-evolution of host-parasitoid interactions is determined by the costs of host resistance, which received empirical evidence, and the costs of parasitoid virulence, which have been mostly hypothesized. Asobara tabida is a parasitoid, which mainly parasitizes Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura, the first species being able to resist to the parasitoid development while the second species is not. To parasitize resistant hosts, including D. melanogaster, A. tabida develops sticky eggs, which prevent encapsulation, but this virulence mechanism may be costly. Interindividual and interpopulation variation in the proportion of sticky eggs respectively allowed us to (i) artificially select and compare life-history traits of a virulent and a nonvirulent laboratory strain, and (ii) compare a virulent and a nonvirulent field strain, to investigate the hypothetical costs of virulence. We observed strong differences between the 2 laboratory strains. The nonvirulent strain invested fewer resources in reproduction and walked less than the virulent one but lived longer. Concerning the field strains, we observed that the nonvirulent strain had larger wings while the virulent one walked more and faster. All together, our results suggest that virulence may not always be costly, but rather that different life histories associated with different levels of virulence may coexist at both intra- and interpopulation levels.

  2. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  3. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Research and Development Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of a workshop designed to provide a base for initiating a program of research and development of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are summarized. Included are an evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development, and a discussion of development requirements for a successful ground based CELSS demonstration. Research recommendations are presented concerning the following topics: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modelling, and ecology-systems safety.

  4. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  5. Thermal Conductivity Prediction of Soil in Complex Plant Soil System using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardani, A. K.; Purqon, A.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is one of thermal properties of soil in seed germination and plants growth. Different soil types have different thermal conductivity. One of soft-computing promising method to predict thermal conductivity of soil types is Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In this study, we estimate the thermal conductivity of soil prediction in a soil-plant complex systems using ANN. With a feed-forward multilayer trained with back-propagation with 4, 10 and 1 on the input, hidden and output layers respectively. Our input are heating time, temperature and thermal resistance with thermal conductivity of soil as a target. ANN prediction demonstrates a good agreement with Mean Squared Error-testing (MSEte) of 9.56 x 10-7 for soils with green beans and those of bare soils is 7.00 × 10-7 respectively Green beans grow only on black-clay soil with a thermal conductivity of 0.7 W/m K with a sufficient water content. Our results demonstrate that temperature, moisture content, colour, texture and structure of soil are greatly affect to the thermal conductivity of soil in seed germination and plant growth. In future, it is potentially applied to estimate more complex compositions of plant-soil systems.

  6. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Mauro; Manzoni, Luca; Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge.

  7. An application of artificial immune recognition system for prediction of diabetes following gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Chun; Su, Chao-Ton; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease prevalent in population and is not easily perceived in its initial stage but may sway a patient very seriously in later stage. In accordance with the estimation of World Health Organization (WHO), there will be 370 million diabetics which are 5.4% of the global people in 2030, so it becomes more and more important to predict whether a pregnant woman has or is likely to acquire diabetes. This study is conducted with the use of the machine learning-Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS)-to assist doctors in predicting pregnant women who have premonition of type 2 diabetes. AIRS is proposed by Andrew Watkins in 2001 and it makes use of the metaphor of the vertebrate immune system to recognize antigens, select clone, and memorize cells. Additionally, AIRS includes a mechanism, limited resource, to restrain the number of memory cells from increasing uncontrollably. It has also showed positive results on problems in which it was applied. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility in using AIRS to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subsequent DM. The dataset of diabetes has imbalanced data, but the overall classification recall could still reach 62.8%, which is better than the traditional method, logistic regression, and the technique which is thought as one of the powerful classification approaches, support vector machines (SVM).

