Science.gov

Sample records for artificial nanostructures fabrication

  1. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  2. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Josh B.; Dick, Don D.; McDonnell, Stephen J.; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H. G.; Owen, William R.; Alexander, Justin D.; Jaeger, David L.; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J.; Wallace, Robert M.; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M.; Randall, John N.; Von Ehr, James

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure. PMID:26274555

  3. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  4. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  5. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R.; Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R.; Woo, S. H.; Park, S. H.

    2014-06-09

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  6. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  7. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  8. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  9. Particle Lithography Enables Fabrication of Multicomponent Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-feng; Swartz, Logan A.; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent nanostructures with individual geometries have attracted much attention because of their potential to carry out multiple functions synergistically. The current work reports a simple method using particle lithography to fabricate multicomponent nanostructures of metals, proteins, and organosiloxane molecules, each with its own geometry. Particle lithography is well-known for its capability to produce arrays of triangular-shaped nanostructures with novel optical properties. This paper extends the capability of particle lithography by combining a particle template in conjunction with surface chemistry to produce multicomponent nanostructures. The advantages and limitations of this approach will also be addressed. PMID:24707328

  10. Graphene oxide nanostructures modified multifunctional cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Navaneethaiyer, Umasuthan; Mohan, Rajneesh; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2012-06-01

    Surface modification of cotton fabrics using graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures was reported. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations revealed that the GO nanostructure was coated onto the cotton fabric. The molecular level interaction between the graphene oxide and the cotton fabric is studied in detail using the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GO loaded cotton fabrics have enhanced thermal stability compared to the bare cotton fabrics. The photocatalytic activity of the GO-coated cotton fabrics was investigated by measuring the photoreduction of resazurin (RZ) into resorufin (RF) under UV light irradiation. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the results indicated that the GO-coated cotton fabrics are more toxic towards the Gram-positive ones. Our results provide a way to develop graphene oxide-based devices for the biomedical applications for improving health care.

  11. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Seals, Roland D.; Morrell, Jonathan S.

    2009-11-24

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  12. Metallic glass nanostructures: fabrication, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianci; Hasan, Molla; Kumar, Golden

    2014-02-21

    Remarkable progress has been made in fabrication and characterization of metal nanostructures because of their crucial role in energy conversion, nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and biodiagnostics. Less emphasis has been placed on the synthesis of nanostructures from metallic alloys, which are better suited than elemental metals for certain applications such as fuel-cell catalysts. The main challenges in fabrication of alloy nanostructures are controlling their chemical stoichiometry, crystal structures, and shapes because of anisotropic nucleation and growth rates. These limitations can be overcome by using metallic glasses (amorphous metal alloys) which are isotropic and provide additional control handles through their tunable compositions and degree of crystallinity. Here, we review the recent developments in fabrication and characterization of metallic glass (MG) nanostructures. The focus is on sub-micron structures synthesized by unconventional thermoplastic techniques. A concept of self-assembly is introduced for fashioning functional structures using MG nanostructures as building blocks. The article concludes with a brief discussion about unique properties and prospective applications of MG nanostructures.

  13. In vivo cloning of artificial DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chenxiang; Rinker, Sherri; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Seeman, Nadrian C; Yan, Hao

    2008-11-18

    Mimicking nature is both a key goal and a difficult challenge for the scientific enterprise. DNA, well known as the genetic-information carrier in nature, can be replicated efficiently in living cells. Today, despite the dramatic evolution of DNA nanotechnology, a versatile method that replicates artificial DNA nanostructures with complex secondary structures remains an appealing target. Previous success in replicating DNA nanostructures enzymatically in vitro suggests that a possible solution could be cloning these nanostructures by using viruses. Here, we report a system where a single-stranded DNA nanostructure (Holliday junction or paranemic cross-over DNA) is inserted into a phagemid, transformed into XL1-Blue cells and amplified in vivo in the presence of helper phages. High copy numbers of cloned nanostructures can be obtained readily by using standard molecular biology techniques. Correct replication is verified by a number of assays including nondenaturing PAGE, Ferguson analysis, endonuclease VII digestion, and hydroxyl radical autofootprinting. The simplicity, efficiency, and fidelity of nature are fully reflected in this system. UV-induced psoralen cross-linking is used to probe the secondary structure of the inserted junction in infected cells. Our data suggest the possible formation of the immobile four-arm junction in vivo.

  14. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  15. Fabrication of complex metallic nanostructures by nanoskiving.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiaobing; Rioux, Robert M; Whitesides, George M

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the use of nanoskiving to fabricate complex metallic nanostructures by sectioning polymer slabs containing small, embedded metal structures. This method begins with the deposition of thin metallic films on an epoxy substrate by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. After embedding the thin metallic film in an epoxy matrix, sectioning (in a plane perpendicular or parallel to the metal film) with an ultramicrotome generates sections (which can be as thin as 50 nm) of epoxy containing metallic nanostructures. The cross-sectional dimensions of the metal wires embedded in the resulting thin epoxy sections are controlled by the thickness of the evaporated metal film (which can be as small as 20 nm) and the thickness of the sections cut by the ultramicrotome; this work uses a standard 45 degrees diamond knife and routinely generates slabs 50 nm thick. The embedded nanostructures can be transferred to, and positioned on, planar or curved substrates by manipulating the thin polymer film. Removal of the epoxy matrix by etching with an oxygen plasma generates free-standing metallic nanostructures. Nanoskiving can fabricate complex nanostructures that are difficult or impossible to achieve by other methods of nanofabrication. These include multilayer structures, structures on curved surfaces, structures that span gaps, structures in less familiar materials, structures with high aspect ratios, and large-area structures comprising two-dimensional periodic arrays. This paper illustrates one class of application of these nanostructures: frequency-selective surfaces at mid-IR wavelengths.

  16. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  17. Controllable fabrication of copper phthalocyanine nanostructure crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Xiao, Si; Huang, Wenglong; Tao, Shaohua; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2015-06-05

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructure crystals, including nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire, were controllably fabricated by temperature gradient physical vapor deposition (TG-PVD) through controlling the growth parameters. In a controllable growth system with carrier gas N2, nanoflower, nanoribbon, and nanowire crystals were formed in a high-temperature zone, medium-temperature zone, and low-temperature zone, respectively. They were proved to be β-phase, coexist of α-phase and β-phase, and α-phase respectively based on x-ray diffraction results. Furthermore, ultralong CuPc nanowires up to several millimeters could be fabricated by TG-PVD without carrier gas, and they were well-aligned to form large-area CuPc nanowire crystal arrays by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. The nanostructure crystals showed unusual optical absorption spectra from the ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared range, which was explained by the diffraction and scattering caused by the wavelength-sized nanostructures. These CuPc nanostructure crystals show potential applications in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2006-09-21

    A review is provided covering metal plasma production, theenergetic condensation of metal plasmas, and the formation ofnanostructures using such plasmas. Plasma production techniques includepulsed laser ablation, filtered cathodic arcs, and various forms ofionized physical vapor deposition, namely magnetron sputtering withionization of sputtered atoms in radio frequency discharges,self-sputtering, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Thediscussion of energetic condensation focuses on the control of kineticenergy by biasing and also includes considerations of the potentialenergy and the processes occurring at subplantation and implantation. Inthe final section on nanostructures, two different approaches arediscussed. In the top-down approach, the primary nanostructures arelithographically produced and metal plasma is used to coat or filltrenches and vias. Additionally, multilayers with nanosize periods(nanolaminates) can be produced. In the bottom-up approach, thermodynamicforces are used to fabricate nanocomposites and nanoporous materials bydecomposition and dealloying.

  19. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidic Control.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Tsukahara, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    In the field of micro- and nanofluidics, various kinds of novel devices have been developed. For such devices, not only fluidic control but also surface control of micro/nano channels is essential. Recently, fluidic control by hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have attracted much attention. However, conventional fabrication methods of nanostructures require complicated steps, and integration of the nanostructures into micro/nano channels makes fabrication procedures even more difficult and complicated. In the present study, a simple and easy fabrication method of nanostructures integrated into microchannels was developed. Various sizes of nanostructures were successfully fabricated by changing the plasma etching time and etching with a basic solution. Furthermore, it proved possible to construct highly hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces that could effectively control the fluid in microchannels at designed pressures. We believe that the fabrication method developed here and the results obtained are valuable contributions towards further applications in the field of micro- and nanofluidics.

  20. Fabrication of nanostructures and nanostructure based interfaces for biosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Devesh

    Nanoparticles have applications from electronics, composites, drug-delivery, imaging and sensors etc. Fabricating and controlling shape and size of nanoparticles and also controlling the positioning of these particles in 1, 2 or 3-d structures is of most interest. The underlying theme of this study is to develop simple and efficient techniques to fabricate nanoparticles from polymers, and also achieve control in shape, size and functionalization of nanoparticles, while applying them in biosensor applications. First part of the dissertation studies the fabrication of nanostructures using anodized alumina membrane as template. It discusses the fabrication design for injecting polystyrene nanoparticles inside the pores of anodized alumina membranes and heating the membrane to coalesce the particles into tapered nanoparticles. Various parameters like temperature and amount of injected particles can vary the size and shape of fabricated nanoparticles. Later it focuses on the fabrication of metallic nanostructures using the alumina membranes without the aid of the injection system. It utilizes the difference in the functionality of the pore edges of cleaved alumina membrane with respect to the pore walls to first deposit charged polymers using layer-by-layer deposition followed by deposition of nickel. Second part of this study involves immobilization of enzymes for biosensor applications. It describes a biosensor interface developed by immobilization of tyrosinase using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition process. The interface was modified with functional nanoparticles and their influence on the response of biosensor was studied. Tyrosinase sensor was further extended to develop a novel biosensor which was used to study real time inhibition of NEST, a subunit of the medically relevant membrane protein, neuropathy target esterase. The biosensor was developed to give real time monitoring of dose dependent decrease in activity of NEST. Final part of this study emphasizes on

  1. Boron Nitride Nanostructures: Fabrication, Functionalization and Applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Li, Jidong; Hang, Yang; Yu, Jin; Tai, Guoan; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Zhuhua; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-06-01

    Boron nitride (BN) structures are featured by their excellent thermal and chemical stability and unique electronic and optical properties. However, the lack of controlled synthesis of quality samples and the electrically insulating property largely prevent realizing the full potential of BN nanostructures. A comprehensive overview of the current status of the synthesis of two-dimensional hexagonal BN sheets, three dimensional porous hexagonal BN materials and BN-involved heterostructures is provided, highlighting the advantages of different synthetic methods. In addition, structural characterization, functionalizations and prospective applications of hexagonal BN sheets are intensively discussed. One-dimensional BN nanoribbons and nanotubes are then discussed in terms of structure, fabrication and functionality. In particular, the existing routes in pursuit of tunable electronic and magnetic properties in various BN structures are surveyed, calling upon synergetic experimental and theoretical efforts to address the challenges for pioneering the applications of BN into functional devices. Finally, the progress in BN superstructures and novel B/N nanostructures is also briefly introduced.

  2. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  3. Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-11

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0033 Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing Maria Farsari...abricated Direct Laser Writing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8655-13-1-3048 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Maria Farsari 5d...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18   1 Metamaterial 3D Gain Nanostructures Fabricated Using Direct Laser Writing EOARD

  4. Laser Fabricated Nanostructures on Vanadium Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, B.; Fuele, M.; Nanai, L.; Balint, A. M.

    2011-10-03

    In this work we present our results concerning to the nanostructure generation on vanadium surfaces by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation. The melting free formation of these structures is very important in many fields of science and industry too. We obtain that the nanostructure forming process on vanadium surface is Stransky Krastanov type. The surface covering and the nano-tower shape are depending on the ambient of the laser matter reaction.

  5. Large-scale fabrication of ordered metallic hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wei, X; Jiang, K

    2008-08-04

    A low-cost and high-throughput method for the fabrication of large-area ordered hybrid metallic nanostructure arrays is presented. Each structure unit is a nanobowl with a hexagonal distributed pillar array upon it. A self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene (PS) nanospheres is used as a template. After thermal evaporation, electroforming and removal of the nanospheres and the conductive layer, ordered arrays of hybrid nickel nanostructures have been fabricated. Both nanobowl arrays and pillar arrays exhibit uniform sizes. Smooth interior surfaces were observed in the nanobowl arrays. The geometry of the structure can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the conductive layer. The approach presented in this paper can be extended to fabricate ordered hybrid nanostructures of a wide range of metals and alloys with controlled size.

  6. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Gurbatov, Stanislav; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Simple high-performance, two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique, a thin noble-metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a single tightly focused nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depend on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. Plasmonic properties of the fabricated nanostructures were characterized by dark-field micro-spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence measurements performed on single nanofeatures, as well as by supporting numerical calculations of the related electromagnetic near-fields and Purcell factors. The developed simple two-stage technique represents a new step towards direct large-scale laser-induced fabrication of highly ordered arrays of complex plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26776569

  7. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Gurbatov, Stanislav; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Simple high-performance, two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique, a thin noble-metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a single tightly focused nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depend on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. Plasmonic properties of the fabricated nanostructures were characterized by dark-field micro-spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence measurements performed on single nanofeatures, as well as by supporting numerical calculations of the related electromagnetic near-fields and Purcell factors. The developed simple two-stage technique represents a new step towards direct large-scale laser-induced fabrication of highly ordered arrays of complex plasmonic nanostructures.

  8. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Gurbatov, Stanislav; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2016-01-18

    Simple high-performance, two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique, a thin noble-metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a single tightly focused nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar(+)) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar(+)-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depend on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar(+)-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. Plasmonic properties of the fabricated nanostructures were characterized by dark-field micro-spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence measurements performed on single nanofeatures, as well as by supporting numerical calculations of the related electromagnetic near-fields and Purcell factors. The developed simple two-stage technique represents a new step towards direct large-scale laser-induced fabrication of highly ordered arrays of complex plasmonic nanostructures.

  9. Fabrication of nanostructured electrodes and interfaces using combustion CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    Reducing fabrication and operation costs while maintaining high performance is a major consideration for the design of a new generation of solid-state ionic devices such as fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. The objective of this research is to fabricate nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion, particularly porous electrodes with nanostructured features for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and high surface area films for gas sensing using a combustion CVD process. This research started with the evaluation of the most important deposition parameters: deposition temperature, deposition time, precursor concentration, and substrate. With the optimum deposition parameters, highly porous and nanostructured electrodes for low-temperature SOFCs have been then fabricated. Further, nanostructured and functionally graded La0.8Sr0.2MnO2-La 0.8SrCoO3-Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 composite cathodes were fabricated on YSZ electrolyte supports. Extremely low interfacial polarization resistances (i.e. 0.43 Ocm2 at 700°C) and high power densities (i.e. 481 mW/cm2 at 800°C) were generated at operating temperature range of 600°C--850°C. The original combustion CVD process is modified to directly employ solid ceramic powder instead of clear solution for fabrication of porous electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells. Solid particles of SOFC electrode materials suspended in an organic solvent were burned in a combustion flame, depositing a porous cathode on an anode supported electrolyte. Combustion CVD was also employed to fabricate highly porous and nanostructured SnO2 thin film gas sensors with Pt interdigitated electrodes. The as-prepared SnO2 gas sensors were tested for ethanol vapor sensing behavior in the temperature range of 200--500°C and showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of response. Moreover, several novel nanostructures were synthesized using a combustion CVD process, including SnO2 nanotubes with square-shaped or rectangular cross sections, well

  10. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  11. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application.

    PubMed

    Mehrvar, L; Hajihoseini, H; Mahmoodi, H; Tavassoli, S H; Fathipour, M; Mohseni, S M

    2017-08-04

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 10(5), as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 10(7), a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  12. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrvar, L.; Hajihoseini, H.; Mahmoodi, H.; Tavassoli, S. H.; Fathipour, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 105, as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 107, a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of ordered arrays of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Preston

    2005-11-01

    Nanostructures are currently of great interest because of their unique properties and potential applications in a wide range of areas such as opto-electronic and biomedical devices. Current research in nanotechnology involves fabrication and characterization of these structures, as well as theoretical and experimental studies to explore their unique and novel properties. Not only do nanostructures have the potential to be both evolutionary (state-of-the-art ICs have more and more features on the nanoscale) but revolutionary (quantum computing) as well. In this thesis, a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches is explored to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostrucutures. The bottom-up approach involves the growth of self-organized porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. AAO films consist of a well ordered hexagonal array of close-packed pores with diameters and spacings ranging from around 5 to 500 nm. Via a top-down approach, these AAO films are then used as masks or templates to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostructures (i.e. dots, holes, meshes, pillars, rings, etc.) of various materials using conventional deposition and/or etching techniques. Using AAO films as masks allows a simple and economical method to fabricate arrays of structures with nano-scale dimensions. Furthermore, they allow the fabrication of large areas (many millimeters on a side) of highly uniform and well-ordered arrays of nanostructures, a crucial requirement for most characterization techniques and applications. Characterization of these nanostructures using various techniques (electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, capacitance-voltage measurements, magnetization hysteresis curves, etc.) will be presented. Finally, these structures provide a unique opportunity to determine the single and collective properties of nanostructure arrays and will have various future applications including but not limited to: data storage, light

  14. Fabrication of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric for wearable device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyarasan, V.; Suhasini, S.; Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hayakawa, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric (CF) s a flexible material for an application of wearable thermoelectric (TE) power generator which requires super-hydrophobicity, UV protection, and high TE efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the formed ZnO nanostructures have a mixture of nanorods and nanosheets and are uniformly coated on the CF. XRD pattern and Raman spectra revealed that the ZnO nanostructure has a wurtzite structure. Contact angle measurements showed that the ZnO-nanostructures-coated CF possessed a high super hydrophobic nature with an angle of 132.5°. ZnO nanocomposite/CF sample exhibited an excellent UV protection factor 183.84. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power factor of the ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric were evaluated to be 28 μV/K, 0.04 Ω-cm, and 22 μW/m K2, respectively.

  15. Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xueyong; Chen, Xianzhong; Jiang, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure-patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.

  16. Fabrication routes for one-dimensional nanostructures via block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-05-01

    Nanotechnology is the field which deals with fabrication of materials with dimensions in the nanometer range by manipulating atoms and molecules. Various synthesis routes exist for the one, two and three dimensional nanostructures. Recent advancements in nanotechnology have enabled the usage of block copolymers for the synthesis of such nanostructures. Block copolymers are versatile polymers with unique properties and come in many types and shapes. Their properties are highly dependent on the blocks of the copolymers, thus allowing easy tunability of its properties. This review briefly focusses on the use of block copolymers for synthesizing one-dimensional nanostructures especially nanowires, nanorods, nanoribbons and nanofibers. Template based, lithographic, and solution based approaches are common approaches in the synthesis of nanowires, nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanofibers. Synthesis of metal, metal oxides, metal oxalates, polymer, and graphene one dimensional nanostructures using block copolymers have been discussed as well.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of carbon doped molybdenum oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wisitsoraat, A; Tuantranont, A; Patthanasettakul, V; Lomas, T

    2009-02-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) nanostructure has gained considerable attention because of its low-cost fabrication by low-temperature evaporation/condensation technique and its promising properties for applications in the field of catalysts and chemical sensors. However, MoOx has some inferior properties including very high electrical resistivity and instability at elevated temperature. These properties may be improved by means of foreign atom addition into its nanostructure. In this work, we develop a simple mean for doping of MoOx nanostructures by introduction of gas source dopant during evaporation. Carbon doped MoOx nanostructures have been synthesized by MoOx powder evaporation in Argon/Acetylene mixture with varying process parameters. Depending on growth conditions, various nanostructures including, nanorod, nanoplate, nanodots, can be formed with different dimensions and doping concentrations. Structural characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the MoOx based nanostructures are highly crystalline and carbon dopant is successfully incorporated in the structure with controllable concentration. Electrical characterization shows that the electrical conductivity of molybdenum oxide nanostructures can be increased by several orders of magnitude with carbon incorporation.

  18. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. Nanostructures design and fabrication for magnetic storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong

    The advent of nanofabrication technology offers capabilities in patterning materials and modifying the magnetic properties. The focus of this research is to design and fabricate magnetic nanostructures and understand the magnetic behavior modified by nanostructures, to generate new devices for magnetic storage applications. First, novel techniques have been successfully developed to fabricate nanostructures with different shapes and dimensions below the resolution limit of photolithography tool. Anisotropic nanostructures, diamonds and triangles, have been obtained by over-exposure technique; nano-rings, both centered and de-centered, have been obtained by lateral etch technique and ALD spacer mask technique. All these techniques are simple and use conventional photolithography. Large area, high density nanostructures have been obtained at low cost. Second, anisotropic nanostructures have been characterized correlated with simulation to understand the shape anisotropy effect on magnetic behavior. Coercivity change and angular dependent behavior result from pinning the magnet by the nanostructures and these have been explored. Dimensions of nanostructure also play an important role in changing the magnetic properties. Third, nano-rings have been characterized correlated with simulation to study the magnetic state switching process. Various dimensions of rings have been compared and have revealed that the vortex state in rings is affected by the dimensions of inner diameter, width and thickness. The shape anisotropy and magnetostatic energy play an important role in vortex state formation and maintenance. The interaction effect in ring array has also been explored for high density MRAM design application. Fourth, feasible design and fabrication of de-centered rings have been developed for vortex chirality control. The asymmetry in the de-centered rings controls the movement direction of the domain walls, leading to predictable vortex chirality. Finally, future

  20. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar,; Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  1. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  2. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2010-11-16

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  3. Highly efficient and controllable method to fabricate ultrafine metallic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hongbing; Zhang, Kun; Pan, Nan E-mail: xpwang@ustc.edu.cn; Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping E-mail: xpwang@ustc.edu.cn; Yu, Xinxin; Tian, Yangchao

    2015-11-15

    We report a highly efficient, controllable and scalable method to fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures in this paper. The method starts with the negative poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resist pattern with line-width superior to 20 nm, which is obtained from overexposing of the conventionally positive PMMA under a low energy electron beam. The pattern is further shrunk to sub-10 nm line-width through reactive ion etching. Using the patter as a mask, we can fabricate various ultrafine metallic nanostructures with the line-width even less than 10 nm. This ion tailored mask lithography (ITML) method enriches the top-down fabrication strategy and provides potential opportunity for studying quantum effects in a variety of materials.

  4. Nanostructured magnetic films of iron oxides fabricated by laser electrodispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melekh, B. T.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Yavsin, D. A.; Kozhevin, V. M.; Gurevich, S. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Volkov, M. P.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Pevtsov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured FeO films with an average nanoparticle size of the order of 6-10 nm were fabricated by laser electrodispersion. Annealing at T = 300°C in vacuum resulted in the disproportionation of FeO particles into Fe3O4 and α-Fe, while the films exhibited a marked crystal orientation (texture with the [111] axis). The coercive force and the saturation magnetization of the synthesized nanostructured Fe3O4/α-Fe films were as large as 660 Oe and 520 emu/cm3, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the corresponding parameters of polycrystalline Fe3O4 films.

  5. Fabrication of gold nanostructures through pulsed laser interference patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Dajun Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2013-11-25

    In this Letter, we report on the experimental development and computational modeling of a simple, one-step method for the fabrication of diverse 2D and 3D periodic nanostructures derived from gold films on silicon substrates and over areas spanning 1 cm{sup 2}. These nanostructures can be patterned on films of thickness ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm with pulsed interfering laser beams. A finite volume-based inhomogeneous multiphase model of the process shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally obtained topographies and provides insights on the flow physics including normal and radial expansion that results in peeling of film from the substrate.

  6. Fabrication of nanostructures using MBE and MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahopelto, J.; Lipsanen, H. K.; Sopanen, M.; Koljonen, T.; Tuomi, T.; Airaksinen, V. M.; Sinkkonen, J.; Sirén, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two different fabrication techniques to obtain nanometer scale structures without the use of lithography are demonstrated. Quantum dots are made on GaAs by growing strained InP islands by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Quantum confinement of carriers is achieved by the growth of quantum wells on the InP islands. Molecular beam epitaxy is used for the fabrication of a gold island mask on GaAs. Reactive ion etching through the gold mask produces a high density of GaAs columns with diameters down to 20 nm.

  7. Fabrication of tunable plasmonic 3D nanostructures for SERS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Ayse; Yuksel, Handan; Solmaz, Ramazan; Kahraman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique used for characterization of biological and nonbiological molecules and structures. Since plasmonic properties of the nanomaterials is one of the most important factor influencing SERS activity, tunable plasmonic properties (wavelength of the surface plasmons and magnitude of the electromagnetic field generated on the surface) of SERS substrates are crucial in SERS studies. SERS enhancement can be maximized by controlling of plasmonic properties of the nanomaterials. In this study, a novel approach to fabricate tunable plasmonic 3D nanostructures based on combination of soft lithography and nanosphere lithography is studied. Spherical latex particles having different diameters are uniformly deposited on glass slides with convective assembly method. The experimental parameters for the convective assembly are optimized by changing of latex spheres concentration, stage velocity and latex particles volume placed between to two glass slides that staying with a certain angle to each other. Afterwards, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is poured on the deposited latex particles and cured to obtain nanovoids on the PDMS surfaces. The diameter and depth of the nanovoids on the PDMS surface are controlled by the size of the latex particles. Finally, fabricated nanovoid template on the PDMS surfaces are filled with the silver coating to obtain plasmonic 3D nanostructures. Characterization of the fabricated surfaces is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SERS performance of fabricated 3D plasmonic nanostructures will be evaluated using Raman reporter molecules.

  8. On the design and fabrication of nanostructures and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei

    Nanotechnology is emerging into a new frontier in science and technology with potential impact on every aspect of human life. One of the major breakthroughs in today's nanotechnology is the discovery and preparation of new classes of nanomaterials and nanostructures. A large number of nanomaterials and nanostructures are synthesized and characterized with either new or profoundly enhanced properties or phenomena. However, there are several major challenges ahead need to be overcome before any substantial benefits can be brought to the market. One of the challenges that we need to address today is how to effectively integrate useful nanomaterials and nanostrucrures into functional devices and systems. Our mother nature gives us a classic example of how living organisms are built. Starting from a single cell, through its division and growth, it can self-assemble and become functional tissues and organs. Similar self-assemble approach has been adopted as a nano-fabrication technique to assemble nanomaterials and nanostructures into functional nanodevices. This technique has advantages of high precision and nanometer scale resolution. However, it requires a lot of effort to construct a single device and since the properties of individual nanostructures can be different, the fabricated devices may have different properties. In this dissertation, we design and fabricate nanostructures and devices using novel microfabrication techniques. In the first part of the dissertation, the design and fabrication of a variety of nanostructures, such as metal nanowires array, polymer nanowells, and nanostructured surfaces are discussed. In the second part, carbon nanotubes as a novel material has been explored as an example to demonstrate the integration of nanomaterials with novel microfabrication techniques to form a functional device. First, a resistive heating technique is developed to grow carbon nanotubes in localized regions, such as a nichrome heating coil. Then, MEMS micro

  9. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilkoy, F.; Flauraud, V.; Rüegg, M.; Kim, B. J.; Brugger, J.

    2016-02-01

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au.

  10. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Yesilkoy, F; Flauraud, V; Rüegg, M; Kim, B J; Brugger, J

    2016-03-07

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Guo, Hongxuan; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a) inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b) insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs) as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD): There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications. PMID:27826499

  12. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sharali; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Guo, Hongxuan; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a) inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b) insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs) as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD): There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  13. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing. PMID:27977775

  14. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  15. Pulsed photonic fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Briley B.; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian C.; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2017-09-01

    Nanostructured metal oxide thin films with a large specific surface area are preferable for practical device applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report instantaneous (milliseconds) photonic synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured metal oxide thin films through the pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis of organometallic precursor films made by chemical solution deposition. High wall-plug efficiency-pulsed photonic irradiation (xenon flash lamp, pulse width of 1.93 ms, fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 and frequency of 1.2 Hz) is used for scalable photonic processing. The photothermal effect of subsequent pulses rapidly improves the crystalline quality of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films in minutes. The following paper highlights pulsed photonic fabrication of 3-D nanostructured TiO2, Co3O4, and Fe2O3 thin films, exemplifying a promising new method for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxide thin films for energy applications.

  16. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructures by liquid plasma for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponraj, Sri Balaji; Dai, Xiujuan Jane; Li, Luhua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Surya Narayanan, Jayanth; Kanwar, Jagat; Du Plessis, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Liquid plasma, generated by a nanosecond pulsed generator at atmospheric pressure, was used to treat bamboo-like boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). It was observed that the length of the BNNTs was reduced and found more cup like structures called boron nitride nanocups (BNNCs). Interestingly, a new peak appeared at 406.86 eV in the N1s X-ray photoelectron spectrum, which seems to be attributable to the oxidation of nitrogen (N-O) in BNNTs. The C1s spectrum showed that oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the BNNT/BNNC surface. The liquid plasma was also used to assemble gold nanoparticles onto the treated BNNTs/BNNCs. This hybrid nanostructure was fabricated efficiently, compared with normal equilibrium conditions. The pH values and conductivity of all samples were measured. After plasma treatment, the pH values were greatly reduced and conductivity was significantly increased. We propose that the plasma acid, hydrogen peroxide, OH-, H ions and radicals formed in liquid plasma as well as the pulsed electric field contribute to the oxidation of nitrogen, reduced length of the BNNTs(forming BNNCs), surface functionalization, and to the fabrication of hybrid nanostructure. The cytotoxic tests for these hybrid nanostructures is underway. The authors acknowledge Rosey van Driel and Prabhukumar Sellamuthu for assisting with TEM and SEM, and the access of the XPS facility at RMIT University.

  17. Helical metallic micro- and nanostructures: fabrication and application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lichun; Zhang, Liqiu; Kim, Sang Min; Park, Sungho

    2014-08-21

    Metal elements occupy more than 70% of the positions in the periodic table, and their use has accelerated human civilization due to their invaluable chemical and physical characteristics. With the rapid development of metals, various structures of microscopic metal particles have been fabricated and investigated as functional materials in scientific research and practical applications. The phrase 'structure determines properties' has been widely acknowledged as a golden rule in chemistry and materials science, especially when the size of small particles is in the micro- or nanoscale dimension. Helical metallic micro- and nanostructures with complex shapes have recently emerged and may be used for various useful applications such as photonics, sensors, actuators, micro-/nanorobotics, and micro-/nanoelectronics, based on their unique mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic properties. This review paper specifically focuses on the fabrication and application of helical metallic structures with a size ranging from the micro- to nanoscale. The unusual spatial distribution of active atoms in helical metallic micro- and nanostructures and their helical morphology could offer new opportunities for applications beyond those of other conventional metallic and nonmetallic micro- and nanostructures.

  18. Helical metallic micro- and nanostructures: fabrication and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lichun; Zhang, Liqiu; Kim, Sang Min; Park, Sungho

    2014-07-01

    Metal elements occupy more than 70% of the positions in the periodic table, and their use has accelerated human civilization due to their invaluable chemical and physical characteristics. With the rapid development of metals, various structures of microscopic metal particles have been fabricated and investigated as functional materials in scientific research and practical applications. The phrase `structure determines properties' has been widely acknowledged as a golden rule in chemistry and materials science, especially when the size of small particles is in the micro- or nanoscale dimension. Helical metallic micro- and nanostructures with complex shapes have recently emerged and may be used for various useful applications such as photonics, sensors, actuators, micro-/nanorobotics, and micro-/nanoelectronics, based on their unique mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic properties. This review paper specifically focuses on the fabrication and application of helical metallic structures with a size ranging from the micro- to nanoscale. The unusual spatial distribution of active atoms in helical metallic micro- and nanostructures and their helical morphology could offer new opportunities for applications beyond those of other conventional metallic and nonmetallic micro- and nanostructures.

  19. Utilizing laser interference lithography to fabricate hierarchical optical active nanostructures inspired by the blue Morpho butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Radwanul H.; Faisal, Abrar; Hünig, Ruben; Bartels, Carolin; Wacker, Irene; Lemmer, Uli; Hoelscher, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The famous non-iridescent blue of the Morpho butter by is caused by a `Christmas tree' like nanostructure which is a challenge for common fabrication techniques. Here, we introduce a method to fabricate this complex morphology utilizing dual beam interference lithography. We add a reflective coating below the photoresist to create a second interference pattern in vertical direction by exploiting the back reflection from the substrate. This vertical pattern exposes the lamella structure into the photosensitive polymer while the horizontal interference pattern determines the distance of the ridges. The photosensitive polymer is chosen accordingly to create the Christmas tree' like tapered shape. The resulting artificial Morpho replica shows brilliant non-iridescent blue up to an incident angle of 40. Its optical properties are close to the original Morpho structure because the refractive index of the polymer is close to chitin. Moreover, the biomimetic surface is water repellent with a contact angle of 110.

  20. Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using Nanosphere Photolithography

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Large area periodic nanostructures exhibit unique optical and electronic properties and have found many applications, such as photonic band-gap materials, high dense data storage, and photonic devices. We have developed a maskless photolithography method—Nanosphere Photolithography (NSP)—to produce a large area of uniform nanopatterns in the photoresist utilizing the silica micro-spheres to focus UV light. Here, we will extend the idea to fabricate metallic nanostructures using the NSP method. We produced large areas of periodic uniform nanohole array perforated in different metallic films, such as gold and aluminum. The diameters of these nanoholes are much smaller than the wavelength of UV light used and they are very uniformly distributed. The method introduced here inherently has both the advantages of photolithography and self-assembled methods. Besides, it also generates very uniform repetitive nanopatterns because the focused beam waist is almost unchanged with different sphere sizes.

  1. Fabrication of a wearable fabric tactile sensor produced by artificial hollow fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ogura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Sato, Kazuo

    2008-08-01

    An artificial-hollow-fiber structure as a new material for MEMS was developed and applied to a novel type of fabric tactile sensor. The artificial hollow fiber was fabricated by uniformly deposited metal and insulation layers on the surface of an elastic tube. A special rotating mechanism for uniformly depositing a metal layer on the tube surface during sputtering was developed. A rectangular-shaped fabric tactile sensor was produced by combining artificial hollow fibers and typical cotton yarns, like a cloth. The sensor can detect a contact force by measuring changes in capacitance at all intersection points of the artificial hollow fibers. Two different types of wearable-tactile-sensor glove, a patched type and a direct knit type, were also fabricated, and it was confirmed that both types can detect a normal load by measuring the capacitance change.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of one dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chun

    In this thesis, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphologies, defects and alignment have been fabricated by a simple vapor transfer method. The crystal structures, interfaces, growth mechanisms and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Great efforts have been devoted to the patterned growth and assembly of ZnO nanostructures as well as the stability of ZnO nanowires (NWs). Using carbonized photoresists, a simple and very effective method has been developed for fabricating and patterning high-quality ZnO NW arrays. ZnO NWs from this method show excellent alignment, crystal quality, and optical properties that are independent of the substrates. The carbonized photoresists provide perfect nucleation sites for the growth of aligned ZnO NWs and also perfectly connect to the NWs to form ideal electrodes. This approach is further extended to realize large area growth of different forms of ZnO NW arrays (e.g., the horizontal growth and multilayered ZnO NW arrays) on other kinds of carbon-based materials. In addition, the as-synthesized vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays show a low weighted reflectance (Rw) and can be used as antireflection coatings. Moreover, non c-axis growth of 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanochains, nanobrushes and nanobelts) and defect related 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., Y-shaped twinned nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures decorated by flowers induced by screw dislocations) is also present. Using direct oxidization of pure Zn at high temperatures in air, uniformed ZnO NWs and tetrapods have been fabricated. The spatially-resolved PL study on these two kinds of nanostructures suggests that the defects leading to the green luminescence (GL) should originate from the structural changes along the legs of the tetrapods. Surface defects in these ZnO nanostructures play an unimportant

  3. Artificial bacterial flagella: Fabrication and magnetic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Abbott, Jake J.; Dong, Lixin; Kratochvil, Bradley E.; Bell, Dominik; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2009-02-01

    Inspired by the natural design of bacterial flagella, we report artificial bacterial flagella (ABF) that have a comparable shape and size to their organic counterparts and can swim in a controllable fashion using weak applied magnetic fields. The helical swimmer consists of a helical tail resembling the dimensions of a natural flagellum and a thin soft-magnetic "head" on one end. The swimming locomotion of ABF is precisely controlled by three orthogonal electromagnetic coil pairs. Microsphere manipulation is performed, and the thrust force generated by an ABF is analyzed. ABF swimmers represent the first demonstration of microscopic artificial swimmers that use helical propulsion. Self-propelled devices such as these are of interest in fundamental research and for biomedical applications.

  4. Flexible fabrication of multi-scale integrated 3D periodic nanostructures with phase mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang Leon

    Top-down fabrication of artificial nanostructures, especially three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures, that forms uniform and defect-free structures over large area with the advantages of high throughput and rapid processing and in a manner that can further monolithically integrate into multi-scale and multi-functional devices is long-desired but remains a considerable challenge. This thesis study advances diffractive optical element (DOE) based 3D laser holographic nanofabrication of 3D periodic nanostructures and develops new kinds of DOEs for advanced diffracted-beam control during the fabrication. Phase masks, as one particular kind of DOE, are a promising direction for simple and rapid fabrication of 3D periodic nanostructures by means of Fresnel diffraction interference lithography. When incident with a coherent beam of light, a suitable phase mask (e.g. with 2D nano-grating) can create multiple diffraction orders that are inherently phase-locked and overlap to form a 3D light interference pattern in the proximity of the DOE. This light pattern is typically recorded in photosensitive materials including photoresist to develop into 3D photonic crystal nanostructure templates. Two kinds of advanced phase masks were developed that enable delicate phase control of multiple diffraction beams. The first exploits femtosecond laser direct writing inside fused silica to assemble multiple (up to nine) orthogonally crossed (2D) grating layers, spaced on Talbot planes to overcome the inherent weak diffraction efficiency otherwise found in low-contrast volume gratings. A systematic offsetting of orthogonal grating layers to establish phase offsets over 0 to pi/2 range provided precise means for controlling the 3D photonic crystal structure symmetry between body centered tetragonal (BCT) and woodpile-like tetragonal (wTTR). The second phase mask consisted of two-layered nanogratings with small sub-wavelength grating periods and phase offset control. That was

  5. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  6. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  7. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  8. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Johnson, Gary W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition

  10. Methods for fabrication of positional and compositionally controlled nanostructures on substrate

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Ji; Grunes, Jeff; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Bokor, Jeffrey; Somorjai, Gabor

    2013-07-16

    Fabrication methods disclosed herein provide for a nanoscale structure or a pattern comprising a plurality of nanostructures of specific predetermined position, shape and composition, including nanostructure arrays having large area at high throughput necessary for industrial production. The resultant nanostracture patterns are useful for nanostructure arrays, specifically sensor and catalytic arrays.

  11. Fabrication of Au nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, Rumen G.; Dikovska, Anna Og.; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Atanasov, Petar A.

    2016-01-01

    Results on fabrication of Au nanostructures by laser ablation in open air are presented. The ablation of the Au target is performed in air environment by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. Due to the high density of the ambient atmosphere, the intensive collisions of the plume spices result in formation of nanoparticles and aggregates by condensation close to the target. The produced nanoagregates are deposited on a quartz substrate where grow in a specific nanostructure. Diagnostics of the laser-generated plasma for the laser fluences used in this study is performed. Study based on change of ambient conditions shows that the increase of the air pressure from 10 Torr to atmospheric one leads to transition from thin film to porous structures. It is found that the surface morphology of the structures produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in open air strongly depends on the substrate-target distance. The electrical properties of the obtained structures are studied by measurement of their electrical resistance. It is found that the conductivity of the structures strongly depends on their morphology. The fabricated structures have potential for application in the field of electronics and sensors.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured III-V thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Clint; Sharifi, Fred

    2013-09-01

    Approximately two thirds of all fossil fuel used is lost as heat. Thermoelectric materials, which convert heat into electrical energy, may provide a solution to partially recover some of this lost energy. To date, most commercial thermoelectric materials are too inefficient to be a viable option for most waste heat applications. This research proposes to investigate the fabrication and characterization of nanostructured III-V semiconductor thermoelectric materials with the goal of increasing the performance of existing technology. In order to improve thermoelectric material efficiency, either the lattice thermal conductivity must be lowered or the thermoelectric power factor must be increased. This research will focus on the latter by modifying the density of states of the semiconductor material and studying the effect of quantum confinement on the material's thermoelectric properties. Using focused ion beam milling, nanostructured cantilevers are fabricated from single crystal wafers. An all around gate dielectric and electrode are deposited to create a depletion region along the outer core of the cantilever, thus creating an inner conductive core. The Seebeck coefficient can then be measured as a function of confinement by varying the gate voltage. This technique can be applied to various material systems to investigate the effects of confinement on their thermoelectric properties.

  13. Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys. PMID:27502648

  14. Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Han

    ultimate strains than nacre and pure GO paper (also synthesized by filtration). Specifically, it exhibits ˜30 times higher fracture energy than filtrated graphene paper and nacre, ˜100 times tougher than filtrated GO paper. Besides reinforced nanocomposites, we further explored the self-assembly of spherical colloids and the templating nanofabrication of moth-eye-inspired broadband antireflection coatings. Binary crystalline structures can be easily accomplished by spin-coating double-layer nonclose-packed colloidal crystals as templates, followed by colloidal templating. The polymer matrix between self-assembled colloidal crystal has been used as a sacrificial template to define the resulting periodic binary nanostructures, including intercalated arrays of silica spheres and polymer posts, gold nanohole arrays with binary sizes, and dimple-nipple antireflection coatings. The binary-structured antireflection coatings exhibit better antireflective properties than unitary coatings. Natural optical structures and nanocomposites teach us a great deal on how to create high performance artificial materials. The bottom-up technologies developed in this thesis are scalable and compatible with standard industrial processes, promising for manufacturing high-performance materials for the benefits of human beings.

  15. Artificial photosynthesis challenges: water oxidation at nanostructured interfaces.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Mauro; Sartorel, Andrea; Toma, Francesca Maria; Puntoriero, Fausto; Scandola, Franco; Campagna, Sebastiano; Prato, Maurizio; Bonchio, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Innovative oxygen evolving catalysts, taken from the pool of nanosized, water soluble, molecular metal oxides, the so-called polyoxometalates (POMs), represent an extraordinary opportunity in the field of artificial photosynthesis. These catalysts possess a highly robust, totally inorganic structure, and can provide a unique mimicry of the oxygen evolving center in photosynthetic II enzymes. As a result POMs can effect H₂O oxidation to O₂ with unprecedented efficiency. In particular, the tetra-ruthenium based POM [Ru(IV) ₄(μ-OH)₂(μ-O)₄(H₂O)₄(γ-SiW(10)O(36))₂](10-), Ru₄(POM), displays fast kinetics, electrocatalytic activity powered by carbon nanotubes and exceptionally light-driven performance. A broad perspective is presented herein by addressing the recent progress in the field of metal-oxide nano-clusters as water oxidation catalysts, including colloidal species. Moreover, the shaping of the catalyst environment plays a fundamental role by alleviating the catalyst fatigue and stabilizing competent intermediates, thus responding to what are the formidable thermodynamic and kinetic challenges of water splitting. The design of nano-interfaces with specifically tailored carbon nanostructures and/or polymeric scaffolds opens a vast scenario for tuning electron/proton transfer mechanisms. Therefore innovation is envisaged based on the molecular modification of the hybrid photocatalytic center and of its environment.

  16. Nanostructured bulk copper fabricated by accumulative roll bonding.

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Lee, Seong-Hee; Lim, Cha-Yong; Kim, Sang-Shik; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we tried to fabricate the nanostructured bulk copper alloys by a severe plastic deformation process. The sheets of copper alloys (OFC, PMC90, and DLP) were heavily deformed to an equivalent strain of 6.4 by the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. The microstructure and the mechanical property of the fabricated specimens were systematically investigated. The microstructure was finely subdivided with increasing the equivalent strain by the ARB process. The severely deformed copper alloys exhibited the ultrafine lamellar boundary structure where the mean lamella spacing was about 200 nm. The strength significantly increased with decreasing the lamella spacing in the ARB processed copper alloys. Especially, the tensile strength of the DLP alloys ARB processed by 8 cycles (the equivalent strain of 6.4) reached to 520 MPa, which was about three times higher than that of same materials with conventional grain size of 10-100 microm. On the other hand, the total elongation greatly dropped only by 1 ARB cycle corresponding to an equivalent strain of 0.8, which was around 3%. However, the total elongation increased again with increasing the number of the ARB cycle, and it reached to 10% after 8 cycles. The recovery of the total elongation could be recognized in all studied copper alloys. The obtained stress-strain curves showed that the improvement of the total elongation was caused by the increase in the post-uniform elongation. It can be concluded that the nanostructured copper alloys sheets having high strength without a large loss of ductility could be fabricated by the ARB process.

  17. Nanostructure fabrication using inorganic sols and electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donthu, Suresh Kumar

    Dimensionally constrained material systems are at the forefront of current materials research because of their novel and often enhanced physical, chemical and biological properties. The dimensionality effects are pervasive through different classes of materials including ceramics, metals and polymers. Often times dimensionality effects are manifested as internal structure variations in polycrystalline materials. This is evident from some recent reports indicating that "internal" microstructural inhomogenities such as grain boundaries and porosity even in dimensionally constrained systems can further enhance their performance metrics such as gas sensitivity, for example. These results, coupled with the maxim that "microstructure is a material's DNA" underscore the need for novel approaches to enable tailoring of the "internal" microstructure of constrained nanopatterned systems and their characterization. This dissertation reports one such approach. We have developed an enabling nanopatterning technique termed as soft-electron beam lithography (soft-eBL) which utilizes liquid precursors (e.g., sol) as the material source for patterning variety of materials and composites with dimensional control down to 30 nm. Among several advantages, soft-eBL is capable of patterning structures on almost any substrate - single crystals, fragile ultra-thin membranes and insulators. We have exploited these unique attributes of soft-eBL to fabricate nanopatterns of simple and complex functional oxides with defined sizes and shapes. For example, we showed that by controlling the width of ZnO nanopatterned lines on an amorphous substrate, it is possible to define the number of grains per unit line length, such as a beaded (or a bamboo) structure where a single grain spans the entire line width. Using Soft-eBL we were able to demonstrate the effect of dimension, line-width to be specific, on the reduced crystallization rate in ceramic oxide nanostructures. The average grain size in

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanostructured Oxides for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian

    Materials for energy storage have become increasingly important in the modern world as alternatives to petrochemical energy sources. Although technology such as lithium-ion batteries and solid oxide fuel cells are in commercial use, improvements must still be made to increase widespread adoption. To this end, nanostructured materials have emerged as potentially impactful solutions, as they can greatly improve the performance of the energy storage device. One goal of this dissertation was to fabricate nanostructured materials through solution-based processing, electrospinning, and controlled annealing for lithium-ion battery electrodes. This project resulted in the formation of porous fibers from inexpensive, nontoxic materials that can be used as high capacity electrodes. Another component of this dissertation was to deposit thin film noble metals and metal oxides via sputtering for metal-air battery cathodes. The results from these experiments indicate that nanostructured thin films could have improved catalytic activity compared to polycrystalline bulk structures, and also were lower cost due to the decrease in material used. The other major portion of this dissertation was to study the fundamental behavior of nanostructured materials for energy storage at a localized level using electrochemical strain microscopy, a technique that is still in its infancy. The measured responses using electrochemical strain microscopy tended to be difficult to interpret, as they contained many different chemical and mechanical contributions. A series of experiments were devised to distinguish among the different mechanisms, comparing differing responses from Vegard strain, ferroelectric behavior, and electrostrictive effects. Given this framework, inhomogeneous lithium iron phosphate was characterized using electrochemical strain microscopy. From these results, it was found that nanocrystalline particles had higher lithium ion diffusivity as compared to microcrystalline particles

  19. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak-Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  20. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shillingford, C; MacCallum, N; Wong, TS; Kim, P; Aizenberg, J

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e. g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  1. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    DOE PAGES

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; ...

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and whenmore » exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.« less

  2. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  3. Molecular recognition with nanostructures fabricated by photopolymerization within metallic subwavelength apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urraca, J. L.; Barrios, C. A.; Canalejas-Tejero, V.; Orellana, G.; Moreno-Bondi, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    The first demonstration of fabrication of submicron lateral resolution molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) patterns by photoinduced local polymerization within metal subwavelength apertures is reported. The size of the photopolymerized MIP features is finely tuned by the dose of 532 nm radiation. Rhodamine 123 (R123) has been selected as a fluorescent model template to prove the recognition capability of the MIP nanostructures, which has been evaluated by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with single photon timing measurements. The binding selectivity provided by the imprinting effect has been confirmed in the presence of compounds structurally related to R123. These results pave the way to the development of nanomaterial architectures with biomimetic artificial recognition properties for environmental, clinical and food testing.The first demonstration of fabrication of submicron lateral resolution molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) patterns by photoinduced local polymerization within metal subwavelength apertures is reported. The size of the photopolymerized MIP features is finely tuned by the dose of 532 nm radiation. Rhodamine 123 (R123) has been selected as a fluorescent model template to prove the recognition capability of the MIP nanostructures, which has been evaluated by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with single photon timing measurements. The binding selectivity provided by the imprinting effect has been confirmed in the presence of compounds structurally related to R123. These results pave the way to the development of nanomaterial architectures with biomimetic artificial recognition properties for environmental, clinical and food testing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. SI.1: chemical structure and acronyms of the different fluorescent dyes; optimization of polymer composition; Table SI.1. Template recovery after polymerization; determination of the binding capacity by equilibrium rebinding

  4. Plasma induced by pulsed laser and fabrication of silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Wei-Qi; Dong, Tai-Ge; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liu Shi-Rong; Huang, Zhong-Mei; Miao, Xin-Jian; Lv, Quan; Qin, Chao-Jian

    2015-08-01

    It is interesting that in preparing process of nanosilicon by pulsed laser, the periodic diffraction pattern from plasmonic lattice structure in the Purcell cavity due to interaction between plasmons and photons is observed. This kind of plasmonic lattice structure confined in the cavity may be similar to the Wigner crystal structure. Emission manipulation on Si nanostructures fabricated by the plasmonic wave induced from pulsed laser is studied by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The electronic localized states and surface bonding are characterized by several emission bands peaked near 600 nm and 700 nm on samples prepared in oxygen or nitrogen environment. The electroluminescence wavelength is measured in the telecom window on silicon film coated by ytterbium. The enhanced emission originates from surface localized states in band gap due to broken symmetry from some bonds on surface bulges produced by plasmonic wave in the cavity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264007 and 61465003).

  5. Fabrication of Ordered Blue Nanostructure by Anodization of an Aluminum Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashima, Yuichi; Yokota, Yoshihiko; Miyamoto, Iwao; Itatani, Taro

    2007-03-01

    Colors in organisms are created by chemical interactions of molecular pigments and by optical interactions of incident light with biological nanostructures. The latter classes are called structural colors and form an important component of the phenotypes of many animals and even some plants. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of an ordered blue nanostructure by the anodization of an Al plate. In the fabrication of such an ordered nanostructure by the anodization of an Al plate, ordered nanostructures with a pitch and an alumina thickness of approximately 100 nm were produced on the Al plate. The ordered nanostructures on the Al plate showed no colors. However, an ordered nanostructure deposited with a Pt thin film with a thickness of approximately 10 nm showed a blue reflection with a peak reflectivity of approximately 370 nm. We conclude that this blue nanostructure on the Al plate is caused by an interference between the Al surface and the Pt surface.

  6. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-21

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of integrated nanostructures & their applications to nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shobha

    Current developments in optical devices are being directed toward nanocrystals based devices, where photons are manipulated using nanoscale optical phenomenon. Nanochemistry is a powerful tool for making nanostructures based on such nanocrystals. In this dissertation, various applications such as photodetectors/photovoltaics, photonic crystals and plasmonic applications involving nanoparticles and organic: inorganic hybrid systems have been investigated. The hall marks of quantum dots are well defined excitonic absorption and sharp emission profiles and their unique behavior comprises intense and immune to photobleaching luminescence, photon upconversion, slow exciton relaxation, multiexciton generation due to impact ionization, enhanced lasing, etc. Various quantum dots such as Indium Phosphide (InP), Cadmium Sulphide (CdS), Cadmium Selenide (CdSe), InP-CdS type-II core-shell, Lead Sulphide (PbS), Lead Selenide (PbSe) etc. have been prepared via hot colloidal synthesis and have been extensively characterized spectroscopically as well as structurally. These quantum dots were utilized for making solution processed organic: inorganic hybrid photodevices. Photodetecting device with enhanced efficiency has been fabricated using physical blend of PbSe and carbon nanotubes. Type-II quantum dots (InP-CdS) were also utilized for making solar cells and their efficiency was found to be much more than their parent quantum dots (InP and CdS). Photonic composite materials, such as polymers doped with nanoparticles, have attracted a great deal of attention because of relative ease and flexibility of their engineering as well as improved performance for applications in photonic or optoelectronic devices. 2D Photonic Crystals of enhanced structural and optical properties were fabricated by doping small amount of colloidal gold nanoparticles and patterned via multi-beam interference lithography. Spontaneous emission of quantum rods doped in such photonic crystal was controlled by

  8. Fabrication of optically active nanostructures by chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Cristin Erin

    A new method of fabricating long-range, planar arrays of discrete, submicron metal structures on glass or SiO2/Si surfaces has been developed without the use of resist masks or chemical etching. The approach combines microcontact printing and electroless plating for the controlled deposition of islands or lines of gold or silver. The metallic structures are varied in size, separation and shape by using a variety of commercial diffraction gratings to mold the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamps. An assortment of distinct geometrical patterns have been fabricated and imaged on a range of length scales using scanning probe, scanning electron, and optical microscopies. Additionally, the same chemical techniques can be used to pattern surfaces with biomolecules and ordered arrays of metal nanoshells. These arrays of metal nanostructures support surface plasmon propagation and also show plasmon-plasmon interactions dependent on the geometry of the metal features. These structures were used to investigate the effects of molecular functionalization on the excitation and propagation properties of the surface plasmons that are supported by this geometry. Distinct variations in the dispersion and energy gaps of surface plasmons on these structures due to chemical functionalization of the metal structures is observed. A second type of optically active structure, rare-earth doped silica particles, has been synthesized using wet chemistry. The polydispersity of the particles can be controlled by changing the concentration of dopant salt. These particles may be useful for microlaser or display technologies.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical nanostructured smart adhesion surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungoo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-04-15

    The mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems such as a Lotus leaf and a gecko are widely studied due to their unique surface properties. The Lotus leaf is a model for superhydrophobic surfaces, self-cleaning properties, and low adhesion. Gecko feet have high adhesion due to the high micro/nanofibrillar hierarchical structures. A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion. The current research, for the first time uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: single- and two-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters that allows the observation of either the Lotus or gecko adhesion effects. Contact angles of the fabricated structured samples were measured to characterize their wettability, and contamination experiments were performed to study for self-cleaning ability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves to study scale effect. A further increase of the adhesive forces on the samples was achieved by applying an adhesive to the surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Atsushi; Saito, Yuika; Watanabe, Koichi; Yijian, Song; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-08-20

    Localized surface plasmon resonances were controlled at deep-ultraviolet (DUV) wavelengths by fabricating aluminum (Al) nanostructures in a size-controllable manner. Plasmon resonances were obtained at wavelengths from near-UV down to 270 nm (4.6 eV) depending on the fabricated structure size. Such precise size control was realized by the nanosphere lithography technique combined with additional microwave heating to shrink the spaces in a close-packed monolayer of colloidal nanosphere masks. By adjusting the microwave heating time, the sizes of the Al nanostructures could be controlled from 80 nm to 50 nm without the need to use nanosphere beads of different sizes. With the outstanding controllability and versatility of the presented fabrication technique, the fabricated Al nanostructure is promising for use as a DUV plasmonic substrate, a light-harvesting platform for mediating strong light-matter interactions between UV photons and molecules placed near the metal nanostructure.

  11. Biopattern transfer using diatom frustules for fabrication of functional micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Fu, Jianchao; Pan, Junfeng; An, Zhonglie; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    Diatom frustules exhibit various sophisticated shapes with highly ordered hierarchical porous nanostructures, which are promising for applications in the biomimetic fabrication of nanostructured materials. We propose a universal biopattern transfer process for the fabrication of functional micro/nanostructures using diatom frustules as the biotemplates. Porous silicon microcylinders with a thickness of 20 μm are fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of a silicon substrate, which is covered by a layer of diatom frustules. With a similar process, a fast atom beam technique is used to etch the silicon substrate and silicon nanolattices are obtained. By depositing a thin layer of gold film on the diatom bonded silicon substrate, followed by releasing the diatom frustules by diluted HF, gold nanodisks with a thickness of 30 nm are successfully fabricated. The nanodisk array arranges in diamond or radial patterns, replicating the nanostructure of diatom frustules. In addition, a parylene nanodot array is also demonstrated using this diatom-based biopattern transfer process.

  12. Artificial heartbeat: design and fabrication of a biologically inspired pump.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter; Lewis, Amy; Stinchcombe, Andrew; Stephenson, Robert; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-12-01

    We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the 'artificial heartbeat' actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe the design and fabrication of the actuator and report the results of tests conducted to characterize its performance. This is the first artificial muscle-driven pump to be powered by MFCs fed on human urine. Results are presented in terms of the peak pumping pressure generated by the actuator, as well as for the volume of fluid transferred, when the actuator was powered by energy stored in a capacitor bank, which was charged by 24 MFCs fed on urine. The results demonstrate the potential for the artificial heartbeat actuator to be employed as a fluid circulation pump in future generations of MFC-powered robots ('EcoBots') that extract energy from organic waste. We also envisage that the actuator could in the future form part of a bio-robotic artwork or 'bio-automaton' that could help increase public awareness of research in robotics, bio-energy and biologically inspired design.

  13. Three-dimensional silver nanostructure fabrication through multiphoton photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Shukla, Shobha; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanofabrication techniques have become increasingly important for photonic applications with rapid developments in plasmonics, nanophotonics and metamaterials. While two-dimensional (2D) techniques to create high resolution metal patterns are readily available, it is more difficult to fabricate 3D metal structures that are required for new applications in these fields. We present a femtosecond laser technique for 3D direct-writing silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer. We induce the photoreduction of silver ions through non-linear absorption in a sample doped with a silver salt. Utilizing nonlinear optical interactions between the chemical precursors and femtosecond pulses, we limit silver-ion photoreduction processes to a focused volume smaller than that of the diffraction-limit. The focal volume is scanned rapidly in 3D by means of a computer-controlled translation stage to produce complex patterns. Our technique creates dielectric-supported silver structures, enabling the nanofabrication of silver patterns with disconnected features in 3D. We obtain 300 nm resolution.

  14. Fabrication of artificial gemstones from glasses: From waste to jewelry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisittipokakun, N.; Ruangtaweep, Y.; Horprathum, M.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this review, several aspects of artificial gemstones from glasses have been addressed from the advantages, the fabrication process, the coloration, their properties and finally the use of RHA as the glass former for the simulant gemstones. The silica sources for preparation of glasses were locally obtained from sand and biomass ashes in Thailand. The refractive index, density and hardness values of the glass gemstones reported in these researches had been meet the standard of EU-regulation for crystal. The glass gemstones were fabricated in a variety of colors with some special features such as color changing when exposed under different light sources. Barium was used instead of lead to increase the density and refractive index of the glasses. The developments of high refractive index lead-free glasses are also leave non-toxically impact to our environment.

  15. Fabrication of bulk nanostructured permanent magnets with high energy density: challenges and approaches.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, J Ping

    2017-03-17

    Nanostructured permanent magnetic materials, including exchange-coupled nanocomposite permanent magnets, are considered as the next generation of high-strength magnets for future applications in energy-saving and renewable energy technologies. However, fabrication of bulk nanostructured magnets remains very challenging because conventional compaction and sintering techniques cannot be used for nanostructured bulk material processing. In this paper we review recent efforts at producing bulk nanostructured single-phase and composite magnetic materials with emphasis on grain size control, anisotropy generation and interface modification.

  16. Fabrication of Anisotropic Metal Nanostructures Using Innovations in Template-Assisted Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhao; Wei, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the burgeoning field of plasmonics are increasingly dependent on the ability to fabricate metal nanostructures with precisely defined shapes and orientations, on a scale suitable for technological developments. Recent innovations in top-down lithography have created new windows of opportunity to produce anisotropic metal nanostructures en masse, with near-term applications in photonics, biosensing, and other nanotechnology-enabled pursuits. We focus specifically on C-shaped nanostructures (nanocrescents and split-ring resonators), which can be fabricated by using novel variants of shadow mask lithography, substrate etching, or microcontact printing. PMID:22324475

  17. Nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying; Lin, Yen-Wen; Wu, Tzong-Ming

    2011-08-01

    Femtosecond laser was employed to fabricate nanostructured Ag surface for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The prepared nanostructured Ag surface was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure, also termed as ripples, on the Ag surface. The AFM images indicate that the surface roughness of the produced nanostructured Ag substrate is larger than the untreated Ag substrate. The XRD and XPS of the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser show a face centered cubic phase of metallic Ag and no impurities of Ag oxide species. The application of the produced nanostructured Ag surface in SERS was investigated by using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a reference chemical. The SERS intensity of R6G in aqueous solution at the prepared nanostructured Ag surface is 15 times greater than that of an untreated Ag substrate. The Raman intensities vary linearly with the concentrations of R6G in the range of 10(-8)-10(-4)M. The present methodology demonstrates that the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser is potential for qualification and quantification of low concentration molecules.

  18. Nanostructured substrate fabricated by sectioning tendon using a microtome for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoshu; Xu, Qiaobing

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes an efficient and versatile method for the fabrication of nanostructured substrates from a piece of tendon which comprises aligned collagen nanofibers. We used a microtome to generate the tendon slices (10-50 µm thick), which were used as a scaffold for guiding directional cell growth. Highly aligned and uniform monolayer cells sheets were obtained. The tendon slices were used as a master, and the nanostructures outlined by the bundles of collagen nanofibers were successfully transferred onto a polystyrene film using standard soft lithography. The cell growing on the nanostructured polystyrene substrate showed good adhesion and alignment. The technique developed here enables one to fabricate nanostructured substrates without using any traditional micro/nanofabrication tools. The nanostructured substrate, e.g. a slice of tendon, has excellent biocompatibility and relatively good mechanical stability, which makes this technique useful in constructing complicated 3D tissues.

  19. Composite Nanostructured Material Fabrication By Electrochemical Scanning Probe Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-31

    achieve selective electrodeposition onto a nanostructured surface and in techniques and procedures needed to create a nanoheterostructure , a class of... nanoheterostructures . As an example of such a structure we would start with a nanostructure consisting of a metal film of material A which has nanometer-scale...selective electrodeposition onto a nanostructured surface and in techniques and procedures needed to create a nanoheterostructure . The first attempts to

  20. Whole Wafer Design and Fabrication for the Alignment of Nanostructures for Chemical Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption The fabrication of chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these properties as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited in the ability to control their location on the sensor. Currently, our group at NASA Glenn Research Center has demonstrated the controlled placement of nanostructures in sensors using a sawtooth patterned electrode design. With this design the nanostructures are aligned between opposing sawtooth electrodes by applying an alternating current.

  1. The fabrication of carbon nanostructures using electron beam resist pyrolysis and nanomachining processes for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung A; Lee, Kwang-Cheol; Park, Se Il; Lee, Seung S

    2008-05-28

    We present a facile, yet versatile carbon nanofabrication method using electron beam lithography and resist pyrolysis. Various resist nanopatterns were fabricated using a negative electron beam resist, SAL-601, and they were then subjected to heat treatment in an inert atmosphere to obtain carbon nanopatterns. Suspended carbon nanostructures were fabricated by the wet-etching of an underlying sacrificial oxide layer. Free-standing carbon nanostructures, which contain 130 nm wide, 15 nm thick, and 4 µm long nanobridges, were fabricated by resist pyrolysis and nanomachining processes. Electron beam exposure dose effects on resist thickness and pattern widening were studied. The thickness of the carbon nanostructures was thinned down by etching with oxygen plasma. An electrical biosensor utilizing carbon nanostructures as a conducting channel was studied. Conductance modulations of the carbon device due to streptavidin-biotin binding and pH variations were observed.

  2. Fabrication of orderly nanostructured PLGA scaffolds using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Li, Ching-Wen; Hsueh, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2009-08-01

    In this research, two simple fabrication methods to fabricate orderly nanostructured PLGA scaffolds using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template were conducted. In the vacuum air-extraction approach, the PLGA solution was cast on an AAO template first. The vacuum air-extraction process was then applied to suck the semi-congealed PLGA into the nanopores of the AAO template to form a bamboo sprouts array of PLGA. The surface roughness of the nanostructured scaffolds, ranging from 20 nm to 76 nm, can be controlled by the sucking time of the vacuum air-extraction process. In the replica molding approach, the PLGA solution was cast on the orderly scraggy barrier-layer surface of an AAO membrane to fabricate a PLGA scaffold of concave nanostructure. Cell culture experiments using the bovine endothelial cells (BEC) demonstrated that the nanostructured PLGA membrane can increase the cell growing rate, especially for the bamboo sprouts array scaffolds with smaller surface roughness.

  3. Large-scale fabrication of flexible metallic nanostructure pairs using interference ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wang, Yonglu; Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-01-26

    Paired one- and two-dimensional metallic nanostructures are created directly by exposing a thin gold film to the interference pattern between ultraviolet laser pulses, where the gold film is coated onto a soft substrate and is sandwiched by another soft slab. Metallic films in the bright fringes are melted and transformed into nanodroplets that are ejected onto the soft slab forming stretchable nanoisland structures. The pattern of the remaining films is coincident with the dark fringes. Thus, complementary metallic nanostructure pairs were fabricated using a single laser pulse. Fano resonance can be observed in the spectroscopic response of the fabricated nanostructures for TM and TE polarizations simultaneously. This nanofabrication technique may provide an annealing-free approach for the fabrication of flexible metallic nanostructures on a large scale and with low cost.

  4. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  5. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-11-27

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  6. A Method to Fabricate Disconnected Silver Nanostructures in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.1,2 Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.3-7 However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.8 Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,9 such as coupled metal dot10,11or coupled metal rod12,13 resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can form structures

  7. Fabrication of one-dimensional programmable-height nanostructures via dynamic stencil deposition.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, J L; Lucas, K; Lee, S H; Ashton, A; Crowl, C T; Marković, N

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic stencil deposition (DSD) techniques offer a variety of fabrication advantages not possible with traditional lithographic processing, such as the ability to directly deposit nanostructures with programmable-height profiles. However, DSD systems have not enjoyed widespread usage due to their complexity. We demonstrate a simple, low-profile, portable, one-dimensional nanotranslation system that facilitates access to nanoscale DSD abilities. Furthermore we show a variety of fabricated programmable-height nanostructures, including parallel arrays of such structures, and suggest other applications that exploit the unique capabilities of DSD fabrication methods.

  8. Artificial apposition compound eye fabricated by micro-optics technology.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Schreiber, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2004-08-01

    By exploring micro-optical design principles and technology, we have developed an artificial apposition compound eye. The overall thickness of the imaging system is only 320 microm, the diagonal field of view is 21 degrees, and the f-number is 2.6. The monolithic device consists of an UV-replicated microlens array upon a thin silica substrate with a pinhole array in a metal layer on the back side. The pitch of the pinholes differs from that of the lens array to provide individual viewing angle for each channel. Theoretical limitations of resolution and sensitivity are discussed as well as fabrication issues and compared with experimental results. A method to generate nontransparent walls between optical channels to prevent cross talk is proposed.

  9. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polymethylsilsesquioxane nanostructures on cotton textiles by a solution-immersion process.

    PubMed

    Shirgholami, Mohammad A; Khalil-Abad, Mohammad Shateri; Khajavi, Ramin; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2011-07-15

    Superhydrophobic cotton textiles are prepared by a simple, one-step and inexpensive phase separation method under ambient conditions by which a layer of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) nanostructures is covered onto the cellulose fibers. By changing the silane precursor concentration, PMSQ nanostructures with various shapes, morphologies and sizes were fabricated. Nanostructures were characterized using SEM, EDS, and attenuated total reflectance FTIR. The wettability of the modified cellulose surfaces was characterized with contact-angle goniometry and sliding angle technique, respectively. The water contact angle of modified cotton is measured to be higher than 150°, which is high enough to exhibit the lotus effect as a result of the superhydrophobicity. Tunable water-repellent properties of the fabric are also demonstrated, with sliding contact angles varying from "sticky" to "slippery" depending upon different nanostructures on the surface of the fibers. It is expected that this simple technique will accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic cellulosic materials with new industrial applications.

  10. Designing micro- and nanostructures for artificial urinary sphincters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Florian M.; Deyhle, Hans; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

    2012-04-01

    The dielectric elastomers are functional materials that have promising potential as actuators with muscle-like mechanical properties due to their inherent compliancy and overall performance: the combination of large deformations, high energy densities and unique sensory capabilities. Consequently, such actuators should be realized to replace the currently available artificial urinary sphincters building dielectric thin film structures that work with several 10 V. The present communication describes the determination of the forces (1 - 10 N) and deformation levels (~10%) necessary for the appropriate operation of the artificial sphincter as well as the response time to master stress incontinence (reaction time less than 0.1 s). Knowing the dimensions of the presently used artificial urinary sphincters, these macroscopic parameters form the basis of the actuator design. Here, we follow the strategy to start from organic thin films maybe even monolayers, which should work with low voltages but only provide small deformations. Actuators out of 10,000 or 100,000 layers will finally provide the necessary force. The suitable choice of elastomer and electrode materials is vital for the success. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing worldwide, it becomes more and more important to reveal the sphincter's function under static and stress conditions to realize artificial urinary sphincters, based on sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  11. Resist-free antireflective nanostructured film fabricated by thermal-NIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young Hun; Han, Jae Hyung; Cho, Song Yun; Choi, Choon-Gi

    2014-05-01

    Resist-free antireflective (AR) nanostructured films are directly fabricated on polycarbonate (PC) film using thermal-nanoimprint lithography (T-NIL) and the moth-eye shape of AR nanostructure is elaborately optimized with different oxygen reactive ion etching conditions. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are directly used as master molds of T-NIL for preparation of AR nanostructures on PC film without an additional T-NIL resist. AR nanostructures are well arranged with a period of about 200 nm and diameter of about 150 nm, which corresponds to those of the AAO template mold. The moth-eye AR nanostructures exhibit the average reflectance of 2% in wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. From the results, highly enhanced AR properties with simple direct imprinting on PC film demonstrate the potential for panel application in the field of flat display, touch screen, and solar cells.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures on insulator substrates by electron-beam-induced deposition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minghui; Furuya, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication, characterization, and decoration with metallic nanoparticles of nanostructures such as nanowhiskers, nanodendrites, and fractal-like nanotrees on insulator substrates by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) are reviewed. Nanostructures with different morphologies of whiskers, dendrites, or trees are fabricated on insulator (Al2O3 or SiO2) substrates by EBID in transmission electron microscopes by controlling the irradiation conditions such as the electron beam intensity. The growth of the nanostructure is related to the accumulation of charges on the surface of a substrate during electron-beam irradiation. A high concentration of the target metallic element and nanocrystal grains of the element are contained in the fabricated nanostructures. The process of growth of the nanostructures is explained qualitatively on the basis of mechanisms in which the formation of the nanostructures is considered to be related to the nanoscaled unevenness of the charge distribution on the surface of the substrate, the movement of the charges to the convex surface of the substrate, and the accumulation of charges at the tip of the grown nanostructure. Novel composite structures of Pt nanoparticle/tungsten (W) nanodendrite or Au nanoparticle/W nanodendrite are fabricated by the decoration of W nanodendrites with metallic elements. Because they have superior features, such as a large specific surface area, a freestanding structure on substrates, a typical size of several nanometers of the tip or the branch, and high purity, the nanostructures may have applications in technologies such as catalysts, sensors, and electron emitters. However, there are still some subjects that should be further studied before their application. PMID:27877950

  13. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shafura, A. K. Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Saurdi, I.; Shuhaimi, A.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  14. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafura, A. K.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Azhar, N. E. I.; Saurdi, I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Shuhaimi, A.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    CH4 gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10-3 S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  15. Material and fabrication strategies for artificial muscles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinks, Geoffrey M.

    2017-04-01

    Soft robotic and wearable robotic devices seek to exploit polymer based artificial muscles and sensor materials to generate biomimetic movements and forces. A challenge is to integrate the active materials into a complex, three-dimensional device with integrated electronics, power supplies and support structures. Both 3D printing and textiles technologies offer attractive fabrication strategies, but require suitable functional materials. 3D printing of actuating hydrogels has been developed to produce simple devices, such as a prototype valve. Tough hydrogels based on interpenetrating networks of ionicially crosslinked alginate and covalently crosslinked polyacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) have been developed in a form suitable for extrusion printing with UV curing. Combined with UV-curable and extrudable rigid acrylated urethanes, the tough hydrogels can be 3D printed into composite materials or complex shapes with multiple different materials. An actuating valve was printed that operated thermally to open or close the flow path using 6 parallel hydrogel actuators. Textile processing methods such as knitting and weaving can be used to generate assemblies of actuating fibres. Low cost and high performance coiled fibres made from oriented polymers have been used for developing actuating textiles. Similarly, braiding methods have been developed to fabricate new forms of McKibben muscles that operate without any external apparatus, such as pumps, compressors or piping.

  16. Enhanced photocarrier generation in large-scale photonic nanostructures fabricated from vertically aligned quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tayagaki, Takeshi; Hoshi, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Yuko; Usami, Noritaka

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate enhanced photocarrier generation using photonic nanostructures fabricated by a wet etching technique with vertically aligned quantum dots (QDs). Using photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we found that the photocarrier generation in Ge/Si QDs placed close to the surface is enhanced below the band gap energy of crystalline silicon. The enhancement is explained by light trapping owing to the photonic nanostructures. Electromagnetic wave simulations indicate that the photonic nanostructure with a subwavelength size will be available to light trapping for efficient photocarrier generation by increasing their dip depth.

  17. Fabrication of parabolic Si nanostructures by nanosphere lithography and its application for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cheon, See-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Choi, Jihye; Jeong, Ah Reum; Lee, Taek Sung; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Lee, Wook-Seong; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Heon; Kim, Inho

    2017-08-04

    We demonstrated fabrication of a parabola shaped Si nanostructures of various periods by combined approach of nanosphere lithography and a single step CF4/O2 reactive ion etch (RIE) process. Silica nanosphere monolayers in a hexagonal array were well deposited by a solvent controlled spin coating technique based on binary organic solvents. We showed numerically that a parabolic Si nanostructure of an optimal period among various-shaped nanostructures overcoated with a dielectric layer of a 70 nm thickness provide the most effective antireflection. As the simulation results as a design guide, we fabricated the parabolic Si nanostructures of a 520 nm period and a 300 nm height exhibiting the lowest weighted reflectance of 2.75%. With incorporation of such parabolic Si nanostructures, a damage removal process for 20 sec and SiNx antireflection coating of a 70 nm thickness, the efficiency of solar cells increased to 17.2% while that of the planar cells without the nanostructures exhibited 16.2%. The efficiency enhancement of the cell with the Si nanostructures was attributed to the improved photocurrents arising from the broad spectral antireflection which was confirmed by the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements.

  18. Top-down fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for deterministic coupling to single quantum emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Vos, Arthur; Hanson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanostructures can be used to harvest and guide the emission of single photon emitters on-chip via surface plasmon polaritons. In order to develop and characterize photonic devices based on emitter-plasmon hybrid structures, a deterministic and scalable fabrication method for such structures is desirable. Here, we demonstrate deterministic and scalable top-down fabrication of metal wires onto preselected nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds using clean room nano-fabrication methods. We observe a life-time reduction of the emitter emission that is consistent with earlier proof-of-principle experiments that used non-deterministic fabrication methods. This result indicates that top-down fabrication is a promising technique for processing future devices featuring single photon emitters and plasmonic nanostructures.

  19. Fabrication and optimization of nano-structured composites for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Kenneth Russell

    This dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of a novel class of solid-state nano-structured composites for hydrogen storage based on silica aerogel. It is organized sequentially around experiments conducted to fabricate, optimize and characterize silica aerogel and the composites for hydrogen storage. First, the basics of nano-structured media, silica aerogel technology and solid-state hydrogen storage are introduced. Next, the fabrication and optimization of silica aerogel for hydrogen storage is described in detail. The key result is that varying fabrication parameters can improve the physical properties of the resultant silica aerogel in the context of hydrogen storage. The fabrication of solid-state nano-structured composites using chemical vapor infiltration is then discussed. A series of experiments is used to parameterize the fabrication process, which results in a collection of parameters that minimize variation and structural damage in the composites. Silica aerogel and the composites are then physically characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and porosimetry in order to investigate their nano-structuring. An overview of hydrogen storage characterization and two innovations that improve the accuracy and efficiency of hydrogen storage characterization of low-bulk density media like silica aerogel and the composites are then presented. Finally, the innovations are applied to silica aerogel and the composites to characterize their hydrogen storage performance. Silica aerogel and the composites are found to outperform the most common benchmark in physisorption media, and one composite in particular shows unique hydrogen storage performance.

  20. Nanostructured target fabrication with metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Antici, P.

    2015-10-01

    The development of ultra-intense high-energy (≫1 J) short (<1 ps) laser pulses in the last decade has enabled the acceleration of high-energy short-pulse proton beams. A key parameter for enhancing the acceleration regime is the laser-to-target absorption, which heavily depends on the target structure and material. In this work, we present the realization of a nanostructured target with a sub-laser wavelength nano-layer in the front surface as a possible candidate for improving the absorption. The nanostructured film was realized by a simpler and cheaper method than using conventional lithographic techniques: A colloidal solution of metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) was produced by laser ablation and, after a heating and sonication process, was spray-dried on the front surface of an aluminum target. The obtained nanostructured film with a thickness of 1 μm appears, at morphological and chemical analysis, uniformly nanostructured and distributed on the target surface without the presence of oxides or external contaminants. Finally, the size of the NPs can be tuned from tens to hundreds of nanometers simply by varying the growth parameters (i.e., irradiation time, fluence, and laser beam energy).

  1. Fabrication of a nanostructure thermal property measurement platform.

    PubMed

    Harris, C T; Martinez, J A; Shaner, E A; Huang, J Y; Swartzentruber, B S; Sullivan, J P; Chen, G

    2011-07-08

    Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g. nanotubes and nanowires) are typically obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomic-scale structure or defects. To address this deficiency, we have developed a microfabricated, chip-based characterization platform that enables both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the atomic structure and defects as well as measurement of the thermal transport properties of individual nanostructures. The platform features a suspended heater line that physically contacts the center of a suspended nanostructure/nanowire that was placed using in situ scanning electron microscope nanomanipulators. Suspension of the nanostructure across a through-hole enables TEM characterization of the atomic and defect structure (dislocations, stacking faults, etc) of the test sample. This paper explains, in detail, the processing steps involved in creating this thermal property measurement platform. As a model study, we report the use of this platform to measure the thermal conductivity and defect structure of a GaN nanowire.

  2. A general strategy to fabricate simple polyoxometalate nanostructures: electrochemistry-assisted laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Liang, Ying; Lin, Xianzhong; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2011-06-28

    Polyoxometalate nanostructures have attracted much attention because of significant technical demands in applications such as catalysts, sensors, and smart windows. Therefore, researchers have recently developed many methods for the synthesis of these nanomaterials. However, these techniques have many visible flaws such as high temperatures or high pressure environments, various templates or additives, demanding and complicated synthesis procedures as well as the presence of impurities in the final products. We therefore propose a general strategy for the fabrication of particular polyoxometalate nanostructures by electrochemically assisted laser ablation in liquid (ECLAL). These polyoxometalates are usually simple as they typically contain two metals and are not soluble in water. This approach is a green, simple, and catalyst-free approach under an ambient environment. Apart from these merits, this novel technique allows researchers to choose and design interesting solid targets and to use an electrochemical approach toward the fabrication of polyoxometalate nanostructures for the purpose of fundamental research and for potential applications. Using the synthesis of Cu(3)Mo(2)O(9) nanorods as an example, we substantiate the validity of the proposed strategy. For the fabrication of Cu(3)Mo(2)O(9) nanostructures, we chose molybdenum as a solid target for laser ablation in liquid copper electrodes for the electrochemical reaction and water as a solvent for the ECLAL synthesis. We successfully fabricated Cu(3)(OH)(2)(MoO(4))(2) nanorods with magnetic properties. Interestingly, we obtained well-defined Cu(3)Mo(2)O(9) nanorods by annealing the Cu(3)(OH)(2)(MoO(4))(2) nanostructures at 500 °C. Additionally, the basic physics and chemistry involved in the ECLAL fabrication of nanostructures are discussed.

  3. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  4. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-02-15

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  5. The Spatiotemporal Control of Osteoblast Cell Growth, Behavior, and Function Dictated by Nanostructured Stainless Steel Artificial Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Udesh; Pan, Hsu-An; Shie, Meng-Je; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S; Chen, Po-Chun; Chen, Wen Liang

    2017-12-01

    The successful application of a nanostructured biomaterial as an implant is strongly determined by the nanotopography size triggering the ideal cell response. Here, nanoporous topography on 304L stainless steel substrates was engineered to identify the nanotopography size causing a transition in the cellular characteristics, and accordingly, the design of nanostructured stainless steel surface as orthopedic implants is proposed. A variety of nanopore diameters ranging from 100 to 220 nm were fabricated by one-step electrolysis process and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments. Control over the nanopore diameter was achieved by varying bias voltage. MG63 osteoblasts were cultured on the nanoporous surfaces for different days. Immunofluorescence (IF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to compare the modulation in cell morphologies and characteristics. Osteoblasts displayed differential growth parameters and distinct transition in cell behavior after nanopore reached a certain diameter. Nanopores with 100-nm diameter promoted cell growth, focal adhesions, cell area, viability, vinculin-stained area, calcium mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase activity. The ability of these nanoporous substrates to differentially modulate the cell behavior and assist in identifying the transition step will be beneficial to biomedical engineers to develop superior implant geometries, triggering an ideal cell response at the cell-nanotopography interface.

  6. Nanostructured surface fabricated by laser interference lithography to attenuate the reflectivity of microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, P.-Y.; Päivänranta, B.; Scharf, T.; Nakagawa, W.; Roussey, M.; Kuittinen, M.; Herzig, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    A subwavelength-scale square lattice optical meta-material is fabricated using an interference photolithography process on the surface of a quartz microlens array. This nanostructuring of the quartz surface introduces an antireflective effect, reducing reflectivity between 10% and 30% and enhancing the transmissivity 3% in the visible spectrum. This approach permits fast fabrication on a 4-inch wafer covered with microlenses (non-flat surface) and produces monolithic devices which are robust to adverse environments such as temperature variations.

  7. Nano-structured TiO(2) film fabricated at room temperature and its acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Cao, Wenwu; Jiang, Bei; Zhang, D S; Zheng, H; Zhou, Q; Shung, K K

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured TiO(2) thin film has been successfully fabricated at room temperature. Using a quarter wavelength characterization method, we have measured the acoustic impedance of this porous film, which can be adjusted from 5.3 to 7.19 Mrayl by curing it at different temperatures. The uniform microstructure and easy fabrication at room temperature make this material an excellent candidate for matching layers of ultra-high frequency ultrasonic imaging transducers.

  8. Fabrication of shape controlled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.Y.; Wang, X.B.; Shang, L.; Li, C.R.; Cui, C.; Dong, W.J.; Tang, W.H.; Chen, B.Y.

    2010-04-15

    Shape-controlled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure has been successfully prepared using polyethylene glycol as template in a water system at room temperature. Different morphologies of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures, including spherical, cubic, rod-like, and dendritic nanostructure, were obtained by carefully controlling the concentration of the Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}, and the molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol. Transmission Electron Microscope images, X-ray powder diffraction patterns and magnetic properties were used to characterize the final product. This easy procedure for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure fabrication offers the possibility of a generalized approach to the production of single and complex nanocrystalline oxide with tunable morphology.

  9. Fabrication of nanostructures on polyethylene terephthalate substrate by interference lithography and plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei; Li, Bihan; Choi, W K

    2013-08-01

    We report results of an attempt to create nanostructures on polyethylene terephthalate substrate using the interference lithography and plasma etching technique. Methods to create nanogrooves, nanopillars, nanofins and nanoholes have been presented. The effects of chemical and physical etching associated with plasma etching on the synthesis of nanostructures were examined in detail. Different etch rates and anisotropy as a function of plasma power and pressure were reported and explained, offering good understanding of the physics of the etching process. Ways to improve anisotropy have been suggested and experimentally verified. We show that this method can produce nanostructured substrate with wide surface coverage and good uniformity. The flexibility of this method was demonstrated in that the period and shapes of the nanopattern can be varied easily without resorting to complicated fabrication processes and machinery. Our method brings forth an easy and cost-effective way to create uniform nanostructures on a large area in a controllable fashion.

  10. In situ fabrication and investigation of nanostructures and nanodevices with a microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Huiqiao; Gan, Lin; Ma, Ying; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-05-07

    The widespread availability of nanostructures and nanodevices has placed strict requirements on their comprehensive characterization. Herein, in situ techniques are demonstrated to have created a rare opportunity to accurately analyze the intrinsic properties of individual nanostructures and to accomplish the smart design of nanodevices made from these nanostructures. This paper reviews recent developments in in situ fabrication and characterization technologies established within various types of microscopes and the rich information they may provide. The in situ techniques are shown to be important for exploration of many intriguing phenomena at the nanoscale which may then be followed by the smart integration of nanostructures into real functional devices. Successful in situ detection results are presented and discussed, especially in the areas of energy generation, biological imaging and water pumping. Finally, we conclude this article with an examination of the existing challenges and the outlook for this quickly emerging field.

  11. Effects associated with nanostructure fabrication using in situ liquid cell TEM technology

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Lihui; Wang, Ping; ...

    2015-07-28

    We studied silicon, carbon, and SiCx nanostructures fabricated using liquid-phase electron-beam-induced deposition technology in transmission electron microscopy systems. Nanodots obtained from fixed electron beam irradiation followed a universal size versus beam dose trend, with precursor concentrations from pure SiCl4 to 0 % SiCl4 in CH2Cl2, and electron beamintensity ranges of two orders of magnitude, showing good controllability of the deposition. Secondary electrons contributed to the determination of the lateral sizes of the nanostructures, while the primary beam appeared to have an effect in reducing the vertical growth rate. These results can be used to generate donut-shaped nanostructures. Using a scanningmore » electron beam, line structures with both branched and unbranched morphologies were also obtained. As a result, the liquid-phase electron-beam induced deposition technology is shown to be an effective tool for advanced nanostructured material generation.« less

  12. Fabrication of bimetallic nanostructures via aerosol-assisted electroless silver deposition for catalytic CO conversion.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-03-12

    Bimetallic nanostructures were fabricated via aerosol-assisted electroless silver deposition for catalytic CO conversion. An ambient spark discharge was employed to produce nanocatalysts, and the particles were directly deposited on a polytetrafluoroethylene substrate for initiating silver deposition to form Pd-Ag, Pt-Ag, Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures as well as a pure Ag nanostructure. Kinetics and morphological evolutions in the silver deposition with different nanocatalysts were comparatively studied. The Pt catalyst displayed the highest catalytic activity for electroless silver deposition, followed by the order Pd > Au > Ag. Another catalytic activity of the fabricated bimetallic structures in the carbon monoxide conversion was further evaluated at low-temperature conditions. The bimetallic systems showed significantly higher catalytic activity than that from a pure Ag system.

  13. Continuous fabrication of nanostructure arrays for flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Chen, Jie; Huang, Meizhen; Ni, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been a powerful tool for applications including single molecule detection, analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, medical diagnostics and bio-sensing. Especially, flexible SERS substrates are highly desirable for daily-life applications, such as real-time and in situ Raman detection of chemical and biological targets, which can be used onto irregular surfaces. However, it is still a major challenge to fabricate the flexible SERS substrate on large-area substrates using a facile and cost-effective technique. The roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (R2R UV-NIL) technique provides a solution for the continuous fabrication of flexible SERS substrate due to its high-speed, large-area, high-resolution and high-throughput. In this paper, we presented a facile and cost-effective method to fabricate flexible SERS substrate including the fabrication of polymer nanostructure arrays and the metallization of the polymer nanostructure arrays. The polymer nanostructure arrays were obtained by using R2R UV-NIL technique and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold. The functional SERS substrates were then obtained with Au sputtering on the surface of the polymer nanostructure arrays. The obtained SERS substrates exhibit excellent SERS and flexibility performance. This research can provide a beneficial direction for the continuous production of the flexible SERS substrates. PMID:28051175

  14. Thermochemical nanolithography fabrication and atomic force microscopy characterization of functional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Debin

    This thesis presents the development of a novel atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanofabrication technique termed as thermochemical nanolithography (TCNL). TCNL uses a resistively heated AFM cantilever to thermally activate chemical reactions on a surface with nanometer resolution. This technique can be used for fabrication of functional nanostructures that are appealing for various applications in nanofluidics, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and biosensing devices. This thesis research is focused on three main objectives. The first objective is to study the fundamentals of TCNL writing aspects. We have conducted a systematic study of the heat transfer mechanism using finite element analysis modeling, Raman spectroscopy, and local glass transition measurement. In addition, based on thermal kinetics analysis, we have identified several key factors to achieve high resolution fabrication of nanostructures during the TCNL writing process. The second objective is to demonstrate the use of TCNL on a variety of systems and thermochemical reactions. We show that TCNL can be employed to (1) modify the wettability of a polymer surface at the nanoscale, (2) fabricate nanoscale templates on polymer films for assembling nano-objects, such as proteins and DNA, (3) fabricate conjugated polymer semiconducting nanowires, and (4) reduce graphene oxide with nanometer resolution. The last objective is to characterize the TCNL nanostructures using AFM based methods, such as friction force microscopy, phase imaging, electric force microscopy, and conductive AFM. We show that they are useful for in situ characterization of nanostructures, which is particularly challenging for conventional macroscopic analytical tools, such as Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Continuous fabrication of nanostructure arrays for flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Chen, Jie; Huang, Meizhen; Ni, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been a powerful tool for applications including single molecule detection, analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, medical diagnostics and bio-sensing. Especially, flexible SERS substrates are highly desirable for daily-life applications, such as real-time and in situ Raman detection of chemical and biological targets, which can be used onto irregular surfaces. However, it is still a major challenge to fabricate the flexible SERS substrate on large-area substrates using a facile and cost-effective technique. The roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (R2R UV-NIL) technique provides a solution for the continuous fabrication of flexible SERS substrate due to its high-speed, large-area, high-resolution and high-throughput. In this paper, we presented a facile and cost-effective method to fabricate flexible SERS substrate including the fabrication of polymer nanostructure arrays and the metallization of the polymer nanostructure arrays. The polymer nanostructure arrays were obtained by using R2R UV-NIL technique and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold. The functional SERS substrates were then obtained with Au sputtering on the surface of the polymer nanostructure arrays. The obtained SERS substrates exhibit excellent SERS and flexibility performance. This research can provide a beneficial direction for the continuous production of the flexible SERS substrates.

  16. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles. PMID:20359338

  17. Nanostructured phosphides as photoelectrode materials for artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen; Collins, Sean M.; Maldonado, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    In this work we describe present experimental results for two related ternary phosphide materials, N-alloyed GaP and ZnGeP2. These materials represent two potential mid-bandgap photoelectrode materials for artificial photosynthetic systems for solar energy conversion/storage. For photoelectrochemical cells designed to generate energyrich chemical fuels under illumination, candidate photoelectrode materials should demonstrate the capacity to sustain large photovoltages and photocurrent densities under solar insolation. The results in this work show that the optical properties of these two materials should enable the possibilities for light collection out past 600 nm. For N-alloyed GaP nanowire films, diffuse reflectance spectra show the increase of light absorption at sub-bandgap wavelengths with increasing NH3(g) used during the annealing step. Corresponding photoelectrochemical data show that the quantum efficiency for light collection at sub-bandgap wavelengths does not follow the same monotonic trend. Separately, we report the first demonstration of ZnGeP2 nanowire films. The as-prepared materials show reflectance responses consistent with a mid-bandgap material featuring a pseudo-direct bandgap.

  18. Fabrication of Nanostructure 1050/6061 Complex Al Alloy by Accumulative Roll-Bonding Process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hee; Kim, Jung Han

    2015-01-01

    A nanostructure AA1050/AA6061 complex aluminum alloy was successfully fabricated by the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process. The ARB process was performed up to 5 cycles without a lubricant at ambient temperature. The samples fabricated by the ARB were the multi-layer complex aluminum alloys in which AA1050 and AA6061 layers are alternately stacked. The tensile strength of the samples increased with proceeding of the ARB, it reached about 300 MPa which is about twice that of the as-received AA6061. The grain size was greatly reduced to submicron order during the ARB, the efficiency of grain refinement was greater in AA6061 than AA1050. The tensile fracture surfaces showed a mixed morphology of brittle and ductile fracture. It was also found that a nanostructure multi-layer AA1050/AA6061 alloy fabricated by the ARB exhibited very complex microstructure and texture.

  19. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  20. Distance-dependent metal enhanced fluorescence by flowerlike silver nanostructures fabricated in liquid crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Guiyang; Peng, Zenghui; Yao, Lishuang; Wang, Qidong; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2017-10-01

    Flowerlike silver nanostructure substrates were fabricated in liquid crystalline phase and the distance dependent property of metal enhanced fluorescence for such substrate was studied for the first time. The distance between silver nanostructures and fluorophore was controlled by the well-established layer-by-layer (LbL) technique constructing alternate layers of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules were electrostatically attached to the outmost negative charged PSS layer. The fluorescence enhancement factor of flowerlike nanostructure substrate increased firstly and then decreased with the distance increasing. The best enhanced fluorescence intensity of 71 fold was obtained at a distance of 5.2 nm from the surface of flowerlike silver nanostructure. The distance for best enhancement effect is an instructive parameter for the applications of such substrates and could be used in the practical MEF applications with the flowerlike nanostructure substrates fabricated in such way which is simple, controllable and cost-effective.

  1. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-16

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs).Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  2. Interior-architectured ZnO nanostructure for enhanced electrical conductivity via stepwise fabrication process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of ZnO nanostructure via direct patterning based on sol-gel process has advantages of low-cost, vacuum-free, and rapid process and producibility on flexible or non-uniform substrates. Recently, it has been applied in light-emitting devices and advanced nanopatterning. However, application as an electrically conducting layer processed at low temperature has been limited by its high resistivity due to interior structure. In this paper, we report interior-architecturing of sol-gel-based ZnO nanostructure for the enhanced electrical conductivity. Stepwise fabrication process combining the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process with an additional growth process was newly applied. Changes in morphology, interior structure, and electrical characteristics of the fabricated ZnO nanolines were analyzed. It was shown that filling structural voids in ZnO nanolines with nanocrystalline ZnO contributed to reducing electrical resistivity. Both rigid and flexible substrates were adopted for the device implementation, and the robustness of ZnO nanostructure on flexible substrate was verified. Interior-architecturing of ZnO nanostructure lends itself well to the tunability of morphological, electrical, and optical characteristics of nanopatterned inorganic materials with the large-area, low-cost, and low-temperature producibility. PMID:25258595

  3. Reliable fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures without an adhesion layer using dry lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiqin; Li, Zhiqin; Xiang, Quan; Wang, Yasi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Huigao

    2015-10-01

    Lift-off is the most commonly used pattern-transfer method to define lithographic plasmonic metal nanostructures. A typical lift-off process is realized by dissolving patterned resists in solutions, which has the limits of low yield when not using adhesion layers and incompatibility with the fabrication of some specific structures and devices. In this work, we report an alternative ‘dry’ lift-off process to obtain metallic nanostructures via mechanical stripping by using the advantage of poor adhesion between resists and noble metal films. We show that this dry stripping lift-off method is effective for both positive- and negative-tone resists to fabricate sparse and densely-packed plasmonic nanostructures, respectively. In particular, this method is achieved without using an adhesion layer, which enables the mitigation of plasmon damping to obtain larger field enhancement. Dark-field scattering, one-photon luminescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements were performed to demonstrate the improved quality factor of the plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by this dry lift-off process.

  4. Fabrication of large area nanostructures with surface modified silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-03-01

    Surface modification of silica spheres with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) has been performed at ambient condition. However, the FTIR spectra and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show no evidence of the surface modification. The reaction temperatures were varied from 60 to 80 °C with various reaction periods. Small absorption shoulder of the CO stretching vibration was at 1700 cm-1, and slightly increased with the increase of the reaction time at 60 °C. The clear absorption peak appeared at 1698 cm-1 for the spheres reacted for 80 min at 70 °C and shifted toward 1720 cm-1 with the increase the reaction time. Strong absorption peak showed at 1698 cm-1 and shifted toward 1725 cm-1 with the increase of the reaction time at 80 °C. The spheres were dispersed to methanol and added photoinitiator (Irgacure-184). The solution was poured to a patterned glass substrate and exposed to the 254 nm UV-light during a self-assembly process. A large area and crack-free silica sphere film was formed. To increase the mechanical stability, a cellulose acetate solution was spin-coated to the film. The film was lift-off from the glass substrate to analyze the surface nanostructures. The surface nanostructures were maintained, and the film is stable enough to use as a mold to duplicate the nanopattern and flexible.