  8. An Artificial Intelligence System to Predict Quality of Service in Banking Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Popovič, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Quality of service, that is, the waiting time that customers must endure in order to receive a service, is a critical performance aspect in private and public service organizations. Providing good service quality is particularly important in highly competitive sectors where similar services exist. In this paper, focusing on banking sector, we propose an artificial intelligence system for building a model for the prediction of service quality. While the traditional approach used for building analytical models relies on theories and assumptions about the problem at hand, we propose a novel approach for learning models from actual data. Thus, the proposed approach is not biased by the knowledge that experts may have about the problem, but it is completely based on the available data. The system is based on a recently defined variant of genetic programming that allows practitioners to include the concept of semantics in the search process. This will have beneficial effects on the search process and will produce analytical models that are based only on the data and not on domain-dependent knowledge. PMID:27313604

  9. Design and assessment of novel artificial anal sphincter with adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the in vitro assessment of a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) with an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) for treatment of severe faecal incontinence (FI). The proposed adaptive TETS has a phase control, which can maintain the output voltage at ∼7 V across the full range of the coupling coefficient variation (from 0.09-0.31) during the whole process of charging with a phase shift of 177.5° to 79.1°. A maximum surface temperature of 42.2 °C was measured above the secondary coil during an energy transmission of 3.5 W in air. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density analysis of the biological three-layers structure, including the skin, fat and muscle) surrounding the coil pair were analysed and the results of simulation analysis showed that the value of SAR and current density were very small at any given transmission condition compared with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In conclusion, in vitro experimental results showed that the ES-AASS can control simulated faecal behaviour effectively and the performance of TETS was validated.

  10. The application of artificial intelligence in the optimal design of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteralski, A.; Szczepanik, M.

    2016-11-01

    The paper is devoted to new computational techniques in mechanical optimization where one tries to study, model, analyze and optimize very complex phenomena, for which more precise scientific tools of the past were incapable of giving low cost and complete solution. Soft computing methods differ from conventional (hard) computing in that, unlike hard computing, they are tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty, partial truth and approximation. The paper deals with an application of the bio-inspired methods, like the evolutionary algorithms (EA), the artificial immune systems (AIS) and the particle swarm optimizers (PSO) to optimization problems. Structures considered in this work are analyzed by the finite element method (FEM), the boundary element method (BEM) and by the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). The bio-inspired methods are applied to optimize shape, topology and material properties of 2D, 3D and coupled 2D/3D structures, to optimize the termomechanical structures, to optimize parameters of composites structures modeled by the FEM, to optimize the elastic vibrating systems to identify the material constants for piezoelectric materials modeled by the BEM and to identify parameters in acoustics problem modeled by the MFS.

  11. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete ‘click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66±0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014±0.001 and a reset time of ∼400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing. PMID:27453153

  12. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  13. Development and testing of a prototype reflex measurement system employing artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Busch, A C; Scheffer, C; Basson, A H

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the development, testing and performance evaluation of a patellar tendon reflex measurement system to provide a quantitative reflex evaluation for use by medical practitioners and in a telemedicine or E-medicine environment. A prototype was developed that makes use of XSens MTx orientation sensors, force-sensitive resistors and an electromyogram to measure the reflex response. Suitable parameters from the sensors were identified for analysis, and clinical testing was performed on 20 subjects to collect data to evaluate the system's performance. Subjective reflex evaluations were conducted by three medical doctors according to a standard reflex grading scale using video recordings of the tests. Multi-layer feed-forward (MLFF) artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to analyze the collected data with the aim of pattern identification and reflex grading prediction. It was found that the MLFF network delivered the corresponding reflex grading with an accuracy of 85%, which was of the same order as the rate of differences between the subjective reflex evaluations performed by the doctors (80%). The use of ANNs to analyze a reflex measurement offers a repeatable and concise representation of the reflex that is familiar to doctors and can be developed for use in a general clinical setting or for telemedicine purposes.

  14. Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

    2012-02-04

    Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5.