  5. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  6. Two-photon reduction: a cost-effective method for fabrication of functional metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Sahar; Cao, YaoYu; Lin, Han; Jia, BaoHua

    2017-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures have underpinned plasmonic-based advanced photonic devices in a broad range of research fields over the last decade including physics, engineering, material science and bioscience. The key to realizing functional plasmonic resonances that can manipulate light at the optical frequencies relies on the creation of conductive metallic structures at the nanoscale with low structural defects. Currently, most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated either by electron beam lithography (EBL) or by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, which are expensive, complicated and time-consuming. In comparison, the direct laser writing (DLW) technique has demonstrated its high spatial resolution and cost-effectiveness in three-dimensional fabrication of micro/nanostructures. Furthermore, the recent breakthroughs in superresolution nanofabrication and parallel writing have significantly advanced the fabrication resolution and throughput of the DLW method and made it one of the promising future nanofabrication technologies with low-cost and scalability. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art DLW fabrication technology for nanometer scale metallic structures. The fabrication mechanisms, different material choices, fabrication capability, including resolution, conductivity and structure surface smoothness, as well as the characterization methods and achievable devices for different applications are presented. In particular, the development trends of the field and the perspectives for future opportunities and challenges are provided at the end of the review. It has been demonstrated that the quality of the metallic structures fabricated using the DLW method is excellent compared with other methods providing a new and enabling platform for functional nanophotonic device fabrication.

  7. TiO2-based nanostructured materials fabricated by template sol-gel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznov, V. V.; Mayorov, V. Yu.; Sushkov, Yu. V.; Voit, E. I.

    2017-09-01

    Two types of nanostructured materials have been synthesized by the template sol-gel method. It has been demonstrated that the structure of nanostructured samples is determined, first of all, by the type of the used template. At using the carbon template, the Zr-dopant enters the structure of TiO2 (anatase), thus distorting the crystal lattice. Using the siloxane-acrylate emulsion as a template results in the fact that the zirconium-enriched phase is located in the anatase inter-crystallite space. Good prospects of practical application of the fabricated materials were shown.

  8. Fabrication of disconnected three-dimensional silver nanostructures in a polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Shukla, Shobha; Mazur, Eric

    2012-02-01

    We present a simple, one-step technique for direct-writing of a structured nanocomposite material with disconnected silver nanostructures in a polymer matrix. A nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a composite material creates silver structures that are embedded inside a polymer with submicrometer resolution (300 nm). We create complex patterns of silver nanostructures in three dimensions. The key to the process is the chemical composition of the sample that provides both a support matrix and controlled growth. The technique presented in this letter may offer a cost-effective approach for the fabrication of bulk optical devices with engineered dispersion.

  9. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanostructures by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, A; Miller, A E; Klare, J E; Weeks, B L; Woods, B W; DeYoreo, J J

    2002-06-25

    We used a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and scanning optical confocal microscopy to fabricate and visualize luminescent nanoscale patterns of various materials on glass substrates. We show that this method can be used successfully to push the limits of dip-pen nanolithography down to controlled deposition of single molecules. We also demonstrate that this method is able to create and visualize protein patterns on surfaces. Finally, we show that our method can be used to fabricate polymer nanowires of controlled size using conductive polymers. We also present a kinetic model that accurately describes the deposition process.

  10. Asymmetric cryorolling for fabrication of nanostructural aluminum sheets

    PubMed Central

    YU, Hailiang; LU, Cheng; TIEU, Kiet; LIU, Xianghua; SUN, Yong; YU, Qingbo; KONG, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructural Al 1050 sheets were produced using a novel method of asymmetric cryorolling under ratios of upper and down rolling velocities (RUDV) of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4. Sheets were rolled to about 0.17 mm from 1.5 mm. Both the strength and ductility of Al 1050 sheets increase with RUDVs. Tensile strength of Al sheets with the RUDV 1.4 is larger 22.3% of that for RUDV 1.1, which is 196 MPa. The TEM observations show the grain size is 360 nm when the RUDV is 1.1, and 211 nm for RUDV 1.4. PMID:23101028

  11. Fabrication and applications of copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamraiz, Umair; Hussain, Raja Azadar; Badshah, Amin

    2016-06-01

    This review article presents different fabrication procedures (under the headlines of solvothermal routes, aerosol methods, solution methods and thermolysis), and applications (photocatalytic degradation, ablation of cancer cells, electrode material in lithium ion batteries and in gas sensing, organic solar cells, field emission properties, super capacitor applications, photoelectrochemical performance of QDSCs, photocatalytic reduction of organic pollutants, electrochemical bio sensing, enhanced PEC characteristics of pre-annealed CuS film electrodes) of copper sulfide (Covellite).

  12. Novel nanostructured biodegradable polymer matrices fabricated by phase separation techniques for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S-H; Huang, S; Wang, Y-C; Kuo, Y-C

    2013-06-01

    Biomimetic nanostructures have a wide range of applications. In particular, biodegradable polymer nanostructures that mimic the subtleties of extracellular matrix may provide favorable cell interactions. In this study, a co-solvent system was developed to configure a thermodynamically metastable biodegradable polymer solution, from which novel nanostructured matrices subsequently formed via wet phase separation (quaternary) or a combination with thermally induced phase separation. Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured porous matrices were further fabricated by combination with particle-leaching (100-300μm glucose). The new co-solvent system may generate matrices with reproducible nanostructures from a variety of biodegradable polymers such as poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL-based polyurethane. In vitro cell culture experiments were performed with mouse pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSC) to evaluate the osteoinductive potential of PLA nanostructures. The results showed that nanofibrous (<100nm) membranes promoted the bone-related marker gene expression and matrix mineralization of MC3T3-E1 at 14days. Nanofibrous 3D matrices seeded with hBM-MSC without osteogenic induction supplements demonstrated a 2.5-fold increase in bone matrix deposition vs. the conventional microporous matrices after 14 and 21days. Antimicrobial nanofibers were further obtained by plasma-assisted coating of chitosan on PLA nanofibers. This study reveals a platform for fabricating novel biodegradable nanofibrous architecture, with potential in tissue regeneration.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of biomolecules using EBL fabricated nanostructured substrates.

    PubMed

    Peters, Robert F; Gutierrez-Rivera, Luis; Dew, Steven K; Stepanova, Maria

    2015-03-20

    Fabrication and characterization of conjugate nano-biological systems interfacing metallic nanostructures on solid supports with immobilized biomolecules is reported. The entire sequence of relevant experimental steps is described, involving the fabrication of nanostructured substrates using electron beam lithography, immobilization of biomolecules on the substrates, and their characterization utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three different designs of nano-biological systems are employed, including protein A, glucose binding protein, and a dopamine binding DNA aptamer. In the latter two cases, the binding of respective ligands, D-glucose and dopamine, is also included. The three kinds of biomolecules are immobilized on nanostructured substrates by different methods, and the results of SERS imaging are reported. The capabilities of SERS to detect vibrational modes from surface-immobilized proteins, as well as to capture the protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding are demonstrated. The results also illustrate the influence of the surface nanostructure geometry, biomolecules immobilization strategy, Raman activity of the molecules and presence or absence of the ligand binding on the SERS spectra acquired.

  14. Tuning the optical properties of gold nanostructures fabricated on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, Ru.; Nedyalkov, N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Terakawa, M.; Shimizu, H.; Obara, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a laser-based method for metal nanostructures formation on flexible substrates. The analysis of the obtained structures is focused on their optical properties. The nanostructures are fabricated by laser processing of gold thin films. The films are deposited on PMMA and PVC substrates by classical PLD technology. The produced films are then annealed by nanosecond pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. At certain conditions the laser treatment leads to formation of discrete nanostructure on the substrate surface. The optical properties of samples fabricated at different conditions are examined by optical spectroscopy. Bending of the substrates at different angles is used to modify the characteristics of the produced structure which leads to change of its optical properties. In this way the plasmon band of the obtained nanostructures can be efficiently tuned in a range of about 30 nm. The experiments of using produced structures in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy show that they can be an efficient alternative of the already developed.

  15. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  16. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Biomolecules Using EBL Fabricated Nanostructured Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Robert F.; Gutierrez-Rivera, Luis; Dew, Steven K.; Stepanova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of conjugate nano-biological systems interfacing metallic nanostructures on solid supports with immobilized biomolecules is reported. The entire sequence of relevant experimental steps is described, involving the fabrication of nanostructured substrates using electron beam lithography, immobilization of biomolecules on the substrates, and their characterization utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three different designs of nano-biological systems are employed, including protein A, glucose binding protein, and a dopamine binding DNA aptamer. In the latter two cases, the binding of respective ligands, D-glucose and dopamine, is also included. The three kinds of biomolecules are immobilized on nanostructured substrates by different methods, and the results of SERS imaging are reported. The capabilities of SERS to detect vibrational modes from surface-immobilized proteins, as well as to capture the protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding are demonstrated. The results also illustrate the influence of the surface nanostructure geometry, biomolecules immobilization strategy, Raman activity of the molecules and presence or absence of the ligand binding on the SERS spectra acquired. PMID:25867853

  17. Covalently Connected Polymer-Protein Nanostructures Fabricated by a Reactive Self-Assembly Approach.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Xing, Cheng; Wu, Dongxia; Wu, Yunfang; Wang, Lianyong; Zhao, Hanying

    2017-03-08

    The synthesis of polymer-protein nanostructures opens up a new avenue for the development of new biomaterials. In this research, covalently connected polymer-protein nanostructures were fabricated through a reactive self-assembly approach. Poly(tert-butyl methacrylate-co-pyridyl disulfide methacrylamide) (PtBMA-co-PPDSMA) was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Covalently connected nanostructures (CCNs) with hydrophobic polymer cores and hydrophilic protein coronae were prepared by adding solutions of PtBMA-co-PPDSMA/DMF to aqueous solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between pyridyl disulfide groups on the polymer chains and thiol groups on the protein molecules plays a key role in the fabrication of CCNs. The self-assembly process was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and stopped-flow techniques. DLS results indicated that the sizes of the CCNs were determined by the initial polymer concentration, the BSA concentration, and the average number of thiol groups on BSA molecules. TEM and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to analyze the nanostructures. Far-UV circular dichroism results demonstrated that the original folded conformations of BSA molecules were basically maintained in the reactive self-assembly process. Compared with native BSA, the secondary structure and conformation change of coronal BSA induced by urea or thermal treatment were remarkably suppressed. The cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the CCNs were essentially nontoxic to Hela and COS-7 cells.

  18. One-step fabrication of crystalline metal nanostructures by direct nanoimprinting below melting temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ze

    2017-01-01

    Controlled fabrication of metallic nanostructures plays a central role in much of modern science and technology, because changing the dimensions of a nanocrystal enables tailoring of its mechanical, electronic, optical, catalytic and antibacterial properties. Here we show direct superplastic nanoimprinting (SPNI) of crystalline metals well below their melting temperatures, generating ordered nanowire arrays with aspect ratios up to ∼2,000 and imprinting features as small as 8 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra reveal strongly enhanced electromagnetic signals from the prepared nanorod arrays with sizes up to ∼100 nm, which indicates that our technique can provide an ideal way to fabricate robust SERS substrates. SPNI, as a one-step, controlled and reproducible nanofabrication method, could facilitate the applications of metal nanostructures in bio-sensing, diagnostic imaging, catalysis, food industry and environmental conservation. PMID:28348374

  19. One-step fabrication of crystalline metal nanostructures by direct nanoimprinting below melting temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze

    2017-03-01

    Controlled fabrication of metallic nanostructures plays a central role in much of modern science and technology, because changing the dimensions of a nanocrystal enables tailoring of its mechanical, electronic, optical, catalytic and antibacterial properties. Here we show direct superplastic nanoimprinting (SPNI) of crystalline metals well below their melting temperatures, generating ordered nanowire arrays with aspect ratios up to ~2,000 and imprinting features as small as 8 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra reveal strongly enhanced electromagnetic signals from the prepared nanorod arrays with sizes up to ~100 nm, which indicates that our technique can provide an ideal way to fabricate robust SERS substrates. SPNI, as a one-step, controlled and reproducible nanofabrication method, could facilitate the applications of metal nanostructures in bio-sensing, diagnostic imaging, catalysis, food industry and environmental conservation.

  20. Artificial submicron or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and electron microscope speckle photography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhanwei; Xie Huimin; Fang Daining; Dai Fulong; Wang Weining; Fang Yan

    2007-03-15

    In this article, a novel artificial submicro- or nanometer speckle fabricating technique is proposed by taking advantage of submicro or nanometer particles. In the technique, submicron or nanometer particles were adhered to an object surface by using ultrasonic dispersing technique. The particles on the object surface can be regarded as submicro or nanometer speckle by using a scanning electronic microscope at a special magnification. In addition, an electron microscope speckle photography (EMSP) method is developed to measure in-plane submicron or nanometer deformation of the object coated with the artificial submicro or nanometer speckles. The principle of artificial submicro or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and the EMSP method are discussed in detail in this article. Some typical applications of this method are offered. The experimental results verified that the artificial submicro or nanometer speckle fabricating technique and EMSP method is feasible.

  1. A New Technique for Fabricating Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nanostructures of Various Shapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013151 TITLE: A New Technique for Fabricating Three-Dimensional Micro ...three-dimensional micro - and nanostructures of various shapes V. Ya. Prinz, D. Griitzmacher, A. Beyer, C. David, B. Ketterer and E. Deccard Laboratory...for Micro - and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland Abstract. We have shown that complex 3-dimensional micro - and

  2. Seamless Pattern Fabrication of Large-Area Nanostructures Using Ultraviolet Nanoimprint Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataza, Shingo; Ishibashi, Kentaro; Kokubo, Mitsunori; Goto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Jun; Shoji, Shuichi

    2009-06-01

    The seamless pattern fabrication of large-area nanostructures using ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was studied. Large-area nanopatterning is required in the actual mass production of optical devices and biological microchips. We applied the double lithography method of litho-etch-litho-etch for UV-NIL process. The proposed multiple UV-NIL process realized 66 ×45 mm2 pattern area, which has 50 nm width and 150 nm space line patterns on a quartz wafer.

  3. Acquisition of a Modified Suction Casting Instrument for the Fabrication of Radiation Tolerant Bulk nNanostructured Metallic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    ST, Wang YQ, Farkas D. Are Nanoporous Materials Radiation Resistant? Nano Letters. 2011; 12: 3351-3355. [34] Kiener D, Hosemann P, Maloy S, Minor A...Acquisition of a Modified Suction Casting Instrument for the Fabrication of Radiation Tolerant Bulk nNanostructured Metallic Materials This is the... materials via a modified suction casting technique. The ultimate goal is to provide a platform that supports the design and fabrication of nanostructured

  4. Template-assisted nanostructure fabrication by glancing angle deposition: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Cao, Yongzhi; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chao; Yu, Fuli; Liang, Yingchun

    2013-07-05

    In the present work, we investigate the pre-existing template-assisted glancing angle deposition of Al columnar structures on Cu substrate by means of molecular dynamics simulations, with a focus on examining the effect of deposition-induced template deformation on the morphologies of the fabricated structures. Our simulations demonstrate that the pre-existing templates significantly intensify the shadowing effect, which thus facilitates the formation of columnar structures under small deposition flux. The underlying deformation modes of the templates under different deposition configurations are analyzed and are correlated to the geometrical characteristics of the columnar structures. It is found that the template height-dependent deformation behavior of the templates strongly influences the morphologies of the fabricated columnar structures. Our findings provide design and fabrication guidelines for the fabrication of one-dimensional nanostructures by the template-assisted deposition technique.

  5. Technology for Fabrication of Nanostructures by Standard Cleanroom Processing and Nanoimprint Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilenberg, Brian; Jacobsen, Søren; Pastore, Carine; Nielsen, Theodor; Enghoff, Simon Riis; Jeppesen, Claus; Larsen, Asger Vig; Kristensen, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Sub-micron structures are routinely fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). However EBL is a time consuming and costly technology. We present a technology for fabrication of nanostructures by standard UV-lithography and thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). NIL-stamps with sub-30 nm patterns are fabricated by standard micrometer resolution cleanroom processing, i.e. UV-lithography, reactive ion etching and thermal oxidation, and the pattern is transferred to a polymer thin film on a substrate by NIL. Subsequently the patterned polymer film is used either as a direct etching mask to transfer the pattern to the substrate or as a metal lift-off mask. This way we have demonstrated the fabrication of sub-100 nm nanochannels in silicon oxide and sub-50 nm gold lines on silicon.

  6. Filtration properties of hierarchical carbon nanostructures deposited on carbon fibre fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyp, M.; Mills, C. A.; Rhodes, R.; Pozegic, T. R.; Smith, C. T. G.; Beliatis, M. J.; Rozanski, L. J.; Werbowy, A.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures have been produced and examined for their use in liquid filtration experiments. The nanostructures are based on carbon nanotube growth and graphite oxide sponge deposition on the surface of commercially available carbon fibre fabrics. The hierarchical nanomaterial construction on the carbon fibre fabric is made possible due to the chemical vapour deposited carbon nanotubes which act as anchoring sites for the solution deposited sponge nanomaterial. The nanomaterials show a high capacity for Rhodamine B filtration, with the carbon fibre—carbon nanotube—graphite oxide sponge fabric showing filtering performance comparable to a commercial activated carbon filter. After 40 successive filtrations of 10 mg ml-1 Rhodamine B solution, the filtrate of dual modified fabrics returned an increase in transparency of 94% when measured at approx. 550 nm compared to 72% for the commercial carbon filter. When normalised with respect to the areal density of the commercial filter, the increase in optical transparency of the filtrate from the dual modified fabrics reduces to 65%. The Rhodamine B is found to deposit in the carbon nanomaterials via a nucleation, growth and saturation mechanism.

  7. Photodynamic activity of nanostructured fabrics grafted with xanthene and thiazine dyes against opportunistic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Michielsen, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Fungi are an important class of human pathogens for which considerable research has gone into defeating them. The photodynamic effects of rose bengal (RB), phloxine B (PB), azure A (AA), and toluidine blue O (TBO) dyes to inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, and Chaetomium globosum were investigated grafted to nano- and micro-structured fabrics. Three antifungal tests conducted: broth microdilution test of free dyes, zone of inhibition and quantitative antifungal assays on fabrics grafted with dyes. In the broth microdilution test, free RB displayed the lowest MIC at 32 μM to inhibit visible hyphal growth and germination but the antifungal ability of MIC for other photosensitizers below 63 μM was insignificant. RB and PB showed lower MIC than AA and TBO. In the inhibition zone tests, nanostructured fabrics grafted with RB and PB did not display fungal growth on the surface. Most microstructured fabrics grafted with AA and TBO showed little inhibition. In quantitative antifungal assay, nanostructured fabrics grafted with RB has the largest inhibition rate on T. viride and the lowest inhibition rate on P. funiculosum and the results showed the increasing inhibition rate in the order of AA < TBO < PB < RB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kovylina, M; Erekhinsky, M; Morales, R; Schuller, I K; Labarta, A; Batlle, X

    2010-04-30

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF(2) nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 micros) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 +/- 8 to 500 +/- 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 +/- 8 to 1000 +/- 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 +/- 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 +/- 8 to 1200 +/- 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF(2)) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  9. Design, fabrication, and testing of nanostructured carbons and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyong

    Many applications, such as catalysis, sensing, separation and energy storage and conversion, will benefit from the miniaturization of materials to nanometer length scales. This dissertation details my study of nanocomposites based on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons and zirconia, and three-dimensionally ordered macroporous/mesoporous (3DOM/m) carbons. The macropores of these materials were produced using colloidal crystal templates while the mesopores were generated using surfactant templates. These solids are composed of close-packed and three-dimensionally interconnected spherical macropores surrounded by nanoscale solid or mesoporous wall skeletons. This unique architecture offers large surface areas, pore volumes, and good access into the bulk via a macroporous network. 3DOM carbons have been demonstrated as promising electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and sensors, but their electrochemical performance still needs to be improved. As a model system for the modification of the electrode, 3DOM C/TiO2 was synthesized by fabricating a conformal coating of TiO2 nanoparticles on the macropore walls of 3DOM C. My research further extended the micro-structural design of monolithic carbon from 3DOM to 3DOM/m. 3DOM/m C monoliths with high surface areas, controllable mesopore sizes, and mesopore ordering, were synthesized by three methods. One of the methods is simpler and more environment benign than previously reported methods. The mesopores in 3DOM/m C-based electrode provide room to accommodate secondary phases, such as graphitic carbon, SnO2 and Si which can improve the conductivity or lithium capacity of the electrode. Owing to this advantage, 3DOM/m C/C and 3DOM/m C/SnO2 exhibited significantly improved rate performance, lithium capacity and cycleability, compared with 3DOM C. To meet the demands of nano-sized functional materials in applications such as nano-device fabrication and drug delivery, mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with

  10. Complex-Morphology Metal-Based Nanostructures: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Antonella; Ruffino, Francesco; Grimaldi, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their peculiar qualities, metal-based nanostructures have been extensively used in applications such as catalysis, electronics, photography, and information storage, among others. New applications for metals in areas such as photonics, sensing, imaging, and medicine are also being developed. Significantly, most of these applications require the use of metals in the form of nanostructures with specific controlled properties. The properties of nanoscale metals are determined by a set of physical parameters that include size, shape, composition, and structure. In recent years, many research fields have focused on the synthesis of nanoscale-sized metallic materials with complex shape and composition in order to optimize the optical and electrical response of devices containing metallic nanostructures. The present paper aims to overview the most recent results—in terms of fabrication methodologies, characterization of the physico-chemical properties and applications—of complex-morphology metal-based nanostructures. The paper strongly focuses on the correlation between the complex morphology and the structures’ properties, showing how the morphological complexity (and its nanoscale control) can often give access to a wide range of innovative properties exploitable for innovative functional device production. We begin with an overview of the basic concepts on the correlation between structural and optical parameters of nanoscale metallic materials with complex shape and composition, and the possible solutions offered by nanotechnology in a large range of applications (catalysis, electronics, photonics, sensing). The aim is to assess the state of the art, and then show the innovative contributions that can be proposed in this research field. We subsequently report on innovative, versatile and low-cost synthesis techniques, suitable for providing a good control on the size, surface density, composition and geometry of the metallic nanostructures. The main

  11. Complex-Morphology Metal-Based Nanostructures: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Antonella; Ruffino, Francesco; Grimaldi, Maria Grazia

    2016-06-06

    Due to their peculiar qualities, metal-based nanostructures have been extensively used in applications such as catalysis, electronics, photography, and information storage, among others. New applications for metals in areas such as photonics, sensing, imaging, and medicine are also being developed. Significantly, most of these applications require the use of metals in the form of nanostructures with specific controlled properties. The properties of nanoscale metals are determined by a set of physical parameters that include size, shape, composition, and structure. In recent years, many research fields have focused on the synthesis of nanoscale-sized metallic materials with complex shape and composition in order to optimize the optical and electrical response of devices containing metallic nanostructures. The present paper aims to overview the most recent results-in terms of fabrication methodologies, characterization of the physico-chemical properties and applications-of complex-morphology metal-based nanostructures. The paper strongly focuses on the correlation between the complex morphology and the structures' properties, showing how the morphological complexity (and its nanoscale control) can often give access to a wide range of innovative properties exploitable for innovative functional device production. We begin with an overview of the basic concepts on the correlation between structural and optical parameters of nanoscale metallic materials with complex shape and composition, and the possible solutions offered by nanotechnology in a large range of applications (catalysis, electronics, photonics, sensing). The aim is to assess the state of the art, and then show the innovative contributions that can be proposed in this research field. We subsequently report on innovative, versatile and low-cost synthesis techniques, suitable for providing a good control on the size, surface density, composition and geometry of the metallic nanostructures. The main purpose of

  12. Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  13. Fabrication and applications of copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Shamraiz, Umair Hussain, Raja Azadar Badshah, Amin

    2016-06-15

    This review article presents different fabrication procedures (under the headlines of solvothermal routes, aerosol methods, solution methods and thermolysis), and applications (photocatalytic degradation, ablation of cancer cells, electrode material in lithium ion batteries and in gas sensing, organic solar cells, field emission properties, super capacitor applications, photoelectrochemical performance of QDSCs, photocatalytic reduction of organic pollutants, electrochemical bio sensing, enhanced PEC characteristics of pre-annealed CuS film electrodes) of copper sulfide (Covellite). - Highlights: • This review article presents the synthesis and applications of copper sulfide. • CuS has been used over the years for different applications in nanoscience. • Different synthetic protocols are followed for their preparation which help in the possible modifications in the morphology of CuS.

  14. Fabrication of ultra-fine nanostructures using edge transfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mianqi; Li, Fengwang; Cao, Tingbing

    2012-03-01

    The exploration of new methods and techniques for application in diverse fields, such as photonics, microfluidics, biotechnology and flexible electronics is of increasing scientific and technical interest for multiple uses over distance of 10-100 nm. This article discusses edge transfer printing -- a series of unconventional methods derived from soft lithography for nanofabrication. It possesses the advantages of easy fabrication, low-cost and great serviceability. In this paper, we show how to produce exposed edges and use various materials for edge transfer printing, while nanoskiving, nanotransfer edge printing and tunable cracking for nanogaps are introduced. Besides this, different functional materials, such as metals, inorganic semiconductors and polymers, as well as localised heating and charge patterning, are described here as unconventional ``inks'' for printing. Edge transfer printing, which can effectively produce sub-100 nm scale ultra-fine structures, has broad applications, including metallic nanowires as nanoelectrodes, semiconductor nanowires for chemical sensors, heterostructures of organic semiconductors, plasmonic devices and so forth.

  15. Biomimetic polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and nanostructures: from fabrication to applications.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gang; Guo, ZhiGuang; Liu, Weimin

    2017-03-09

    Numerous research studies have contributed to the development of mature superhydrophobic systems. The fabrication and applications of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces have been discussed and these have attracted tremendous attention over the past few years due to their excellent properties. In general, roughness and chemical composition, the two most crucial factors with respect to surface wetting, provide the basic criteria for yielding polymeric superhydrophobic materials. Furthermore, with their unique properties and flexible configurations, polymers have been one of the most efficient materials for fabricating superhydrophobic materials. This review aims to summarize the most recent progress in polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. Significantly, the fundamental theories for designing these materials will be presented, and the original methods will be introduced, followed by a summary of multifunctional superhydrophobic polymers and their applications. The principles of these methods can be divided into two categories: the first involves adding nanoparticles to a low surface energy polymer, and the other involves combining a low surface energy material with a textured surface, followed by chemical modification. Notably, surface-initiated radical polymerization is a versatile method for a variety of vinyl monomers, resulting in controlled molecular weights and low polydispersities. The surfaces produced by these methods not only possess superhydrophobicity but also have many applications, such as self-cleaning, self-healing, anti-icing, anti-bioadhesion, oil-water separation, and even superamphiphobic surfaces. Interestingly, the combination of responsive materials and roughness enhances the responsiveness, which allows the achievement of intelligent transformation between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Nevertheless, surfaces with poor physical and chemical properties are generally unable to withstand the severe conditions of the outside world

  16. Patterned zero-dimensional nanostructures: Fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Neville Lourenco Antonio

    Due to the advantages arising from low-dimensional electronic systems, considerable effort has been put into the use of quantum dots and wires as the active media in optoelectronic devices. The realization of quantum dot based devices has been plagued with numerous obstacles. Conventional quantum dots are formed by strain-driven self-assembly. The stochastic nature of the process results in a distribution of dot sizes. If a device is composed of more than one quantum dot, the issue of uniformity becomes critical. Even if the device has only one quantum dot, uniformity is essential to obtain reproducible characteristics across multiple devices. Thus, the geometrical parameters of a quantum dot, such as shape and size as well as the chemical composition, need to be controlled. In this work, nanoscale selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been used to define InAs dot nucleation sites with highly ordered dot-to-dot pitches down to 80 nm corresponding to densities greater than 10 10 cm-2, which are among the highest reported for site-defined dots. The fabrication approach avoids modification of the underlying surface, allowing for easier integration into a variety of devices. Patterning of an oxide film by electron beam lithography also allows for creation of arbitrary closely packed arrangements of quantum dots for novel device designs. The resulting quantum dot array has the potential to be used as a template for fabricating multi-stack structures for use in laser and photodetector applications. Although nano-fabrication methods impose a degree of determinism on the quantum dot size, the lack of coupling between individual dots in an array structure coupled with the size variation is the primary cause for inhomogeneous broadening in quantum dot based devices. In an attempt to address broadening in quantum dots, the nanopore active layer was proposed. The nanopore is in essence an inverse quantum dot structure consisting of a periodically

  17. Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Dongchan; Meza, Lucas R.; Greer, Frank; Greer, Julia R.

    2013-10-01

    Creating lightweight, mechanically robust materials has long been an engineering pursuit. Many siliceous skeleton species—such as diatoms, sea sponges and radiolarians—have remarkably high strengths when compared with man-made materials of the same composition, yet are able to remain lightweight and porous. It has been suggested that these properties arise from the hierarchical arrangement of different structural elements at their relevant length scales. Here, we report the fabrication of hollow ceramic scaffolds that mimic the length scales and hierarchy of biological materials. The constituent solids attain tensile strengths of 1.75 GPa without failure even after multiple deformation cycles, as revealed by in situ nanomechanical experiments and finite-element analysis. We discuss the high strength and lack of failure in terms of stress concentrators at surface imperfections and of local stresses within the microstructural landscape. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical design principles offered by hard biological organisms can be applied to create damage-tolerant lightweight engineering materials.

  18. Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dongchan; Meza, Lucas R; Greer, Frank; Greer, Julia R

    2013-10-01

    Creating lightweight, mechanically robust materials has long been an engineering pursuit. Many siliceous skeleton species--such as diatoms, sea sponges and radiolarians--have remarkably high strengths when compared with man-made materials of the same composition, yet are able to remain lightweight and porous. It has been suggested that these properties arise from the hierarchical arrangement of different structural elements at their relevant length scales. Here, we report the fabrication of hollow ceramic scaffolds that mimic the length scales and hierarchy of biological materials. The constituent solids attain tensile strengths of 1.75 GPa without failure even after multiple deformation cycles, as revealed by in situ nanomechanical experiments and finite-element analysis. We discuss the high strength and lack of failure in terms of stress concentrators at surface imperfections and of local stresses within the microstructural landscape. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical design principles offered by hard biological organisms can be applied to create damage-tolerant lightweight engineering materials.

  19. Fabrication of nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom using AFM nanoscratching method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomanufacturing method combining the tip scanning with the high-precision stage movement to fabricate nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom by continuous scanning with a fixed scan size. Different structures can be obtained according to the matching relation of the tip feeding velocity and the precision stage moving velocity. This relationship was first studied in detail to achieve nanochannels with different ladder nanostructures at the bottom. Machining experiments were then performed to fabricate nanochannels on an aluminum alloy surface to demonstrate the capability of this AFM-based fabrication method presented in this study. Results show that the feed value and the tip orientation in the removing action play important roles in this method which has a significant effect on the machined surfaces. Finally, the capacity of this method to fabricate a large-scale nanochannel was also demonstrated. This method has the potential to advance the existing AFM tip-based nanomanufacturing technique of the formation these complex structures by increasing the removal speed, simplifying the processing procedure and achieving the large-scale nanofabrication. PMID:24940171

  20. Characterization of Ag nanostructures fabricated by laser-induced dewetting of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, Ru. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.; Grochowska, K.; Sliwinski, G.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results on laser nanostructuring of Ag thin films. The thin films are deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The as fabricated films are then annealed by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. The film modification is studied as a function of the film thickness and the parameters of the laser irradiation as pulse number and laser fluence. In order to estimate the influence of the environment on the characteristics of the fabricated structures the Ag films are annealed in different surrounding media: water, air and vacuum. It is found that at certain conditions the laser treatment may lead to decomposition of the films into a monolayer of nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures are investigated on the basis of transmission spectra taken by optical spectrometer. In the measured spectra plasmon resonance band is observed as its shape and position vary depending on the processing conditions. The fabricated structures are covered with Rhodamine 6G and tested as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

  1. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Kaewkhao, J.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P.

    2014-09-01

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO).

  2. Effects associated with nanostructure fabrication using in situ liquid cell TEM technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Lihui; Wang, Ping; Cao, Hongliang; Miao, Xiaoli; Wei, Feifei; Chen, Xia

    2015-07-28

    We studied silicon, carbon, and SiCx nanostructures fabricated using liquid-phase electron-beam-induced deposition technology in transmission electron microscopy systems. Nanodots obtained from fixed electron beam irradiation followed a universal size versus beam dose trend, with precursor concentrations from pure SiCl4 to 0 % SiCl4 in CH2Cl2, and electron beamintensity ranges of two orders of magnitude, showing good controllability of the deposition. Secondary electrons contributed to the determination of the lateral sizes of the nanostructures, while the primary beam appeared to have an effect in reducing the vertical growth rate. These results can be used to generate donut-shaped nanostructures. Using a scanning electron beam, line structures with both branched and unbranched morphologies were also obtained. As a result, the liquid-phase electron-beam induced deposition technology is shown to be an effective tool for advanced nanostructured material generation.

  3. TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures: Hydrothermal fabrication and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yang, Jin; Sun, Wentao; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures that consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase branches were hydrothermally fabricated and employed as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Each hierarchical nanostructure array was attained in two steps. First, a primary nanorod array was synthesized in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and tetrabutyl titanate (C16H36O4Ti); subsequently, secondary branches were grown on the nanorods in aqueous solutions of ammonium hexafluorotitanate ((NH4)2TiF6) and boric acid (H3BO3). The secondary anatase branches filled part of the space among the primary rutile nanorods and gave rise to a larger surface area. Light-harvesting capability of the DSSCs with TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures as photoanodes was appreciably improved because more dye molecules could be loaded on the photoanodes and more light could be scattered inside the DSSCs. Therefore, the conversion efficiencies of the DSSCs were doubled by replacing the photoanode of primary TiO2 nanorod array with the photoanodes of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructure arrays. Furthermore, in order to reach a compromise between the photoanode surface area and the inter-nanorod space volume, the growth time of the secondary TiO2 anatase branches was optimized.

  4. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Horprathum, M. Eiamchai, P. Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P.; Kaewkhao, J.; Chananonnawathorn, C.

    2014-09-25

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

  5. Extreme wettability of nanostructured glass fabricated by non-lithographic, anisotropic etching

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eusun; Kim, Seul-Cham; Lee, Heon Ju; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2015-01-01

    Functional glass surfaces with the properties of superhydrophobicity/or superhydrohydrophilicity, anti-condensation or low reflectance require nano- or micro-scale roughness, which is difficult to fabricate directly on glass surfaces. Here, we report a novel non-lithographic method for the fabrication of nanostructures on glass; this method introduces a sacrificial SiO2 layer for anisotropic plasma etching. The first step was to form nanopillars on SiO2 layer-coated glass by using preferential CF4 plasma etching. With continuous plasma etching, the SiO2 pillars become etch-resistant masks on the glass; thus, the glass regions covered by the SiO2 pillars are etched slowly, and the regions with no SiO2 pillars are etched rapidly, resulting in nanopatterned glass. The glass surface that is etched with CF4 plasma becomes superhydrophilic because of its high surface energy, as well as its nano-scale roughness and high aspect ratio. Upon applying a subsequent hydrophobic coating to the nanostructured glass, a superhydrophobic surface was achieved. The light transmission of the glass was relatively unaffected by the nanostructures, whereas the reflectance was significantly reduced by the increase in nanopattern roughness on the glass. PMID:25791414

  6. Extreme wettability of nanostructured glass fabricated by non-lithographic, anisotropic etching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eusun; Kim, Seul-Cham; Lee, Heon Ju; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2015-03-20

    Functional glass surfaces with the properties of superhydrophobicity/or superhydrohydrophilicity, anti-condensation or low reflectance require nano- or micro-scale roughness, which is difficult to fabricate directly on glass surfaces. Here, we report a novel non-lithographic method for the fabrication of nanostructures on glass; this method introduces a sacrificial SiO2 layer for anisotropic plasma etching. The first step was to form nanopillars on SiO2 layer-coated glass by using preferential CF4 plasma etching. With continuous plasma etching, the SiO2 pillars become etch-resistant masks on the glass; thus, the glass regions covered by the SiO2 pillars are etched slowly, and the regions with no SiO2 pillars are etched rapidly, resulting in nanopatterned glass. The glass surface that is etched with CF4 plasma becomes superhydrophilic because of its high surface energy, as well as its nano-scale roughness and high aspect ratio. Upon applying a subsequent hydrophobic coating to the nanostructured glass, a superhydrophobic surface was achieved. The light transmission of the glass was relatively unaffected by the nanostructures, whereas the reflectance was significantly reduced by the increase in nanopattern roughness on the glass.

  7. Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jang-Ung; Cirelli, Ray; Yang, Shu; Heitzman, Carla E.; Braun, Paul V.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Rogers, John A.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution, conformable phase masks provide a means to fabricate, in an experimentally simple manner, classes of 3D nanostructures that are technologically important but difficult to generate in other ways. In this approach, light passing through a phase mask that has features of relief comparable in dimension to the wavelength generates a 3D distribution of intensity that exposes a photopolymer film throughout its thickness. Developing this polymer yields a structure in the geometry of the intensity distribution, with feature sizes as small as 50 nm. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis reveals the fundamental aspects of the optics associated with this method; a broad-range 3D nanostructures patterned with it demonstrates its technical capabilities. A nanoporous filter element built inside a microfluidic channel represents one example of the many types of functional devices that can be constructed. PMID:15314211

  8. Focused ion beam lithography for fabrication of suspended nanostructures on highly corrugated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Erdmanis, M; Sievilä, P; Shah, A; Chekurov, N; Ovchinnikov, V; Tittonen, I

    2014-08-22

    We propose a nanofabrication method that allows for patterning on extremely corrugated surfaces with micrometer-size features. The technique employs focused ion beam nanopatterning of ion-sensitive inorganic resists formed by atomic layer deposition at low temperature. The nanoscale resolution on corrugated surfaces is ensured by inherently large depth of focus of a focused ion beam system and very uniform resist coating. The utilized TiO₂ and Al₂O₃ resists show high selectivity in deep reactive ion etching and enable the release of suspended nanostructures by dry etching. We demonstrate the great flexibility of the process by fabricating suspended nanostructures on flat surfaces, inclined walls, and on the bottom of deep grooves.

  9. The fabrication of subwavelength anti-reflective nanostructures using a bio-template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoyong; Zhang, Guoming; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan; Mu, Shichen

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a paradigm, a simple, low-cost and conventional approach to the fabrication of large-area subwavelength anti-reflective nanostructures on films directly with a bio-template. Specifically, the nano-nipple arrays on the surface of cicada wings have been precisely replicated to a PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) film with high reproducibility by a technique of replica molding, which mainly involves two processes: one is that a negative Au mold is prepared directly from the bio-template of the cicada wing by thermal deposition; the other is that the Au mold is used to obtain the replica of the nanostructures on the original cicada wing by casting polymer. The reflectance spectra measurement shows that the replicated PMMA film can considerably reduce reflectivity at its surface over a large wavelength range from 250 to 800 nm, indicating that the anti-reflective property has also been inherited by the PMMA film.

  10. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  11. Focused-Ion-Beam Induced Rayleigh-Plateau Instability for Diversiform Suspended Nanostructure Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Can; Zhao, Lurui; Mao, Yifei; Wu, Wengang; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating diversiform suspended nanostructures is reported. The method utilizes focused-ion-beam (FIB) induced material redistribution and Rayleigh-Plateau instability, which determine the resulting shapes of formed nanostructures. By choosing target materials, their predefined patterns as well as FIB settings, we have achieved parallel nanofabrication of various kinds including nanostrings, nanobead chains and nanopore membranes with smooth surfaces due to the self-perfection effect of the material redistribution upon the minimization of system free energy. The diameters of the nanostrings and nanopores reach about 10 nm and 200 nm, respectively. The average period of the nanobead chains is 250 nm. PMID:25649055

  12. Large-scale controlled fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures in liquid crystalline phase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Junlin; Xuan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale controllable fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures is demonstrated experimentally via electrodeposition in the liquid crystalline phase. Different sizes of silver flowers are fabricated by adjusting the deposition time and the concentration of the silver nitrate solution. The density of the silver flowers in the sample is also controllable in this work. The flower-like silver nanostructures can serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates because of their local surface plasmon resonance, and they may have applications in photoluminescence and catalysis. This liquid crystalline phase is used as a soft template for fabricating flower-like silver nanostructures for the first time, and this approach is suitable for large-scale uniform fabrication up to several centimetres. PMID:26216669

  13. Artificial black opal fabricated from nanoporous carbon spheres.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuri; Ishii, Masahiko; Nakamura, Tadashi; Yano, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-15

    A nanocasting method via chemical vapor deposition of acetonitrile was successfully employed to fabricate porous carbon colloidal crystal using colloidal crystal from monodispersed mesoporous silica spheres (MMSS) as a sacrificial scaffold. The mesostructure as well as periodic arrays within (111) plane of MMSS were replicated for the carbon colloidal crystal (black opal) with the length scale in the centimeter range. Brilliant iridescent colors were clearly observed for the first time on the black carbon colloidal crystal fabricated from porous carbon spheres, and they changed dramatically in accordance with the observation angle, like natural black opals. Reflection spectra measurements based on 2D surface diffraction and Bragg diffraction in the mirror mode were conducted for the fabricated carbon periodic arrays. The periodicity in the (111) plane as well as in the direction perpendicular to the (111) plane of the colloidal crystal was evaluated by comparing the results obtained from these two measurements. It was found that the periodicity in the direction perpendicular to the (111) surface is not high for the obtained black carbon opal. On the other hand, the relationship between the incident angles and the peak wavelengths of the reflection spectra, collected in the condition where the incident light and the reflected light pass through in the same direction, is governed by an approximation based on 2D surface diffraction. The results imply that the origin of the iridescent colors on the fabricated black carbon opal is derived from the periodicity not in the direction perpendicular to the (111) plane but within the (111) plane.

  14. Fabrication and properties of poly(vinylidenefluoride)/PbS/Au heterogeneous nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Pill; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Park, Jong Wook; Ragupathy, Dhanusuraman; Manesh, Kalayil Manian

    2009-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVdF) PVdF/PbS and PVdF/PbS/Au heterogeneous nanostructures by the processes, electrospinning and chemical treatment. Initially electrospinning a solution consisting of PVdF and lead acetate was used to form PVdF nanofibers loaded with Pb ions. Exposure of Pb ions loaded PVdF fibers to H2S resulted in PVdF/PbS nanostructures. The deposition of gold nanoparticles onto PVdF/PbS nanostructures results in PVdF/PbS/Au heterogeneous structure. The existence of PbS particles with an average diameter of 11 nm is evident from field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) image of PVdF/PbS. The results from X-ray diffraction of PVdF/PbS also predict the size of PbS particles as in accordance with FETEM. A blue shift in the optical transition of PbS is noticed in the UV-visible spectrum of PVdF/PbS as a result of quantum confinement effect. The band gap of PbS is influenced by the presence of Au nanoparticles over the PbS particles. An equal atomic weight % of Au and PbS is found in the PVdF/PbS/Au nanostructure as inferred from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of PVdF/PbS and PVdF/PbS/Au are compared. Emission peaks are noticed at 400 nm and 480 nm for PVdF/PbS and PVdF/PbS/Au nanostructures respectively for an excitation wavelength of 254 nm. The presence of Au nanoclusters in PVdF/PbS/Au diminishes the intensity of photo emission of PbS.

  15. Fabrication of superconducting MgB2 nanostructures by an electron beam lithography-based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portesi, C.; Borini, S.; Amato, G.; Monticone, E.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of magnesium diboride nanowires realized by an electron beam lithography (EBL)-based method. For fabricating MgB2 thin films, an all in situ technique has been used, based on the coevaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater, respectively. Since the high temperatures required for the fabrication of good quality MgB2 thin films do not allow the nanostructuring approach based on the lift-off technique, we structured the samples combining EBL, optical lithography, and Ar milling. In this way, reproducible nanowires 1 μm long have been obtained. To illustrate the impact of the MgB2 film processing on its superconducting properties, we measured the temperature dependence of the resistance on a nanowire and compared it to the original magnesium diboride film. The electrical properties of the films are not degraded as a consequence of the nanostructuring process, so that superconducting nanodevices may be obtained by this method.

  16. Fabrication and measurement of nanostructures on the micro ball surface using a modified atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. S.; Geng, Y. Q.; Li, W. B.; Yan, Y. D.; Hu, Z. J.; Sun, T.; Liang, Y. C.; Dong, S.

    2012-11-01

    In order to machine and measure nanostructures on the micro ball surface, a modified atomic force microscope (AFM) combining a commercial AFM system with a home built precision air bearing spindle is established. Based on this system, motions of both the AFM scanner and the air bearing spindle are controlled to machine nanostructures on the micro ball based on the AFM tip-based nano mechanical machining approach. The eccentric error between the axis of the micro ball and the axis of the spindle is reduced to 3-4 μm by the provided fine adjusting method. A 1000 nano lines array, 36 square pits structure, 10 square pits structure, and a zig-zag structure on the circumference of the micro ball with the diameter of 1.5 mm are machined successfully. The measurement results achieved by the same system reveal that the profiles and mode-power spectra curves of the micro ball are influenced by the artificially machined nanostructures significantly according to their distributions. This work is an useful attempt for modifying the micro ball profile and manufacture of the spherical modulation targets to study the experimental performance of the micro ball in implosion.

  17. Fabrication and measurement of nanostructures on the micro ball surface using a modified atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X S; Geng, Y Q; Li, W B; Yan, Y D; Hu, Z J; Sun, T; Liang, Y C; Dong, S

    2012-11-01

    In order to machine and measure nanostructures on the micro ball surface, a modified atomic force microscope (AFM) combining a commercial AFM system with a home built precision air bearing spindle is established. Based on this system, motions of both the AFM scanner and the air bearing spindle are controlled to machine nanostructures on the micro ball based on the AFM tip-based nano mechanical machining approach. The eccentric error between the axis of the micro ball and the axis of the spindle is reduced to 3-4 μm by the provided fine adjusting method. A 1000 nano lines array, 36 square pits structure, 10 square pits structure, and a zig-zag structure on the circumference of the micro ball with the diameter of 1.5 mm are machined successfully. The measurement results achieved by the same system reveal that the profiles and mode-power spectra curves of the micro ball are influenced by the artificially machined nanostructures significantly according to their distributions. This work is an useful attempt for modifying the micro ball profile and manufacture of the spherical modulation targets to study the experimental performance of the micro ball in implosion.

  18. A versatile approach to fabricate modulated micro-/nanostructures by electrohydrodynamic structuring on prepatterned polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Chen, Xiaoliang; Wang, Li; Ding, Yucheng

    2017-02-01

    Micro-/nanostructures fabricated on functional polymers from physical principles can be highly desirable for polymer devices, owing to the physical integrity of the generated structure, the process economy and their environmentally friendly quality. However, current fabricating approaches can only duplicate a specific structure, or may require a complex technological procedure for the fabrication, i.e. for the fabrication of modulated micro-/nanostructures on polymer films on the basis of the physical principles, a versatile yet simple procedure is lacking. In this paper, electrohydrodynamic structuring on prepatterned polymer (ESPP) based on the electrohydrodynamic behavior of fluidic polymers in an electric field is proposed for the fabrication of a modulated structure on a functional polymer. For this purpose, a voltage is applied between a flat template and a flat substrate, sandwiching a prepatterned polymer and an air gap, resulting in a non-uniform upward pull on the polymer. This leads to a deformation of the polymer resulting in a structure corresponding to the initial morphology. This study explores the capability of ESPP in duplicating modulated structures by manipulating the electric field (which is also influenced by process parameters involving voltage and air gap length) from the perspective of theoretical analysis and experimental tests, which categorize the relationship between electrohydrodynamic pressure and surface tension into two regimes: one consisting of equilibrium modulation for convex structures potentially used as microlens arrays, and another comprising non-equilibrium modulation for high aspect ratio structures and potentially applicable to dry adhesives, superhydrophobic surfaces, etc. Furthermore, a criterion is proposed to distinguish between the two aforementioned regimes.

  19. A rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery fabricated with nickel hexacyanoferrate and nanostructured zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are very attractive as a promising alternative energy storage system, although their reversible capacity is typically limited. A new rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and the nanostructured zinc anode is fabricated. The rational combination of two materials with mild aqueous electrolyte renders the devices with an average operating voltage close to 1.5 V, higher specific capacity of 76.2 mAh g-1, and a good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention for 1000 cycles. These remarkable features can provide guidance for the development of rechargeable batteries from the naturally abundant electrode materials with neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  20. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB6-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Min, Guanghui; Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured LaB6 films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB6 film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  1. The fabrication of 3-D nanostructures by a low- voltage EBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Hun; Kim, Jae Gu; Kim, Chang Seok; Choi, Doo Sun; Chang, Sunghwan; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2011-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) structures are used in many applications, including the fabrication of opto-electronic and bio-MEMS devices. Among the various fabrication techniques available for 3-D structures, nano imprint lithography (NIL) is preferred for producing nanoscale 3-D patterns because of its simplicity, relatively short processing time, and high manufacturing precision. For efficient replication in NIL, a precise 3-D stamp must be used as an imprinting tool. Hence, we attempted the fabrication of original 3-D master molds by low-voltage electron beam lithography (EBL). We then fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps from the original 3-D mold via replica molding with ultrasonic vibration.First, we experimentally analyzed the characteristics of low-voltage EBL in terms of various parameters such as resist thickness, acceleration voltage, aperture size, and baking temperature. From these e-beam exposure experiments, we found that the exposure depth and width were almost saturated at 3 kV or lesser, even when the electron dosage was increased. This allowed for the fabrication of various stepped 3-D nanostructures at a low voltage. In addition, by using line-dose EBL, V-groove patterns could be fabricated on a cured electron resist (ER) at a low voltage and low baking temperature. Finally, the depth variation could be controlled to within 10 nm through superposition exposure at 1 kV. From these results, we determined the optimum electron beam exposure conditions for the fabrication of various 3-D structures on ERs by low-voltage EBL. We then fabricated PDMS stamps via the replica molding process.

  2. Soft Janus particles: ideal building blocks for template-free fabrication of two-dimensional exotic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2014-08-14

    The design and fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) well-ordered nanostructures by a facile and effective strategy remain a major scientific and technological challenge, hitherto achieved mainly through the aid of interfaces or substrates with an ordered arrangement. Here we introduce a new concept in achieving template-free fabrication of diverse 2D ordered nanostructures by utilizing anisotropic characteristics of soft triblock Janus particles. Our numerical investigation demonstrates how particle softness and controllable directional attraction interplay to generate a number of fascinating non-close-packed 2D nanostructures and even three-dimensional (3D) vesicles. These non-close-packed nanostructures are of great interest for scientific reasons and lead to promising applications in soft nanotechnology and biotechnology.

  3. Enabling antibacterial coating via bioinspired mineralization of nanostructured ZnO on fabrics under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Manna, Joydeb; Begum, Gousia; Kumar, K Pranay; Misra, Sunil; Rana, Rohit K

    2013-05-22

    Herein, we present an environmentally benign method capable of mineralization and deposition of nanomaterials to introduce antibacterial functionalities into cotton fabrics under mild conditions. Similar to the way in which many naturally occurring biominerals evolve around the living organism under ambient conditions, this technique enables flexible substrates like the cotton fabric to be coated with inorganic-based functional materials. Specifically, our strategy involves the use of long-chain polyamines known to be responsible in certain biomineralization processes, to nucleate, organize, and deposit nanostructured ZnO on cotton bandage in an aqueous solution under mild conditions of room temperature and neutral pH. The ZnO-coated cotton bandages as characterized by SEM, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, XRD, UV-DRS, and fluorescence microscopy demonstrate the importance of polyamine in generating a stable and uniform coating of spindle-shaped ZnO particles on individual threads of the fabric. As the coating process requires only mild conditions, it avoids any adverse effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the substrate. Furthermore, the ZnO particles on cotton fabric show efficient antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negetive bacteria. Therefore, the developed polyamine mediated bioinspired coating method provides not only a facile and "green" synthesis for coating on flexible substrate but also the fabrication of antibacterial enabled materials for healthcare applications.

  4. Fabrication of superhydrophilic nanostructured surface by thermal annealing of titanium thin films in air.

    PubMed

    Klamchuen, A; Pratontep, S

    2009-02-01

    We report on a novel approach to fabricate a superhydrophilic titanium oxynitride surface by dc magnetron sputtering deposition followed by thermal annealing in air. The annealing was conducted in a furnace with no gas control at temperature ranging from 300-700 degrees C. The chemical composition and the morphology of the films have been investigated by contact angle measurements, optical absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results reveal that the annealed films consist of a 5-10 nm thick capping titanium composite layer on top of a titanium metal layer. The nitrogen and oxygen composition of this capping layer can be tailored with the annealing temperature. The annealing process also produces nanoscale protrusions on the surface, yielding water contact angles of less than five degrees. This annealing approach in air is a simple yet versatile method, capable of producing nanostructure materials with potential applications in photocatalytic coating and semiconductor fabrication.

  5. Fabricating ordered 2-D nano-structured arrays using nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenlong; Cvetanovic, Sandra; Pearce, Joshua M

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of plasmonic metamaterials to improve absorption of light in thin-film solar photovoltaic devices has created a demand for a scalable method of patterning large areas with metal nanostructures deposited in an ordered array. This article describes two methods of fabricating ordered 2D nanosphere colloidal films: spin coating and interface coating. The two methods are compared and parameter optimization discussed. The study reveals that: •For smaller nanosphere sizes, spin coating is more favorable, while for larger nanospheres, the angled interface coating provides more coverage and uniformity.•A surfactant-free approach for interface coating is developed to fabricate zero-contamination colloidal films.•Each of the methods reaches an overall coverage of more than 90% and can be used for nanosphere lithography to form plasmonic metamaterials.

  6. Fabrication of thorny Au nanostructures on polyaniline surfaces for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Siwei; Xu, Ping; Ren, Ziqiu; Zhang, Bin; Du, Yunchen; Han, Xijiang; Mack, Nathan H; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the fabrication of Au nanostructures on polyaniline (PANI) membrane surfaces for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications, through a direct chemical reduction by PANI. Introduction of acids into the HAuCl(4) solution leads to homogeneous Au structures on the PANI surfaces, which show only sub-ppm detection levels toward the target analyte, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), because of limited surface area and lack of surface roughness. Thorny Au nanostructures can be obtained through controlled reaction conditions and the addition of a capping agent poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) in the HAuCl(4) solution and the temperature kept at 80 °C in an oven. Those thorny Au nanostructures, with higher surface areas and unique geometric feature, show a SERS detection sensitivity of 1 × 10(-9) M (sub-ppb level) toward two different analyte molecules, 4-MBA and Rhodamine B, demonstrating their generality for SERS applications. These highly sensitive SERS-active substrates offer novel robust structures for trace detection of chemical and biological analytes.

  7. [The effects of nanostructured titanium fabricated via surface plastic deformation on Saos-2 cell adherence, proliferation and differentiation].

    PubMed

    Wan, Peng-Bo; Chen, Wan-Tao; He, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Nong; Zhou, Xiao-Jian

    2008-04-01

    To study the effects of nanostructured titanium fabricated via surface plastic deformation on Saos-2 cell adherence, proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Nanostructured titanium surfaces were prepared using plastic deformation and divided into three groups: group I (30 minutes, n=6), group II (60 minutes, n=6) and group III (90 minutes, n=6), according to the time of preparation. The untreated titanium was used as control group. Saos-2 cell line was cultured on different titanium surfaces. The features of titanium surface and the effects of nanostructured titanium surfaces on cell adherence, proliferation and shape were examined using fluorescence microscope, LSCM and MTT tests. RT-PCR was used to assess the alteration of BMP-4 gene expression. The data was analyzed for ANOVA with SAS6.0 software package. The results of SEM showed that plastic deformation for 60 and 90 minutes yielded nanostructured titanium surface. The nanostructured titanium surface significantly promoted Saos-2 cell adherence (P<0.05). Group II (60 minutes) had more extensive spreading on titanium surfaces than the control group. Group II (60 minutes) and group III (90 minutes) had significantly higher BMP-4 gene expression in Saos-2 cells than control group (P<0.05). The biological behavior of Saos-2 cells on nanostructured titanium surface fabricated via plastic deformation for 60 minutes is better than other groups. Surface plastic deformation may be a potential method to yield nanostructured surface of titanium.

  8. Design and electrochemical fabrication of gold binary ordered micro/nanostructured porous arrays via step-by-step colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guotao; Cai, Weiping; Luo, Yuanyuan; Lv, Fangjing; Yang, Jinling; Li, Yue

    2009-03-03

    Colloidal lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput, facile nanofabrication technique capable of producing a large variety of nanostructured arrays. In this letter, we report a methodology, named step-by-step colloidal lithography, using electrochemical deposition as a fabrication technique to sculpture various hexagonally packed 2D-ordered gold binary micro/nanostructured porous arrays. By the designed fabrication routes, the structures of arrays and the morphology of the building blocks in the arrays can be easily controlled. Because of the feature of step-by-step fabrication, such a strategy will provide a versatile methodology not only for unitary components but also for binary and even multiplex materials, leading to heterostructured arrays with controlled compositions and block sizes. Such morphology and structure-controlled 2D binary porous arrays will exhibit the importance in building micro/nanostructured devices.

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates fabricated using electroless plating on polymer-templated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bantz, Kyle C; Haynes, Christy L

    2008-06-03

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has great potential as an analytical technique based on the unique molecular signatures presented even by structurally similar analyte species and the minimal interference of scattering from water when sampling in aqueous environments. Unfortunately, analytical SERS applications have been restricted on the basis of limitations in substrate design. Herein, we present a simple SERS substrate that exploits electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle-seeded polymer scaffold that can be fabricated quickly and without specialized equipment. The polymer-templated nanostructures have stable enhancement factors that are comparable to the traditional silver film over nanospheres (AgFON) substrate, broad localized surface plasmon resonance spectra that allow various Raman excitation wavelengths to be utilized, and tolerance for both aqueous and organic environments, even after 5 day exposure. These polymer-templated nanostructures have an advantage over the AgFON substrate based on the ease of fabrication; specifically, the ability to generate fresh SERS substrates outside the laboratory environment will facilitate the application of SERS to new analytical spectroscopy applications.

  10. Three-Dimensional Nanostructure Fabrication by Focused Ion Beam Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Shinji

    In this chapter, we describe three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication using 30 keV Ga+ focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) and a phenanthrene (C14H10) source as a precursor. We also consider microstructure plastic art, which is a new field that has been made possible by microbeam technology, and we present examples of such art, including a "micro wine glass" with an external diameter of 2.75 μm and a height of 12 μm. The film deposited during such processes is diamond-like amorphous carbon, which has a Young's modulus exceeding 600 GPa, appearing to make it highly desirable for various applications. The production of three-dimensional nanostructures is also discussed. The fabrication of microcoils, nanoelectrostatic actuators, and 0.1 μm nanowiring - all potential components of nanomechanical systems - is explained. The chapter ends by describing the realization of nanoinjectors and nanomanipulators, novel nanotools for manipulating and analyzing subcellular organelles.

  11. The fabrication of flip-covered plasmonic nanostructure surfaces with enhanced wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Joo-Yun; Sung, Sang-Keun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Cheon, So-Hui; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Eungsug

    2017-01-01

    Exposed nanostructure surfaces often suffer from external dynamic wear, particularly when used in human interaction, resulting in surface defects and the degradation of plasmonic resonance properties particularly in terms of transmittance extinction rate and peak-to-valley slope. In this work, a method for the fabrication of flip-covered silver nanostructure-arrayed surfaces is shown to enhance wear resistance. Selectively transferred silver dot and silver webbed-trench exposed reference samples were fabricated by metal nanoimprint, and flip-covered samples were created by flipping and bonding reference samples onto a PET film coated with an adhesive layer. The samples' spectral transmittance was measured before and after a dynamic wear test. Some spectral shift was observed due to the change in refractive index of the surrounding media, but this was not as significant as the effects of the other chosen geometry factors. It was found that dynamic wear had a greater effect on the plasmonic resonance behavior of the exposed samples than in those that had been flip-covered. This suggests that flip-covering may be an effective strategy for the protection of plasmonic resonators against dynamic wear. It is expected that the slight variations in spectral transmittance could be compensated through proper tuning of the sample geometry.

  12. Large scale fabrication of nitrogen vacancy-embedded diamond nanostructures for single-photon source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Chang, Yanchun; Hao, Tingting; Pan, Xinyu; Ye, Haitao; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-11-01

    Some color centers in diamond can serve as quantum bits which can be manipulated with microwave pulses and read out with laser, even at room temperature. However, the photon collection efficiency of bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, we fabricated arrays of diamond nanostructures, differing in both diameter and top end shape, with HSQ and Cr as the etching mask materials, aiming toward large scale fabrication of single-photon sources with enhanced collection efficiency made of nitrogen vacancy (NV) embedded diamond. With a mixture of O2 and CHF3 gas plasma, diamond pillars with diameters down to 45 nm were obtained. The top end shape evolution has been represented with a simple model. The tests of size dependent single-photon properties confirmed an improved single-photon collection efficiency enhancement, larger than tenfold, and a mild decrease of decoherence time with decreasing pillar diameter was observed as expected. These results provide useful information for future applications of nanostructured diamond as a single-photon source. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11574369, 11574368, 91323304, 11174362, and 51272278), and the FP7 Marie Curie Action (project No. 295208) sponsored by the European Commission.

  13. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS₂ thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Van Ben; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-03-28

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ∼1.3 μm. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions.

  14. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates. PMID:25687120

  15. A Nanostructured Bifunctional platform for Sensing of Glucose Biomarker in Artificial Saliva: Synergy in hybrid Pt/Au surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Shimizu, Flávio M; Coelho, Dyovani; Piazzeta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Machado, Sergio A S; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-12-15

    We report on a bimetallic, bifunctional electrode where a platinum (Pt) surface was patterned with nanostructured gold (Au) fingers with different film thicknesses, which was functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx) to yield a highly sensitive glucose biosensor. This was achieved by using selective adsorption of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) onto Au fingers, which allowed GOx immobilization only onto the Au-SAM surface. This modified electrode was termed bifunctional because it allowed to simultaneously immobilize the biomolecule (GOx) on gold to catalyze glucose, and detect hydrogen peroxide on Pt sites. Optimized electrocatalytic activity was reached for the architecture Pt/Au-SAM/GOx with 50nm thickness of Au, where synergy between Pt and Au allowed for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a low applied potential (0V vs. Ag/AgCl). Detection was performed for H2O2 in the range between 4.7 and 102.7 nmol L(-1), with detection limit of 3.4×10(-9) mol L(-1) (3.4 nmol L(-1)) and an apparent Michaelis-Menten rate constant of 3.2×10(-6)molL(-1), which is considerably smaller than similar devices with monometallic electrodes. The methodology was validated by measuring glucose in artificial saliva, including in the presence of interferents. The synergy between Pt and Au was confirmed in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements with an increased electron transfer, compared to bare Pt and Au electrodes. The approach for fabricating the reproducible bimetallic Pt/Au electrodes is entirely generic and may be explored for other types of biosensors and biodevices where advantage can be taken of the combination of the two metals.

  16. Design, fabrication, and characterization of metallic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qingzhen

    Metal/dielectric nanostructures have the ability to sustain coherent electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Due to their capability of localizing and guiding light in sub-wavelength metal nanostructures beyond diffraction limits, surface plasmon-based photonics, or “plasmonics” has opened new physical phenomena and lead to novel applications in metamaterials, optoelectronics, surface enhanced spectroscopy and biological sensing. This dissertation centers on design, fabrication, characterization of metallic nanostructures and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and actively tunable plasmonics. Metal-dielectric nanostructures are the building blocks for photonic metamaterials. One valuable design guideline for metamaterials is the Babinet’s principle, which governs the optical properties of complementary nanostructures. However, most complementary metamaterials are designed for the far infrared region or beyond, where the optical absorption of metal is small. We have developed a novel dual fabrication method, capable of simultaneously producing optically thin complementary structures. From experimental measurements and theoretical simulations, we showed that Babinet’s principle qualitatively holds in the visible region for the optically thin complements. The complementary structure is also a good platform to study subtle differences between nanoparticles and nanoholes in SERS (a surface sensitive technique, which can enhance the conventional Raman cross-section by 106˜108 fold, thus very useful for highly sensitive biochemical sensing). Through experimental measurement and theoretical analysis, we showed that the SERS enhancement spectrum (plot of SERS enhancement versus excitation wavelengths), dominated by local near-field, for nanoholes closely follows their far-field optical transmission spectrum. However, the enhancement spectrum for nanoparticles red-shifts significantly from their far-field optical extinction

  17. In vivo study of a self-stabilizing artificial vertebral body fabricated by electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Cai, Hong; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Ke; Leng, Huijie; Sun, Chuiguo; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhongjun

    2014-04-15

    In vivo assessment of a novel artificial vertebral body fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) for cervical vertebral body replacement in a sheep model. To investigate the feasibility of a novel artificial vertebral body: a "self-stabilizing artificial vertebral body" (SSAVB) fabricated by EBM in a sheep model. Artificial vertebral body is widely used for vertebral body replacement and spinal fusion, but research on an artificial vertebral body fabricated by EBM has not been reported. An SSAVB made of porous Ti6Al4V was implanted into a sheep cervical spine to replace the C4 vertebral body for 6 and 12 weeks. Bone ingrowth and implant stability were radiologically evaluated, and histological and biomechanical tests were performed. No screw loosening, implant dislocation, or bone fractures occurred during the experimental period. A significant difference (P = 0.001) in bone ingrowth between the 6- and 12-week groups was noted. Comparison of the range of motion of C3-C5 segments between the in vivo group and the control groups (intact C2-C6 segment and fresh sheep cervical spines from C2 to C6 segments that underwent C4 subtotal corpectomy with the posterior vertebral wall retention by SSAVB implantation) suggests that the implant can stably replace this area of the cervical spine. The open porous structure of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM facilitated bone ingrowth and the SSAVB can maintain cervical spine stability of the sheep. A porous metal implant can be used for load-bearing applications in a sheep model. It is hoped that these results will stimulate further study in human. 4.

  18. Nanostructures and mesoscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.P. . Dept. of Physics); Reed, M.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: nanostructure fabrication; ballistic transport and coherence; low-dimensional tunneling; electron correlation and coulomb blockade; nanostructure arrays and collective effects; theory and modeling of nanostructures; optical properties of nanostructures; and new systems.

  19. Production of Engineered Fabrics Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2015-10-01

    The process of fabric engineering which is generally practised in most of the textile mills is very complicated, repetitive, tedious and time consuming. To eliminate this trial and error approach, a new approach of fabric engineering has been attempted in this work. Data sets of construction parameters [comprising of ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count] and three fabric properties (namely drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance) of 25 handloom cotton fabrics have been used. The weights and biases of three artificial neural network (ANN) models developed for the prediction of drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance were used to formulate the fitness or objective function and constraints of the optimization problem. The optimization problem was solved using genetic algorithm (GA). In both the fabrics which were attempted for engineering, the target and simulated fabric properties were very close. The GA was able to search the optimum set of fabric construction parameters with reasonably good accuracy except in case of EPI. However, the overall result is encouraging and can be improved further by using larger data sets of handloom fabrics by hybrid ANN-GA model.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Mg-doped CdS/AAO nanoporous membrane for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Mustafa, Mona; Hamdy, Hany

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was deposited onto anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane substrate using sol-gel spin coating method. The AAO membrane was prepared by a two-step anodization process combined with pore widening process. The morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the spin- coated CdS nanostructure have been studied. The morphology of the fabricated AAO membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM of AAO illustrates a typical hexagonal and smooth nanoporous alumina membrane with interpore distance of ~ 100 nm, the pore diameter of ~ 60 nm. SEM of Mgdoped CdS shows porous nanostructured film of CdS nanoparticles. This film well adherents and covers the AAO substrate. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) pattern exhibits the signals of Al, O from AAO membrane and Mg, Cd, and S from the deposited CdS. This indicates the high purity of the fabricated membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scherrer equation was used to calculate the average crystallite size. Additionally, the texture coefficients and density of dislocations were calculated. The fabricated CdS/AAO was applied to detect glucose of different concentrations. The proposed method has some advantages such as simple technology, low cost of processing, and high throughput. All of these factors facilitate the use of the prepared films in sensing applications.

  1. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Nano-structured TiO2 film fabricated at room temperature and its acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie; Cao, Wenwu; Jiang, Bei; Zhang, D. S.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Q.; Shung, K. K.

    2008-08-01

    Nano-structured TiO2 thin film has been successfully fabricated at room temperature. Using a quarter wavelength characterization method, we have measured the acoustic impedance of this porous film, which can be adjusted from 5.3 to 7.19 Mrayl by curing it at different temperatures. The uniform microstructure and easy fabrication at room temperature make this material an excellent candidate for matching layers of ultra-high frequency ultrasonic imaging transducers.

  2. Electrical contacts to individual nanostructures and fabrication of nanoscale gaps by feedback controlled electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Danvers Errol

    The transport characteristics of nano---electronic devices are determined not only by the electronic structure of the underlying nanostructure, but also by the detailed properties of the electrode---nanostructure interface and by transport through undesirable parasitic conduction pathways. Because nanoparticle and single molecule devices require the use of nano-scale gaps, they are particularly prone to suffer from parasitic conduction pathways. It has been shown that transport data from both as---fabricated nanogaps and nanogaps combined with nanostructures can exhibit signatures of quantum transport such as Coulomb blockade and the Kondo effect. We investigate electronic devices that require nanogaps smaller than the resolution of electron beam lithography (<25 nm) and develop a technique of feedback controlled electromigration (FCE) to make nanometer---spaced electrodes in ambient lab conditions. Nanogap formation occurs through three regimes: a bulk---behavior regime where electromigration is triggered at constant temperature, a few-atom regime with conductance characterized by conductance quantum plateaus and jumps, and a tunneling regime across the nanogap once the conductance falls below the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2/h. To permit the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to image the gaps, we fabricated nanogaps on free-standing transparent SiNx membranes. The electrodes are found to be clear of any apparent debris and are stable on the order of hours. Real-time transmission electron microscopy of nanogap formation by FCE reveals a remarkable degree of crystalline order. Crystal facets appear during FCE indicating a layer-by-layer, highly reproducible electromigration process that avoids thermal runaway and melting. Additionally, we describe investigations of dielectrophoretic (DEP) assembly of nanogap electronic devices based on single Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). A symmetric electrical circuit design suitable for DEP on oxidized Si and Si

  3. Porous polymer nanostructures fabricated by the surface-induced phase separation of polymer solutions in anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tzu-Hui; Chi, Mu-Huan; Tsai, Chia-Chan; Ko, Hao-Wen; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2013-08-13

    We study the formation of porous polymer nanostructures fabricated by the surface-induced phase separation of polymer solutions in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are used to investigate the evolution process of the surface-induced phase separation. With the longer immersion time of the AAO template in the polymer solution, the size of the solvent-rich droplet is increased by the coarsening process, resulting in the formation of porous polymer nanostructures. The coarsening mechanism is further evaluated by changing the experimental parameters including the immersion time, the polymer concentration, the polymer molecular weight, and the solvent quality. Under conditions in which polymer solutions have higher viscosities, the coarsening process is slowed down and the formation of the porous nanostructures is prohibited. The prevention of the porous nanostructures can also be realized by adding water to the PMMA/THF solution before the immersion process.

  4. Sub-5 nm nanostructures fabricated by atomic layer deposition using a carbon nanotube template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Hyo; Kim, Ji Weon; Lee, Seung-Mo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Shim, Joon Hyung; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanostructures having diameters of sub-5 nm is very a important issue for bottom-up nanofabrication of nanoscale devices. In this work, we report a highly controllable method to create sub-5 nm nano-trenches and nanowires by combining area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as templates. Alumina nano-trenches having a depth of 2.6 ∼ 3.0 nm and SiO2 nano-trenches having a depth of 1.9 ∼ 2.2 nm fully guided by the SWNTs have been formed on SiO2/Si substrate. Through infilling ZnO material by ALD in alumina nano-trenches, well-defined ZnO nanowires having a thickness of 3.1 ∼ 3.3 nm have been fabricated. In order to improve the electrical properties of ZnO nanowires, as-fabricated ZnO nanowires by ALD were annealed at 350 °C in air for 60 min. As a result, we successfully demonstrated that as-synthesized ZnO nanowire using a specific template can be made for various high-density resistive components in the nanoelectronics industry.

  5. Superhydrophobic and colorful copper surfaces fabricated by picosecond laser induced periodic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiangyou; Fan, Peixun; Zhong, Minlin; Zhang, Hongjun; Xie, Yongde; Lin, Chen

    2014-08-01

    In this study, functional copper surfaces combined with vivid structural colors and superhydrophobicity were fabricated by picosecond laser. Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), i.e. ripples, were fabricated by picosecond laser nanostructuring to induce rainbow-like structural colors which are uniquely caused by the grating - type structure. The effects of laser processing parameters on the formation of ripples were investigated. We also discussed the formation mechanism of ripples. With different combinations of the laser processing parameters, ripples with various morphologies were fabricated. After the modification with triethoxyoctylsilane, different types of ripples exhibited different levels of wettability. The fine ripples with minimal redeposited nanoparticles exhibited high adhesive force to water. The increased amount of nanoscale structures decreased the adhesive force to water and increased the contact angle simultaneously. In particular, a specific type of ripples exhibited superhydrophobicity with a large contact angle of 153.9 ± 3.2° and a low sliding angle of 11 ± 3°.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of graphitic carbon nanostructures with controllable size, shape, and position.

    PubMed

    Du, Rongbing; Ssenyange, Solomon; Aktary, Mirwais; McDermott, Mark T

    2009-05-01

    The incorporation of carbon materials in micro- and nanoscale devices is being widely investigated due to the promise of enhanced functionality. Challenges in the positioning and addressability of carbon nanotubes provide the motivation for the development of new processes to produce nanoscale carbon materials. Here, the fabrication of conducting, nanometer-sized carbon structures using a combination of electron beam lithography (EBL) and carbonisation is reported. EBL is used to directly write predefined nanometer-sized patterns in a thin layer of negative resist in controllable locations. Careful heat treatment results in carbon nanostructures with the size, shape, and location originally defined by EBL. The pyrolysis process results in significant shrinkage of the structures in the vertical direction and minimal loss in the horizontal direction. Characterization of the carbonized material indicates a structure consisting of both amorphous and graphitized carbon with low levels of oxygen. The resistivity of the material is similar to other disordered carbon materials and the resistivity is maintained from the bulk to the nanoscale. This is demonstrated by fabricating a nanoscale structure with predictable resistance. The ability to fabricate these conductive structures with known dimensions and in predefined locations can be exploited for a number of applications. Their use as nanoband electrodes is also demonstrated.

  7. Fabrication of large scale nanostructures based on a modified atomic force microscope nanomechanical machining system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z J; Yan, Y D; Zhao, X S; Gao, D W; Wei, Y Y; Wang, J H

    2011-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based nanomechanical machining has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for fabricating complex 2D∕3D nanostructures. But the machining scale is very small, which holds back this technique severely. How to enlarge the machining scale is always a major concern for the researches. In the present study, a modified AFM tip-based nanomechanical machining system is established through combination of a high precision X-Y stage with the moving range of 100 mm × 100 mm and a commercial AFM in order to enlarge the machining scale. It is found that the tracing property of the AFM system is feasible for large scale machining by controlling the constant normal load. Effects of the machining parameters including the machining direction and the tip geometry on the uniform machined depth with a large scale are evaluated. Consequently, a new tip trace and an increasing load scheme are presented to achieve a uniform machined depth. Finally, a polymer nanoline array with the dimensions of 1 mm × 0.7 mm, the line density of 1000 lines/mm and the average machined depth of 150 nm, and a 20 × 20 polymer square holes array with the scale of 380 μm × 380 μm and the average machined depth of 250 nm are machined successfully. The uniform of the machined depths for all the nanostructures is acceptable. Therefore, it is verified that the AFM tip-based nanomechanical machining method can be used to machine millimeter scale nanostructures.

  8. Fabrication of zero to three dimensional nanostructured molybdenum sulfides and their electrochemical and photocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhe; Mahmood, Nasir; Tahir, Muhammad; Pan, Lun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2016-11-03

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging as promising materials, particularly for electrochemical and photochemical catalytic applications, and among them molybdenum sulfides have received tremendous attention due to their novel electronic and optoelectronic characteristics. Several review articles have summarized the recent progress on TMDs but no critical and systematic summary exists about the nanoscale fabrication of MoS2 with different dimensional morphologies. In this review article, first we will summarize the recent progress on the morphological tuning and structural evolution of MoS2 from zero-dimension (0D) to 3D. Then the different engineering methods and the effect of synthesis conditions on structure and morphology of MoS2 will be discussed. Moreover, the corresponding change in the electronic and physicochemical properties of MoS2 induced by structure tuning will also be presented. Further, the applications of MoS2 in various electrochemical systems e.g. hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and supercapacitors as well as photocatalytic hydrogen evolution will be highlighted. The review article will also critically focus on challenges faced by researchers to tune the MoS2 nanostructures and the resulting electrochemical mechanism to enhance their performances. At the end, concluding remarks and future prospects for the development of better MoS2 based nanostructured materials for the aforementioned applications will be presented.

  9. Focused ion beam fabrication of spintronic nanostructures: an optimization of the milling process.

    PubMed

    Urbánek, M; Uhlír, V; Bábor, P; Kolíbalová, E; Hrncír, T; Spousta, J; Sikola, T

    2010-04-09

    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling has been used to fabricate magnetic nanostructures (wires, squares, discs) from single magnetic layers (Co, permalloy) and spin-valve (permalloy/Cu/Co) multilayers (thicknesses 5-50 nm) prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. Milled surfaces of metallic thin films typically exhibit residual roughness, which is also transferred onto the edges of the milled patterns. This can lead to domain wall pinning and influence the magnetization behaviour of the nanostructures. We have investigated the milling process and the influence of the FIB parameters (incidence angle, dwell time, overlap and ion beam current) on the roughness of the milled surface. It has been found that the main reasons for increased roughness are different sputter yields for various crystallographic orientations of the grains in polycrystalline magnetic thin films. We have found that the oblique ion beam angle, long dwell time and overlap < 1 are favourable parameters for suppression of this intrinsic roughness. Finally, we have shown how to determine the ion dose necessary to mill through the whole thin film up to the silicon substrate from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images only.

  10. Fabrication of nanostructured silver substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Gellini, Cristina; Salvi, Pier Remigio; Innocenti, Massimo; Pagliai, Marco; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    Four nanostructured Ag substrates have been fabricated with different surface morphologies and tested with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments by adsorption of adenine. Their SERS efficiency has been compared and related to the surface roughness resulting from atomic force microscopy measurements. Chemical etching of silver by thiourea/Fe(III)nitrate produces homogeneously roughened plates, exhibiting the largest three-dimensional surface and the best SERS enhancement. They mostly exhibit surface protrusions with sizes around 200 nm, thus matching the best condition for obtaining SERS enhancement by laser excitation at 785 nm. This is quite important in the case of biomolecules, whose samples often present strong fluorescence bands, which usually are not observed with red-shifted exciting lines. Moreover, these Ag platforms, owing to their uniform nanostructured surfaces, are suitable for obtaining reproducible results from microRaman investigation. In conclusion, the present nanofabrication of Ag surfaces allows obtaining SERS-active substrates, which combine high reproducibility and sensitivity and can be successfully employed in the molecular recognition of different organic ligands or biomolecules like nucleic acids and proteins.

  11. Chemical tuning of PtC nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Harald; Haber, Thomas; Gspan, Christian; Kothleitner, Gerald; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental dependence between process parameters during focused electron beam induced deposition and the chemistry of functional PtC nanostructures have been studied via a multi-technique approach using SEM, (S)TEM, EELS, AFM, and EFM. The study reveals that the highest Pt contents can only be achieved by an ideal balance between potentially dissociating electrons and available precursor molecules on the surface. For precursor regimes apart from this situation, an unwanted increase of carbon is observed which originates from completely different mechanisms: (1) an excess of electrons leads to polymerization of precursor fragments whereas (2) a lack of electrons leads to incompletely dissociated precursor molecules incorporated into the nanostructures. While the former represents an unwanted class of carbon, the latter condition maximizes the volume growth rates and allows for post-growth curing strategies which can strongly increase the functionality. Furthermore, the study gives an explanation of why growing deposits can dynamically change their chemistry and provides a straightforward guide towards more controlled fabrication conditions.

  12. Chemical tuning of PtC nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Plank, Harald; Haber, Thomas; Gspan, Christian; Kothleitner, Gerald; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2013-05-03

    The fundamental dependence between process parameters during focused electron beam induced deposition and the chemistry of functional PtC nanostructures have been studied via a multi-technique approach using SEM, (S)TEM, EELS, AFM, and EFM. The study reveals that the highest Pt contents can only be achieved by an ideal balance between potentially dissociating electrons and available precursor molecules on the surface. For precursor regimes apart from this situation, an unwanted increase of carbon is observed which originates from completely different mechanisms: (1) an excess of electrons leads to polymerization of precursor fragments whereas (2) a lack of electrons leads to incompletely dissociated precursor molecules incorporated into the nanostructures. While the former represents an unwanted class of carbon, the latter condition maximizes the volume growth rates and allows for post-growth curing strategies which can strongly increase the functionality. Furthermore, the study gives an explanation of why growing deposits can dynamically change their chemistry and provides a straightforward guide towards more controlled fabrication conditions.

  13. A new approach to the fabrication of ``smart`` near-surface nanostructure composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.; Honda, S.; Boatner, L.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Sales, B.C.; Modine, F.A.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; Beckers, L.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the formation of smart near-surface nanoscale composites has been developed. In this approach, small precipitates of active phases are embedded in the near-surface region of the material that is to be modified by a combination of ion implantation and thermal processing. The dispersion, concentration, and microstructure of the nanocrystals formed in the substrate material can be tailored through a careful choice of processing parameters - making this approach well suited to high value added, high technology applications. The applicability of this approach to forming smart surfaces on otherwise inactive materials was established in the case of VO{sup 2} precipitates which were embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals to create a medium suitable for optical applications--including optical data storage. Most recently, this concept has been extended to the fabrication of magnetic field sensitive nanostructured surfaces by forming magnetostrictive precipitates of materials such as Ni or RFe{sub 2} (with R = Tm, Tb, Sm) that are embedded in various single crystal oxide hosts. These nanostructured, active surface composites have been characterized using XRD, RBS, TEM, and magneto-optical techniques.

  14. The facile fabrication of tunable plasmonic gold nanostructure arrays using microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuen-Yuan; Huang, Jing-Wen; Gwo, Shangjr; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of isolated noble metal nanoparticles embedded in transparent substrates is the fasting growing demand for innovative plasmonic technologies. Here we report a simple and effective methodology for the preparation of highly stable plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in a glass surface. Size-controllable (10-70 nm) Au nanoparticles were rapidly prepared when subjected to the home-microwave plasma. Accordingly, the optical extinction maximum of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be systematically tuned in the range 532-586 nm. We find that the plasmonic structures are exceedingly stable toward immersion in ethanol solvents and pass successfully the adhesive tape test, which makes our system highly promising for efficient transmission-LSPR nanosensors. Besides, the attractive features of substrate-bound plasmonic nanostructures include its low cost, versatility, robustness, reusability and a promising ability to make a multi-arrayed LSPR biochip.

  15. An Antireflective Nanostructure Array Fabricated by Nanosilver Colloidal Lithography on a Silicon Substrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Je; Lee, Soon-Won; Lee, Ki-Joong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ki-Don; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Choi, Jun-Hyuk

    2010-07-14

    An alternative method is presented for fabricating an antireflective nanostructure array using nanosilver colloidal lithography. Spin coating was used to produce the multilayered silver nanoparticles, which grew by self-assembly and were transformed into randomly distributed nanosilver islands through the thermodynamic action of dewetting and Oswald ripening. The average size and coverage rate of the islands increased with concentration in the range of 50-90 nm and 40-65%, respectively. The nanosilver islands were critically affected by concentration and spin speed. The effects of these two parameters were investigated, after etching and wet removal of nanosilver residues. The reflection nearly disappeared in the ultraviolet wavelength range and was 17% of the reflection of a bare silicon wafer in the visible range.

  16. An Antireflective Nanostructure Array Fabricated by Nanosilver Colloidal Lithography on a Silicon Substrate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method is presented for fabricating an antireflective nanostructure array using nanosilver colloidal lithography. Spin coating was used to produce the multilayered silver nanoparticles, which grew by self-assembly and were transformed into randomly distributed nanosilver islands through the thermodynamic action of dewetting and Oswald ripening. The average size and coverage rate of the islands increased with concentration in the range of 50–90 nm and 40–65%, respectively. The nanosilver islands were critically affected by concentration and spin speed. The effects of these two parameters were investigated, after etching and wet removal of nanosilver residues. The reflection nearly disappeared in the ultraviolet wavelength range and was 17% of the reflection of a bare silicon wafer in the visible range. PMID:21076677

  17. Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, K.; Saitou, Y.; Souma, N.; Makihara, S.; Kato, H.; Nakano, T.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a lens mould to attain an anti-reflection sub-wavelength structure (SWS) for plastic replica in the injection moulding process. To obtain the SWS on the lens mould, platinum nanoparticles formed by decomposition of a platinum oxide were employed. The fabricated platinum nanoparticles were estimated to be 90 nm in diameter, on average, and the dispersion of the particle diameter was evaluated to be ±20 nm. Through nanostructure replication by injection moulding, antireflection of less than 0.5% was achieved, and transmittance increased over 98%. In addition, a high-replication durability of over 10 000 times was attained. The variation of the minimum reflection ratio was evaluated to be 0.38% ± 0.04%. The usefulness of the proposed SWS mould for mass-production was confirmed, as it allows for high durability and SWS formation on the lens surface.

  18. Impact of Parameter Variation in Fabrication of Nanostructure by Atomic Force Microscopy Nanolithography

    PubMed Central

    Dehzangi, Arash; Larki, Farhad; Hutagalung, Sabar D.; Goodarz Naseri, Mahmood; Majlis, Burhanuddin Y.; Navasery, Manizheh; Hamid, Norihan Abdul; Noor, Mimiwaty Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the fabrication of Silicon nanostructure patterned on lightly doped (1015 cm−3) p-type silicon-on-insulator by atomic force microscope nanolithography technique. The local anodic oxidation followed by two wet etching steps, potassium hydroxide etching for silicon removal and hydrofluoric etching for oxide removal, are implemented to reach the structures. The impact of contributing parameters in oxidation such as tip materials, applying voltage on the tip, relative humidity and exposure time are studied. The effect of the etchant concentration (10% to 30% wt) of potassium hydroxide and its mixture with isopropyl alcohol (10%vol. IPA ) at different temperatures on silicon surface are expressed. For different KOH concentrations, the effect of etching with the IPA admixture and the effect of the immersing time in the etching process on the structure are investigated. The etching processes are accurately optimized by 30%wt. KOH +10%vol. IPA in appropriate time, temperature, and humidity. PMID:23776479

  19. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  20. Fabrication of silica nanostructures with a microwave assisted direct patterning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Go, Bit-Na; Choi, Je-Hong; Kim, Jin-Seoung; Jung, Gun-Young; Kim, Heetae; Lee, Heon

    2014-06-01

    Silica nanostructures were fabricated on glass substrate using a microwave assisted direct patterning (MADP) process, which is a variety of soft lithography. During the MADP process using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), mold and microwave heating are performed simultaneously. Blanket thin film and micro- to nano-sized structures, including moth-eye patterns of SiO2, which consisted of coalesced silica nanoparticles, were formed on glass substrates from SiO2 nano-particle dispersed solutions with varied microwave heating time. Optical properties and surface morphologies of micro-sized hemisphere, nano-sized pillar, moth-eye and 50 nm sized line/space silica patterns were measured using UV-vis and a scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction analysis of SiO2 thin films with and without microwave heating was also carried out.

  1. Prediction of Yarn Strength Utilization in Cotton Woven Fabrics using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Swapna

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an endeavor to predict the percentage yarn strength utilization (% SU) in cotton woven fabrics using artificial neural network approach. Fabrics in plain, 2/2 twill, 3/1 twill and 4-end broken twill weaves having three pick densities and three weft counts in each weave have been considered. Different artificial neural network models, with different set of input parameters, have been explored. It has been found that % SU can be predicted fairly accurately by only five fabric parameters, namely the number of load bearing and transverse yarns per unit length, the yarn crimp % in the load bearing and transverse directions and the float length of the weave. Trend analysis of the artificial neural network model has also been carried out to see how the various parameters affect the % SU. The results indicate that while an increase in the number of load bearing or transverse yarns increases the % SU, an increase in the float length and the crimp % in the yarns have a detrimental effect.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of ultrathin dextran layers: Time dependent nanostructure in aqueous environments revealed by OWLS.

    PubMed

    Saftics, Andras; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szekrényes, Zsolt; Kamarás, Katalin; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Sulyok, Attila; Bősze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Surface coatings of the polysaccharide dextran and its derivatives are key ingredients especially in label-free biosensors for the suppression of non-specific binding and for receptor immobilization. Nevertheless, the nanostructure of these ultrathin coatings and its tailoring by the variation of the preparation conditions have not been profoundly characterized and understood. In this work carboxymethylated dextran (CMD) was prepared and used for fabricating ultrathin surface coatings. A grafting method based on covalent coupling to aminosilane- and epoxysilane-functionalized surfaces was applied to obtain thin CMD layers. The carboxyl moiety of the CMD was coupled to the aminated surface by EDC-NHS reagents, while CMD coupling through epoxysilane molecules was performed without any additional reagents. The surface analysis following the grafting procedures consisted of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). The XPS and AFM measurements showed that the grafting resulted in a very thin dextran layer of a few nanometers. The OWLS method allowed devising the structure of the interfacial dextran layers by the evaluation of the optogeometrical parameters. The alteration in the nanostructure of the CMD layer with the chemical composition of the silane coverage and the pH of the grafting solution was revealed by in situ OWLS, specifically, lain down chains were found to be prevalent on the surface under neutral and basic conditions on epoxysilylated surfaces. The developed methodologies allowed to design and fabricate nanometer scale CMD layers with well-controlled surface structure, which are very difficult to characterize in aqueous environments using present instrumentations and highly hydrated surface layers.

  3. Nanostructured grating patterns over a large area fabricated by optically directed assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoping; Chen, Kai; Qi, Mingxi; Li, Yu; Hou, Yumeng; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Qing; Luo, Xiangang; Xu, Qingyu

    2016-07-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation of nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in nanotechnology and biology. Here, we demonstrate an optically directed assembly (ODA) route for bottom-up fabrication of stable nanostructured grating patterns in solution using laser standing evanescent wave (LSEW) fields. The control mechanism is the intriguing cooperative action of the periodically line-centered attractive optical gradient force and the near field dipolar coupling force induced by LSEW, which leads to assembly of the colloidal silver NPs into robust grating patterns within minutes. The anisotropic polarization nature of the grating patterns was studied further by examining the morphology correlation of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based signal amplification. We show the LSEW ODA method can optimize and stabilize the strongest dipolar coupling style among the NPs during pattern assembly. These results advance the further understanding of ODA of colloid NPs and might have many potential applications in SERS, catalysis, nanophotonics and nano-fabrication.Optical trapping and manipulation of nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in nanotechnology and biology. Here, we demonstrate an optically directed assembly (ODA) route for bottom-up fabrication of stable nanostructured grating patterns in solution using laser standing evanescent wave (LSEW) fields. The control mechanism is the intriguing cooperative action of the periodically line-centered attractive optical gradient force and the near field dipolar coupling force induced by LSEW, which leads to assembly of the colloidal silver NPs into robust grating patterns within minutes. The anisotropic polarization nature of the grating patterns was studied further by examining the morphology correlation of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based signal amplification. We show the LSEW ODA method can optimize and stabilize the strongest dipolar coupling style among the NPs during pattern assembly

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces: Plasmonic Thin Films, Nanowires, Nanorings and Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Aaron R.

    This work demonstrates a method for enhancing the sensitivity of a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and develops novel nanostructured sensing surfaces. It is divided into the following four sections: Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging on gold thin films, optical diffraction of gold nanowires, fabrication of plasmonic nanoring arrays, and fabrication of nanofluidic channels and networks. The technique of surface plasmon resonance phase imaging (SPR-PI) was implemented in a linear microarray format. SPR-PI measured the phase shift of p-polarized light incident at the SPR angle reflected from a gold thin film by monitoring the position of a fringe pattern on the interface created with a polarizer-wedge depolarizer combination. SPR-PI was used to measure a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecamine (MUAM) as well as to monitor in situ DNA hybridization. The phase shifts were correctly calculated with a combined Jones matrix and Fresnel equation theory. Arrays of Au or Pd nanowires were fabricated via the electrochemical process of lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) and then characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of optical diffraction measurements. Up to 60 diffraction orders were observed from the nanowire gratings with separate oscillatory intensity patterns appearing in the even and odd diffraction orders. The presence of these intensity oscillations is attributed to LPNE array fabrication process, and is explained with the Fourier transform of a mathematical model to predict the diffraction intensity patterns. A novel nanoring fabrication method that combines the process of LPNE with colloidal lithography is described. SEM measurements and Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the strong NIR plasmonic resonance of the nanoring arrays. The absorption maximum wavelength varied linearly from 1.25 to 3.33 microns as predicted by a simple standing

  5. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiyang; Wu, Di; Wu, Wengang; Xu, Jun; Hao, Yilong

    2009-11-04

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 microm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  6. Universal Nanopatterning Technique Combining Secondary Sputtering with Nanoscale Electroplating for Fabricating Size-Controllable Ultrahigh-Resolution Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae-Eun; Ahn, Chi Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin

    2017-08-22

    Here, we describe a next-generation lithographic technique for fabricating ultrahigh-resolution nanostructures. This technique makes use of the secondary sputtering phenomenon of plasma ion etching and of nanoscale electroplating to finely control the resolution of the fabricated structures from ten nanometers to hundreds of nanometers from a single microsized master pattern. In contrast to previously described techniques that incorporate a recently developed secondary sputtering lithography (SSL) patterning approach, which could only yield 10 nm-resolution structures, in the current technique, we used an improved SSL approach to produce various-sized, high-resolution structures. Additionally, this improved SSL approach was used to fabricate size-controllable 3D patterns on various types of substrates, in particular, a silicon wafer, transparent glass, and flexible polycarbonate (PC) film. Thus, this method can serve as a new-concept patterning method for the efficient mass production of ultrahigh-resolution nanostructures.

  7. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Haiyang; Wu, Di; Wu, Wengang; Xu, Jun; Hao, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 µm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  8. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  9. Functionalization of cotton fabrics with plasmonic photo-active nanostructured Au-TiO2 layer.

    PubMed

    Abid, M; Bouattour, S; Ferraria, A M; Conceição, D S; Carapeto, A P; Vieira Ferreira, L F; Botelho do Rego, A M; Rei Vilar, M; Boufi, S

    2017-11-15

    A simple approach to functionalize cotton fabrics with Au and TiO2 nanostructured layer is presented. Hybrid fabrics (Cot-Au-TiO2) are prepared through reduction of AuCl4(-) on cotton, followed by a non-aqueous sol-gel procedure using tetrabutyltitanate and a hydrothermal treatment at 110°C. The generation of crystalline TiO2 is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The fibres morphology and their roughness are characterized by AFM and FE-SEM. XPS shows how the concentration of the NPs precursors (Au and TiO2) affects the layer composition. GSDR (Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption Spectroscopy) and LIL (Laser induced luminescence) reveal a strong quenching effect induced by Au NPs. Photocatalytic activity measured through the Remazol Blue (RB) degradation reveals an enhancement under visible light, which increases with Au loading. This strong enhancement is explained through the surface plasmon resonance brought by Au NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication of deterministic nanostructure assemblies with sub-nanometer spacing using a nanoimprinting transfer technique.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, Steven J; Kim, Ansoon; Wu, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2012-07-24

    Deterministic patterning or assembly of nanoparticles often requires complex processes that are not easily incorporated into system architectures of arbitrary design. We have developed a technique to fabricate deterministic nanoparticle assemblies using simple and inexpensive nanoimprinting equipment and procedures. First, a metal film is evaporated onto flexible polymer pillars made by nanoimprinting. The resulting metal caps on top of the pillars can be pulled into assemblies of arbitrary design by collapsing the pillars in a well-controlled manner. The nanoparticle assemblies are then transferred from the pillars onto a new substrate via nanoimprinting with the aid of either cold welding or chemical bonding. Using this technique, a variety of patterned nanoparticle assemblies of Au and Ag with a critical dimension less than 2 nm were fabricated and transferred to silicon-, glass-, and metal-coated substrates. Separating the nanostructure assembly from the final architecture removes significant design constraints from devices incorporating nanoparticle assemblies. The application of this process as a technique for generating surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates is presented.