  15. Development of data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave for implantable artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Hiroto; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to minimize infection risks of patients with artificial hearts, wireless data transmission methods with electromagnetic induction or light have been developed. However, these methods tend to become difficult to transmit data if the external data transmission unit moves from its proper position. To resolve this serious problem, the purpose of this study is to develop a prototype wireless data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave and confirm its performance. Due to its high-speed communication rate, low power consumption, high tolerance to electromagnetic disturbances, and secure wireless communication, we adopted Bluetooth radio wave technology for our system. The system consists of an internal data transmission unit and an external data transmission unit (53 by 64 by 16 mm, each), and each has a Bluetooth module (radio field intensity: 4 dBm, receiver sensitivity: -80 dBm). The internal unit also has a micro controller with an 8-channel 10-bit A/D converter, and the external unit also has a RS-232C converter. We experimented with the internal unit implanted into pig meat, and carried out data transmission tests to evaluate the performance of this system in tissue thickness of up to 3 mm. As a result, data transfer speeds of about 20 kbps were achieved within the communication distance of 10 m. In conclusion, we confirmed that the system can wirelessly transmit the data from the inside of the body to the outside, and it promises to resolve unstable data transmission due to accidental movements of an external data transmission unit.

  16. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if

  17. Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space.

    PubMed

    Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space.

  18. Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space

    PubMed Central

    Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

  19. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  20. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    PubMed

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  1. The search for life in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, N. H.

    1976-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life in the solar system is reviewed in the light of present knowledge about the physical state of the planets. Arguing that all life in the universe is based on carbon chemistry, the carbon abundance in the solar system is discussed along with the composition of the planets, the presence of organic compounds (particularly amino acids) in meteorites, and the existence of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. Prospects for life in the solar system are evaluated by eliminating most of the bodies as potential biological habitats on the basis of temperature and lack of an atmosphere. Bodies eliminated in this manner include the moon, most of the other satellites, Mercury, Venus, the asteroids, and the giant planets. It is shown that the outlook for life on Titan is uncertain, but that Mars fulfills the minimum conditions for a life-bearing planet. Theories on the Martian surface environment are reviewed, the problem of the lack of water on Mars is examined, and the possibility of climatic changes is considered. The Viking mission is briefly noted.

  2. Ocean acidification increases copper toxicity to the early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina in artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna L; Mangan, Stephanie; Ellis, Robert P; Lewis, Ceri

    2014-08-19

    The speciation and therefore bioavailability of the common pollutant copper is predicted to increase within the pH range anticipated under near-future ocean acidification (OA), hence the potential exists for copper toxicity to marine organisms to also increase. We investigated the impact of OA (seawater pH values of 7.77 (pCO2 1400 μatm) and 7.47 (pCO2 3000 μatm)) upon copper toxicity responses in early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina and found both synergistic and additive toxicity effects of combined exposures depending on life history stage. The toxicity of copper on sperm DNA damage and early larval survivorship was synergistically increased under OA conditions. Larval survival was reduced by 24% when exposed to both OA and copper combined compared to single OA or copper exposures. Sperm motility was negatively affected by both OA and copper singularly with additive toxicity effects of the two stressors when combined. Fertilization success was also negatively affected by both OA and copper individually, but no additive effects when exposed as combined stressors were present for this stage. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that OA will act to increase the toxicity of copper to marine organisms, which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic metal pollution as pCO2 levels rise and drive a reduction in seawater pH.

  3. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system.

  4. A closed life-support system for space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

  5. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  8. Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.

    PubMed

    Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

    1994-01-01

    A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000.

  9. Performance evaluation of a reverse-gradient artificial recharge system in basalt aquifers of Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Drinking water scarcity in rural parts of central India in basaltic terrain is common. Most of the rural population depends on groundwater sources located in the fractured and weathered zone of the basaltic aquifers. Long-term indiscriminate withdrawal has caused an alarming rate of depletion of groundwater levels in both pre- and post-monsoon periods. The aquifer is not replenished through precipitation under natural conditions. To overcome this situation, an innovative artificial recharge system, called the reverse-gradient recharge system (RGRS), was implemented in seven villages of Wardha district of Maharashtra. The study described here presents a comparative analysis of recharge systems constructed in the year 2012 downstream of dug-well locations in these seven villages. The post-project comparative analysis reveals that the area of influence (AOI) of the groundwater recharge system, within which increases in groundwater levels and yield are observed, is directly related to the specific yield, thickness of the weathered and fractured zone, porosity, and transmissivity of the aquifer, showing high correlation coefficients of 0.92, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.83, respectively. The study indicates that the RGRS is most effective in vesicular weathered and fractured basalt, recording a maximum increase in well yield of 65-82 m3/day, while a minimum increase in yield of 15-30 m3/day was observed in weathered vesicular basalt. The comparative analysis thus identifies the controlling factors which facilitate groundwater recharge through the proposed RGRS. After implementation of these projects, the groundwater availability in these villages increased significantly, solving their drinking water problems.