  11. Metallic nanoparticles for compact nanostructure fabrication and observation of single-electron phenomena at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojkovic, P.; Schwartzkopff, M.; Gabriel, T.; Hartmann, E.

    1998-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles having a diameter of 2-4 nm are fabricated by inert gas evaporation techniques and subsequently deposited on an atomically stepped, H-terminated Si(111) substrate, to which they stick by means of a weak coupling force. By varying the exposure time of the particle beam to the substrate, the coverage density can be well controlled. A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated at room temperature and under high-vacuum conditions is used to identify, characterize, and deliberately manipulate the nanoparticles. Spectroscopic data of individual particles are compared with that obtained from a pair arrangement. In the latter case, the mutual interaction gives rise to characteristic features which we associate with single-electron phenomena. The weak particle/substrate coupling force allows to displace selected particles to predetermined locations on the substrate surface. Under conditions of high power densities provided by the electron flow emanating from the tip, a local fusion process of a small number of nanoparticles sets in, resulting in the fabrication of compact nanostructures. Particles that do not take part in the fusion process can completely be removed with the STM tip, uncovering the atomic step-terrace pattern of the Si surface. Finally, the expected temperature rise of the nanoparticles under conditions of electron beam irradiation is roughly estimated.

  12. 3D ordered nanostructures fabricated by nanosphere lithography using an organometallic etch mask.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xing Yi; Acikgoz, Canet; Phang, In Yee; Hempenius, Mark A; Reinhoudt, David N; Vancso, G Julius; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-08-01

    A new approach for fabricating porous structures on silicon substrates and on polymer surfaces, using colloidal particle arrays with a polymer mask of a highly etch-resistant organometallic polymer, is demonstrated. Monolayers of silica particles, with diameters of 60 nm, 150 nm, 300 nm, or 500 nm, were deposited either on a silicon substrate or on a surface coated with polyethersulfone (PES), and the voids of the arrays were filled with poly(ferrocenylmethylphenylsilane) (PFMPS). Argon ion sputtering removed the excess PFMPS on the particles which enabled removal of the particles with HF. Further pattern transfer steps with reactive ion etching for different time intervals provided structures in silicon or in a PES layer. Free-standing PES membranes exhibiting regular arrays of circular holes with high porosity were fabricated by using cellulose acetate as a sacrificial layer. The pores obtained on silicon substrates after etching were used as molds for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A combination of the techniques of nanosphere lithography (NSL) and NIL has resulted in 3D nanostructures with a hemispherical shape (inherited from the nanoparticles) which was obtained both in silicon and in PMMA.

  13. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  14. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion. PMID:26284922

  15. Optimization and continuous fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure array on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate towards broadband antireflection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Ni, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Reflection loss can cause harmful effects on the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as cell phones, notebooks, displays, solar cells, and light-emitting diode (LED) devices. In order to obtain broadband antireflection (AR) properties, many researchers have utilized surface texture techniques to produce AR subwavelength structures on the interfaces. Among the AR subwavelength structures, the moth-eye nanostructure is one of the most promising structures, with the potential for commercialization in the near future. In this research, to obtain broadband AR performance, the optimization of moth-eye nanostructures was first carried out using the finite difference time domain method within the spectral ranges of 400-800 nm, including the optimization of shape, height, pitch, and residual layer thickness. In addition, the continuous production of moth-eye nanostructure array upon a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate was demonstrated by using the roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (R2R UV-NIL) process and anodic aluminum oxide mold, which provided a solution for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure array. The AR performance of moth-eye nanostructure array obtained by the R2R UV-NIL process was also investigated experimentally, and good consistence was shown with the simulated results. This research can provide a beneficial direction for the optimization and cost-effective production of the moth-eye nanostructure array.

  16. Laser interference lithography for large area patterning and the fabrication of functional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wathuthanthri, Ishan

    nano-features onto different types of substrates using both additive and subtractive processes, resulting in the fabrication of functionalized nanostructures over a large substrate area. Finally, nanostructures are designed and fabricated to use the moth eye effect resulting in highly anti-reflective surfaces. These surfaces are then applied in SERS sensing as well as a mechanical anti-reflective layer for lithography process providing a highly robust mechanical anti-reflective layer with a much higher performance compared to traditional thin film anti-reflective coatings.

  17. Fabrication of layered nanostructures by successive electron beam induced deposition with two precursors: protective capping of metallic iron structures.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, M; Walz, M-M; Papp, C; Kronast, F; Gray, A X; Balke, B; Cramm, S; Fadley, C S; Steinrück, H-P; Marbach, H

    2011-11-25

    We report on the stepwise generation of layered nanostructures via electron beam induced deposition (EBID) using organometallic precursor molecules in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In a first step a metallic iron line structure was produced using iron pentacarbonyl; in a second step this nanostructure was then locally capped with a 2-3 nm thin titanium oxide-containing film fabricated from titanium tetraisopropoxide. The chemical composition of the deposited layers was analyzed by spatially resolved Auger electron spectroscopy. With spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe L₃ edge, it was demonstrated that the thin capping layer prevents the iron structure from oxidation upon exposure to air.

  18. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by manufactured DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Jihoon; Seo, Soonbeom; Park, Sung Ha; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-03-01

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Hybrid nanostructures for efficient light harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are systems composed of two or more nanostructures designed for improving the performance over individual components. In this work we introduce the concept of bridging natural photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes with nanostructures fabricated in an artificial way, such as semiconductor nanocrystals, metallic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, with the purpose of enhancing the efficiency of light harvesting either via plasmon excitation in metals or absorption tunability characteristics of semiconductors. In addition to presenting basic features of inorganic nanostructures, we discuss recent advances in the field of hybrid nanostructures composed of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  20. Fabrication of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds as Artificial Bone Preform and its Biocompatibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel porous hydroxyapatite scaffold was designed and fabricated to imitate natural bone through a multipass extrusion process. The conceptual design manifested unidirectional microchannels at the exterior part of the scaffold to facilitate rapid biomineralization and a central canal that houses the bone marrow. External and internal fissures were minimized during microwave sintering at 1,100°C. No deformation was noted, and a mechanically stable scaffold was fabricated. Detailed microstructure of the fabricated artificial bone was examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, and material properties like compressive strength were evaluated. The initial biocompatibility was examined by the cell proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Preliminary in vivo investigation in a rabbit model after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of implantation showed full osteointegration of the scaffold with the native tissue, and formation of bone tissue within the pore network, as examined by microcomputed tomography analyses and histological staining. Osteon-like bone microarchitecture was observed along the unidirectional channel with microblood vessels. These confirm a biomimetic regeneration model in the implanted bone scaffold, which can be used as an artificial alternative for damaged bone. PMID:24399056

  1. Fabrication of multiplex quasi-three-dimensional grids of one-dimensional nanostructures via stepwise colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Dayang; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2007-11-01

    By using O2-plasma etched monolayers of hexagonally close-packed latex spheres as masks for metal vapor deposition, we successfully demonstrate a stepwise colloidal lithography to stepwise grow highly ordered multiplex quasi-three-dimensional grids of metallic one-dimensional nanostructures, e.g., nanowires and nanorods. The success of the present approach is centered at manipulation of the incidence angle of metal vapor beams with respect to the normal direction of colloidal masks and particularly the azimuth angle phi of the projection of the vapor beam incidence on the masks with respect to the vector from one sphere to the nearest neighbors. Stepwise deposition of different metals by regularly varying phi allows consecutively stacking of 1D nanostructures into multiplex quasi-3D grids. This stepwise angle-resolved colloidal lithography should provide a significant nanochemical complement of conventional lithographic techniques, enabling us to easily fabricate sophisticated 3D nanostructures with defined vertical and lateral heterogeneity.

  2. Novel structure, morphology, and optical property of Mg-doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated by PCVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Wei, X. Q.; Guo, N.; Xu, X. J.

    2017-02-01

    Mg -doped ZnO nanostructures with different growth temperature and Mg contents have been successfully fabricated on Si (111) substrates via physical chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) method. The influences of the growth temperature and Mg contents on the nanostructure, morphologies, and crystallinities were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The SEM results show that it is beneficial to grow regular ZnMgO nanorods with the growth temperature of 750 °C and Zn/Mg molar ratio of 50:1, respectively. XRD results indicate that the nanorods possess the preferential orientation along the c-axis with the best crystals. The nanorod arrays, dendritic, and like-caltrop nanostructure were achieved at various growth temperature and Mg contents, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that the UV emissions present the obvious blueshift owing to the increasing growth temperature and Mg contents.

  3. The Enhanced Light Absorptance and Device Application of Nanostructured Black Silicon Fabricated by Metal-assisted Chemical Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hao; Guo, Anran; Guo, Guohui; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-07-01

    We use metal-assisted chemical etching (MCE) method to fabricate nanostructured black silicon on the surface of C-Si. The Si-PIN photoelectronic detector based on this type of black silicon shows excellent device performance with a responsivity of 0.57 A/W at 1060 nm. Silicon nanocone arrays can be created using MCE treatment. These modified surfaces show higher light absorptance in the near-infrared range (800 to 2500 nm) compared to that of C-Si with polished surfaces, and the variations in the absorption spectra of the nanostructured black silicon with different etching processes are obtained. The maximum light absorptance increases significantly up to 95 % in the wavelength range of 400 to 2500 nm. Our recent novel results clearly indicate that nanostructured black silicon made by MCE has potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic detectors.

  4. Fabrication of multicomponent polymer nanostructures containing PMMA shells and encapsulated PS nanospheres in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hao-Wen; Chi, Mu-Huan; Chang, Chun-Wei; Su, Chun-Hsien; Wei, Tzu-Hui; Tsai, Chia-Chan; Peng, Chi-How; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2015-03-01

    Multi-component polymer nanomaterials have attracted great attention because of their applications in areas such as biomedicine, tissue engineering, and organic solar cells. The precise control over the morphologies of multi-component polymer nanomaterials, however, is still a great challenge. In this work, the fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/poly-styrene (PS) nanostructures that contain PMMA shells and encapsulated PS nanospheres is studied. The nanostructures are prepared using a triple solution wetting method with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The nanopores of the templates are wetted sequentially by PS solutions in dimethylformamide (DMF), PMMA solutions in acetic acid, and water. The compositions and morphologies of the nanostructures are controlled by the interactions between the polymers, solvents, and AAO walls. This work not only presents a feasible method to prepare multi-component polymer nanomaterials, but also leads to a better understanding of polymer-solvent interactions in confined geometries.

  5. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure.

  6. Rapid fabrication of bio-inspired nanostructure with hydrophobicity and antireflectivity on polystyrene surface replicating from cicada wings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Heng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Peng, Yu-Jiang

    2017-08-24

    The fine nanostructure on the cicada wing of Cryptotympana atrata fabricius, which exhibits hydrophobicity and antireflectivity, is carefully examined. A promising strategy is proposed for facilely and successively replicating the natural functional nanostructure of the cicada wing onto polystyrene (PS) surfaces. First, a nickel replica with tapered nanopores is fabricated by combining electroless plating and subsequent electroplating with the natural cicada wing as an original template. Then, using microinjection compression molding, with the nickel replica as a template, the tapered nanopores are transcribed onto the PS surface, resulting in orderly and densely arranged nanopillars with a mean diameter of about 156 nm and a mean pitch of about 180 nm. The natural cicada wing and fabricated nickel replica are reusable. Interestingly, the PS replica surface exhibits a water contact angle of 143° ± 2° and a reflectance of about 4% in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. These results mean that the bionic PS replica not only inherits the nanostructure of the natural wing, but also its hydrophobic and antireflective properties. The mechanisms for the hydrophobic and antireflective properties are revealed via composite wetting interface and effective medium layer on the replica surface, respectively. The proposed fast and efficient replication strategy can be an excellent candidate for mimicking bio-inspired functional micro/nanostructures without complicated procedures and expensive materials.

  7. Photopatterning of self-assembled monolayers at 244 nm and applications to the fabrication of functional microstructures and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuqing; Chong, Karen S. L.; Leggett, Graham J.

    2005-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols have been patterned on micrometre and nanometre length scales by exposure to light from a frequency doubled argon ion laser. Friction force microscopy shows that the patterning speed depends on the nature of the terminal group and is in the order COOH> CH3, the reverse of the order reported previously using a mercury arc lamp, indicating that a different photo-oxidation mechanism is responsible. It is suggested that this involves the creation of hot electrons at the gold surface that initiate oxidation of the adsorbate. Nanostructures have been fabricated using scanning near-field photolithography (SNP), in which the UV laser is coupled to a near-field scanning optical microscope. During SNP, the rates of writing required for complete oxidation correlate closely with oxidation rates measured during micropatterning, suggesting that the mechanism is essentially the same. SAMs on silver have been patterned, yielding linewidths smaller than 50 nm. The selective alkylation of hydrogen passivated Si has been demonstrated, yielding structures that may be used as resists for etching and demonstrating a powerful new capability—fluid-phase nanophotolithography. Patterned SAMs prepared using SNP have been used to selectively attach polymer nanoparticles, demonstrating their utility for the creation of functional molecular nanostructures. Nanopatterns generated by SNP have also been used as resists, enabling the etching of nanostructures into gold and the fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures in silicon using a two-stage wet etch process.

  8. Bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on capillary origami: Fabrication and device characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Ashley Taylor, J.; Krupenkin, Tom N.

    2011-10-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control based on mechanical actuation of micro-scale optical structures such as iridophores and chromatophores. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of bio-inspired artificial iridophores, which resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals, based on capillary origami microstructures. Two methods of petal actuation have been demonstrated—one based on the electrowetting process and the other by volume change of the liquid droplet. These results were in good agreement with a model derived to characterize the actuation dynamics.

  9. Predicting Air Permeability of Handloom Fabrics: A Comparative Analysis of Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Bannerjee, Debamalya

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of two modeling methodologies for the prediction of air permeability of plain woven handloom cotton fabrics. Four basic fabric constructional parameters namely ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count have been used as inputs for artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. Out of the four regression models tried, interaction model showed very good prediction performance with a meager mean absolute error of 2.017 %. However, ANN models demonstrated superiority over the regression models both in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute error. The ANN model with 10 nodes in the single hidden layer showed very good correlation coefficient of 0.982 and 0.929 and mean absolute error of only 0.923 and 2.043 % for training and testing data respectively.

  10. Fabrication of artificially stacked ultrathin ZnS/MgF2 multilayer dielectric optical filters.

    PubMed

    Kedawat, Garima; Srivastava, Subodh; Jain, Vipin Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Kataria, Vanjula; Agrawal, Yogyata; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Vijay, Yogesh K

    2013-06-12

    We report a design and fabrication strategy for creating an artificially stacked multilayered optical filters using a thermal evaporation technique. We have selectively chosen a zinc sulphide (ZnS) lattice for the high refractive index (n = 2.35) layer and a magnesium fluoride (MgF2) lattice as the low refractive index (n = 1.38) layer. Furthermore, the microstructures of the ZnS/MgF2 multilayer films are also investigated through TEM and HRTEM imaging. The fabricated filters consist of high and low refractive 7 and 13 alternating layers, which exhibit a reflectance of 89.60% and 99%, respectively. The optical microcavity achieved an average transmittance of 85.13% within the visible range. The obtained results suggest that these filters could be an exceptional choice for next-generation antireflection coatings, high-reflection mirrors, and polarized interference filters.

  11. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed. PMID:28115825

  12. Epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures fabricated by differential etching of BiFeO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johann, Florian; Morelli, Alessio; Vrejoiu, Ionela

    2011-08-01

    We report on differential etching behavior of the different orientations of the polarization in BiFeO3 (BFO), similar to other ferroelectrics, such as LiNbO3. We show how this effect can be used to fabricate epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. By means of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) domains of arbitrary shape and size can be poled in an epitaxial BiFeO3 film, which are then reproduced in the film morphology by differential etching. Structures with a lateral size smaller than 200 nm were fabricated and very good retention properties as well as a highly increased piezoelectric response were detected by PFM.

  13. One-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures using selective aluminum anodization based on non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong Min; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a selective aluminum anodization technique for the fabrication of microstructures covered by nanoscale dome structures. It is possible to fabricate bulging microstructures, utilizing the different growth rates of anodic aluminum oxide in non-uniform electric fields, because the growth rate of anodic aluminum oxide depends on the intensity of electric field, or current density. After anodizing under a non-uniform electric field, bulging microstructures covered by nanostructures were fabricated by removing the residual aluminum layer. The non-uniform electric field induced by insulative micropatterns was estimated by computational simulations and verified experimentally. Utilizing computational simulations, the intensity profile of the electric field was calculated according to the ratio of height and width of the insulative micropatterns. To compare computational simulation results and experimental results, insulative micropatterns were fabricated using SU-8 photoresist. The results verified that the shape of the bottom topology of anodic alumina was strongly dependent on the intensity profile of the applied electric field, or current density. The one-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures can be applied to various fields, such as nano-biochip and nano-optics, owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.

  14. In Situ Fabrication of 3D Ag@ZnO Nanostructures for Microfluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop an in situ method to grow highly controllable, sensitive, three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates via an optothermal effect within microfluidic devices. Implementing this approach, we fabricate SERS substrates composed of Ag@ZnO structures at prescribed locations inside microfluidic channels, sites within which current fabrication of SERS structures has been arduous. Conveniently, properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO nanostructures such as length, packing density, and coverage can also be adjusted by tuning laser irradiation parameters. After exploring the fabrication of the 3D nanostructures, we demonstrate a SERS enhancement factor of up to ∼2 × 106 and investigate the optical properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures through finite-difference time-domain simulations. To illustrate the potential value of our technique, low concentrations of biomolecules in the liquid state are detected. Moreover, an integrated cell-trapping function of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures records the surface chemical fingerprint of a living cell. Overall, our optothermal-effect-based fabrication technique offers an effective combination of microfluidics with SERS, resolving problems associated with the fabrication of SERS substrates in microfluidic channels. With its advantages in functionality, simplicity, and sensitivity, the microfluidic-SERS platform presented should be valuable in many biological, biochemical, and biomedical applications. PMID:25402207

  15. In situ fabrication of 3D Ag@ZnO nanostructures for microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Yang, Shikuan; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Peng; Zhao, Chenglong; Cohick, Zane; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-12-23

    In this work, we develop an in situ method to grow highly controllable, sensitive, three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates via an optothermal effect within microfluidic devices. Implementing this approach, we fabricate SERS substrates composed of Ag@ZnO structures at prescribed locations inside microfluidic channels, sites within which current fabrication of SERS structures has been arduous. Conveniently, properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO nanostructures such as length, packing density, and coverage can also be adjusted by tuning laser irradiation parameters. After exploring the fabrication of the 3D nanostructures, we demonstrate a SERS enhancement factor of up to ∼2×10(6) and investigate the optical properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures through finite-difference time-domain simulations. To illustrate the potential value of our technique, low concentrations of biomolecules in the liquid state are detected. Moreover, an integrated cell-trapping function of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures records the surface chemical fingerprint of a living cell. Overall, our optothermal-effect-based fabrication technique offers an effective combination of microfluidics with SERS, resolving problems associated with the fabrication of SERS substrates in microfluidic channels. With its advantages in functionality, simplicity, and sensitivity, the microfluidic-SERS platform presented should be valuable in many biological, biochemical, and biomedical applications.

  16. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, F.; Drost, M.; Vollnhals, F.; Späth, A.; Carrasco, E.; Fink, R. H.; Marbach, H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ˜160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties.

  17. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-09-01

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution.

  18. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution. PMID:27585861

  19. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane/organoclay nano-structured composites from cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, I. S.; Steele, A.; Martorana, P. J.; Loth, E.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-structured polyurethane/organoclay composite films were fabricated by dispersing moisture-curable polyurethanes and fatty amine/amino-silane surface modified montmorillonite clay (organoclay) in cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions. Cyclomethicone Pickering emulsions were made by emulsifying decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D 6) and aminofunctional siloxane polymers with water using montmorillonite particles as emulsion stabilizers. Polyurethane and organoclay dispersed emulsions were spray coated on aluminum surfaces. Upon thermosetting, water repellent self-cleaning coatings were obtained with measured static water contact angles exceeding 155° and low contact angle hysteresis (<8°). Electron microscopy images of the coating surfaces revealed formation of self-similar hierarchical micro- and nano-scale surface structures. The surface morphology and the coating adhesion strength to aluminum substrates were found to be sensitive to the relative amounts of dispersed polyurethane and organoclay in the emulsions. The degree of superhydrophobicity was analyzed using static water contact angles as well as contact angle hysteresis measurements. Due to biocompatibility of cyclomethicones and polyurethane, developed coatings can be considered for specific bio-medical applications.

  20. Large-area fabrication of silicon nanostructures by templated nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdana, Gerry; Bertke, Maik; Südkamp, Tobias; Bracht, Hartmut; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-05-01

    An improved nanoscale processing technique by using polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles as a mask is successfully implemented to produce vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. Lithographic microstructures with different shapes and opening sizes were applied to determine the fabrication area followed by deposition of a PSS/PDDA/PSS layer. Therefore, most of the substrate areas were covered and a large-range order of PS nanoparticles can be acquired by detailed investigation of spin-coating parameters and surface properties. Afterwards, the particle size was modulated resulting in feature diameters ranging from 459 +/- 9 nm down to 248 +/- 11 nm. Using this as a mask for inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, a feature-size variation of high-density SiNWs from 225 +/- 18 nm to 146 +/- 7 nm can be achieved. Finally, a method with simple patterning steps has been developed and tested on more than 100 samples emerging as an alternative method for reliable nanostructure realization.

  1. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-09-02

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution.

  2. Wide-temperature range operation supercapacitors from nanostructured activated carbon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kaihsuan; Masarapu, Charan; Ko, Tsehao; Wei, Bingqing

    Electrochemical power sources that offer high energy and power densities and, can also withstand a harsh temperature range have become extremely desirable in applications ranging from civilian portable electronic devices to military weapons. In this report, we demonstrated a wide temperature withstanding supercapacitor which can be operated from 100 °C to -40 °C within a voltage window from -2 V to 2 V. The performance of the supercapacitor coin cells, assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) as the electrode material and 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF 4) in polypropylene carbonate (PC) solution as the electrolyte, was systematically studied within the set temperature window. The ACF supercapacitor yielded ideal rectangular shapes in cyclic voltammograms within 0-100 °C with an average mass capacitance of 90 F g -1 and, 60 F g -1 at -25 °C. The capacitance was still over 20 F g -1 at the extremely low temperature of -40 °C. Another exciting feature of the ACF supercapacitors was that they resumed their room temperature capacitance when cooled from 100 °C and defrosted from -40 °C, demonstrating an excellent repeatability and stability. The charge-discharge behavior of the ACF supercapacitors showed long-cycle stability at extreme temperatures. These high electrochemical performances make this type of supercapacitors very promising in many practical applications.

  3. Fabrication, Light Emission, and Magnetism of Silica Nanoparticles Hybridized with AIE Luminogens and Inorganic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Mahtab

    Much research efforts have been devoted in developing new synthetic approaches for fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) due to their potential high-technological applications. However, light emissions from most of the FSNPs prepared so far have been rather weak. This is due to the emission quenching caused by the aggregation of fluorophores in the solid state. We have observed a novel phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission (AIE): a series of propeller-shaped molecules such as tetraphenylethene (TPE) and silole are induced to emit efficiently by aggregate formation. Thus, they are ideal fluorophors for the construction of FSNPs and my thesis work focuses on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles containing these luminogens and magnetic nanostructures. Highly emissive FSNPs with core-shell structures are fabricated by surfactant-free sol-gel reactions of tetraphenylethene- (TPE) and silole-functionalized siloxanes followed by the reactions with tetraethoxysilane. The FSNPs are uniformly sized, surface-charged and colloidally stable. The diameters of the FSNPs are tunable in the range of 45--295 nm by changing the reaction conditions. Whereas their TPE and silole precursors are non-emissive, the FSNPs emit strong visible lights, thanks to the novel aggregation-induced emission characteristics of the TPE and silole aggregates in the hybrid nanoparticles. The FSNPs pose no toxicity to living cells and can be utilized to selectively image cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Applying the same tool in the presence of citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles, uniform magnetic fluorescent silica nanoparticles (MFSNPs) with smooth surfaces are fabricated. These particles exhibit appreciable surface charges and hence good colloidal stability. They are superparamagnetic, exhibiting no hysteresis at room temperature. UV irradiation of a suspension of MFSNPs in ethanol gives strong blue and green emissions. The MFSNPs can selectively stain the cytoplasmic regions of the living cells

  4. Towards the fabrication of artificial 3D microdevices for neural cell networks.

    PubMed

    Gill, Andrew A; Ortega, Ílida; Kelly, Stephen; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2015-04-01

    This work reports first steps towards the development of artificial neural stem cell microenvironments for the control and assessment of neural stem cell behaviour. Stem cells have been shown to be found in specific, supportive microenvironments (niches) and are believed to play an important role in tissue regeneration mechanisms. These environments are intricate spaces with chemical and biological features. Here we present work towards the development of physically defined microdevices in which neural and neural stem cells can be studied in 3-dimensions. We have approached this challenge by creating bespoke, microstructured polymer environments using both 2-photon polymerisation and soft lithography techniques. Specifically, we have designed and fabricated biodegradable microwell-shaped devices using an in house synthetized polymer (4-arm photocurable poly-lactid acid) on a bespoke 2-photon polymerisation (2PP) set-up. We have studied swelling and degradation of the constructs as well as biocompatibility. Moreover, we have explored the potential of these constructs as artificial neural cell substrates by culturing NG108-15 cells (mouse neuroblastoma; rat glioma hybrid) and human neural progenitor cells on the microstructures. Finally, we have studied the effects of our artificial microenvironments upon neurite length and cell density.

  5. New strategy for design and fabrication of polymer hydrogel with tunable porosity as artificial corneal skirt.

    PubMed

    Cao, Danfeng; Zhang, Yingchao; Cui, Zhanchen; Du, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zuosen

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain an ideal material using for artificial corneal skirt, a porous polymer hydrogel containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and butyl acrylate was prepared through one-step radical polymerization method and the usage of CaCO3 whisker as porogen. The physical-chemical properties of the fabricated polymer hydrogel can be adjusted by CaCO3 whisker content, such as pore size, porosity, water content of materials and surface topography. Then a series of cell biology experiments of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were carried out to evaluate its properties as an artificial corneal skirt, such as the adhesion of cells on the materials with different pore size and porosity, the apoptosis on materials with different characteristics, the distribution of the cells on the material surface. The results revealed that high porosity not only could improve water content of hydrogel, but also strengthen the adhesion of HCFs on hydrogel. In addition, high porosity hydrogel with the whisker shape of pores showed much elongate spindle-like morphology than those low porosity hydrogels. MTT assay certified that the resulted polymer hydrogel material possessed excellent biocompatibility and was suitable for HCFs growing, making it promising for being developed as artificial corneal skirt.

  6. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ayman S; Wilhelm, Richard A; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-16

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (^{129}Xe^{Q+}) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q=15 to Q=36, the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  7. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Said, Ayman S.; Wilhelm, Richard A.; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (129Xe Q+ ) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q =15 to Q =36 , the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  8. Heterogeneous systems biocatalysis; the path to the fabrication of self-sufficient artificial metabolic cells.

    PubMed

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Jackson, Eriene; Betancor, Lorena

    2017-09-26

    Industrial biocatalysis is playing a key role in the development of the global bio-economy that must change our current productive model to pair the socio-economical development with the preservation of our already harmed planet. The exploitation of isolated multi-enzyme systems and the discovery of novel biocatalytic activities are leading us to manufacture chemicals that were inaccessible through biological routes in the early past. These endeavors have been grouped in the concept of Systems biocatalysis. However, by using isolated biological machineries, fundamental features underlying the protein confinement found inside the living cells are missed. To re-gain these properties such concept can be expanded to a new concept; heterogeneous systems biocatalysis. This new concept is based on the fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts inspired by the spatial organization and compartmentalization that orchestrate metabolic pathways within cells. By assembling biological machineries (including enzymes and cofators) into artificial solid chassis, one can fabricate self-sufficient and robust cell-free systems able to catalyze orchestrated chemical processes. Furthermore, the confinement of enzymes and "artificial cofactor" inside solid materials has also attracted our attention since these self-sufficient systems exert de novo and non natural functionalities. Herein, we pursue going beyond immobilization of multi-enzyme systems, discussing only those enzymatic systems that have been co-immobilized with their cofactor or exogenous partners to enhance their cooperative action. In this article, we review the latest architectures developed to fabricate self-sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts with application in chemical manufacturing, biosensing or energy production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fabrication and in vivo thrombogenicity testing of nitric oxide generating artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Kagya A; Montoya, Patrick J; Major, Terry C; Suhaib, Ahmed B; Handa, Hitesh; Brant, David O; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E

    2013-12-01

    Hollow fiber artificial lungs are increasingly being used for long-term applications. However, clot formation limits their use to 1-2 weeks. This study investigated the effect of nitric oxide generating (NOgen) hollow fibers on artificial lung thrombogenicity. Silicone hollow fibers were fabricated to incorporate 50 nm copper particles as a catalyst for NO generation from the blood. Fibers with and without (control) these particles were incorporated into artificial lungs with a 0.1 m(2) surface area and inserted in circuits coated tip-to-tip with the NOgen material. Circuits (N = 5/each) were attached to rabbits in a pumpless, arterio-venous configuration and run for 4 h at an activated clotting time of 350-400 s. Three control circuits clotted completely, while none of the NOgen circuits failed. Accordingly, blood flows were significantly higher in the NOgen group (95.9 ± 11.7, p < 0.01) compared to the controls (35.2 ± 19.7; mL/min), and resistance was significantly higher in the control group after 4 h (15.38 ± 9.65, p < 0.001) than in NOgen (0.09 ± 0.03; mmHg/mL/min). On the other hand, platelet counts and plasma fibrinogen concentration expressed as percent of baseline in control group (63.7 ± 5.7%, 77.2 ± 5.6%; p < 0.05) were greater than those in the NOgen group (60.4 ± 5.1%, 63.2 ± 3.7%). Plasma copper levels in the NOgen group were 2.8 times baseline at 4 h (132.8 ± 4.5 μg/dL) and unchanged in the controls. This study demonstrates that NO generating gas exchange fibers could be a potentially effective way to control coagulation inside artificial lungs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  10. Fabrication and In vivo Thrombogenicity Testing of Nitric Oxide Generating Artificial Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Kagya A; Montoya, Patrick J; Major, Terry C; Suhaib, Ahmed B; Handa, Hitesh; Brant, David O; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Hollow fiber artificial lungs are increasingly being used for long-term applications. However, clot formation limits their use to 1-2 weeks. This study investigated the effect of nitric oxide generating (NOgen) hollow fibers on artificial lung thrombogenicity. Silicone hollow fibers were fabricated to incorporate 50 nm copper particles as a catalyst for NO generation from the blood. Fibers with and without (control) these particles were incorporated into artificial lungs with a 0.1 m2 surface area and inserted in circuits coated tip-to-tip with the NOgen material. Circuits (N=5/each) were attached to rabbits in a pumpless, arterio-venous configuration and run for 4 hrs at an activated clotting time of 350-400s. Three control circuits clotted completely, while none of the NOgen circuits failed. Accordingly, blood flows were significantly higher in the NOgen group (95.9 ± 11.7, p < 0.01) compared to the controls (35.2 ± 19.7) (ml/min), and resistance was significantly higher in the control group after 4 hours (15.38 ± 9.65, p<0.001) than in NOgen (0.09 ± 0.03) (mmHg/mL/min). On the other hand, platelet counts and plasma fibrinogen concentration expressed as percent of baseline in control group (63.7 ± 5.7%, 77.2 ± 5.6% [p<0.05]) were greater than those in the NOgen group (60.4 ± 5.1%, 63.2 ± 3.7%). Plasma copper levels in the NOgen group were 2.8 times baseline at 4 hours (132.8 ± 4.5 μg/dl) and unchanged in the controls. This work demonstrates that NO generating gas exchange fibers could be a potentially effective way to control coagulation inside artificial lungs. PMID:23613156

  11. Low-Cost and Rapid Fabrication of Metallic Nanostructures for Sensitive Biosensors Using Hot-Embossing and Dielectric-Heating Nanoimprint Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuang-Li; Wu, Tsung-Yeh; Hsu, Hsuan-Yeh; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2017-01-01

    We propose two approaches—hot-embossing and dielectric-heating nanoimprinting methods—for low-cost and rapid fabrication of periodic nanostructures. Each nanofabrication process for the imprinted plastic nanostructures is completed within several seconds without the use of release agents and epoxy. Low-cost, large-area, and highly sensitive aluminum nanostructures on A4 size plastic films are fabricated by evaporating aluminum film on hot-embossing nanostructures. The narrowest bandwidth of the Fano resonance is only 2.7 nm in the visible light region. The periodic aluminum nanostructure achieves a figure of merit of 150, and an intensity sensitivity of 29,345%/RIU (refractive index unit). The rapid fabrication is also achieved by using radio-frequency (RF) sensitive plastic films and a commercial RF welding machine. The dielectric-heating, using RF power, takes advantage of the rapid heating/cooling process and lower electric power consumption. The fabricated capped aluminum nanoslit array has a 5 nm Fano linewidth and 490.46 nm/RIU wavelength sensitivity. The biosensing capabilities of the metallic nanostructures are further verified by measuring antigen–antibody interactions using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA. These rapid and high-throughput fabrication methods can benefit low-cost, highly sensitive biosensors and other sensing applications. PMID:28671600

  12. Fabrication of Nanostructures on Implantable Biomaterials for Biocompatibility Enhancement and Infection Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Luting

    simple template-molding method (in which a material with a special structure is used as a template to imprint its structure onto another material) with nanotubular anodized Ti was used to formulate a physical nanostructured pattern on a PDMS (a commonly used polymeric catheter material) surface without changing its surface chemistry. Results showed that increased PDMS surface nanoscale roughness alone inhibited both Gram-negative ( E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria adhesion and growth without using antibiotics while remaining non-toxic to fibroblasts and endothelial cells. A model was developed for the first time to correlate bacteria responses to nanoscale roughness with initial protein adsorption (specifically, casein protein, which is well known for preventing bacteria attachment). Data also revealed that an increase in nanoscale roughness and greater surface hydrophilicity together contributed to increased protein adsorption, which may decrease the interactions at the bacteria-nanorough surface interface and achieve effective antimicrobial properties. Mechanistically, this thesis also investigated the influence of specific surface properties (i.e., nanoscale surface roughness, surface wettability and associated surface energy) on cell and bacteria functions. Results showed a direct proportional linear correlation of surface energy with surface roughness. It was found that surface energy plays a major role in determining cell and bacteria functions, and specifically all proposed nanofabricated samples with an initial surface energy at 40 mJ/m2 showed relatively promising antibacterial properties and desirable cellular functions. Overall, the results of this study provided alternative, inexpensive, methods for fabricating various implant surfaces with nanostructures to enhance biocompatibility and prevent bacterial attachment simultaneously, which will be beneficial for numerous biomedical applications.

  13. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    our understanding of the roughness effect on superhydrophobicity (both contact angle and hysteresis), structured surfaces from polybutadiene, polyurethane, silica, and Si etc. were successfully prepared. For engineering applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, stability issues regarding UV, mechanical robustness and humid environment need to be investigated. Among these factors, UV stability is the first one to be studied. However, most polymer surfaces we prepared failed the purpose. Silica surfaces with excellent UV stability were prepared. This method consists of preparation of rough silica surfaces, thermal treatment and the following surface hydrophobization by fluoroalkyl silane treatment. Fluoroalkyl groups are UV stable and the underlying species are silica which is also UV stable (UV transparent). UV stability on the surface currently is 5,500 h according the standard test method of ASTM D 4329. No degradation on surface superhydrophobicity was observed. New methods for preparing superhydrophobic and transparent silica surfaces were investigated using urea-choline chloride eutectic liquid to generate fine roughness and reduce the cost for preparation of surface structures. Another possible application for self-cleaning in photovoltaic panels was investigated on Si surfaces by construction of the two-scale rough structures followed by fluoroalkyl silane treatment. Metal (Au) assisted etching was employed to fabricate nanostructures on micrometer pyramid surfaces. The light reflection on the prepared surfaces was investigated. After surface texturing using KOH etching for micrometer pyramids and the following nanostructure using metal assisted etching, surface light reflection reduced to a minimum value which shows that this surface texturing technique is highly promising for improving the photovoltaic efficiency while imparting photovoltaics the self-cleaning feature. This surface is also expected to be UV stable due to the same fluoroalkyl silane used

  14. Fabrication of refractive freeform array masters for artificial compound eye cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, J.; Wippermann, F.; Brückner, A.; Reimann, A.; Müller, M.; Bräuer, A.

    2014-05-01

    There is a huge demand on miniaturized cameras in the field of mobile consumer electronics. These cameras are currently based on miniaturized single aperture optics. In order to further decrease the thickness of miniaturized camera systems, a multichannel imaging principle needs to be used. These artificial compound eye cameras permit a further decrease in thickness by a factor of two in comparison to miniaturized single aperture optics with same resolution and pixel size. Their fabrication process is currently based on the reflow of photoresist. Due to physical limitations of this technique, only spherical and ellipsoidal surface profiles of the single lenslets are achievable. Consequently, the potential for correcting optical aberrations is restricted leading to limited image quality and resolution. This can be improved significantly by the use of refractive freeform arrays. Due to the non-symmetrical and aspherical surface shapes of the single lenslets, the fabrication by the reflow of photoresist is no longer possible. Therefore, we propose an approach for the fabrication of these structures based on the combination of an ultra-precision machining process together with a microimprinting approach.

  15. Fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide films with supercritical carbon dioxide: Processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Eunyoung

    Nanostructured metal oxide films have many applications in catalysis, microelectronics, microfluidics, photovoltaics and other fields. Since the performance of a device depends greatly on the structure of the material, the development of methodologies that enable prescriptive control of morphology are of great interest. The focus of this work is to control the structure and properties of the nanostructured metal oxide films using novel synthetic schemes in supercritical fluids and to use those films as key building components in alternative energy applications. A supercritical fluid is a substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. It typically exhibits gas-like transport properties and liquid-like densities. Supercritical fluid deposition (SFD) utilizes these properties of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to deposit chemically pure metal, oxides and alloys of metal films. SFD is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-like process in the sense that it uses similar metal organic precursors and deposits films at elevated temperatures. Instead of vaporizing or subliming the precursors, they are dissolved in supercritical fluids. SFD has typically shown to exhibit higher precursor concentrations, lower deposition temperatures, conformal deposition of films on high aspect ratio features as compared to CVD. In2 O3, ZnO and SnO2 are attractive materials because they are used in transparent conductors. SFD of these materials were studied and In2 O3 deposition kinetics using tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) In (III) as precursor were determined. Growth rate dependence on the deposition temperature and the precursor concentrations were studied and the physicochemical and optical properties of In2 O3 films were characterized. Metal oxide nanochannels that can potentially be used for microfluidics have been fabricated by sequentially performing nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and SFD. NIL was used to pattern photoresist grating on substrates and SFD of TiO2

  16. Fabrication of nano-structured calcium silicate coatings with enhanced stability, bioactivity and osteogenic and angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuhui; Zhou, Yuning; Xia, Lunguo; Zhao, Cancan; Chen, Lei; Yi, Deliang; Chang, Jiang; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhu, Huiying; Xie, Youtao; Xu, Yuanjin; Lin, Kaili

    2015-02-01

    The bioactivity and stability of coatings on alloy implants play critical roles in the fast osseointegration and maintenance of a long-term life span of the implants, respectively. Herein, nano-sheet surface on bioactive calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) coatings on metal substrates was fabricated by combining atmosphere plasma spraying (APS) and hydrothermal technology (HT). The glassy phase in CS coatings generated by APS was converted into crystalline sheet-like nano-structures after HT treatment. Compared with the original CS coating samples, HT treatment decreased the degradation rate of the CS coatings. Moreover, the fabricated nano-structured topography of CS coatings increased the apatite mineralization ability and significantly enhanced the cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of osteogenic genes and angiogenic factors of rat bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs). Our results suggest that the nano-structured CS coatings have immense potential in improving the clinical performance of medical implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly effective surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates with roughened 3D flowerlike silver nanostructures fabricated in liquid crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Peiguang; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2017-04-01

    Highly effective surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates with roughened 3D flowerlike silver nanostructures were fabricated by electrodeposition in liquid crystalline template which is simple and controllable. Due to the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures, the substrates were used as surface enhanced fluorescence substrates. The morphology and optical properties of the substrates were studied. The fluorescence experiments of the Rhodamine 6G on the substrates for different growth times were carried out and the best enhancement factor of 181 was achieved. Eight substrates with the same growth conditions were used to study the reproducibility of the substrate which shows that the fluctuations are within 9%. This substrate was used in organic distributed feedback lasers and the amplified spontaneous emission of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2‧-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) was enhanced dramatically which means the reduced threshold and improved slope efficiency. Such easily fabricated flower-like silver nanostructure substrates with strong surface enhanced fluorescence effect and good reproducibility are good candidate for potential applications in optical imaging, biotechnology and material detections.

  18. Exchange-biased hybrid ferromagnetic-multiferroic core-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Wei; Javed, Khalid; Ali, Syed Shahbaz; Chen, Jun-Yang; Li, Pei-Sen; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Han, Xiu-Feng

    2014-07-07

    Artificial exchange-biased two-phase core-shell nanostructures consisting of ferromagnetic (Ni) and multiferroic (BiFeO3) materials were manufactured by a two-step method. An exchange bias effect was observed and studied, which indicates that it is possible to fabricate ferromagnetic-multiferroic nanostructures to utilize the combined ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic functionalities of bismuth ferrite.

  19. Fabrication of self-assembled iron oxide hierarchical nanostructures and their application in water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiechao; Tian, Jiangwei; Zhuo, Linhai; Chen, Huachao; Tang, Bo

    2011-08-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach based on n-nonyl alcohol mediated process has been developed to synthesize self-assembled Fe 3O 4 hierarchical nanostructures. The as-synthesized hierarchical nanostructured Fe 3O 4 could be easily transformed to γ-Fe 2O 3 and α-Fe 2O 3 without changing its original morphology by calcination in air. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were performed to investigate the evolution process of Fe 3O 4 hierarchical nanostructures. The growth mechanism of the as-prepared Fe 3O 4 nanostructure and the subsequently hierarchical nanostructures are suggested. The as-obtained iron oxide nanomaterials were used as adsorbent in water treatment, and were found an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants such as Orange II in waste water.

  20. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  1. Scalable fabrication of nanostructured devices on flexible substrates using additive driven self-assembly and nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James

    2013-03-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) technologies provide routes for continuous production of flexible, nanostructured materials and devices with high throughput and low cost. We employ additive-driven self-assembly to produce well-ordered polymer/nanoparticle hybrid materials that can serve as active device layers, we use highly filled nanoparticle/polymer hybrids for applications that require tailored dielectric constant or refractive index, and we employ R2R nanoimprint lithography for device scale patterning. Specific examples include the fabrication of flexible floating gate memory and large area films for optical/EM management. Our newly constructed R2R processing facility includes a custom designed, precision R2R UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (NIL) system and hybrid nanostructured materials coaters.

  2. Incorporation of ZnO and their composite nanostructured material into a cotton fabric platform for wearable device applications.

    PubMed

    Veluswamy, Pandiyarasan; Sathiyamoorthy, Suhasini; Khan, Faizan; Ghosh, Aranya; Abhijit, Majumdar; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya

    2017-02-10

    The central idea of this paper is to innovate a new approach for the development of wearable device materials through the coating of cotton fabric with ZnO and Sb-/Ag-/ZnO composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of ZnO as well as the modified composite thereof under investigation. Cotton fabric with uniform ZnO/ZnO-composite layers on the surface was successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method. The growth behaviors were investigated by comparing ZnO and ZnO-composites. The structural, morphological, chemical states, optical, electrical and thermopower properties of these fabrics were studied. Nanostructured ZnO-composite fabric had enhanced UV shielding with a value of 83.96. It is found that the ZnO-composite fabrics have increased electrical conductivity. The thermopower value of the ZnO-composite fabric could reach 471.9μVK(-1). Such materials are anticipated to be worthwhile as wearable electronic devices and as protective textiles.

  3. Semiconductor Nanostructures for Solar Water Splitting and Hydrogen Production: Design, Growth/Fabrication, Characterization, and Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, Alireza

    Solar and seawater are the ultimate energy resources on earth, and together constitute a potential solution to the energy crisis, which at the same time can reduce the carbon emission due to the use of fossil fuels. However, there are challenges in the generation of hydrogen fuel through water splitting using solar energy, such as the cost, and large scale manufacturing of the efficient and durable photoelectrodes. Primary challenge for solar water splitting using photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells is to develop photoelectrodes with sufficient photovoltage to electrolyze water, with maximized photon utilization efficiency, with long lifetime, and with cheap cost. This thesis then focuses on design, characterization and fabrication of novel nanostructured heterojunctions (with focus on nanowire/nanorod array heterostructures) for solar water splitting and hydrogen production. The primary focus of this thesis is to develop such photoelectrodes using low-cost, earth-abundant, non-toxic materials with cheap, facile, scalable fabrication techniques for efficient and durable solar water splitting in neutral solutions. The formation of the nanostructured array heterojunction offers unique combination of desired properties, such as enhanced light absorption, improved charge separation/collection, enlarged reaction surface area, and better electrochemical reaction dynamics. Two different types of nanostructured array heterojunctions present in this thesis including (i) Si/metal-oxides nanowire array heterojunction photoelectrodes (chapters 2-6), and (ii) all-metal-oxides nanowire/nanorod heterostructure photoelectrodes (chapters 7-8). Two different catalysts for hydrogen or oxygen evolution reaction are presented in chapters 9-10. The application of catalyst is to facilitate the gas evolution on the surface of nanostructured heterojunctions to improve the solar hydrogen production efficiency.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of PbSe nanostructures on van der Waals surfaces of GaSe layered semiconductor crystals.

    PubMed

    Kudrynskyi, Z R; Bakhtinov, A P; Vodopyanov, V N; Kovalyuk, Z D; Tovarnitskii, M V; Lytvyn, O S

    2015-11-20

    The growth morphology, composition and structure of PbSe nanostructures grown on the atomically smooth, clean, nanoporous and oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces of GaSe layered crystals were studied by means of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffractometry,photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Semiconductor heterostructures were grown by the hot-wall technique in vacuum. Nanoporous GaSe substrates were fabricated by the thermal annealing of layered crystals in a molecular hydrogen atmosphere. The irradiation of the GaSe(0001) surface by UV radiation was used to fabricate thin Ga(2)O(3) layers with thickness < 2 nm. It was found that the narrow gap semiconductor PbSe shows a tendency to form clusters with a square or rectangular symmetry on the cleanlow-energy (0001) GaSe surface, and (001)-oriented growth of PbSe thin films takes place on this surface. Using this growth technique it is possible to grow PbSe nanostructures with different morphologies:continuous epitaxial layers with thickness < 10 nm on the uncontaminated p-GaSe(0001)surfaces, homogeneous arrays of quantum dots with a high lateral density (more than 1011 cm(−2))on the oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces and faceted square pillar-like nanostructures with a low lateral density (∼10(8) cm(−2)) on the nanoporous GaSe substrates. We exploit the ‘vapor–liquid–solid’ growth with low-melting metal (Ga) catalyst of PbSe crystalline branched nanostructures via a surface-defect-assisted mechanism.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of PbSe nanostructures on van der Waals surfaces of GaSe layered semiconductor crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Bakhtinov, A. P.; Vodopyanov, V. N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Tovarnitskii, M. V.; Lytvyn, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The growth morphology, composition and structure of PbSe nanostructures grown on the atomically smooth, clean, nanoporous and oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces of GaSe layered crystals were studied by means of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Semiconductor heterostructures were grown by the hot-wall technique in vacuum. Nanoporous GaSe substrates were fabricated by the thermal annealing of layered crystals in a molecular hydrogen atmosphere. The irradiation of the GaSe(0001) surface by UV radiation was used to fabricate thin Ga2O3 layers with thickness < 2 nm. It was found that the narrow gap semiconductor PbSe shows a tendency to form clusters with a square or rectangular symmetry on the clean low-energy (0001) GaSe surface, and (001)-oriented growth of PbSe thin films takes place on this surface. Using this growth technique it is possible to grow PbSe nanostructures with different morphologies: continuous epitaxial layers with thickness < 10 nm on the uncontaminated p-GaSe(0001) surfaces, homogeneous arrays of quantum dots with a high lateral density (more than 1011 cm-2) on the oxidized van der Waals (0001) surfaces and faceted square pillar-like nanostructures with a low lateral density (˜108 cm-2) on the nanoporous GaSe substrates. We exploit the ‘vapor-liquid-solid’ growth with low-melting metal (Ga) catalyst of PbSe crystalline branched nanostructures via a surface-defect-assisted mechanism.

  6. Egg-in-Cube: Design and Fabrication of a Novel Artificial Eggshell with Functionalized Surface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Arai, Fumihito; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed “Egg-in-Cube” with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research. PMID

  7. In situ fabricate Cu{sub 2}S thin film with hierarchical petal-like nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hongxiao Chen, Xinhua; Jia, Huimin; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}S thin films with hierarchical nanostructures have been synthesized by solvothermal method using DMSO as reactant. • The band gap is estimated to be 1.0 eV of the Cu{sub 2}S hierarchical nanostructures. • The form process of Cu{sub 2}S and the possible mechanism of hierarchical nanostructures were proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, Cu{sub 2}S thin film with hierarchical petal-like nanostructures has been successfully in situ synthesized via a solvothermal method using DMSO as reactant under appropriate reaction conditions. The crystalline phase, morphology and optical properties of the resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The band gap is estimated to be about 1.0 eV by the results of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy of the Cu{sub 2}S thin film with hierarchical nanostructures that consisted of nanoslices with the thickness of 15 nm. The formation process of Cu{sub 2}S and the possible mechanism of hierarchical nanostructures were also proposed. These findings are valuable since Cu{sub 2}S thin film with hierarchical petal-like nanostructures are promising candidate as lithium ion battery and solar cell materials.

  8. Color matching of fabric blends: hybrid Kubelka-Munk + artificial neural network based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-11-01

    Color matching of fabric blends is a key issue for the textile industry, mainly due to the rising need to create high-quality products for the fashion market. The process of mixing together differently colored fibers to match a desired color is usually performed by using some historical recipes, skillfully managed by company colorists. More often than desired, the first attempt in creating a blend is not satisfactory, thus requiring the experts to spend efforts in changing the recipe with a trial-and-error process. To confront this issue, a number of computer-based methods have been proposed in the last decades, roughly classified into theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches. Inspired by the above literature, the present paper provides a method for accurate estimation of spectrophotometric response of a textile blend composed of differently colored fibers made of different materials. In particular, the performance of the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory is enhanced by introducing an artificial intelligence approach to determine a more consistent value of the nonlinear function relationship between the blend and its components. Therefore, a hybrid K-M+ANN-based method capable of modeling the color mixing mechanism is devised to predict the reflectance values of a blend.

  9. Solvent free fabrication of micro and nanostructured drug coatings by thermal evaporation for controlled release and increased effects.

    PubMed

    Zarie, Eman S; Kaidas, Viktor; Gedamu, Dawit; Mishra, Yogendra K; Adelung, Rainer; Furkert, Franz H; Scherließ, Regina; Steckel, Hartwig; Groessner-Schreiber, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructuring of drug delivery systems offers many promising applications like precise control of dissolution and release kinetics, enhanced activities, flexibility in terms of surface coatings, integration into implants, designing the appropriate scaffolds or even integrating into microelectronic chips etc. for different desired applications. In general such kind of structuring is difficult due to unintentional mixing of chemical solvents used during drug formulations. We demonstrate here the successful solvent-free fabrication of micro-nanostructured pharmaceutical molecules by simple thermal evaporation (TE). The evaporation of drug molecules and their emission to a specific surface under vacuum led to controlled assembling of the molecules from vapour phase to solid phase. The most important aspects of thermal evaporation technique are: solvent-free, precise control of size, possibility of fabricating multilayer/hybrid, and free choice of substrates. This could be shown for twenty eight pharmaceutical substances of different chemical structures which were evaporated on surfaces of titanium and glass discs. Structural investigations of different TE fabricated drugs were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy which revealed that these drug substances preserve their structurality after evaporation. Titanium discs coated with antimicrobial substances by thermal evaporation were subjected to tests for antibacterial or antifungal activities, respectively. A significant increase in their antimicrobial activity was observed in zones of inhibition tests compared to controls of the diluted substances on the discs made of paper for filtration. With thermal evaporation, we have successfully synthesized solvent-free nanostructured drug delivery systems in form of multilayer structures and in hybrid drug complexes respectively. Analyses of these substances consolidated that thermal evaporation opens up the possibility to

  10. Nanostructured Origami (Trademark) 3D Fabrication and Self Assembly Process for Soldier Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the Japanese art of “ origami ”) involves patterning adjacent 2D membranes that can be lifted off (using methods we have developed) of a silicon...innovative process holds immense potential for the Army’s Objective Force Warrior. Nanostructured Origami enables many practical and promising...Nanostructured Origami allows such devices to be formed from a single, micro/nanofabricated layer. In addition, nanoarchitecture can be added

  11. Reliable contact fabrication on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shien-Ping; Chang, Ya-Huei; Yang, Jian; Poudel, Bed; Yu, Bo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2013-05-14

    A cost-effective and reliable Ni-Au contact on nanostructured Bi2Te3-based alloys for a solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is reported. The use of MPS SAMs creates a strong covalent binding and more nucleation sites with even distribution for electroplating contact electrodes on nanostructured thermoelectric materials. A reliable high-performance flat-panel STEG can be obtained by using this new method.

  12. Fabrication of nanostructured targets for improved laser-driven proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Scisciò, M.; Veltri, S.; Antici, P.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a novel realization of nanostructured targets suitable for improving laser-driven proton acceleration experiments, in particular with regard to the Target-Normal-Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) acceleration mechanism. The nanostructured targets, produced as films, are realized by a simpler and cheaper method than using conventional lithographic techniques. The growth process includes a two step approach for the production of the gold nanoparticle layers: 1) Laser Ablation in Solution and 2) spray-dry technique using a colloidal solution on target surfaces (Aluminum, Mylar and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube). The obtained nanostructured films appear, at morphological and chemical analysis, uniformly nanostructured and the nanostructure distributed on the target surfaces without presence of oxides or external contaminants. The obtained targets show a broad optical absorption in all the visible region and a surface roughness that is two times greater than non-nanostructured targets, enabling a greater laser energy absorption during the laser-matter interaction experiments producing the laser-driven proton acceleration.

  13. Fabrication, characterization, cathodoluminescence, and field-emission properties of silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.Q.; Onodera, H.; Sekiguchi, T.; Golberg, D.; Bando, Y.; Mori, T.

    2012-11-15

    High-quality one dimensional amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanostructures with different morphologies (nanowires and starfish-like nanostructures) are synthesized through a simple catalysis-free approach and effective thermal evaporation process. The morphologies, microstructures, and compositions of the products are investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A promising optical property (cathodoluminescence (CL) in a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission and a weak blue emission at room temperature) was detected in the as-synthesized nanostructures. Field-emission measurements show that the SiO{sub 2} nanostructures may also be a promising FE emitter candidate if we can improve the conductivity and decrease the density of the nanostructures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple catalysis-free approach and effective thermal evaporation process Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality one dimensional amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanostructures Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission and a weak blue emission at room temperature Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A promising FE emitter's candidate.

  14. Fabrication of artificial toroid nanostructures by modified β-sheet peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Li, Jingfang; Lee, Myongsoo

    2013-09-25

    Facial peptide P1 carrying repeating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues as well as lysine terminals self-assemble into uniform toroid structures. The sensitive balance between the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion dominates the formation of highly curved assemblies.

  15. Trace detection of herbicides by SERS technique, using SERS-active substrates fabricated from different silver nanostructures deposited on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao Dao, Tran; Quynh Ngan Luong, Truc; Cao, Tuan Anh; Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Kieu, Ngoc Minh; Thuy Luong, Thi; Le, Van Vu

    2015-09-01

    In this report we present the initial results of the use of different silver nanostructures deposited on silicon for trace detection of paraquat (a commonly used herbicide) using the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. More specifically, the SERS-active substrates were fabricated from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited onto the flat surface of a silicon wafer (AgNPs@Si substrate), as well as on the surface of an obliquely aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) array (AgNPs@SiNWs substrate), and from silver nanodendrites (AgNDs) deposited onto the flat surface of a silicon wafer (AgNDs@Si substrate). Results showed that with the change of the structure of the SERS-active substrate, higher levels of SERS enhancement have been achieved. Specifically, with the fabricated AgNDs@Si substrate, paraquat concentration as low as 1 ppm can be detected.

  16. Fabrication of large array of uniform metal nanostructures by use of soft sphere lithography and plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sett, Shaili; Banik, Meneka; Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    We report a technique for fabrication of a uniform array of metal nanostructures covering at least 10μm × 10μm region by using a combination of soft sphere lithography, metal lift-off and plasma based reactive ion etching. The initial large area mask for the pattern has been made by polystyrene colloid spheres which form a hexagonal closed packed pattern covering a large area over which a pre-plasma etching is performed to open up clean areas of metal deposition. This was followed by metallization (Cr/Au) and lift-off. The pattern formed is triangular nanostructures of ˜ 200 nm which are grown on the voids formed by the polystyrene spheres. A post plasma treatment is carried out to get equilateral triangles at uniform spacing at regular intervals forming the array. The process developed is a generic process. The large array of nanostructures produced can be used for such application as photonic and plasmonic devices.

  17. Nanofaceted C/Re(1121): fabrication, structure, and template for synthesizing nanostructured model Pt electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofang; Koel, Bruce E; Wang, Hao; Chen, Wenhua; Bartynski, Robert A

    2012-02-28

    We report the first observation of carbon-induced nanofaceting of a Re single crystal and its application in synthesizing a nanostructured model Pt electrocatalyst investigated using multiple surface science techniques, including low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering, and scanning tunneling microscopy, combined with electrochemical reaction measurements. Upon annealing in acetylene at 700 K followed by annealing in vacuum at 1100 K, an initially planar Re(112̅1) surface becomes completely faceted and covered with three-sided nanopyramids exposing (011̅1), (101̅1), and (112̅0) faces. Using the faceted C/Re(112̅1) surface as a template, we have successfully fabricated a nanostructured Pt monolayer (ML) electrocatalyst. The Pt ML supported on the C/Re nanotemplate exhibits higher activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction than Pt(111). This is the first application of faceted metal surfaces as templates for synthesis of nanoscale model electrocatalyst with well-defined (facet) surface structure and controlled (facet) size on the nanometer scale, illustrating the potential for future studies of nanostructured bimetallic systems relevant to electrocatalytic reactions.

  18. Hierarchical nanostructures of copper(II) phthalocyanine on electrospun TiO(2) nanofibers: controllable solvothermal-fabrication and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyi; Shao, Changlu; Guo, Zengcai; Zhang, Zhenyi; Mu, Jingbo; Cao, Tieping; Liu, Yichun

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, 2,9,16,23-tetranitrophthalocyanine copper(II) (TNCuPc)/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures were successfully fabricated by a simple combination method of electrospinning technique and solvothermal processing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DR), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were used to characterize the as-synthesized TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures. The results showed that the secondary TNCuPc nanostructures were not only successfully grown on the primary TiO(2) nanofibers substrates but also uniformly distributed without aggregation. By adjusting the solvothermal fabrication parameters, the TNCuPc nanowires or nanoflowers were facilely fabricated, and also the loading amounts of TNCuPc could be controlled on the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructural nanofibers. And, there might exist the interaction between TNCuPc and TiO(2). A possible mechanism for the formation of TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures was suggested. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TNCuPc or TiO(2) nanofibers under visible-light irradiation.

  19. Precisely controlled resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating for fabricating core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shengjie; Zang, Jun; Xu, Chaofa; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng; Sun, Daohua; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-07-01

    This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic spheres are promising catalyst supports for oxygen reduction reaction. And yolk-shell structured Au@HCS nanoreactors with ultrathin shells exhibit high catalytic activity and recyclability in confined catalysis.This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic

  20. Laser-induced fabrication of gold nanoparticles on shellac-driven peptide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Gupta, Shradhey; Mishra, Narendra Kumar; Singh, Ramesh; Yadav, Santosh K. S.; Ballabh Joshi, Khashti

    2017-03-01

    This study demonstrates the synthesis of a new class of peptide amphiphiles derived from aleuritic acid. The aleuritic acid was extracted and purified from the natural source shellac, which was later conjugated with tryptophan, leading to a new class of very short peptide amphiphiles. The self-assembling behavior of this compound was studied using spectroscopic and microscopic tools. This shellac-driven peptide was further used to cultivate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the help of continuous wave (CW) laser light, where the AuNPs were encapsulated by peptide nanostructures. Laser irradiation caused nanoscopically confined heating in the AuNPs-peptide hybrid nanostructures. Such confined heating is mainly the result of scattering and simultaneous absorption of subwavelength power which is subjected to enhanced plasmonic resonances of the metal nanostructures. Hence, the generated heat power/photothermal effect of these AuNPs leads to disruption of the AuNP-peptide hybrids. Such light-induced prototype nano-structure hydrid devices have a wide range of thermal-plasmonic applications in the morphological modification of soft metal hybrid nanostructures for photothermal therapy and drug release.

  1. Ionic pH and glucose sensors fabricated using hydrothermal ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jyh-Liang; Yang, Po-Yu; Hsieh, Tsang-Yen; Juan, Pi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures have been adopted in extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) sensors to demonstrate the sensitive and stable pH and glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors. The AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors exhibited the following superior pH sensing characteristics: a high current sensitivity of 0.96 µA1/2/pH, a high linearity of 0.9999, less distortion of output waveforms, a small hysteresis width of 4.83 mV, good long-term repeatability, and a wide sensing range from pHs 1 to 13. The glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured biosensors exhibited the desired sensitivity of 60.5 µA·cm-2·mM-1 and a linearity of 0.9996 up to 13.9 mM. The attractive characteristics of high sensitivity, high linearity, and repeatability of using ionic AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors indicate their potential use as electrochemical and disposable biosensors.

  2. High Temperature Fabrication of Nanostructured Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia (YSZ) Scaffolds by In Situ Carbon Templating Xerogels.

    PubMed

    Muhoza, Sixbert P; Cottam, Matthew A; Gross, Michael D

    2017-04-16

    We demonstrate a method for the high temperature fabrication of porous, nanostructured yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ, 8 mol% yttria - 92 mol% zirconia) scaffolds with tunable specific surface areas up to 80 m(2)·g(-1). An aqueous solution of a zirconium salt, yttrium salt, and glucose is mixed with propylene oxide (PO) to form a gel. The gel is dried under ambient conditions to form a xerogel. The xerogel is pressed into pellets and then sintered in an argon atmosphere. During sintering, a YSZ ceramic phase forms and the organic components decompose, leaving behind amorphous carbon. The carbon formed in situ serves as a hard template, preserving a high surface area YSZ nanomorphology at sintering temperature. The carbon is subsequently removed by oxidation in air at low temperature, resulting in a porous, nanostructured YSZ scaffold. The concentration of the carbon template and the final scaffold surface area can be systematically tuned by varying the glucose concentration in the gel synthesis. The carbon template concentration was quantified using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the surface area and pore size distribution was determined by physical adsorption measurements, and the morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase purity and crystallite size was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). This fabrication approach provides a novel, flexible platform for realizing unprecedented scaffold surface areas and nanomorphologies for ceramic-based electrochemical energy conversion applications, e.g. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes.

  3. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  4. [Application of three-dimensional printing technique in artificial bone fabrication for bone defect after mandibular angle ostectomy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng; Zhu, Ming; Hou, Yikang; Qu, Miao; Xu, Yourong; Chai, Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the application of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique combining with 3-D CT and computer aided-design technique in customized artificial bone fabrication, correcting mandibular asymmetry deformity after mandibular angle ostectomy. Between April 2011 and June 2013, 23 female patients with mandibular asymmetry deformity after mandibular angle ostectomy were treated. The mean age was 27 years (range, 22-34 years). The disease duration of mandibular asymmetry deformity was 6-16 months (mean, 12 months). According to the CT data and individualized mandibular angle was simulated based on mirror theory, 3-D printed implants were fabricated as the standard reference for manufacturers to fabricated artificial bone graft, and then mandible repair operation was performed utilizing the customized artificial bone to improve mandibular asymmetry. The operation time varied from 40 to 60 minutes (mean, 50 minutes). Primary healing of incisions was obtained in all patients; no infection, hematoma, and difficulty in opening mouth occurred. All 23 patients were followed up 3-10 months (mean, 6.7 months). After operation, all patients obtained satisfactory facial and mandibular symmetry. 3-D CT reconstructive examination results after 3 months of operation showed good integration of the artificial bone. 3-D printing technique combined with 3-D CT and computer aided design technique can be a viable alternative to the approach of maxillofacial defects repair after mandibular angle ostectomy, which provides a accurate and easy way.

  5. Fabrication of Smart Chemical Sensors Based on Transition-Doped-Semiconductor Nanostructure Materials with µ-Chips

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal doped semiconductor nanostructure materials (Sb2O3 doped ZnO microflowers, MFs) are deposited onto tiny µ-chip (surface area, ∼0.02217 cm2) to fabricate a smart chemical sensor for toxic ethanol in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M PBS). The fabricated chemi-sensor is also exhibited higher sensitivity, large-dynamic concentration ranges, long-term stability, and improved electrochemical performances towards ethanol. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.9989) over the large ethanol concentration ranges (0.17 mM to 0.85 M). The sensitivity and detection limit is ∼5.845 µAcm−2mM−1 and ∼0.11±0.02 mM (signal-to-noise ratio, at a SNR of 3) respectively. Here, doped MFs are prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium, which characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) etc. The fabricated ethanol chemical sensor using Sb2O3-ZnO MFs is simple, reliable, low-sample volume (<70.0 µL), easy of integration, high sensitivity, and excellent stability for the fabrication of efficient I–V sensors on μ-chips. PMID:24454785

  6. Fabrication of smart chemical sensors based on transition-doped-semiconductor nanostructure materials with µ-chips.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal doped semiconductor nanostructure materials (Sb2O3 doped ZnO microflowers, MFs) are deposited onto tiny µ-chip (surface area, ∼0.02217 cm(2)) to fabricate a smart chemical sensor for toxic ethanol in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M PBS). The fabricated chemi-sensor is also exhibited higher sensitivity, large-dynamic concentration ranges, long-term stability, and improved electrochemical performances towards ethanol. The calibration plot is linear (r(2) = 0.9989) over the large ethanol concentration ranges (0.17 mM to 0.85 M). The sensitivity and detection limit is ∼5.845 µAcm(-2)mM(-1) and ∼0.11±0.02 mM (signal-to-noise ratio, at a SNR of 3) respectively. Here, doped MFs are prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium, which characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) etc. The fabricated ethanol chemical sensor using Sb2O3-ZnO MFs is simple, reliable, low-sample volume (<70.0 µL), easy of integration, high sensitivity, and excellent stability for the fabrication of efficient I-V sensors on μ-chips.

  7. Design and fabrication of a multi-focusing artificial compound eyes with negative meniscus substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin; Fan, Fenglian

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized artificial compound eyes with a large field of view (FOV) have potential application in the area of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). A new non-uniform microlens array (MLA) on a negative meniscus substrate, fabricated by the melting photoresist method, was proposed in this paper. The multi-focusing MLA reduced the defocus effectively, which was caused by the uniform array on a spherical substrate. Moreover, like most ommatidia in compound eyes, each microlens of the multi-focusing MLA was arranged in one of the eleven concentric circles. In order to match with the multi-focusing MLA and avoid the total reflection, the negative meniscus substrate was fabricated by a homebuilt mold with a micro-hole array and polydimethylsiloxane coelomic compartment attached. The coelomic compartment is capable of offering an excellent injection environment without bubbles and impurities. Due to the direct 3D implementation of the MLA, rich available materials can be used by this method without substrate reshaping. As the molding material, the ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81 can be cured within ten few seconds under ultraviolet which relieve intensive labor and protect the stereolithography apparatus effectively. The experimental results show that this new MLA has a better imaging performance, higher light usage efficiency and larger FOV because of the negative meniscus and multi-focusing MLA. Moreover, due to the homebuilt mold, more accurate geometrical parameters and shorter processing cycle were realized. Accordingly, together with an appropriate hardware, this MLA has diverse potential applications in medical imaging, military and machine vision.

  8. From Artificial Atoms to Nanocrystal Molecules: Preparation and Properties of More Complex Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Charina L; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2009-10-20

    Quantum dots, which have found widespread use in fields such as biomedicine, photovoltaics, and electronics, are often called artificial atoms due to their size-dependent physical properties. Here this analogy is extended to consider artificial nanocrystal molecules, formed from well-defined groupings of plasmonically or electronically coupled single nanocrystals. Just as a hydrogen molecule has properties distinct from two uncoupled hydrogen atoms, a key feature of nanocrystal molecules is that they exhibit properties altered from those of the component nanoparticles due to coupling. The nature of the coupling between nanocrystal atoms and its response to vibrations and deformations of the nanocrystal molecule bonds are of particular interest. We discuss synthetic approaches, predicted and observed physical properties, and prospects and challenges toward this new class of materials.

  9. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  10. Bottom-up approach to fabricate nanostructured thin films from colloidal nanocrystal precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Santosh

    Control over microstructures at the nanoscale (<100nm) still seems challenging due to, among other things, the stochastic nature of nucleation in the bulk phase. The densification of assemblies of ligand-capped nanocrystals (colloidal nanocrystal assemblies, CNAs) could bypass this challenge that limits our control over the nanostructure and, therefore, the properties of materials. However, the removal of the ligands and the cracking that follows it are the two critical hurdles that have been stymieing this approach. We show that low-pressure plasma processing can effectively remove ligands from CNAs (down to 0.6 at.% of carbon which can be accounted for adventitious carbon) without harming the properties of the inorganic cores of the nanoparticles and the structure of CNAs. The cracking of CNAs is correlated with the structure of the CNAs, which can be controlled and easily predicted by Hansen solubility parameters of solvent in which the nanoparticles are dispersed. While a fully solvated ligand shell leads to the formation of close-packed ordered CNAs - which cracked after self-assembly or ligand removal - a partially solvated one results in interdigitation of the ligand shell yielding disordered CNAs, which remained crack-free after ligand removal and sintering up to a critical cracking thickness of 440nm. The process is demonstrated with particles of different compositions, ligands, sizes, shapes, as well as with binary systems. These findings allowed for the fabrication of cm2 crack-free, phase-pure polycrystalline films with tunable, near-monodisperse grain sizes using CNAs as precursors. We observed electrical conductivities of PbS films produced by this approach over 1 cm to be 1.370 S/cm which is comparable to those of bulk crystal. This conductivity value is remarkable considering the fact that the typical porosity in fully processed CNAs is around 40%. We simultaneously answered the fundamental question that how microstructure of CNAs evolves during

  11. Artificially Smart Vesicles with Superior Structural Stability: Fabrication, Characterizations, and Transmembrane Traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jian; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2017-05-03

    Intelligent vesicles are fabricated at up to 30% solid content via an approach of polymerization-induced self-assembly and reorganization (PISR). Upon irradiation with UV light (365 nm), light-triggered dimerization of the coumarin moieties anchored in the membrane leads to the membrane cross-linking of the vesicles, which endows the vesicles with superior structural stability. Due to the tertiary amine groups in the membrane, the vesicles go through a swelling/deswelling change upon switching the pH values. In acidic aqueous solution, the pores in the membrane of vesicles are opened, which is beneficial for transmembrane traffic. The pore size in the membrane of vesicles is in accordance with the extent of membrane cross-linking, which can be conveniently regulated by the irradiation time of UV light (365 nm). The size range of the substance for transmembrane traffic is effectively enlarged; even 15 nm gold nanoparticles can be postloaded into the vesicles with lower extents of the membrane cross-linking through the diffusion method. Although the pores in the vesicle membrane are opened in acidic aqueous solution, transmembrane traffic is inhibited for the electropositive substance because of electrostatic repulsion but is allowed for the electronegative substance. These reported vesicles herein may be the smartest artificial vesicles to date due to their multiple selective permeability.

  12. Fabrication of ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates by soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jingfeng; Lu, Haidong; Li, Shumin; Tan, Li; Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Conventional nanoimprint lithography with expensive rigid molds is used to pattern ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on hard substrate for use in, e.g., organic electronics. The main innovation here is the use of inexpensive soft polycarbonate molds derived from recordable DVDs and reverse nanoimprint lithography at low pressure, which is compatible with flexible substrates. This approach was implemented to produce regular stripe arrays with a spacing of 700 nm from vinylidene fluoride co trifluoroethylene ferroelectric copolymer on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The nanostructures have very stable and switchable piezoelectric response and good crystallinity, and are highly promising for use in organic electronics enhanced or complemented by the unique properties of the ferroelectric polymer, such as bistable polarization, piezoelectric response, pyroelectric response, or electrocaloric function. The soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography also leaves little or no residual layer, affording good isolation of the nanostructures. This approach reduces the cost and facilitates large-area, high-throughput production of isolated functional polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates for the increasing application of ferroelectric polymers in flexible electronics.

  13. Fabrication of ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates by soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingfeng; Lu, Haidong; Li, Shumin; Tan, Li; Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen

    2016-01-08

    Conventional nanoimprint lithography with expensive rigid molds is used to pattern ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on hard substrate for use in, e.g., organic electronics. The main innovation here is the use of inexpensive soft polycarbonate molds derived from recordable DVDs and reverse nanoimprint lithography at low pressure, which is compatible with flexible substrates. This approach was implemented to produce regular stripe arrays with a spacing of 700 nm from vinylidene fluoride co trifluoroethylene ferroelectric copolymer on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The nanostructures have very stable and switchable piezoelectric response and good crystallinity, and are highly promising for use in organic electronics enhanced or complemented by the unique properties of the ferroelectric polymer, such as bistable polarization, piezoelectric response, pyroelectric response, or electrocaloric function. The soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography also leaves little or no residual layer, affording good isolation of the nanostructures. This approach reduces the cost and facilitates large-area, high-throughput production of isolated functional polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates for the increasing application of ferroelectric polymers in flexible electronics.

  14. First-principles calculations of thermoelectric properties of TiN/MgO superlattices: The route for an enhancement of thermoelectric effects in artificial nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Shimono, Masato; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2016-01-07

    We present the thermoelectric properties of TiN/MgO superlattices employing first-principles calculation techniques. The Seebeck coefficients, the electrical conductances, the thermal conductances, and the figure of merit are investigated employing electrical and thermal transport calculations based on density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation methods. The TiN/MgO superlattices with a small lattice mismatch at the interfaces are ideal systems to study the way for an enhancement of thermoelectric properties in artificial nanostructures. We find that the interfacial scattering between the two materials in the metal/insulator superlattices causes the electrical conductance to change rapidly, which enhances the Seebeck coefficient significantly. We show that the figure of merit for the artificial superlattice nanostructures has a much larger value compared with that of the bulk material and changes drastically with the superlattice configurations at the atomistic level.

  15. Fabrication of novel GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures for enhancing oral bioavailability of carvedilol.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharvil S; Roy, Krishtey; Choudhary, Bhavana; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, novel nanostructures comprising of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and Eudragit E100 were prepared using high intensity ultrasonic homogenization. 3(2) Factorial design approach was used for optimization of nanostructures. Results of regression analysis revealed that the amount of GMO and Eudragit E100 had a drastic effect on particle size and percent entrapment efficiency. Optimized carvedilol-loaded nanostructures (Car-NS) were characterized by FTIR, TEM, DSC, in vitro drug release study. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, Ke, Ka, Vd and AUC were estimated for Car-NS upon its oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. Particle size of Car-NS was found to be 183 ± 2.43 nm with an entrapment efficiency of 81.4 ± 0.512%. FTIR studies revealed loading and chemical compatibility of carvedilol with the components of nanostructures. DSC thermograms did not show endothermic peak for melting of carvedilol which could be attributed to solubilization of carvedilol in molten GMO during DSC run. The prepared Car-NS released carvedilol in sustained manner over a period of 10 h as suggested by in vitro drug release study. The pharmacokinetic study of Car-NS showed significant improvement in Cmax (two fold, p < 0.001) and AUC (four folds, p < 0.001) of carvedilol when compared to carvedilol suspension. Car-NS were found to be stable for a period of 3 months. Thus, a stable, floating, multiparticulate GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures having ability to release the drug in sustained manner with enhanced oral bioavailability can prove to be a promising carrier system for poorly water soluble drugs.

  16. Application of Turkevich Method for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis to Fabrication of SiO2@Au and TiO2@Au Core-Shell Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolska, Paulina; Krajewska, Aleksandra; Gajda-Rączka, Magdalena; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Nyga, Piotr; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej J.

    2015-01-01

    The Turkevich synthesis method of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) was adopted for direct fabrication of SiO2@Au and TiO2@Au core-shell nanostructures. In this method, chloroauric acid was reduced with trisodium citrate in the presence of amine-functionalized silica or titania submicroparticles. Core-shells obtained in this way were compared to structures fabricated by mixing of Turkevich AuNPs with amine-functionalized silica or titania submicroparticles. It was found that by modification of reaction conditions of the first method, such as temperature and concentration of reagents, control over gold coverage on silicon dioxide particles has been achieved. Described method under certain conditions allows fabrication of semicontinuous gold films on the surface of silicon dioxide particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing use of Turkevich method to direct fabrication of TiO2@Au core-shell nanostructures.

  17. Integrating Nanostructured Artificial Receptors with Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonators via Inorganic Molecular Imprinting Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, G. Denise; Vojta, Adam L.; Grant, Sheila A.; Hunt, Heather K.

    2016-01-01

    The creation of label-free biosensors capable of accurately detecting trace contaminants, particularly small organic molecules, is of significant interest for applications in environmental monitoring. This is achieved by pairing a high-sensitivity signal transducer with a biorecognition element that imparts selectivity towards the compound of interest. However, many environmental pollutants do not have corresponding biorecognition elements. Fortunately, biomimetic chemistries, such as molecular imprinting, allow for the design of artificial receptors with very high selectivity for the target. Here, we perform a proof-of-concept study to show how artificial receptors may be created from inorganic silanes using the molecular imprinting technique and paired with high-sensitivity transducers without loss of device performance. Silica microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode optical microresonators are coated with a silica thin film templated by a small fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate, which serves as our model target. Oxygen plasma degradation and solvent extraction of the template are compared. Extracted optical devices are interacted with the template molecule to confirm successful sorption of the template. Surface characterization is accomplished via fluorescence and optical microscopy, ellipsometry, optical profilometry, and contact angle measurements. The quality factors of the devices are measured to evaluate the impact of the coating on device sensitivity. The resulting devices show uniform surface coating with no microstructural damage with Q factors above 106. This is the first report demonstrating the integration of these devices with molecular imprinting techniques, and could lead to new routes to biosensor creation for environmental monitoring. PMID:27314397

  18. Integrating Nanostructured Artificial Receptors with Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonators via Inorganic Molecular Imprinting Techniques.

    PubMed

    Hammond, G Denise; Vojta, Adam L; Grant, Sheila A; Hunt, Heather K

    2016-06-15

    The creation of label-free biosensors capable of accurately detecting trace contaminants, particularly small organic molecules, is of significant interest for applications in environmental monitoring. This is achieved by pairing a high-sensitivity signal transducer with a biorecognition element that imparts selectivity towards the compound of interest. However, many environmental pollutants do not have corresponding biorecognition elements. Fortunately, biomimetic chemistries, such as molecular imprinting, allow for the design of artificial receptors with very high selectivity for the target. Here, we perform a proof-of-concept study to show how artificial receptors may be created from inorganic silanes using the molecular imprinting technique and paired with high-sensitivity transducers without loss of device performance. Silica microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode optical microresonators are coated with a silica thin film templated by a small fluorescent dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate, which serves as our model target. Oxygen plasma degradation and solvent extraction of the template are compared. Extracted optical devices are interacted with the template molecule to confirm successful sorption of the template. Surface characterization is accomplished via fluorescence and optical microscopy, ellipsometry, optical profilometry, and contact angle measurements. The quality factors of the devices are measured to evaluate the impact of the coating on device sensitivity. The resulting devices show uniform surface coating with no microstructural damage with Q factors above 10⁶. This is the first report demonstrating the integration of these devices with molecular imprinting techniques, and could lead to new routes to biosensor creation for environmental monitoring.

  19. Fabrication of three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO and its application as a transparent electrode for high-efficiency solution processable organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Ahn, Chi Won

    2017-03-02

    Well-aligned, high-resolution (10 nm), three-dimensional (3D) hybrid nanostructures consisting of patterned cylinders and Au islands were fabricated on ITO substrates using an ion bombardment process and a tilted deposition process. The fabricated 3D hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO maintained its excellent electrical and optical properties after applying a surface-structuring process. The solution processable organic photovoltaic device (SP-OPV) employing a 3D hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO as the anode displayed a 10% enhancement in the photovoltaic performance compared to the photovoltaic device prepared using a flat ITO electrode, due to the improved charge collection (extraction and transport) efficiency as well as light absorbance by the photo-active layer.

  20. Slice and dice, peel and stick: emerging methods for nanostructure fabrication.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John A

    2007-10-01

    Techniques for nanofabrication are central to nearly every field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. As a result, development of experimentally simple methods with capabilities that can complement or extend those of traditional approaches represents a growing area of research. A new paper by the Whitesides group in this issue demonstrates the ability to exploit precise mechanical cutting operations, performed with an ultramicrotome, as a route to unusual types of nanostructures. Manipulation and assembly of nanomembranes with these structures embedded enables quasi-3D, curved, and other complex layouts. These ideas, particularly when taken together with emerging methods for transfer printing of nanomembranes and related solid nanostructures, have the strong potential for applicability across many areas of nanotechnology.

  1. Tunable top-down fabrication and functional surface coating of single-crystal titanium dioxide nanostructures and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungkyu; Janissen, Richard; Ussembayev, Yera Ye.; van Oene, Maarten M.; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanocylinders tethered with individual DNA molecules for use as force- and torque-transducers in an optical torque wrench. These developments provide the means for increased exploitation of the superior material properties of single-crystal TiO2 at the nanoscale.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile

  2. Fabrication of a multi-scale nanostructure of TiO2 for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    We propose a highly ordered multi-scale nanostructure of TiO2 for applications as an anode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The structure is composed of a TiO2 blocking layer, a TiO2 inverse opal main body, regularly arranged transport channels between contacting spherical voids of the TiO2 inverse opal, and TiO2 nanoparticles coated on the spherical surfaces of the voids. The ordered and continuous backbone of the inverse opal serves as the fast electron transport pathways while the regularly arranged transport channels enable easy transport of dye and electrolyte within the structure. A multi-cycle procedure was developed to enable fabrication of thick inverse opals and easy adjustment of the inverse opal thickness. An example structure was constructed, involving a blocking layer of 90 nm thickness, an inverse opal of 100 nm voids, transport channels of 30-50 nm openings, and nanoparticles 10-15 nm in size. An open-circuit voltage decay investigation showed a significant improvement in electron lifetime for the proposed multi-scale TiO2 nanostructure based DSSC than that of a TiO2 nanoparticle film based DSSC, revealing the superior electron recombination characteristic offered by the proposed TiO2 nanostructure. The conversion efficiency of the DSSC assembled from such an anode structure can reach 4% with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 8.7 mA cm-2 and open-circuit potential (Voc) of 0.76 V under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination.

  3. Adhesive strength of medical polymer on anodic oxide nanostructures fabricated on biomedical β-type titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Mohri, Tomoyoshi; Hanawa, Takao

    2014-03-01

    Anodic oxide nanostructures (nanopores and nanotubes) were fabricated on a biomedical β-type titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ), by anodization in order to improve the adhesive strength of a medical polymer, segmented polyurethane (SPU), to TNTZ. TNTZ was anodized in 1.0M H3PO4 solution with 0.5 mass% NaF using a direct-current power supply at a voltage of 20V. A nanoporous structure is formed on TNTZ in the first stage of anodization, and the formation of a nanotube structure occurs subsequently beneath the nanoporous structure. The nanostructures formed on TNTZ by anodization for less than 3,600s exhibit higher adhesive strengths than those formed at longer anodization times. The adhesive strength of the SPU coating on the nanoporous structure formed on top of TNTZ by anodization for 1,200s improves by 144% compared to that of the SPU coating on as-polished TNTZ with a mirror surface. The adhesive strength of the SPU coating on the nanotube structure formed on TNTZ by anodization for 3,600s increases by 50%. These improvements in the adhesive strength of SPU are the result of an anchor effect introduced by the nanostructures formed by anodization. Fracture occurs at the interface of the nanoporous structure and the SPU coating layer. In contrast, in the case that SPU coating has been performed on the nanotube structure, fracture occurs inside the nanotubes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical Alignment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Nanostructure Fabricated by Atomic Force Microscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    Kobayashi Y, Yamashita T, Ueno Y, Niwa O, Homma Y, Ogino T. Extremely intense Raman signals from single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended between Si...carbon nanotube field effect transistors with carbon nanotube electrodes. Appl Phys Lett. 2008;92(4):043110-3. [13] Jung YJ, Homma Y, Ogino T...Homma Y, Yamashita T, Kobayashi Y, Ogino T. Interconnection of nanostructures using carbon nanotubes. Physica B. 2002;323(1-4):122-3. [23] Searson

  5. Fabrication of TiO2 nanostructures on porous silicon for thermoelectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrizal, F. N.; Ahmad, M. K.; Ramli, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Fakhriah, R.; Mohamad, F.; Nafarizal, N.; Soon, C. F.; Ameruddin, A. S.; Faridah, A. B.; Shimomura, M.; Murakami, K.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, technology is moving by leaps and bounds over the last several decades. This has created new opportunities and challenge in the research fields. In this study, the experiment is about to investigate the potential of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures that have been growth onto a layer of porous silicon (pSi) for their thermoelectric application. Basically, it is divided into two parts, which is the preparation of the porous silicon (pSi) substrate by electrochemical-etching process and the growth of the Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures by hydrothermal method. This sample have been characterize by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to visualize the morphology of the TiO2 nanostructures area that formed onto the porous silicon (pSi) substrate. Besides, the sample is also used to visualize their cross-section images under the FESEM microscopy. Next, the sample is characterized by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) machine. The XRD machine is used to get the information about the chemical composition, crystallographic structure and physical properties of materials.

  6. Microwave absorption properties of amorphous iron nanostructures fabricated by a high-yield method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zuo, Yalu; Yao, Yuelin; Xi, Li; Du, Jihong; Wang, Jianbo; Xue, Desheng

    2013-04-01

    Amorphous Fe nanoparticles and a nanonecklace were synthesized at room temperature by an aqueous reduction procedure, which provided a simple and potential method for volume production of ferromagnetic materials. The morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The amorphism of Fe nanoparticles and the nanonecklace was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction patterns in transmission electron microscopy. The complex permittivity and permeability behaviour of amorphous iron nanoparticles/paraffin wax (NPPW) and nanonecklace/paraffin wax (NCPW) composites was investigated in 0.1-18 GHz by a coaxial method. The strongest reflection loss values of NPPW and NCPW calculated from permittivity and permeability reached -53.2 dB and -47.8 dB at 6.4 GHz and 4.6 GHz with matching thicknesses of 2.4 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Moreover, the frequency ranges of microwave absorption exceeding 90% were around 4.9-8.8 GHz and 3.7-6.1 GHz for NPPW and NCPW, respectively. Comparing the microwave absorption property with crystallized Fe nanostructures, we may conclude that the relatively high resistivity and low permittivity of amorphous Fe nanostructures are favourable for impedance matching, and consequently result in the attracting microwave absorption property of amorphous Fe nanostructures. Thus, amorphous iron nanoparticles and the nanonecklace prepared by a high-yield method have great potential to be a highly efficient microwave absorber.

  7. ZnO nanostructure fabrication in different solvents transforms physio-chemical, biological and photodegradable properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Javed, Rabia; Tabassum, Saira; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Zia, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized in various organic solvents (acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) and water via coprecipitation process using zinc acetate as precursor. The resultant ZnO nanoparticles, nano rods and nano sheets are characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The variable size and geometry of nanoparticles depend upon medium used for synthesis. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures exhibit minor to moderate antioxidative (DPPH based free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidative potential and total reducing power) response. Mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities, excellent antileishmanial potential (IC50 up to 3.76), and good cytotoxic perspective (LD50 up to 49.4) is also observed by the synthesized ZnO NPs. The nanoparticles also exhibit moderate α-amylase inhibition response. Furthermore the nanostructures are evaluated for methylene blue photodegradation response within 60min time period. It is found that organic solvent alters shape, size and other physio-chemical properties of ZnO that ultimately modulate the biological, chemical, and environmental properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructured arrays using a PDMS/PDMS replication process.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, H; Mohammadkhani, A; Jiang, K

    2012-10-21

    In the study, a novel and low cost nanofabrication process is proposed for producing hybrid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructured arrays. The proposed process involves monolayer self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) spheres, PDMS nanoreplication, thin film coating, and PDMS to PDMS (PDMS/PDMS) replication. A self-assembled monolayer of PS spheres is used as the first template. Second, a PDMS template is achieved by replica moulding. Third, the PDMS template is coated with a platinum or gold layer. Finally, a PDMS nanostructured array is developed by casting PDMS slurry on top of the coated PDMS. The cured PDMS is peeled off and used as a replica surface. In this study, the influences of the coating on the PDMS topography, contact angle of the PDMS slurry and the peeling off ability are discussed in detail. From experimental evaluation, a thickness of at least 20 nm gold layer or 40 nm platinum layer on the surface of the PDMS template improves the contact angle and eases peeling off. The coated PDMS surface is successfully used as a template to achieve the replica with a uniform array via PDMS/PDMS replication process. Both the PDMS template and the replica are free of defects and also undistorted after demoulding with a highly ordered hexagonal arrangement. In addition, the geometry of the nanostructured PDMS can be controlled by changing the thickness of the deposited layer. The simplicity and the controllability of the process show great promise as a robust nanoreplication method for functional applications.

  9. Fabrication and development of artificial osteochondral constructs based on cancellous bone/hydrogel hybrid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Song, Kedong; Li, Liying; Yan, Xinyu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ruipeng; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Liu, Tianqing

    2016-06-01

    Using tissue engineering techniques, an artificial osteochondral construct was successfully fabricated to treat large osteochondral defects. In this study, porcine cancellous bones and chitosan/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds were used as substitutes to mimic bone and cartilage, respectively. The porosity and distribution of pore size in porcine bone was measured and the degradation ratio and swelling ratio for chitosan/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds was also determined in vitro. Surface morphology was analyzed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties and the composition were tested by using an infrared instrument. A double layer composite scaffold was constructed via seeding adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) induced to chondrocytes and osteoblasts, followed by inoculation in cancellous bones and hydrogel scaffolds. Cell proliferation was assessed through Dead/Live staining and cellular activity was analyzed with IpWin5 software. Cell growth, adhesion and formation of extracellular matrix in composite scaffolds blank cancellous bones or hydrogel scaffolds were also analyzed. SEM analysis revealed a super porous internal structure of cancellous bone scaffolds and pore size was measured at an average of 410 ± 59 μm while porosity was recorded at 70.6 ± 1.7 %. In the hydrogel scaffold, the average pore size was measured at 117 ± 21 μm and the porosity and swelling rate were recorded at 83.4 ± 0.8 % and 362.0 ± 2.4 %, respectively. Furthermore, the remaining hydrogel weighed 80.76 ± 1.6 % of the original dry weight after hydration in PBS for 6 weeks. In summary, the cancellous bone and hydrogel composite scaffold is a promising biomaterial which shows an essential physical performance and strength with excellent osteochondral tissue interaction in situ. ADSCs are a suitable cell source for osteochondral composite reconstruction. Moreover, the bi-layered scaffold significantly enhanced cell proliferation compared to the cells seeded on

  10. Fabrication and Spark plasma sintering of nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Saleemi, Mohsin; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Li, Shanghua; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-06-26

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices can harvest residual low-grade waste heat energy. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) and its alloys are mostly used TE materials in the bulk form for making TE modules. We report a simple, fast and very high yield synthetic process for the bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanopowders with hexagonal plate like morphology. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been optimized in order to preserve nanostructure while achieving a high compaction density of the pellets. Electron microscopy analysis was used to determine the effect of SPS parameters during compaction on the grain growth. Optimal conditions for the fabricated nanopowder was determined as 673 K, 70 MPa pressure with no holding time, which resulted in average lateral grain size in the range of 165-190 nm for a compact density of 98%. About 50% reduction of thermal conductivity was observed as compared to its bulk counterparts, revealing the feasibility of suggested route in the preservation of nanostructure and enhanced phonon scattering.

  11. Near-infrared absorptance enhancement and device application of nanostructured black silicon fabricated by metal-assist chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lieyun; Zhong, Hao; Liao, Naiman; Long, Fei; Guo, Guohui; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We use metal-assist chemical etching (MCE) method to fabricate nanostructured black silicon on the surface of C-Si. In our MCE process, a chemical reduction reaction of silver cation (Ag+) will happen on the surface of silicon substrate, and at the same time the silicon atoms around Ag particles are oxidized and dissolved, generating nanopores and finally forming a layer called black silicon on the top of the substrates. The nanopores have diameter and depth of about 400 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, these modified surfaces show higher light absorptance in near-infrared range (800 to 2500 nm) compared to that of C-Si with polished surfaces, and the maximum light absorptance increases significantly up to 95% in the wavelength region of 400 to 2500 nm. The Si-PIN photoelectronic detector based on this type of black silicon, in which the black silicon layer is directly set as the photosensitive surface, has a substantial increase in responsivity with about 80 nm red shift of peak responsivity, particularly at near-infrared wavelengths, rising to 0.57 A/W at 1060 nm and 0.37 A/W at 1100 nm, respectively. Our recent novel results clearly indicate that nanostructured black silicon made by MCE has a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic detectors.

  12. Low-temperature Fabrication Process for Integrated High-Aspect Ratio Metal Oxide Nanostructure Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, William P.

    This work presents a new low-temperature fabrication process of metal oxide nanostructures that allows high-aspect ratio zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires and nanotubes to be readily integrated with microelectronic devices for sensor applications. This process relies on a new method of forming a close-packed array of self-assembled high-aspect-ratio nanopores in an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template in a thin (2.5 microm) aluminum film deposited on a silicon and lithium niobate substrate (LiNbO3). This technique is in sharp contrast to traditional free-standing thick film methods and the use of an integrated thin aluminum film greatly enhances the utility of such methods. We have demonstrated the method by integrating ZnO nanowires, TiO2 nanowires, and multiwall TiO2 nanotubes onto the metal gate of a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor), and the delay line of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to form an integrated ChemFET (Chemical Field-Effect Transistor) and a orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW gas sensor. The resulting metal oxide nanostructures of 1-1.7 microm in height and 40-100 nm in diameter offer an increase of up to 220X the surface area over a standard flat metal oxide film for sensing applications.

  13. A facile fabrication of Ag-Au-Ag nanostructures with nanogaps for intensified surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liangliang; She, Guangwei; Li, Jing; Xia, Jing; Wang, Xiaotian; Mu, Lixuan; Shi, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    Nanogap between two metallic nanostructures has been demonstrated to be able to efficiently concentrate an incident electromagnetic field into a small space. As a result, the formed strong field localization could extraordinarily enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this study, controllable plasmonic nanogaps are formed by separating two layers of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (50-100 nm) with small Au nanoparticles (2.5-6 nm). The size of the nanogaps can be readily tuned by altering the size of the Au nanoparticles. Utilizing an SERS substrate with such nanogaps, the SERS performance can be significantly improved. Such improvement could be attributed to the strongly enhanced electric field within the nanogaps, which is demonstrated by the Finite-difference time-domain simulations. The present work provides a facile strategy to rationally fabricate SERS substrates with controllable nanogaps and intensified SERS signals.