  10. Implantable control, telemetry, and solar energy system in the moving actuator type total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J M; Lee, J H; Choi, S W; Kim, W E; Omn, K S; Park, S K; Kim, W G; Roh, J R; Min, B G

    1998-03-01

    The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital signal processor (DSP). These improvements include the implantability of all electronics, an automatic control algorithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon solar system (SS). The implantable electronics consist of the motor drive, main processor, intelligent Li ion battery management (LIBM) based upon the DSP, telemetry system, and transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system. Major changes in the implantable electronics include decreasing the temperature rise by over 21 degrees C on the motor drive, volume reduction (40 x 55 x 33 mm, 7 cell assembly) of the battery pack using a Li ion (3.6 V/cell, 900 mA.h), and improvement of the battery run-time (over 40 min) while providing the cardiac output (CO) of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg afterload when the external battery for testing is connected with the SS (2.5 W, 192.192, 1 kg) for the external battery recharge or the partial TAH drive. The phase locked loop (PLL) based telemetry system was implemented to improve stability and the error correction DSP algorithm programmed to achieve high accuracy. A field focused light emitting diode (LED) was used to obtain low light scattering along the propagation path, similar to the optical property of the laser and miniature sized, mounted on the pancake type TET coils. The TET operating resonance frequency was self tuned in a range of 360 to 410 kHz to provide enough power even at high afterloads. An automatic cardiac output regulation algorithm was developed based on interventricular pressure analysis and carried out in several animal experiments successfully. All electronics have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and prepared for implantation of the TAH. Substantial progress has been made in designing a completely implantable TAH at the preclinical stage.

  11. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  12. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  13. Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

  14. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  15. An artificial ecosystem model used in the study of social, economic and technological dynamics: An artificial electrical energy market

    SciTech Connect

    Arjona, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper will present the artificial ecosystem as a tool, in the development of multi agent models for the simulation of economic and technological dynamics (as well as other possible applications). This tool is based on the mechanics of an artificial society and consists of autonomous artificial agents that interact with individuals that have different characteristics and behavior and other that have a similar conduct to their own. Initial conditions are assumed not to be controllable, however they can be influenced. The importance of the concept of the ecosystem is in understanding great units in the light of their own components which are relevant for the analysis and become interdependent among themselves and with other essential components that hold the total operation of the system. Ideas for the development of a simulation model based on autonomous intelligent agents are presented. These agents will have a brain that is based on artificial intelligence technologies. The Sand Kings Simulation Model, an artificial ecosystem model developed by the author, is described as well as the application of artificial intelligence to this artificial life model. An application to a real life problem is also offered as an artificial energy market that is currently being developed by the author is described.

  16. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  18. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  19. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  20. Impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization on the carbon cycle and climate in Earth system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Miriam Ferrer; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2016-06-01

    Using the state-of-the-art emissions-driven Max Planck Institute Earth system model, we explore the impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) with a scenario based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) framework. Addition of 114 Pmol of alkalinity to the surface ocean stabilizes atmospheric CO2 concentration to RCP4.5 levels under RCP8.5 emissions. This scenario removes 940 GtC from the atmosphere and mitigates 1.5 K of global warming within this century. The climate adjusts to the lower CO2 concentration preventing the loss of sea ice and high sea level rise. Seawater pH and the carbonate saturation state (Ω) rise substantially above levels of the current decade. Pronounced differences in regional sensitivities to AOA are projected, with the Arctic Ocean and tropical oceans emerging as hot spots for biogeochemical changes induced by AOA. Thus, the CO2 mitigation potential of AOA comes at a price of an unprecedented ocean biogeochemistry perturbation with unknown ecological consequences.