  14. High speed fabrication of absorbance-enhanced micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using hundred-nanosecond pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jingyuan; Liang, Hao; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Zhiyan; Liu, Yannan; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We report the generation of micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using a pulsed laser with pulse duration of 100/200 ns. The blacken nickel, which is covered with dense broccoli-like clusters having strong light trapping capacity covering broad spectrum (200-2000 nm), can be produced at a high laser scanning speed up to 100 mm/s. The absorbance of the blacken nickel can be over 98% in the UV, more than 97% in the visible, and over 90% in the near IR. In addition, by treating the nickel surface with two crossing scans of the laser, highly organized and shape-controllable periodic arrays of hump-craters can be fabricated.

  15. Electrochemical performances of asymmetric super capacitor fabricated by one-dimensional CoMoO4 nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunxuan; Teng, Fei; Liu, Zailun; Du, Qian; Xu, Jingjing; Teng, Yiran

    2016-11-01

    We have prepared the CoMoO4 nanorods (NR) electrode with a specific capacitance (89.5 F g-1) at a current density of 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been fabricated by using CoMoO4 NR as positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as negative electrode. At a power density of 80 mW cm-3, the ASC can deliver an energy density of 0.226 mW h cm-3 in the voltage range of 0-1.6 V. In addition, the CoMoO4 NR-based ASC device still remains a high energy density (84.07%) after 5000 cycles, demonstrating that one-dimensional nanostructures could be promising to achieve the high-energy-density materials.

  16. Two-step femtosecond laser pulse train fabrication of nanostructured substrates for highly surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Ying, Dawei; Li, Xin; Lu, Yongfeng

    2012-09-01

    A simple and repeatable method using femtosecond laser pulse train to fabricate nanostructured substrates with silver nanoparticles over a large area for surface-enhanced Raman scattering is reported. The method involves two steps: (1) femtosecond laser pulse train micromachining and roughening and (2) femtosecond laser processing of the substrates in a silver nitrate solution. Surface modification is investigated experimentally by varying the time delay of the double femtosecond laser pulse train. With time delay ranging from 200 to 600 fs, the different enhancement factors were observed. This study demonstrates that a maximum enhancement factor of 6.8×10(6), measured by 10(-6)  M Rhodamine 6G solution, can be achieved at the time delay of 400 fs.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of fluidic artificial muscles having millimeter-scale diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs) with millimeter-scale diameters. First, a fabrication method was developed to consistently deliver low-cost, high-performance, miniature FAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these FAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in) using compressed air as the working fluid. Tests were carried out at several discrete actuation pressures ranging from 207 kPa (30 psi) to 552 kPa (80 psi) in order to demonstrate the full evolution of force with displacement over a broad spectrum of operating pressures. The results of these tests also revealed the blocked force and free contraction capabilities of the FAM at each internal pressure. When pressurized to 552 kPa (80 psi), the actuator was capable of delivering a maximum blocked force of 132.9 N (29.87 lb) and a maximum free contraction of ΔL/L0 = 0.0688. Furthermore, it is the goal of this work to compare the data from these experiments to previously developed models for full-scale PAMs. Using two formulations, one derived using a force balance approach and the other obtained using virtual work methods, the experimental data was validated against existing analytical models. With the inclusion of correction factors to account for physical phenomena encountered during testing, comparison between the models and the experimental results indicate that the improved models accurately predict the behavior of these miniature FAMs at low contractions.

  18. Nanostructural haemocompatible coatings for the internal side of artificial blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembecka-Wojciga, K.; Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Butruk-Raszeja, B.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the work was to elaborate low thrombogenicity of surface inside tube-like elements for cardiovascular system support by combination of low-temperature glow discharge and hydrogel coatings to inhibit blood-clotting cascade activation. A large share of amorphous phase silicon was observed in the microstructure analysis. The crystalline elements were uniformly distributed in the amorphous structure. Combination of low thickness, the proper microstructure and density of the coatings provided a highly flexible nature of the whole system. The blood-material interaction was analyzed in vitro in dynamic conditions by using a designed and fabricated novel blood flow simulator. Coatings deposited by the glow discharge expressed good hemocopatibile properties. The use of hydrogel coatings did not reduce coagulation parameter. Hydrogel coatings did not improve the hemocompatibility of the surface modified with carbon based coatings. Modification of surface with hydrogel resulted in further increased risk of hemolysis.

  19. Artificial magnetotactic motion control of Tetrahymena pyriformis using ferromagnetic nanoparticles: A tool for fabrication of microbiorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Cheang, U. Kei; Kőhidai, László; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-10-01

    We induce artificial magnetotaxis in Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, using ferro-magnetic nanoparticles and an external time-varying magnetic field. Magnetizing internalized iron oxide particles (magnetite), allows control of the swimming direction of an individual cell using two sets of electromagnets. Real-time feedback control was performed with a vision tracking system, which demonstrated controllability of a single cell. Since the endogenous motility of the cell is combined in one system with artificial magnetotaxis, the motion of artificially magnetotactic T. pyriformis is finely controllable. Thus, artificially magnetotactic T. pyriformis is a promising candidate microrobot for microassembly and transport in microfluidic environments.

  20. Design and Fabrication of Ultrathin Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photovoltaics, Color Filtering and Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Beibei

    Since the first report of the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomenon through periodic subwavelength hole arrays milled in optically-thick metal film, plasmonics have generated considerable interest because they enable new fundamental science and application technologies. Central to this phenomenon is the role of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are essentially electromagnetic waves trapped at the interface between a metal and a dielectric medium through their interactions with free electrons at the metal surface. The resonant interaction between the incident light and surface charge oscillations enables the concentration and manipulation of light at deep subwavelength scales, opening up exciting application opportunities ranging from subwavelength optics and optoelectronics to bio/chemical sensing. Furthermore, additional phenomena arise as the thickness of metal film decreases to be comparable to its skin depth (optically-thin), and the single-interface SPPs on the top and bottom metal surfaces combine to form two coupled SPPs, the long-range and short-range SPPs. Until now, much less work has focused on the study of surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in ultrathin nanostructured metals. This dissertation seeks to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms of SPRs in ultrathin nanostructured metals and tailor them for practical applications. Inspired by state-of-the-art advances on plasmonics in optically-thick nanostructured metals, one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures are exploited for particular applications in three essential areas: photovoltaics, color filters and biosensors, achieving superior performances compared with their optically-thick counterparts. More specifically, this thesis is focused on systematic investigations on: (1) plasmonic transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaics and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the active layer; (2) plasmonic subtractive color filters

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Fabrication of micro- and nano-structured materials using mask-less processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sudipta

    2007-11-01

    Micro- and nano-scale devices are used in electronics, micro-electro- mechanical, bio-analytical and medical components. An essential step for the fabrication of such small scale devices is photolithography. Photolithography requires a master mask to transfer micrometre or sub-micrometre scale patterns onto a substrate. The requirement of a physical, rigid mask can impede progress in applications which require rapid prototyping, flexible substrates, multiple alignment and 3D fabrication. Alternative technologies, which do not require the use of a physical mask, are suitable for these applications. In this paper mask-less methods of micro- and nano-scale fabrication have been discussed. The most common technique, which is the laser direct imaging (LDI), technique has been applied to fabricate micrometre scale structures on printed circuit boards, glass and epoxy. LDI can be combined with chemical methods to deposit metals, inorganic materials as well as some organic entities at the micrometre scale. Inkjet technology can be used to fabricate micrometre patterns of etch resists, organic transistors as well as arrays for bioanalysis. Electrohydrodynamic atomisation is used to fabricate micrometre scale ceramic features. Electrochemical methodologies offer a variety of technical solutions for micro- and nano-fabrication owing to the fact that electron charge transfer can be constrained to a solid liquid interface. Electrochemical printing is an adaptation of inkjet printing which can be used for rapid prototyping of metallic circuits. Micro-machining using nano-second voltage pulses have been used to fabricate high precision features on metals and semiconductors. Optimisation of reactor, electrochemistry and fluid flow (EnFACE) has also been employed to transfer micrometre scale patterns on a copper substrate. Nano-scale features have been fabricated by using specialised tools such as scanning tunnelling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and focused ion beam. The

  2. Nanostructured complex oxides as a route towards thermal behavior in artificial spin ice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopdekar, R. V.; Li, B.; Wynn, T. A.; Lee, M. S.; Jia, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Biegalski, M. D.; Retterer, S. T.; Young, A. T.; Scholl, A.; Takamura, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy to image the magnetization of single-domain L a0.7S r0.3Mn O3 nanoislands arranged in geometrically frustrated configurations such as square ice and kagome ice geometries. Upon thermal randomization, ensembles of nanoislands with strong interisland magnetic coupling relax towards low-energy configurations. Statistical analysis shows that the likelihood of ensembles falling into low-energy configurations depends strongly on the annealing temperature. Annealing to just below the Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic film (TC=338 K ) allows for a much greater probability of achieving low-energy configurations as compared to annealing above the Curie temperature. At this thermally active temperature of 325 K, the ensemble of ferromagnetic nanoislands explore their energy landscape over time and eventually transition to lower energy states as compared to the frozen-in configurations obtained upon cooling from above the Curie temperature. Thus, this materials system allows for a facile method to systematically study thermal evolution of artificial spin ice arrays of nanoislands at temperatures modestly above room temperature.

  3. Compatible solutes: ectoine and hydroxyectoine improve functional nanostructures in artificial lung surfactants.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Sachan, Amit Kumar; Kerth, Andreas; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Ectoine and hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes and are among the most abundant osmolytes in nature. These compatible solutes protect biomolecules from extreme conditions and maintain their native function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on the domain structures of artificial lung surfactant films consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and the lung surfactant specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) in a molar ratio of 80:20:0.4. The pressure-area isotherms are found to be almost unchanged by both compatible solutes. The topology of the fluid domains shown by scanning force microscopy, which is thought to be responsible for the biophysical behavior under compression, however, is modified giving rise to the assumption that ectoine and hydroxyectoine are favorable for a proper lung surfactant function. This is further evidenced by the analysis of the insertion kinetics of lipid vesicles into the lipid-peptide monolayer, which is clearly enhanced in the presence of both compatible solutes. Thus, we could show that ectoine and hydroxyectoine enhance the function of lung surfactant in a simple model system, which might provide an additional rationale to inhalative therapy.

  4. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures sensitized with CdS quantum dots for photovoltaic application using a convenient solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Liang, Jia; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures sensitized with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive solution method. ZnO nanostructures, in the form of either nanocones or nanorods, were first grown directly from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) under external voltages. Then, CdS QDs were attached to these ZnO nanostructures via reactions in the mixed aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and thioacetamide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NS). Photovoltaic responses were obtained from the quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which these CdS QD-covered ZnO nanostructures were employed as the photoanodes. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures, which could be effectively modulated via the substrate location in the solutions during the fabrication, were found to have played an important role in determining the properties of the QDSSCs.

  5. Fast, simple, combinatorial routes to the fabrication of reusable, plasmonically active gold nanostructures by interferometric lithography of self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Tsargorodska, Anna; El Zubir, Osama; Darroch, Brice; Cartron, Michaël L; Basova, Tamara; Hunter, C Neil; Nabok, Alexei V; Leggett, Graham J

    2014-08-26

    We describe a fast, simple method for the fabrication of reusable, robust gold nanostructures over macroscopic (cm(2)) areas. A wide range of nanostructure morphologies is accessible in a combinatorial fashion. Self-assembled monolayers of alkylthiolates on chromium-primed polycrystalline gold films are patterned using a Lloyd's mirror interferometer and etched using mercaptoethylamine in ethanol in a rapid process that does not require access to clean-room facilities. The use of a Cr adhesion layer facilitates the cleaning of specimens by immersion in piranha solution, enabling their repeated reuse without significant change in their absorbance spectra over two years. A library of 200 different nanostructures was prepared and found to exhibit a range of optical behavior. Annealing yielded structures with a uniformly high degree of crystallinity that exhibited strong plasmon bands. Using a combinatorial approach, correlations were established between the preannealing morphologies (determined by the fabrication conditions) and the postannealing optical properties that enabled specimens to be prepared "to order" with a selected localized surface plasmon resonance. The refractive index sensitivity of gold nanostructures formed in this way was found to correlate closely with measurements reported for structures fabricated by other methods. Strong enhancements were observed in the Raman spectra of tetra-tert-butyl-substituted phthalocyanine. The shift in the position of the plasmon band after site-specific attachment of histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (His-GFP) and bacteriochlorophyll a was measured for a range of nanostructured films, enabling the rapid identification of the one that yielded the largest shift. This approach offers a simple route to the production of durable, reusable, macroscopic arrays of gold nanostructures with precisely controllable morphologies.

  6. Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shabana P. S.; Somalu, Mahendra R.; Muchtar, Andanastuti

    2016-11-01

    This work reports a study of nanostructured copper-doped gadolinium cermet (Cu-CGO) composite anodes prepared via conventional synthesis (CS) and microwave-synthesis (MS) involving the glycine-nitrate process (GNP). A detailed investigation on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of prepared Cu0.5(Ce0.9Gd0.1)0.5O2-δ anodes is included. The prepared samples were characterized by techniques, such as XRD, EDX, SEM and electrical characterizations. After reduction in 10% H2 and 90% N2, the DC conductivities of the Cu-CGO anodes prepared via CS-GNP and MS-GNP are found to be 5.43×103 and 1.09×104 S cm-1 at 700 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the spin-coated anode symmetrical cells sintered at 700 °C are evaluated at cell operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C. The lowest area specific resistance (ASR) values for the Cu-CGO/CGO/Cu-CGO symmetrical cells prepared via the MS-GNP route at operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C are found to be 0.34, 0.71 and 1.10 Ω cm2, respectively. The as-prepared (via MS-GNP) Cu-CGO anode exhibits excellent electrical and electrochemical performance consistent with the uniform nanostructured morphology compared with the anode prepared via CS-GNP.

  7. Novel Nanostructures of Rutile Fabricated by Templating against Yarns of Polystyrene Nanofibrils and Their Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ping; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a facile approach to the synthesis of rutile nanostructures in the form of porous fibers or bundles of nanotubes by maneuvering the surface wettability of yarns made of polystyrene nanofibrils. Specifically, hierarchically porous fibers were obtained by hydrolyzing titanium tetraisopropoxide to form TiO2 nanoparticles in the void spaces among hydrophobic nanofibrils in each yarn. After calcination in air at 800 °C, the resultant fibers were comprised of many interconnected rutile nanoparticles whose diameters were in the range of 20–80 nm. After converting the nanofibrils and yarns into hydrophilic surfaces through plasma treatment, however, the TiO2 formed conformal coatings on the surfaces of nanofibrils in each yarn during hydrolysis instead of just filling the void spaces among the nanofibrils. As a result, bundles of rutile nanotubes were obtained after the sample had been calcined in air at 800 °C. The thermodynamically stable rutile nanostructures were then explored as supports for Pt nanoparticles whose catalytic activity was evaluated using the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4. The Pt supported on porous rutile fibers exhibited a better performance than the Pt on rutile nanotubes in terms of both induction time (tind) and apparent rate constant (kapp). PMID:23763369

  8. Nanostructured β-type titanium alloy fabricated by ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification.

    PubMed

    Kheradmandfard, Mehdi; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Kim, Chang-Lae; Hanzaki, Abbas Zarei; Pyoun, Young-Shik; Kim, Jung-Hyong; Amanov, Auezhan; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2017-11-01

    The surface of β-type Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy, which is a promising material for biomedical applications, was treated with the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique to enhance its hardness. As a result, a gradient nanostructured (GNS) layer was generated in the surface; the microstructure of the top surface layer consisted of nanoscale lamellae with a width of about 60-200nm. In addition, there were lamellar grains consisting of nanostructured subgrains having unclear and wavy boundaries. The treated surface exhibited a hardness value of ∼385HV compared to 190HV for the untreated alloy. It was further determined that highly dense deformation twins were generated at a depth of ∼40-150µm below the UNSM-treated surface. These deformation twins led to a significant work hardening effect which aided in enhancing the mechanical properties. It was also found that UNSM treatment resulted in the formation of micropatterns on the surface, which would be beneficial for high bioactivity and bone regeneration performance of TNTZ implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facile template-free fabrication of hollow nestlike α-Fe₂O₃ nanostructures for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenhua; Xing, Ronge; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-02-01

    Hollow nestlike α-Fe(2)O(3) spheres were successfully synthesized via a facile template-free, glycerol-mediated hydrothermal process employing microwave heating. The product was characterized using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The as-prepared product was found to consist of hierarchically nanostructured spheres assembled of nanorod subunits. The effect of the relative amount of glycerol in the reaction system on the composition and morphology of the products was systematically studied, and a possible formation mechanism of the hollow nestlike spheres was proposed. Because of their large surface area and unique mesoporous structure, we investigated the potential application of the hollow α-Fe(2)O(3) spheres in water treatment. With maximum removal capacities of 75.3, 58.5, and 160 mg g(-1) for As(V), Cr(VI), and Congo red, respectively, these novel nanostructures have the potential to be used as low-cost and efficient adsorbent materials for the removal of toxic metal ions and organic pollutants from water.

  10. Fabrication of a novel polymer-free nanostructured drug-eluting coating for cardiovascular stents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Jixi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ruiyan; Gu, Hongchen

    2013-10-23

    Angioplasty with stents is the most important method for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the drug-eluting stents (DES) that are widely used have the increased risks of inflammatory reactions and late stent thrombosis (LST) because of the persistence of the polymer coatings. To improve the biosafety, a novel polymer-free-composite drug-eluting coating composed of magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was constructed using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method in this study. A crack-free two-layered coating with impressive network nanotopologies was successfully obtained by regulating the composition and structures. This nanostructured coating exhibits excellent mechanical flexibility and blood compatibility in vitro, and the drug-loading and release performance is satisfactory as well. The in vivo study shows that this composite coating has the obvious advantage of rapid endothelialization because of its unique 3D nanostructured topology in comparison with the commercial polymer-coated DES. This study aims to provide new ideas and reliable data to design novel functional coatings that could accelerate the re-endothelialization process and avoid inflammatory reactions, thus improving the in vivo biosafety of DES.

  11. MBE fabrication of self-assembled Si and metal nanostructures on Si surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, Natalia; Martin, Pedro-Pablo; Munuera, Carmen; Varela del Arco, Maria; Soria, Federico; Ocal, Carmen; Ruiz, Ana; Alonso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Two types of fairly regular distributions of Si nanostructures, of interest as templates to grow spatially controlled ensembles of metal (Co, Fe, Ag, etc.) nanostructures, are presented in this paper. Both of them are achieved by self-assembling processes during Si homoepitaxy. One corresponds to films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(0 0 1)-2 x 1 surfaces with low (<1 degree) miscut angles. In this case, arrays of 3D Si-islands displaying well defined pyramid-like shapes can be obtained, as evidenced by Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Such arrays exhibit strong similarities with those reported for Ge and SiGe islands on Si(0 0 1), and may thus serve as a simpler route to produce ordered distributions of metallic nanodots. On the other hand, on Si(1 1 1)-7 x 7 vicinal substrates misoriented 4 degrees toward the View the MathML source direction, step rearrangement during homoepitaxy permits to produce nanopatterned surfaces, the building-blocks of which are triangular (1 1 1) platforms, with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers, bound by step bunches about 30 nm high. Furthermore, different Ag deposition experiments support this spontaneous patterning on Si(1 1 1) as a promising approach to achieve regular distributions of metallic nanocrystals with an overall homogeneity in sizes, shapes and spacing.

  12. Controllable and facile fabrication of gold nanostructures for selective metal-assisted etching of silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Zhu, Juan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Qian, Qiuping; He, Yonglin; Chi, Lifeng; Wang, Yapei

    2014-06-25

    A method with the combination of organic-vapor-assisted polymer swelling and nanotransfer printing (nTP) is used to manufacture desirable patterns consisting of gold nano-clusters on silicon wafers for Au-assisted etching of silicon. This method remarkably benefits to the size control and regional selection of the deposited Au. By tuning the thickness of the Au films deposited on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps, along with the swelling of PDMS stamps in acetone atmosphere, the Au films are cracked into diverse nanostructures. These nanostructures are covalently transferred onto silicon substrates in a large scale and enable to accelerate the chemical etching of silicon. The etched areas are composed of porous structures which can be readily distinguished from the surroundings on optical microscope. PDMS stamps and the Au clusters provide the control over the feature of the etched areas and the porous silicon, respectively. The silicon surfaces with patterned porous features offer a platform for exploiting new functional templates, for example, they present a diversity of antireflective and fluorescent performance.

  13. Ag-Cu mixed phase plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by shadow nanosphere lithography and glancing angle co-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Whitney; Larson, Steven; Carlson, Daniel; Zhao, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    By combining shadow nanosphere lithography with a glancing angle co-deposition technique, mixed-phase Ag-Cu triangular nanopatterns and films were fabricated. They were prepared at different compositions with respect to Ag from 100% to 0% by changing the relative deposition ratio of each metal. Characterizations by ellipsometry, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction revealed that the thin films and nanopatterns were composed of small, well-mixed Ag and Cu nano-grains with a diameter less than 20 nm, and their optical properties could be described by an effective medium theory. All compositions of the nanopattern had the same shape, but showed tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties. In general, the LSPR of the nanopatterns redshifted with decreasing composition. Such a relation could be fitted by an empirical model based on the bulk theory of alloy plasmonics. By changing the colloidal template and the material deposited, this fabrication technique can be used to produce other alloy plasmonic nanostructures with predicted LSPR wavelengths.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a chemically oxidized-nanostructured porous silicon based biosensor implementing orienting protein A.

    PubMed

    Naveas, Nelson; Hernandez-Montelongo, Jacobo; Pulido, Ruth; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Villanueva-Guerrero, Raúl; Predestinación García Ruiz, Josefa; Manso-Silván, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) elicits as a very attractive material for future biosensing systems due to its high surface area, biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods. In order to engineer its performance as a biosensor transducer platform, the density of immunoglobulins properly immobilized and oriented onto the surface needs to be optimized. In this work we fabricated and characterized a novel biosensing system focusing on the improvement of the biofunctionalization cascade. The system consists on a chemically oxidized PSi platform derivatized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) that is coupled to Staphylococcus protein A (SpA). The chemical oxidation has previously demonstrated to enhance the biofunctionalization process and here "by implementing SpA" a molecularly oriented immunosensor is achieved. The biosensor system is characterized in terms of its chemical composition, wettability and optical reflectance. Finally, this system is successfully exploited to develop a biosensor for detecting asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous molecule involved in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this work is relevant from the point of view of design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces with the added value of contribution to the development of new assays for detecting ADMA with a view on prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity enhancement of nanostructured SnO2 gas sensors fabricated using the glancing angle deposition method.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Hyo Jin; Moon, Hi Gyu; Jang, Ho Won; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Yoo, Kwang Soo

    2013-04-01

    0.5 wt.% Pd-catalyzed SnO2 thin-film gas sensors with microstructures controlled on a nanometer scale were fabricated by an e-beam evaporator using the glancing angle deposition (GAD) method. After annealing at 500 degrees C for 1 h, the sensors produced were polycrystalline with a nanoporous, tilted columnar microstructure. The gas-sensing properties of these SnO2 sensors were measured in the concentration range of 1 to 5 ppm NO2 at 250 degrees C and of 10 to 50 ppm C2H5OH at 400 degrees C, respectively. The sensors fabricated by e-beam evaporation in combination with the GAD method showed much higher sensitivities than normally prepared sensors and exhibited rapid response times. The gas sensitivity (S = R(gas)/R(air)) of the SnO2 sensor using the GAD method was 43.4 for 5 ppm NO2 and 0.08 for 10 ppm C2H5OH, respectively. These sensors showed excellent sensitivities compared to the normal thin film sensors (S = 2 for 5 ppm NO2 and 0.92 for 10 ppm C2H5OH). We consider that the nanostructured sensors produced using the GAD process could be used to detect various gases emitted by automobiles and industrial installations.

  16. Facile fabrication of nano-structured silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity by one-step VAFS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yi; Yue, Renliang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Jie; Ni, Yong; Wu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a novel one-step vapor-fed aerosol flame synthesis (VAFS) method to attain silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity on normal glass and other engineering material substrates using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. The deposited nano-structured silica films represent excellent superhydrophobicity with contact angle larger than 150° and sliding angle below 5°, without any surface modification or other post treatments. SEM photographs proved that flame-made SiO2 nanoparticles formed dual-scale surface roughness on the substrates. It was confirmed by FTIR and XPS that the in situ formed organic fragments on the particle surface as species like (CH3)xSiO2-x/2 (x = 1, 2, 3) which progressively lowered the surface energy of fabricated films. Thus, these combined dual-scale roughness and lowered surface energy cooperatively produced superhydrophobic films. IR camera had been used to monitor the real-time flame temperature. It is found that the inert dilution gas inflow played a critical role in attaining superhydrophobicity due to its cooling and anti-oxidation effect. This method is facile and scalable for diverse substrates, without any requirement of complex equipments and multiple processing steps. It may contribute to the industrial fabrication of superhydrophobic films.

  17. Effect of Systematic Control of Pd Thickness and Annealing Temperature on the Fabrication and Evolution of Palladium Nanostructures on Si (111) via the Solid State Dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Li, Ming-Yu; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-05-01

    Si-based optoelectronic devices embedded with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated the NP shape, size, spacing, and crystallinity dependent on light absorption and emission induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance. In this work, we demonstrate various sizes and configurations of palladium (Pd) nanostructures on Si (111) by the systematic thermal annealing with the variation of Pd thickness and annealing temperature. The evolution of Pd nanostructures are systematically controlled by the dewetting of thin film by means of the surface diffusion in conjunction with the surface and interface energy minimization and Volmer-Weber growth model. Depending on the control of deposition amount ranging between 0.5 and 100 nm at various annealing temperatures, four distinctive regimes of Pd nanostructures are demonstrated: (i) small pits and grain formation, (ii) nucleation and growth of NPs, (iii) lateral evolution of NPs, and (iv) merged nanostructures. In addition, by the control of annealing between 300 and 800 °C, the Pd nanostructures show the evolution of small pits and grains, isolated NPs, and finally, Pd NP-assisted nanohole formation along with the Si decomposition and Pd-Si inter-diffusion. The Raman analysis showed the discrepancies on phonon modes of Si (111) such that the decreased peak intensity with left shift after the fabrication of Pd nanostructures. Furthermore, the UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectra revealed the existence of surface morphology dependent on absorption, scattering, and reflectance properties.

  18. Fabrication of nanostructured silicon by metal-assisted etching and its effects on matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, W Y; Huang, J T; Cheng, Y C; Chien, C C; Tsao, C W

    2011-02-21

    A matrix-free, high sensitivity, nanostructured silicon surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method fabricated by metal-assisted etching was investigated. Effects of key process parameters, such as etching time, substrate resistance and etchant composition, on the nanostructured silicon formation and its LDI-MS efficiency were studied. The results show that the nanostructured silicon pore depth and size increase with etching time, while MS ion intensity increases with etching time to 300 s then decreases until 600 s for both low resistance (0.001-0.02Ωcm) and high resistance (1-100Ωcm) silicon substrates. The nanostructured silicon surface morphologies were found to directly affect the LDI-MS signal ion intensity. By characterizing the nanostructured silicon surface roughness using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sample absorption efficiency using fluorescence microscopy, it was further demonstrated that the nanostructured silicon surface roughness was highly correlated to the LDI-MS performance.

  19. Self-assembled nanostructured resistive switching memory devices fabricated by templated bottom-up growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Min; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Metal-oxide-based resistive switching memory device has been studied intensively due to its potential to satisfy the requirements of next-generation memory devices. Active research has been done on the materials and device structures of resistive switching memory devices that meet the requirements of high density, fast switching speed, and reliable data storage. In this study, resistive switching memory devices were fabricated with nano-template-assisted bottom up growth. The electrochemical deposition was adopted to achieve the bottom-up growth of nickel nanodot electrodes. Nickel oxide layer was formed by oxygen plasma treatment of nickel nanodots at low temperature. The structures of fabricated nanoscale memory devices were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrical characteristics of the devices were directly measured using conductive AFM. This work demonstrates the fabrication of resistive switching memory devices using self-assembled nanoscale masks and nanomateirals growth from bottom-up electrochemical deposition. PMID:26739122

  20. Self-assembled nanostructured resistive switching memory devices fabricated by templated bottom-up growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Min; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-01-07

    Metal-oxide-based resistive switching memory device has been studied intensively due to its potential to satisfy the requirements of next-generation memory devices. Active research has been done on the materials and device structures of resistive switching memory devices that meet the requirements of high density, fast switching speed, and reliable data storage. In this study, resistive switching memory devices were fabricated with nano-template-assisted bottom up growth. The electrochemical deposition was adopted to achieve the bottom-up growth of nickel nanodot electrodes. Nickel oxide layer was formed by oxygen plasma treatment of nickel nanodots at low temperature. The structures of fabricated nanoscale memory devices were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrical characteristics of the devices were directly measured using conductive AFM. This work demonstrates the fabrication of resistive switching memory devices using self-assembled nanoscale masks and nanomateirals growth from bottom-up electrochemical deposition.

  1. Biomimetic gyroid nanostructures exceeding their natural origins

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Zongsong; Turner, Mark D.; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Using optical two-beam lithography with improved resolution and enhanced mechanical strength, we demonstrate the replication of gyroid photonic nanostructures found in the butterfly Callophrys rubi. These artificial structures are shown to have size, controllability, and uniformity that are superior to those of their biological counterparts. In particular, the elastic Young’s modulus of fabricated nanowires is enhanced by up to 20%. As such, the circular dichroism enabled by the gyroid nanostructures can operate in the near-ultraviolet wavelength region, shorter than that supported by the natural butterfly wings of C. rubi. This fabrication technique provides a unique tool for extracting three-dimensional photonic designs from nature and will aid the investigation of biomimetic nanostructures. PMID:27386542

  2. Emerging fabrication techniques for 3D nano-structuring in plasmonics and single molecule studies.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Liberale, C; Coluccio, M L; Cojoc, G; Di Fabrizio, E

    2011-07-01

    The application of new methods and techniques to fields such as biology and medicine is becoming more and more demanding since the request of detailed information down to single molecules is a scientific necessity and a technical realistic possibility. In this effort a key role is played by emerging fabrication techniques. One of the hardest challenges is to incorporate the third dimension in the design and fabrication of novel devices. Significantly, this means that conventional nano-fabrication methods, intrinsically useful for planar structuring, have to be substituted or complemented with new approaches. In this paper we show how emerging techniques can be used for 3D structuring of noble metals down to nanoscale. In particular, the paper deals with electroless deposition of silver, ion and electron beam induced deposition, focused ion beam milling, and two-photon lithography. We exploited these techniques to fabricate different plasmonics nanolenses, nanoprobes and novel beads for optical tweezers. In the future these devices will be used for the manipulation and chemical investigation of single cells with sensitivity down to a few molecules in label free conditions and native environment. Although this paper is only devoted to nanofabrication, we foresee that the fields of biology and medicine will directly gain substantial advantages from this approach.

  3. Fabrication of single-crystalline plasmonic nanostructures on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tomohiro; Mori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo

    2017-02-01

    A new experimental technique is developed for producing a high-performance single-crystalline Ag nanostructure on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates for use in plasmonic sensors and circuit components. This technique is based on the epitaxial growth of Ag on a (001)-oriented single-crystalline NaCl substrate, which is subsequently dissolved in ultrapure water to allow the Ag film to be transferred onto a wide range of different substrates. Focused ion beam milling is then used to create an Ag nanoarray structure consisting of 200 cuboid nanoparticles with a side length of 160 nm and sharp, precise edges. This array exhibits a strong signal and a sharp peak in plasmonic properties and Raman intensity when compared with a polycrystalline Ag nanoarray.

  4. Fabrication of ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure from parrot feathers for modulated photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengli; Yu, Ke; Liao, Na; Yin, Haihong; Lou, Lei; Yu, Qian; Liao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2011-12-01

    A ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure was successfully synthesised using a feather barb of the Rosy-Faced Lovebird as supporting template via a facile sol-gel process. Different from ordered structures, an isotropic PBG around 500 nm was evidenced from reflectance spectra and an optical metallurgical microscopy image, which overlaps with the visible emission peak of ZnO. As a result, the inhibition of visible emission inside the PBG and the enhancement of UV emission at the PBG edges have both been observed, which is independent from the incident angle. Moreover, the rapid thermal annealing can also help improve the crystallinity of ZnO and raise the UV/visible emission ratio without affecting the structure. These results can be very useful for the study of the modification of the optical emission properties of ZnO and other semiconductor materials as well as research on ZnO random lasing.

  5. Fabrication of ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure from parrot feathers for modulated photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengli; Yu, Ke; Liao, Na; Yin, Haihong; Lou, Lei; Yu, Qian; Liao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2011-12-01

    A ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure was successfully synthesised using a feather barb of the Rosy-Faced Lovebird as supporting template via a facile sol-gel process. Different from ordered structures, an isotropic PBG around 500 nm was evidenced from reflectance spectra and an optical metallurgical microscopy image, which overlaps with the visible emission peak of ZnO. As a result, the inhibition of visible emission inside the PBG and the enhancement of UV emission at the PBG edges have both been observed, which is independent from the incident angle. Moreover, the rapid thermal annealing can also help improve the crystallinity of ZnO and raise the UV/visible emission ratio without affecting the structure. These results can be very useful for the study of the modification of the optical emission properties of ZnO and other semiconductor materials as well as research on ZnO random lasing.

  6. Fabrication of single-crystalline plasmonic nanostructures on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohiro; Mori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo

    2017-01-01

    A new experimental technique is developed for producing a high-performance single-crystalline Ag nanostructure on transparent and flexible amorphous substrates for use in plasmonic sensors and circuit components. This technique is based on the epitaxial growth of Ag on a (001)-oriented single-crystalline NaCl substrate, which is subsequently dissolved in ultrapure water to allow the Ag film to be transferred onto a wide range of different substrates. Focused ion beam milling is then used to create an Ag nanoarray structure consisting of 200 cuboid nanoparticles with a side length of 160 nm and sharp, precise edges. This array exhibits a strong signal and a sharp peak in plasmonic properties and Raman intensity when compared with a polycrystalline Ag nanoarray. PMID:28216626

  7. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures and their application in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikovska, A. Og.; Tsankov, N. Ts.; Toshkova, R.; Gardeva, E.; Yossifova, L.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we synthesized different types of ZnO samples (thin and nanostructured films) and investigated their potential application in biomedicine. The properties of ZnO films are strongly dependent on the synthesis process and the experimental conditions. Thus, the samples were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which allows excellent control over the stoichiometry and surface morphology. Cell suspensions of the same concentration and volume (i.e. same number of cells) were seeded on each sample. The subjects of interest were 3T3 fibroblast, MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cells. The influence of the ZnO surface morphology on the viability of these three different cell cultures was studied. The cell type defines the appropriate surface morphology for cell culturing. The nanoscale morphology of the samples supports the HeLa cell viability, while only a small quantity of MCF-7 cells are able to adhere, spread and survive on them.

  8. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2013-04-07

    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  9. Fabrication of self-assembled epitaxial nanostructures consisting of multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Ilan

    As the field of epitaxial, self-assembled, thin film nanostructures continues to evolve, we have seen the emergence of novel growth techniques, exciting new multiferroic heterostructures and the increase in strain control engineering. The interest in such heterostructures ranges from high speed computing and storage devices, to smart sensors and actuators. Magnetic tunneling junctions and the development of highly efficient composites in the use of photovoltaics is certainly a direction of the future of thin film physics. Through the method of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), we have developed and engineered complex multiferroic transition metal oxides. By examining the structural and physical characterization of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxially grown on spinel MgAl2O4 (001) by way of HR-XRD, AFM, TEM SEM, SQUID, and VSM, we have added additional growth parameters, i.e., the role of substrate structure, which can be used in the control of the structural formation of spinel and perovskite multiferroic heterostructures. This additional growth parameter is a critical step in the advancement in structural control and growth morphology. Additionally, control engineering of ferromagnetic vertically aligned nanostructures (VAN's), embedded in a ferroelectric matrix was accomplished using a 1:1 molar ratio of ferromagnetic NiCO2O4 and ferroelectric BaTiO3, which is to be used in the study of electrical transport, and 3-dimensional strain control. Finally, a conducting bottom electrode (Nb-STO) was developed to allow for the out-of-plane transport measurements on the NCO-BTO heterocomposite.

  10. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  11. Engineering Artificial Machines from Designable DNA Materials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications. PMID:25547514

  12. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method.

  13. p-MoO3 nanostructures/n-TiO2 nanofiber heterojunctions: controlled fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxing; Shao, Changlu; Wang, Kexin; Lu, Na; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Mingyi; Li, Xinghua; Liu, Yichun

    2014-06-25

    In this work, p-MoO3 nanostructures/n-TiO2 nanofiber heterojunctions (p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs) were obtained by a two-step fabrication route. First, MoO2 nanostructures were hydrothermally grown on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. Second, by thermal treatment of the obtained MoO2 nanostructures/TiO2 nanofibers, p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs were obtained due to the phase transition of MoO2 to MoO3. With increasing the concentration of molybdenum precursor in hydrothermal process, the morphologies of MoO2 changed from nanoparticles to nanosheets, and then fully covered shells with an increased loading on TiO2 nanofibers. After calcination, the obtained p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs possessed similar morphology to that without thermal treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that both Ti 2p and OTi-O 1s peaks of p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs shifted to higher binding energies than that of TiO2 nanofibers, suggesting electron transfer from TiO2 to MoO3 in the formation of p-n nanoheterojunctions. The p-n nanoheterojunctions decreased photoluminescence intensity, suppressed photogenerated electrons and holes recombinations, and enhanced charge separation and photocatalytic efficiencies. The apparent first-order rate constant for the degradation of RB by p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs with nanosheets surface morphology was two times that of TiO2 nanofibers. For the core/shell structure of p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs, the internal electric field of p-n junction forced the photogenerated electrons transferring to TiO2 cores, then decreased the surface photocatalytic reactions and led to the lowest photocatalytic activity among the p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs.

  14. Fabrication of the curved artificial compound eyes with a homebuilt mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Guo, Yongcai; Luo, Jiasai

    2016-11-01

    A novel multi-focusing curved microlens array (MLA), inspired by compound eyes, was fabricated using a homebuilt mold in this paper. By gas-assist deformation, and using the PDMS film as the template, MLA with variable focal length were fabricated through the different apertures of the micro-stomatas attached on the mold. Fabricated in one step, without reverse mould process, makes the whole fabrication process simple, cost-effective and deformation less. The ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81, which was cured in seconds, has excellent optical performance and a wide operating temperature range. The optical performances of the MLA were demonstrated by optical experiments and simulation.

  15. Planar self-aligned imprint lithography for coplanar plasmonic nanostructures fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Weiwei; Lin, Liang; Xu, Yelong; Guo, Xu; Liu, Xiaoping; Ge, Haixiong; Lu, Minghui; Cui, Bo; Chen, Yanfeng

    2014-08-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a cost-efficient nanopatterning technology because of its promising advantages of high throughput and high resolution. However, accurate multilevel overlay capability of NIL required for integrated circuit manufacturing remains a challenge due to the high cost of achieving mechanical alignment precision. Although self-aligned imprint lithography was developed to avoid the need of alignment for the vertical layered structures, it has limited usage in the manufacture of the coplanar structures, such as integrated plasmonic devices. In this paper, we develop a new process of planar self-alignment imprint lithography (P-SAIL) to fabricate the metallic and dielectric structures on the same plane. P-SAIL transfers the multilevel imprint processes to a single-imprint process which offers higher efficiency and less cost than existing manufacturing methods. Such concept is demonstrated in an example of fabricating planar plasmonic structures consisting of different materials.

  16. A mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition approach to fabricating complex hydride nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yuepeng; Liu, Yongfeng; Gao, Mingxia; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Min; Pan, Hongge

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale hydrides desorb and absorb hydrogen at faster rates and lower temperatures than bulk hydrides because of their high surface areas, abundant grain boundaries and short diffusion distances. No current methods exist for the direct fabrication of nanoscale complex hydrides (for example, alanates, borohydrides) with unique morphologies because of their extremely high reducibility, relatively low thermodynamic stability and complicated elemental composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition procedure for preparing nanoscale complex hydrides without scaffolds or supports. Magnesium alanate nanorods measuring 20-40 nm in diameter and lithium borohydride nanobelts measuring 10-40 nm in width are successfully synthesised on the basis of the one-dimensional structure of the corresponding organic coordination polymers. The dehydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium alanate nanorods are improved, and the nanorod morphology persists through the dehydrogenation-hydrogenation process. Our findings may facilitate the fabrication of such hydrides with improved hydrogen storage properties for practical applications.

  17. A mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition approach to fabricating complex hydride nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuepeng; Liu, Yongfeng; Gao, Mingxia; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Min; Pan, Hongge

    2014-03-24

    Nanoscale hydrides desorb and absorb hydrogen at faster rates and lower temperatures than bulk hydrides because of their high surface areas, abundant grain boundaries and short diffusion distances. No current methods exist for the direct fabrication of nanoscale complex hydrides (for example, alanates, borohydrides) with unique morphologies because of their extremely high reducibility, relatively low thermodynamic stability and complicated elemental composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition procedure for preparing nanoscale complex hydrides without scaffolds or supports. Magnesium alanate nanorods measuring 20-40 nm in diameter and lithium borohydride nanobelts measuring 10-40 nm in width are successfully synthesised on the basis of the one-dimensional structure of the corresponding organic coordination polymers. The dehydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium alanate nanorods are improved, and the nanorod morphology persists through the dehydrogenation-hydrogenation process. Our findings may facilitate the fabrication of such hydrides with improved hydrogen storage properties for practical applications.

  18. Superhydrophobic surface of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures fabricated by Ti anodization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junye; Ouyang, Xin; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

    2014-04-15

    A hierarchical structure of TiO2 with disordered nanowires on top of regular nanotubes was fabricated. With organic monolayers, it showed stronger superhydrophobic properties than regular nanotubes. The surface roughness was further enhanced by removing the dense nanowires layer, resulting in 172° water contact angle. The potential application for aquatic devices was explored by the treated Ti mesh which showed striking floating stability.

  19. Photothermal laser fabrication of micro- and nanostructured chemical templates for directed protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Anja; Franzka, Steffen; Hartmann, Nils

    2014-12-16

    Photothermal patterning of poly(ethylene glycol) terminated organic monolayers on surface-oxidized silicon substrates is carried out using a microfocused beam of a CW laser operated at a wavelength of 532 nm. Trichlorosilane and trimethoxysilane precursors are used for coating. Monolayers from trimethoxysilane precursors show negligible unspecific protein adsorption in the background, i.e., provide platforms of superior protein repellency. Laser patterning results in decomposition of the monolayers and yields chemical templates for directed immobilization of proteins at predefined positions. Characterization is carried out via complementary analytical methods including fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Appropriate labeling techniques (fluorescent markers and gold clusters) and substrates (native and thermally oxidized silicon substrates) are chosen in order to facilitate identification of protein adsorption and ensure high sensitivity and selectivity. Variation of the laser parameters at a 1/e(2) spot diameter of 2.8 μm allows for fabrication of protein binding domains with diameters on the micrometer and nanometer length scale. Minimum domain sizes are about 300 nm. In addition to unspecific protein adsorption on as-patterned monolayers, biotin-streptavidin coupling chemistry is exploited for specific protein binding. This approach represents a novel facile laser-based means for fabrication of protein micro- and nanopatterns. The routine is readily applicable to femtosecond laser processing of glass substrates for the fabrication of transparent templates.

  20. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-05-27

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  1. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  2. Fabrication of novel highly ordered quantum nanostructure arrays using non-lithographic anodic alumina templates and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xiangyang

    This thesis explored a low-cost fabrication process for producing highly ordered quantum nanostructures, including quantum dot arrays (QDAs) and vertical nanowire arrays. Nanochannel alumina (NCA) templates, produced using a two-step anodic oxidation process, with highly ordered nanohole arrays of inter-pore distance of 100nm, pore sizes of 45--90 nm and thickness of <200 nm were used as nanomasks after being bonded to GaAs substrates using van der Waals bonding. We realized the first successful molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of highly ordered GaAs nanodot arrays on GaAs substrates under NCA masks. We revealed that the growth of GaAs nanodots under Al2O3 nanochannels is kinetically controlled by surface migration of Ga ad-atoms. We also realized the first MBE growth of QDAs of closely lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs and strained InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures on GaAs substrates under NCA masks. The nanodots of either single layer or multilayer heterostructures were truly defined by the nanochannels of the NCA masks, resulting in replication of the hexagonal arrays with 100 nm lattice spacing, and similar dot size and shape to the nanoholes of the NCA masks. The nanodots also exhibited excellent uniformity with a standard deviation of less than 5% in dot diameter distribution. Low temperature (4.2K) photoluminescence spectra of both single-well and double-well GaAs/AlGaAs QDAs showed strong and sharp photoemission, which confirmed the good crystal quality and dot size uniformity of the GaAs/AlGaAs QDAs. Photoemission from InGaAs QDs with GaAs barriers were also detected using low temperature (5K) cathodoluminescence (CL). CL spectra from different clusters of dots showed no measurable variation under the same excitation conditions, indicating uniform electronic structures. We also demonstrated MBE growth of ordered GaAs nanowire arrays using Au-catalyzed epi-growth and defining Au dots using NCA masks, and significantly improved wire diameter uniformity as compared

  3. Metal-catalyzed electroless etching of silicon in aerated HF/H2O vapor for facile fabrication of silicon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ya; Peng, Kui-Qing; Qiao, Zhen; Huang, Xing; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Rui-Nan; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by metal corrosion in air, we demonstrate that metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon can be performed simply in aerated HF/H2O vapor for facile fabrication of three-dimensional silicon nanostructures such as silicon nanowires (SiNW) arrays. Compared to MCEE commonly performed in aqueous HF solution, the present pseudo gas phase etching offers exceptional simplicity, flexibility, environmental friendliness, and scalability for the fabrication of three-dimensional silicon nanostructures with considerable depths because of replacement of harsh oxidants such as H2O2 and AgNO3 by environmental-green and ubiquitous oxygen in air, minimum water consumption, and full utilization of HF.

  4. Piezoelectric paper fabricated via nanostructured barium titanate functionalization of wood cellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2014-05-28

    We have successfully developed hybrid piezoelectric paper through fiber functionalization that involves anchoring nanostructured BaTiO3 into a stable matrix with wood cellulose fibers prior to the process of making paper sheets. This is realized by alternating immersion of wood fibers in a solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) PDDA (+), followed by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) PSS (-), and once again in PDDA (+), resulting in the creation of a positively charged surface on the wood fibers. The treated wood fibers are then immersed in a BaTiO3 suspension, resulting in the attachment of BaTiO3 nanoparticles to the wood fibers due to a strong electrostatic interaction. Zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction, and microscopic and spectroscopic analysis imply successful functionalization of wood fibers with BaTiO3 nanoparticles without altering the hydrogen bonding and crystal structure of the wood fibers. The paper has the largest piezoelectric coefficient, d33 = 4.8 ± 0.4 pC N(-1), at the highest nanoparticle loading of 48 wt % BaTiO3. This newly developed piezoelectric hybrid paper is promising as a low-cost substrate to build sensing devices.

  5. Thermally induced transformations of amorphous carbon nanostructures fabricated by electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Dhaval D; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Kim, Songkil; Fedorov, Andrei G; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    We studied the thermally induced phase transformations of electron-beam-induced deposited (EBID) amorphous carbon nanostructures by correlating the changes in its morphology with internal microstructure by using combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution confocal Raman microscopy. These carbon deposits can be used to create heterogeneous junctions in electronic devices commonly known as carbon-metal interconnects. We compared two basic shapes of EBID deposits: dots/pillars with widths from 50 to 600 nm and heights from 50 to 500 nm and lines with variable heights from 10 to 150 nm but having a constant length of 6 μm. We observed that during thermal annealing, the nanoscale amorphous deposits go through multistage transformation including dehydration and stress-relaxation around 150 °C, dehydrogenation within 150-300 °C, followed by graphitization (>350 °C) and formation of nanocrystalline, highly densified graphitic deposits around 450 °C. The later stage of transformation occurs well below commonly observed graphitization for bulk carbon (600-800 °C). It was observed that the shape of the deposits contribute significantly to the phase transformations. We suggested that this difference is controlled by different contributions from interfacial footprints area. Moreover, the rate of graphitization was different for deposits of different shapes with the lines showing a much stronger dependence of its structure on the density than the dots.

  6. An economic approach to fabricate photo sensor based on nanostructured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, Nanasaheb; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructural ZnO Thin Films have been synthesized by simple and economic Chemical Bath Deposition technique onto glass substrate with bath temperature at 60°C for 1 hour. Structural, Optical, Electrical and topographical properties of the prepared Thin Films were investigated by GIXRD, I-V Measurement System, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and AFM respectively. Calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the standard JCPDS card (36-1451) values, exhibits Hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure. I-V Measurement curve has shown ohmic nature in dark condition and responds to light illumination which reveals Photo sensor properties. After illumination of 60W light, decrease in resistance was observed from 110.9 KΩ to 104.4 KΩ. The change in current and calculated Photo sensitivity was found to be 3.51 µA and 6.3% respectively. Optical band gap was found to be 3.24 eV. AFM images revealed uniform deposition over entire glass substrate with 32.27 nm average roughness of the film.

  7. Fabrication of AIN Nano-Structures Using Polarity Control by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Eom, Daeyong; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Jeon, Minhwan; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the crystallographic polarity transition of AIN layers grown by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD), with varying trimethylaluminum (TMAI) pre-flow rates. AIN layers grown without TMAI pre-flow had a mixed polarity, consisting of Al- and N-polarity, and exhibited a rough surface. With an increasing rate of TMAI pre-flow, the AIN layer was changed to an Al-polarity, with a smooth surface morphology. Finally, AIN nano-pillars and nano-rods of Al-polarity were fabricated by etching a mixed polarity AIN layer using an aqueous KOH solution.

  8. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Taron; Enderle, Fabian; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE) of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost. Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement. PMID:22003451

  9. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Manuel R; Makaryan, Taron; Enderle, Fabian; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE) of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost.Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement.

  10. Fabrication of nanostructures on silicon carbide surface and microgroove sidewall using 800-nm femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuat, Vanthanh; Chen, Tao; Dao, Vanluu

    2015-07-01

    Nanoripples and nanoparticles have been fabricated on the surface of a silicon carbide sample with the irradiation of an 800-nm femtosecond laser in an underwater environment. When a linearly polarized laser was used, the nanoripples were perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident laser, and the period of the nanoripples was dependent on the number of pulses. When a circularly polarized laser was used, nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 80 nm were formed. In addition, we observed two kinds of nanoripples on the sidewall of the silicon carbide microgroove fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical wet etching. When the polarization direction was aligned perpendicular to the writing direction, ripples parallel to the surface of the sample were formed. We attribute the formation of this kind of ripple to interference of the incident laser and the reflected wave. When the polarization direction was aligned parallel to the writing direction, the ripples are perpendicular to the surface of the sample. We attribute the formation of this kind of ripple to interference of incident laser and bulk electron plasma wave. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope was employed to characterize the morphology of the structures.

  11. Fast fabrication of nano-structured anti-reflection layers for enhancement of solar cells performance using plasma sputtering and infrared assisted roller embossing techniques.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Liao, Che-Ting

    2012-02-27

    This paper reports the continuous fabrication of dual-side nano-structured anti-reflection protective layer for performance enhancement of solar cells using plasma sputtering and infrared assisted roller embossing techniques. Nano-structures were first deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using the plasma sputtering technique. After electroforming, a nickel master mold containing nano-array of 30 nm was obtained. The mold was then attached to the surfaces of the two metallic rollers in an infrared assisted roll-to-roll embossing facility. The embossing facility was used to replicate the nano-structures onto 60 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films in the experiments. The embossed films were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometer, atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM); its total conversion efficiency for solar cells was also measured by a solar simulator. The experimental results showed that the fabricated films could effectively reduce the reflectance and increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The proposed method shows great potential for fast fabrication of the anti-reflection protective layer of solar cells due to its simplicity and versatility.

  12. Automated spray coating process for the fabrication of large-area artificial opals on textured substrates.

    PubMed

    Sprafke, Alexander N; Schneevoigt, Daniela; Seidel, Sophie; Schweizer, Stefan L; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2013-05-06

    3D photonic crystals, such as opals, have been shown to have a high potential to increase the efficiency of solar cells by enabling advanced light management concepts. However, methods which comply with the demands of the photovoltaic industry for integration of these structures, i. e. the fabrication in a low-cost, fast, and large-scale manner, are missing up to now. In this work, we present the spray coating of a colloidal suspension on textured substrates and subsequent drying. We fabricated opaline films of much larger lateral dimensions and in much shorter times than what is possible using conventional opal fabrication methods.

  13. Piezoelectric Micro- and Nanostructured Fibers Fabricated from Thermoplastic Nanocomposites Using a Fiber Drawing Technique: Comparative Study and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2017-02-28

    We report an all-polymer flexible piezoelectric fiber that uses both judiciously chosen geometry and advanced materials in order to enhance fiber piezoelectric response. The microstructured/nanostructured fiber features a soft hollow polycarbonate core surrounded by a spiral multilayer cladding consisting of alternating layers of piezoelectric nanocomposites (polyvinylidene enhanced with BaTiO3, PZT, or CNT) and conductive polymer (carbon-filled polyethylene). The conductive polymer layers serve as two electrodes, and they also form two spatially offset electric connectors on the fiber surface designed for the ease of connectorization. Kilometer-long piezoelectric fibers of sub-millimeter diameters are thermally drawn from a macroscopic preform. The fibers exhibit high output voltage of up to 6 V under moderate bending, and they show excellent mechanical and electrical durability in a cyclic bend-release test. The micron/nanosize multilayer structure enhances in-fiber poling efficiency due to the small distance between the conducting electrodes sandwiching the piezoelectric composite layers. Additionally, the spiral structure greatly increases the active area of the piezoelectric composite, thus promoting higher voltage generation and resulting in 10-100 higher power generation efficiency over the existing piezoelectric cables. Finally, we weave the fabricated piezoelectric fibers into technical textiles and demonstrate their potential applications in power generation when used as a sound detector, smart car seat upholstery, or wearable materials.

  14. Cauda equina-derived extracellular matrix for fabrication of nanostructured hybrid scaffolds applied to neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yu; Guo, Zhiyuan; Meng, Haoye; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Qing; Zheng, Yudong; Peng, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components have become important candidate materials for use as neural scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. In the current study, we prepared cauda equina-derived ECM materials for the production of scaffolds. Natural porcine cauda equina was decellularized using Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate, shattered physically, and made into a suspension by differential centrifugation. The decellularization procedure resulted in the removal of >94% of the nuclear material and preserved the extracellular collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the presence of collagen type I, laminin, and fibronectin in the ECM. The cauda equine-derived ECM was blended with poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to fabricate nanostructured scaffolds using electrospinning. The incorporation of the ECM increased the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multiphoton-induced autofluorescence images showed the presence of the ECM in the scaffolds. ECM/PLGA scaffolds were beneficial for the survival of Schwann cells compared with scaffolds consisting of PLGA alone, and the aligned fibers could regulate cell morphologic features by modulating cellular orientation. Axons in the dorsal root ganglia explants extended to a greater extent along ECM/PLGA compared with PLGA-alone fibers. The cauda equina ECM might be a promising material for forming scaffolds for use in neural tissue engineering.

  15. Fabrication, appraisal, and transdermal permeation of sildenafil citrate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers versus solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2011-01-01

    Although sildenafil citrate (SC) is used extensively for erectile dysfunction, oral delivery of SC encounters many obstacles. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of this amphoteric drug are challenging for delivery system formulation and transdermal permeation. This article concerns the assessment of the potential of nanomedicine for improving SC delivery and transdermal permeation. SC-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were fabricated using a modified high-shear homogenization technique. Nanoparticle optimization steps included particle size analysis, entrapment efficiency (EE) determination, freeze-drying and reconstitution, differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro release, stability study and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Transdermal permeation of the nanocarriers compared with SC suspension across human skin was assessed using a modified Franz diffusion cell assembly. Results revealed that SLNs and NLCs could be optimized in the nanometric range (180 and 100 nm, respectively) with excellent EE (96.7% and 97.5%, respectively). Nanoparticles have significantly enhanced in vitro release and transdermal permeation of SC compared with its suspensions. Furthermore, transdermal permeation of SC exhibited higher initial release from both SLN and NLC formulations followed by controlled release, with promising implications for faster onset and longer drug duration. Nanomedicines prepared exhibited excellent physical stability for the study period. Solid nanoparticles optimized in this study successfully improved SC characteristics, paving the way for an efficient topical Viagra® product. PMID:22238508

  16. Fabrication and Evaluation of Nanostructured Herbal Oil/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/Polyvinylpyrrolidone Mats for Denture Stomatitis Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2016-12-01

    This work aims to develop the herbal oil-incorporated nanostructure mats with antifungal activity for the prevention and treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The nanofiber mats loaded with betel oil or clove oil were fabricated via electrospinning process. The morphologies and physicochemical properties of the herbal oil loaded nanofiber mats were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. The release characteristic, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity were also investigated. The SEM images confirmed the homogeneous and smooth nanoscale fibers. The addition of the herbal oil into the nanofiber mats reduced the fiber diameters. The DSC and FT-IR results confirmed the presence of the oil in the nanofiber mats. The herbal oils can be released from the mats in a very fast manner and inhibit the growth of candida cells within only few minutes after contact. These nanofiber mats may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of denture stomatitis.

  17. Three novel electrochemical electrodes for the fabrication of conducting polymer/SWCNTs layered nanostructures and their thermoelectric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Congcong; Jiang, Qinglin; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Jiang, Fengxing; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS nanofilms were used as working electrodes to electrodeposit polyaniline (PANI) in a mixed alcohol solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), boron trifluoride ethyl ether (BFEE), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The thermoelectric (TE) performances of the resulting nanofilms were systematically investigated. SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI nanofilms showed a relatively high electrical conductivity value of 232.0 S cm-1. The Seebeck coefficient was enhanced and exhibited the values of 33.8, 25.6, and 23.0 μV K-1 for the SWCNTs/PANI, PEDOT:PSS/SWCNTs/PANI, and SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/PANI films, respectively. The maximum power factor achieved was 12.3 μW m-1 K-2. This technique offers a facile and versatile approach to a class of layered nanostructures, and it may provide a general strategy for fabricating a new generation of conducting polymer/SWCNTs materials for further practical applications.

  18. Fabrication, appraisal, and transdermal permeation of sildenafil citrate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers versus solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Yosra S R; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2011-01-01

    Although sildenafil citrate (SC) is used extensively for erectile dysfunction, oral delivery of SC encounters many obstacles. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of this amphoteric drug are challenging for delivery system formulation and transdermal permeation. This article concerns the assessment of the potential of nanomedicine for improving SC delivery and transdermal permeation. SC-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were fabricated using a modified high-shear homogenization technique. Nanoparticle optimization steps included particle size analysis, entrapment efficiency (EE) determination, freeze-drying and reconstitution, differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro release, stability study and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Transdermal permeation of the nanocarriers compared with SC suspension across human skin was assessed using a modified Franz diffusion cell assembly. Results revealed that SLNs and NLCs could be optimized in the nanometric range (180 and 100 nm, respectively) with excellent EE (96.7% and 97.5%, respectively). Nanoparticles have significantly enhanced in vitro release and transdermal permeation of SC compared with its suspensions. Furthermore, transdermal permeation of SC exhibited higher initial release from both SLN and NLC formulations followed by controlled release, with promising implications for faster onset and longer drug duration. Nanomedicines prepared exhibited excellent physical stability for the study period. Solid nanoparticles optimized in this study successfully improved SC characteristics, paving the way for an efficient topical Viagra® product.

  19. Characterization of REBa2Cu3O7-X (RE = Gd, Ho) nanostructures, fabricated by a simple technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, Mahboubeh; Alikhanzadeh-Arani, Sima; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira

    2015-04-01

    Simple citrate sol-gel method assisted by ultrasonic irradiation has been employed to fabricate REBa2Cu3O7-X (RE123) (RE = Gd, Ho) nanostructures. The elevated temperature and pressure due to the sudden collapsing the bubbles with a high stability and energy in the ultrasonic procedure gave rise to a clear variation in the morphology, however compared with the bulk samples, the ultrasound waves had no significant effect on the onset critical temperature of the prepared nanoparticles (about 91.4 K). Changes of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature were found to be independent of the applied field strength, probably due to the elimination of the weak links in the products. The influence of various solvents with different vapor pressures and so different destruction powers, including methanol, toluene, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol, was also studied on the morphology and particle size of the products. The crystalline size of the Ho123 was calculated 32.38 nm, according to the Williamson-Hall plot, in agreement with the TEM images. Using the Rietveld method, the lattice parameters of Ho123 nanoparticles were obtained to be slightly smaller than that of Gd123.

  20. Lignin from sugar cane bagasse: extraction, fabrication of nanostructured films, and application.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A A; Martins, G F; Antunes, P A; Conrrado, R; Pasquini, D; Job, A E; Curvelo, A A S; Ferreira, M; Riul, A; Constantino, C J L

    2007-06-05

    Four lignin samples were extracted from sugar cane bagasse using four different alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and 1-butanol) via the organosolv-CO2 supercritical pulping process. Langmuir films were characterized by surface pressure vs mean molecular area (Pi-A) isotherms to exploit information at the molecular level carrying out stability tests, cycles of compression/expansion (hysteresis), subphase temperature variations, and metallic ions dissolved into the water subphase at different concentrations. Briefly, it was observed that these lignins are relatively stable on the water surface when compared to those obtained via different extraction processes. Besides, the Pi-A isotherms are shifted to smaller molecular areas at higher subphase temperatures and to larger molecular areas when the metallic ions are dissolved into the subphase. The results are related to the formation of stable aggregates (domains) onto the water subphase by these lignins, as shown in the Pi-A isotherms. It was found as well that the most stable lignin monolayer onto the water subphase is that extracted with 1-butanol. Homogeneous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of this lignin could be produced as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and the cumulative transfer parameter. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that this lignin LB film is structured in a way that the phenyl groups are organized preferentially parallel to the substrate surface. Further, these LB films were deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes and ITO and applied in studies involving the detection of Cd+2 ions in aqueous solutions at low concentration levels through impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out before and after soaking the thin films into Cd+2 aqueous solutions, revealing a possible physical interaction between the lignin phenyl groups and the heavy metal ions. The importance of using nanostructured systems is demonstrated as well by comparing

  1. Organic nanostructures with controllable morphology fabricated from mixed (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium double-decker complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Quanbo; Wu, Lizhen; Lv, Wei; Lu, Jitao; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2010-01-28

    The self-assembly behavior of two sandwich-type mixed (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium double-decker complexes, namely Eu(Pc)(TClPP) [Pc = phthalocyaninate; TClPP = meso-tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)porphyrinate] (1) and optically active (R)- and (S)-EuH[Pc(OBNP)(2)](TClPP)] [Pc(OBNP)(2) = phthalocyaninate with two aromatic chiral binaphthayl units attached at the nonperipheral positions] (2), has been comparatively studied. In addition, a hydrophilic additive with intense adhesive ability, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), was also introduced onto the sandwich-type self-assembly systems to combine with double-decker molecules to induce additional hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction. In the absence of the additive CMC, the double-decker molecules of 1 self-assemble into nanobelts in mixed solvent of chloroform and methanol. Introduction of two aromatic chiral binaphthayl units onto the nonperipheral positions of phthalocyanine ligand in the sandwich-type mixed double-decker complex 2 leads to the formation of tubal nanostructures. Observation of significant difference in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of (R)- and (S)-2 in chloroform from their aggregates dispersed in methanol confirms the effective intermolecular interaction due to the interplay of pi-pi interaction between adjacent double-decker molecules with chiral discrimination among chiral side chains at supramolecular level. With addition of CMC, cooperation of intrinsic intermolecular pi-pi interaction with additionally introduced hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction between adjacent double-decker molecules induces the formation of nanoscale hollow spheres at 45 degrees C during the self-assembly process of 1 and 2.

  2. 25th anniversary article: Artificial carbonate nanocrystals and layered structural nanocomposites inspired by nacre: synthesis, fabrication and applications.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Ge, Jin; Mao, Li-Bo; Yan, You-Xian; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-01-08

    Rigid biological systems are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for the fabrication of next generation advanced functional materials due to their diverse hierarchical structures and remarkable engineering properties. Among these rigid biomaterials, nacre, as the main constituent of the armor system of seashells, exhibiting a well-defined 'brick-and-mortar' architecture, excellent mechanical properties, and interesting iridescence, has become one of the most attractive models for novel artificial materials design. In this review, recent advances in nacre-inspired artificial carbonate nanocrystals and layered structural nanocomposites are presented. To clearly illustrate the inspiration of nacre, the basic principles relating to plate-like aragonite single-crystal growth and the contribution of hierarchical structure to outstanding properties in nacre are discussed. The inspiration of nacre for the synthesis of carbonate nanocrystals and the fabrication of layered structural nanocomposites is also discussed. Furthermore, the broad applications of these nacre inspired materials are emphasized. Finally, a brief summary of present nacre-inspired materials and challenges for the next generation of nacre-inspired materials is given.

  3. Novel approach to the fabrication of an artificial small bone using a combination of sponge replica and electrospinning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a novel artificial small bone consisting of ZrO2-biphasic calcium phosphate/polymethylmethacrylate-polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite (ZrO2-BCP/PMMA-PCL-HAp) was fabricated using a combination of sponge replica and electrospinning methods. To mimic the cancellous bone, the ZrO2/BCP scaffold was composed of three layers, ZrO2, ZrO2/BCP and BCP, fabricated by the sponge replica method. The PMMA-PCL fibers loaded with HAp powder were wrapped around the ZrO2/BCP scaffold using the electrospinning process. To imitate the Haversian canal region of the bone, HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL fibers were wrapped around a steel wire of 0.3 mm diameter. As a result, the bundles of fiber wrapped around the wires imitated the osteon structure of the cortical bone. Finally, the ZrO2/BCP scaffold was surrounded by HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL composite bundles. After removal of the steel wires, the ZrO2/BCP scaffold and bundles of HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL formed an interconnected structure resembling the human bone. Its diameter, compressive strength and porosity were approximately 12 mm, 5 MPa and 70%, respectively, and the viability of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells was determined to be over 90% by the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. This artificial bone shows excellent cytocompatibility and is a promising bone regeneration material.

  4. A novel technology for fabricating customizable VLSI artificial neural network chips

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Law, B.; Chapline, G.; Swenson, D.

    1992-02-05

    This paper describes an implementation of hardware neural networks using highly linear thin-film resistor technology and an 8-bit binary weight circuit to produce customizable artificial neural network chips and systems. These neural networks are programmed using precision laser cutting and deposition. The fast turnaround of laser-based customization allows us to explore different neural network architectures and to rapidly program the synaptic weights. Our customizable chip allows us to expand an artificial network laterally and vertically. This flexibility permits us to build very large neural network systems.

  5. Plasma sputtering depositions with colloidal masks for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Alexandra; Tiron, Vasile; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stoian, George; Sirghi, Lucel

    2017-06-01

    Titanium oxide/silicon oxide (TiO2/SiO2) 2D patterns were obtained by magnetron sputtering depositions of Ti on close-packed and size-reduced colloidal masks on Si and quartz substrates, followed by mask lift-off and ending with thermal oxidation. The physical processes involved in growing 2D Ti patterns and their oxidation are analyzed. For the magnetron sputtering deposition, two regimes are considered: the low-pressure regime when the flux of sputtered atoms is anisotropic, and the high-pressure regime, when the flux of sputtered atoms is isotropic due to frequent collisions. Moreover, magnetron sputtering operation modes, such as dc sputtering and high power impulse sputtering, are compared. The changes in pattern size and morphology determined by the oxidation of the Ti patterns and Si substrate are analyzed. The hydrophilicity induced by UV-light irradiation and the visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of the methylene blue of the fabricated TiO2/SiO2 patterns were considerably higher when compared to the performances of uniform TiO2 films.

  6. Plasma sputtering depositions with colloidal masks for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Alexandra; Tiron, Vasile; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stoian, George; Sirghi, Lucel

    2017-06-23

    Titanium oxide/silicon oxide (TiO2/SiO2) 2D patterns were obtained by magnetron sputtering depositions of Ti on close-packed and size-reduced colloidal masks on Si and quartz substrates, followed by mask lift-off and ending with thermal oxidation. The physical processes involved in growing 2D Ti patterns and their oxidation are analyzed. For the magnetron sputtering deposition, two regimes are considered: the low-pressure regime when the flux of sputtered atoms is anisotropic, and the high-pressure regime, when the flux of sputtered atoms is isotropic due to frequent collisions. Moreover, magnetron sputtering operation modes, such as dc sputtering and high power impulse sputtering, are compared. The changes in pattern size and morphology determined by the oxidation of the Ti patterns and Si substrate are analyzed. The hydrophilicity induced by UV-light irradiation and the visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of the methylene blue of the fabricated TiO2/SiO2 patterns were considerably higher when compared to the performances of uniform TiO2 films.

  7. Absorption enhancement in nanostructured silicon fabricated by self-assembled nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Jinsong; Li, Zizheng; Yang, Haigui; Liu, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Yudong

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we give a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of a nano cone array on silicon wafer, which can greatly enhance the absorption compared with the polished silicon. The experimental absorptance can reach 98.7% in the wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 1100 nm. The mechanism of absorption enhancement is attributed to the nano cone array that can suppress the reflection by building a grade index from air to silicon surface. Moreover, an ultrathin 13 nm thickness gold film was sputtered on the nano cone array, by which surface plasmon can be excited and the absorption in the near-infrared region can be greatly enhanced. We also give a deep comprehending on the physics mechanism of such high absorption. This kind of nano cone array can be fabricated by a simple and low-cost colloidal sphere lithography and reactive ion etching, which makes it a more appropriate candidate for photovoltaics, spectroscopy, photodetectors, sensor, especially for the silicon-based application in the near-infrared region.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of transparent conducting titanium-zinc oxide nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhou; Long, Lu; Zhong, Zhi-you; Hou, Jin; Yang, Chun-yong; Gu, Jin-hua; Long, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Nano transparent conducting titanium-zinc oxide (Ti-ZnO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The deposited films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-probe meter and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The effects of Ti-doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films are investigated. The XRD results show that the obtained films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The structural and optoelectronic characteristics of the deposited films are subjected to the Ti-doping content. The Ti-ZnO sample fabricated with the Ti-doping content of 3% (weight percentage) possesses the best crystallinity and optoelectronic performance, with the highest degree of preferred (002) orientation of 99.87%, the largest crystallite size of 83.2 nm, the minimum lattice strain of 6.263×10-4, the highest average visible transmittance of 88.8%, the lowest resistivity of 1.18×10-3 Ω·cm and the maximum figure of merit ( FOM) of 7.08×103 Ω-1·cm-1. Furthermore, the optical bandgaps of the films are evaluated by extrapolation method and observed to be an increasing tendency with the increase of the Ti-doping content.

  9. Inkjet fabrication of highly efficient luminescent Eu-doped ZrO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Furasova, Alexandra D; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Yakovlev, Alexandr V; Milichko, Valentine A; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Vinogradov, Alexandr V

    2017-09-14

    We have demonstrated for the first time an inkjet fabrication of highly efficient luminescent structures based on Eu-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals (3.4 ± 0.3 nm), with a refractive index close to the one of the bulk materials. The nanoparticles were synthesised using a nonhydrolytic method in benzyl alcohol where the particles were post treated using acetic acid, leading to the formation of a stable colloid. It was shown that the non-polar methyl group of the acetic acid is responsible for its penetration through the hydrophobic layer all the way through to the surface of the ZrO2, leading to the cleavage of the Zr-OCH2C6H5 bond and the formation of surface acetate species and a concomitant decomposition of the zirconia superlattice. Hereby we show a new and efficient universal ink production through a multi-step process - starting from solvothermal synthesis, dispersion of nanocrystals in water, and adaptation of the rheological parameters of the resulting sols. Eventually, we were able to obtain inks that we used for the production of optical coatings, monolayer luminescent-protected holography and anti-counterfeiting printing. These structures, obtained at room temperature through inkjet printing, present dense xerogel structures with high optical transparency, a high refractive index and more efficient luminescence compared with the non-homogeneous structures produced as a mixture of rare-earth elements and nanocrystals.

  10. Nanostructural characterization of large-scale porous alumina fabricated via anodizing in arsenic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiya, Shunta; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2017-05-01

    Anodizing of aluminum in an arsenic acid solution is reported for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina. The highest potential difference (voltage) without oxide burning increased as the temperature and the concentration of the arsenic acid solution decreased, and a high anodizing potential difference of 340 V was achieved. An ordered porous alumina with several tens of cells was formed in 0.1-0.5 M arsenic acid solutions at 310-340 V for 20 h. However, the regularity of the porous alumina was not improved via anodizing for 72 h. No pore sealing behavior of the porous alumina was observed upon immersion in boiling distilled water, and it may be due to the formation of an insoluble complex on the oxide surface. The porous alumina consisted of two different layers: a hexagonal alumina layer that contained arsenic from the electrolyte and a pure alumina honeycomb skeleton. The porous alumina exhibited a white photoluminescence emission at approximately 515 nm under UV irradiation at 254 nm.

  11. Self-Assembly of Crystalline Structures of Magnetic Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaozheng; Wang, Jianchao; Furlani, Edward P

    2015-10-14

    A theoretical study is presented of the template-assisted formation of crystalline superstructures of magnetic-dielectric core-shell particles. The templates produce highly localized gradient fields and a corresponding magnetic force that guides the assembly with nanoscale precision in particle placement. The process is studied using two distinct and complementary computational models that predict the dynamics and energy of the particles, respectively. Both mono- and polydisperse colloids are studied, and the analysis demonstrates for the first time that although the particles self-assemble into ordered crystalline superstructures, the particle formation is not unique. There is a Brownian motion-induced degeneracy in the process wherein various distinct, energetically comparable crystalline structures can form for a given template geometry. The models predict the formation of hexagonal close packed (HCP) and face centered cubic (FCC) structures as well as mixed phase structures due to in-plane stacking disorders, which is consistent with experimental observations. The polydisperse particle structures are less uniform than the monodisperse particle structures because of the irregular packing of different-sized particles. A comparison of self-assembly using soft- and hard-magnetic templates is also presented, the former being magnetized in a uniform field. This analysis shows that soft-magnetic templates enable an order-of-magnitude more rapid assembly and much higher spatial resolution in particle placement than their hard-magnetic counterparts. The self-assembly method discussed is versatile and broadly applies to arbitrary template geometries and multilayered and multifunctional mono- and polydisperse core-shell particles that have at least one magnetic component. As such, the method holds potential for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanostructured materials for a broad range of applications. This work provides unprecedented insight into the assembly

  12. Fabrication and SERS properties of Ag/Cu2S composite micro-nanostructures over Cu foil.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Jinjie; Mao, Zhu; Xu, Weiqing; Zhao, Bing

    2011-09-01

    A new kind of Ag/Cu2S composite micro/nanostructures has been prepared via a convenient galvanic reduction method. SEM images of these micro/nanostructures showed that Ag nanoparticles with the size of around 50-100 nm were well deposited on the surface of Cu2S micro/nanostructures. The SEM images also indicated that the Ag nanoparticles were preferentially grown on the big polygonal Cu2S microstructures, which could be explained by a localization of the electrons on the surface of the polygonal Cu2S microstructures after the electron transfer step. Owing to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of Cu2S micro/nanostructures, the resulting Ag/Cu2S composite micro-nanostructures could be used as a versatile substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  13. Nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Philip

    2001-03-01

    Nanostructured materials may be defined as those materials whose structural elements - clusters, crystallites or molecules - have dimensions in the 1 to 100 nm range. The explosion in both academic and industrial interest in these materials over the past decade arises from the remarkable variations in fundamental electrical, optical and magnetic properties that occur as one progresses from an `infinitely extended' solid to a particle of material consisting of a countable number of atoms. This review details recent advances in the synthesis and investigation of functional nanostructured materials, focusing on the novel size-dependent physics and chemistry that results when electrons are confined within nanoscale semiconductor and metal clusters and colloids. Carbon-based nanomaterials and nanostructures including fullerenes and nanotubes play an increasingly pervasive role in nanoscale science and technology and are thus described in some depth. Current nanodevice fabrication methods and the future prospects for nanostructured materials and nanodevices are discussed.

  14. Artificial Earth Satellites Designed and Fabricated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    until propellant exhaustion on 18 April 1975 , exceeding substantially its one-year design life. Experiments with an orbital prediction span of up to two...UWafeinS APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY SDO 1600 -- May 1975 I. 3 Appendix B THE NAVY NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM! One of the earliest programs designed to...SDO-1600 7 (Revised)lCL SARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITEStQ DESIGNED AND FABRICATED 9 by I THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY I __CD

  15. Effects of HSQ e-beam Resist Processing on the Fabrication of ICP-RIE Etched TiO2 Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovy, Ivan; Kostic, Ivan; Predanocy, Martin; Nemec, Pavol; Rehacek, Vlastimil

    2016-12-01

    Patterning of metal oxide nanostructures with different shapes and well-defined size may play an important role in the improvement of MEMS systems, sensors and optical devices. We investigated the effects of HSQ e-beam resist processing on the fabrication of sputtered TiO2 nanostructures. They were patterned using direct write e-beam lithography combined with ICP-RIE etching in CF4/Ar plasma. Experimental results confirmed that the HSQ resist with a thickness of about 600 nm is suitable as a masking material for optimal etching process and allows patterning of the dots array in TiO2 sputtered films with a thickness up 150 nm. TiO2 arrays with a minimal dots diameter of 180 nm and spacing of 1000 nm were successfully developed.

  16. Non-volatile resistive memory device fabricated from CdSe quantum dot embedded in thermally grown In2O3 nanostructure by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, V.; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyun-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report In2O3/CdSe quantum dot based non-volatile resistive memory device with ON/OFF ratio ∼1000. Indium nanostructures were grown by oblique angle deposition technique in a thermal evaporator. Indium oxide nanostructures had size ranging from 20 nm to 100 nm as observed from TEM and AFM methods. The facile device fabricated with a layer of CdSe quantum dot on indium oxide film exhibited excellent endurance characteristics over 100,000 switching cycles. Retention tests showed good stability for over 4000 s. Memory operating mechanism is proposed based on charge trapping/de-trapping in quantum dots with indium oxide acting as barrier leading to Coulomb blockade. The mechanism is supported by negative differential resistance (NDR) observed exclusively in the ON state.

  17. Mechanical analysis and fabrication of a penetrating silicon microprobe as an artificial optic nerve visual prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaohong; Han, Zhaolong; Zhou, Dai; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical response of a silicon microprobe while it penetrates the optic nerve. The finite element method was adopted to analyze models of the mechanical aspects of the silicon microprobe, including the effects of dimensions, the buckling load, lateral load, and the interaction between the microprobe and the tissue of the optic nerve. The silicon microprobe was fabricated based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) processing techniques. The designed microprobe shank was 750 µm long and 110 µm wide with thickness of 15 µm. Lateral barbs were included so as to decrease the stress at stimulating-site regions. The microprobe could withstand a 50 MPa vertical load on the shank tip before buckling, but was more likely to be damaged by a lateral load rather than a vertical one. The silicon microprobe was successfully fabricated by MEMS processing techniques based on a four-inch SOI wafer. Mechanical analysis of the interactions between shank and optic nerve tissue showed that the maximum stress changed during the process of the microprobe insertion. A silicon microprobe was designed as a potential visual prosthesis to be used for optic nerve stimulation. The mechanical issues were analyzed by means of the finite element method, and the implantable microprobe was fabricated based on a silicon-on-insulator wafer to maintain a uniform thickness.

  18. Optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings fabricated by means of the layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, Francisco J.; Matías, Ignacio R.; Claus, Richard O.

    2007-07-01

    The Layer-by-Layer Electrostatic Self-Assembly (ESA) method has been successfully used for the design and fabrication of nanostructured materials. More specifically, this technique has been applied for the deposition of thin films on optical fibers with the purpose of fabricating different types of optical fiber sensors. In fact, optical fiber sensors for measuring humidity, temperature, pH, hydrogen peroxide, glucose, volatile organic compounds or even gluten have been already experimentally demonstrated. The versatility of this technique allows the deposition of these sensing coatings on flat substrates and complex geometries as well. For instance, nanoFabry-Perots and microgratings have been formed on cleaved ends of optical fibers (flat surfaces) and also sensing coatings have been built onto long period gratings (cylindrical shape), tapered fiber ends (conical shape), biconically tapered fibers or even the internal side of hollow core fibers. Among the different materials used for the construction of these sensing nanostructured coatings, diverse types such as polymers, inorganic semiconductors, colorimetric indicators, fluorescent dyes, quantum dots or even biological elements as enzymes can be found. This technique opens the door to the fabrication of new types of optical fiber sensors.

  19. Pseudo-one-dimensional Zn-Fe-O Nanostructure Arrays: Controlled Fabrication, Magnetic Properties and Photocatalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuan

    In the present thesis, several kinds of pseudo-one-dimensional Zn-Fe-O nanostructure arrays with tunable chemical compositions, crystal structures and morphologies are successfully synthesized via a simple wet-chemical ZnO-nanowire-array templating method. Vertically-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays are firstly fabricated on several different substrates and then serve as templates for other nanostructured arrays growth. The ZnO nanowires not only act as morphology-defining skeleton but also contribute chemically to the final composition of the nanostructures. By controlling the reaction time between ZnO and FeCl3 solution, ZnO/ZnFe2O4 nanocable arrays, stoichiometric ZnFe 2O4 nanotube arrays, nonstoichiometric ZnFe2O 4 nanotube arrays, ZnFe2O4/alpha-Fe2O 3 nanotube arrays and alpha-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays can be synthesized in a controlled manner after calcination. Both ZnFe 2O4 and alpha-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays exhibit visible light absorption and their bandgap are estimated to be ˜2.3 eV and ˜1.7 eV, respectively. The detailed structural information of the ZnFe2O4 nanotube arrays are obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In particular, EELS are carried out for two different series (i.e., temperature and stoichiometric series). The magnetic properties of these samples are found to closely correlate to their structural characteristics. Firstly, with the decrease of the calcination temperature from 600 °C to 400 °C, more Fe3+ ions occupy A sites (tetrahedral sites in spinel structure) rather than their equilibrium B sites (octahedral sites in spinel structure). The deviation from the normal spinel structure leads to the enhancement of superexchange interactions between Fe3+ ions in A and B sites, and thus results in an increase in blocking temperature (T B), magnetic anisotropic constant (K), saturation magnetization (MS, at 3 K and 300 K), coercivity (H C, at 3 K) and a decrease in MS (3K)/MS(300 K) ratios. Secondly, by comparing stoichiometric and

  20. Oxygen vacancy mediated enhanced photo-absorption from ZnO(0001) nanostructures fabricated by atom beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Joshi, Shalik R.; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mishra, N. C.

    2016-08-07

    The nanoscale patterns created on the ZnO(0001) surfaces during atom beam irradiation have been investigated here for their photo absorption response. Preferential sputtering, during irradiation, promotes Zn-rich zones that serve as the nucleation centers for the spontaneous creation of nanostructures. Nanostructured surfaces with bigger (78 nm) nanodots, displaying hexagonal ordering and long ranged periodic behavior, show higher photo absorption and a ∼0.09 eV reduced bandgap. These nanostructures also demonstrate higher concentration of oxygen vacancies which are crucial for these results. The enhanced photo-response, as observed here, has been achieved in the absence of any dopant elements.

  1. Fabrication of artificial opals by electric-field-assisted vertical deposition.

    PubMed

    Napolskii, Kirill S; Sapoletova, Nina A; Gorozhankin, Dmitriy F; Eliseev, Andrey A; Chernyshov, Dmitry Yu; Byelov, Dmytro V; Grigoryeva, Natalia A; Mistonov, Alexander A; Bouwman, Wim G; Kvashnina, Kristina O; Lukashin, Alexey V; Snigirev, Anatoly A; Vassilieva, Alexandra V; Grigoriev, Sergey V; Petukhov, Andrei V

    2010-02-16

    We present a new technique for large-scale fabrication of colloidal crystals with controllable quality and thickness. The method is based on vertical deposition in the presence of a DC electric field normal to the conducting substrate. The crystal structure and quality are quantitatively characterized by microradian X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical reflectometry. Attraction between the charged colloidal spheres and the substrate promotes growth of thicker crystalline films, while the best-quality crystals are formed in the presence of repulsion. Highly ordered thick crystalline layers with a small amount of stacking faults and a low mosaic spread can be obtained by optimizing the growth conditions.

  2. Fabrication of MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures for lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Ding, Shujiang; Yu, Demei; Du, Yaping

    2014-04-01

    MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures were successfully prepared by a facile two-step method: prefabrication of porous TiO2 nanotubes based on a sol-gel method template against polymeric nanotubes, and then assembly of MoS2 nanoclusters that consist of ultrathin nanosheets through a solvothermal process. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. When evaluated as an electrode material for lithium ion batteries, the results of the electrochemical test show that the unique MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures exhibit outstanding lithium storage performances with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The smart architecture of the MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures makes a prominent contribution to the excellent electrochemical performance.

  3. Fabrication of MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures for lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Ding, Shujiang; Yu, Demei; Du, Yaping

    2014-05-21

    MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures were successfully prepared by a facile two-step method: prefabrication of porous TiO2 nanotubes based on a sol-gel method template against polymeric nanotubes, and then assembly of MoS2 nanoclusters that consist of ultrathin nanosheets through a solvothermal process. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. When evaluated as an electrode material for lithium ion batteries, the results of the electrochemical test show that the unique MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures exhibit outstanding lithium storage performances with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The smart architecture of the MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures makes a prominent contribution to the excellent electrochemical performance.

  4. Fabrication of Artificial Crystal Architectures by Micro-Manipulation of Spherical Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Kenta; Kawasaki, Akira

    2008-02-01

    Materials with three-dimensional periodic structures have the potential to produce photonic effects such as photonic crystals. We therefore developed a fabrication technique for such structured materials through assembly of monosized spherical micro-particles. First, a three-dimensional particle array system was designed and manufactured. In this system, a robotic micro-manipulator accurately positions spherical particles onto the lattice points, and subsequently, fiber lasers micro-weld contact points between neighboring particles. One-dimensional arrays were constructed using monosized tin particles with the diameter of 400 um. Moreover, on the basis of optimized laser conditions, we successfully constructed three-dimensional crystals such as those of diamond structures. The diamond structure, in particular, is expected to evolve towards a practical photonic crystal device, since it possesses the largest photonic band gap among all the crystal structures.

  5. MEMS flexible artificial basilar membrane fabricated from piezoelectric aluminum nitride on an SU-8 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jongmoon; Jang, Jeong Hun; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible artificial basilar membrane (FABM) that mimics the passive mechanical frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane. The FABM is composed of a cantilever array made of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) on an SU-8 substrate. We analyzed the orientations of the AlN crystals using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The AIN crystals are oriented in the c-axis (0 0 2) plane and effective piezoelectric coefficient was measured as 3.52 pm V-1. To characterize the frequency selectivity of the FABM, mechanical displacements were measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. When electrical and acoustic stimuli were applied, the measured resonance frequencies were in the ranges of 663.0-2369 Hz and 659.4-2375 Hz, respectively. These results demonstrate that the mechanical frequency selectivity of this piezoelectric FABM is close to the human communication frequency range (300-3000 Hz), which is a vital feature of potential auditory prostheses.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of a nanostructured TiO2/In2S3-Sb2S3/CuSCN extremely thin absorber (eta) solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Flores, Alí M.; García-Gómez, Nora A.; de la Parra-Arciniega, Salomé M.; Sánchez, Eduardo M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we report the successful assembly and characterization of a TiO2/In2S3-Sb2S3/CuSCN extremely thin absorber solar cell. Nanostructured TiO2 deposited by screen printing on an ITO substrate was used as an n-type electrode. An ∼80 nm extremely thin layer of the system In2S3-Sb2S3 deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and a reaction (silar) method was used as an absorber. The voids were filled with p-type CuSCN and the entire assembly was completed with a gold contact. The solar cell fabricated with this heterostructure showed an energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%, which is a promising result in the development of low cost and simple fabrication of solar cells.

  7. Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Zukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gadonas, R.; Piskarskas, A.; Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.; Sirmenis, R.; Gaidukeviciute, A.; Sirvydis, V.

    2010-11-10

    We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY--ALS130-100, Z--ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ''3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

  8. Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Žukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevičius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bičkauskaitė, G.; Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukienė, D.; Širmenis, R.; Gaidukevičiutė, A.; Bukelskienė, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY—ALS130-100, Z—ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software "3D-Poli" specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Kuo, Guan-Fu; Lin, Syuan-You; Yu, Hsin Her

    2015-09-28

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres are synthesized by dispersion polymerization, and a close-packed two-dimensional (2D) array of the PS microspheres is formed by the self-assembly method through dip drawing under magnetic stirring. This array is then used to fabricate a 2D polydimethylsiloxane concave mold by soft lithography. The mold is employed to produce convex polymethylmethacrylate-based compound eye-replicating films of different hemispherical heights by thermopressing. The optical properties of the ommatidia on these biomimetic compound eye-replicating films are investigated, and the films are used with a charge-coupled device camera to construct a biomimetic visual system. The visual distance and field of view of this system are measured. The film with the greatest hemispherical height results in the biomimetic visual system with the highest visual distance and the widest field of view. In addition, it is found that the quality of the optical images is not dependent on the hemispherical height of the biomimetic films. The ability of the biomimetic visual system to detect moving object in real time is also studied.

  10. Characterization and preparation of bio-tubular scaffolds for fabricating artificial vascular grafts by combining electrospinning and a 3D printing system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Park, Ji Sun; Kwon, Seong Keun; Lee, Jin Ho; Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Wan Doo; Kwon, Il Keun; Park, Su A

    2015-02-07

    The last decade has seen artificial blood vessels composed of natural polymer nanofibers grafted into human bodies to facilitate the recovery of damaged blood vessels. However, electrospun nanofibers (ENs) of biocompatible materials such as chitosan (CTS) suffer from poor mechanical properties. This study describes the design and fabrication of artificial blood vessels composed of a blend of CTS and PCL ENs and coated with PCL strands using rapid prototyping technology. The resulting tubular vessels exhibited excellent mechanical properties and showed that this process may be useful for vascular reconstruction.

  11. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weihong; Rigout, Muriel; Owens, Huw

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation.

  12. Facile control of silica nanoparticles using a novel solvent varying method for the fabrication of artificial opal photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weihong; Rigout, Muriel; Owens, Huw

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Stöber process was applied to produce uniform silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the meso-scale size range. The novel aspect of this work was to control the produced silica particle size by only varying the volume of the solvent ethanol used, whilst fixing the other reaction conditions. Using this one-step Stöber-based solvent varying (SV) method, seven batches of SNPs with target diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm were repeatedly reproduced, and the size distribution in terms of the polydispersity index (PDI) was well maintained (within 0.1). An exponential equation was used to fit the relationship between the particle diameter and ethanol volume. This equation allows the prediction of the amount of ethanol required in order to produce particles of any target diameter within this size range. In addition, it was found that the reaction was completed in approximately 2 h for all batches regardless of the volume of ethanol. Structurally coloured artificial opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated from the prepared SNPs by self-assembly under gravity sedimentation. Figureᅟ .

  13. Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-08-01

    What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is

  14. Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-01-01

    What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is

  15. Application of glucose as a green capping agent and reductant to fabricate CuI micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakoli, Farnosh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Ghanbari, Davood; Saberyan, Kamal; Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuI nanostructures were prepared via a simple precipitation method. • Glucose as a green capping agent and reductant was applied. • The effect of glucose concentration on the morphology of CuI was investigated. • According to XRD results, pure cubic phase CuI have been formed by using glucose. - Abstract: In this work, CuI micro/nanostructures have been successfully prepared via a simple precipitation route at room temperature. By using glucose as a clean reducing agent with different concentrations, CuI micro/nanostructures with various morphologies were obtained. Besides glucose, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, KBH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O have been applied as reductant. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced CuI micro/nanostructures. According to the XRD results, it was found that pure cubic phase CuI have been formed by using glucose.

  16. Nanostructured conducting polymers as intelligent implant surface: fabricated on biomedical titanium with a potential-induced reversible switch in wettability.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingwen; Ning, Chengyun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Tan, Guoxin; Huang, Shishu; Zhou, Zhengnan; Chen, Junqi; Pan, Haobo

    2013-12-02

    Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays, nanotube networks and irregular films are deposited on biomedical titanium. By in situ application of weak periodic potentials, the nanostructured conducting polymers undergo a reversible switch in wettability, which is a redox process of dopant molecules (as hydrophilic groups) immobilized and de-immobilized on the surface of the conducting polymers.

  17. Nanostructured manganese oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing composites in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahime; Fathollahzadeh, Maryam; Haghighi, Behzad; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-07-28

    Herein, we report on nano-sized Mn oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing compounds in artificial photosynthesis. The composites are synthesized by different and simple procedures and characterized by a number of methods. The water-oxidizing activities of these composites are also considered in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. Some composites are efficient Mn-based catalysts with TOF (mmol O2 per mol Mn per second) ~ 2.6.

  18. Fabrication of poly- and single-crystalline platinum nanostructures using hole-mask colloidal lithography, electrodeposition and annealing.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Björn; Fredriksson, Hans; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Kasemo, Bengt

    2011-08-26

    Colloidal lithography (CL) is a generic name for a collection of nanolithographic techniques, based on using colloidal nanoparticles as pattern (mask)-defining entities to produce various nanostructures. A key step in CL processes is the deposition, usually by evaporation or sputtering, of the material that makes up the final nanostructures. We have for the first time combined a special version of CL, called hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL), with electrodeposition. We demonstrate how electrodeposition of Pt onto Au and carbon substrates, through a lithographic mask, can be used to prepare well-defined nanostructured surfaces. The results are compared with evaporated structures and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. Specific results are: (i) electrodeposition generates structures with very good adhesion, (ii) due to differences in the deposition mechanism, structures with much larger aspect (height/width) ratio can be made with electrodeposition than with evaporation and (iii) the originally deposited polycrystalline nanoparticles can be annealed into single crystals, as demonstrated by electron diffraction, SEM and TEM, before and after annealing, which is of great value for fundamental (electro)catalysis studies.

  19. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R

    2016-02-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  20. Laser-assisted fabrication and size distribution modification of colloidal gold nanostructures by nanosecond laser ablation in different liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, R. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Karashanova, D. B.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents results on pulsed laser ablation of gold target immersed in different liquids. In the experiments chloroform, toluene and ethanol are used as liquid media for the laser ablation. Two different wavelengths: the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser, are utilized to produce various colloids. The optical properties of the colloids were evaluated by optical transmittance measurements in the UV-Vis spectral range. The morphology of the colloidal nanoparticles created and the evaluation of their size distribution are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The selected area electron diffraction is employed for chemical phase identification of the created nanostructures. Ablation in chloroform resulted in formation of spherical and spheroidal gold nanoparticles with the similar mean size at both laser wavelengths used—11.5 nm at 1064 and 9.3 nm at 532 nm. Nanoparticles with smaller mean size (below 5 nm) in the case of ablation in toluene were observed. Spherical nanoparticles with mean diameter of 7.7 nm produced by 1064 nm and thin elongated nanostructures with thickness of about 5 nm using 532 nm are observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. An additional laser irradiation of the colloids demonstrated the changing of the optical properties and size distribution of the nanostructures produced by ablation in ethanol and chloroform. The irradiation of toluene-based colloid does not induce observable change of the colloid properties.

  1. Stimuli-responsive one-dimensional copolymer nanostructures fabricated by metallogel template polymerization and their adsorption of aspirin.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xing; Tang, Liming; Qiang, Lu

    2014-06-14

    pH responsive poly(N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) (P(MBA-4VP)) one dimensional (1D) nanostructures have been prepared by metallogel template copolymerization, which was carried out in an Ag(i)-coordinated organogel with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator. The product has been characterized using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that the gel fiber is a crucial template for polymerization. Due to the degradation of the template in copolymerization, nanofibers of metallogel were transcribed to copolymer nanowires. The introduction of co-monomer 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) imparts to the 1D copolymer nanostructures pH sensitivity and the possible use as an adsorption material of aspirin. Adsorbed 1D copolymer nanostructures could be regenerated using proton solvent, acid medium and salt solution. In addition, silver nanoparticle loaded copolymer nanowires have been produced from the reduction of silver ions instead of template removal, where silver ions act both as the template and as the nanoparticle growth substrate.

  2. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  3. Laser Scanning Holographic Lithography for Flexible 3D Fabrication of Multi-Scale Integrated Nano-structures and Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures underpin a promising research direction on the frontiers of nanoscience and technology to generate advanced materials for exploiting novel photonic crystal (PC) and nanofluidic functionalities. However, formation of uniform and defect-free 3D periodic structures over large areas that can further integrate into multifunctional devices has remained a major challenge. Here, we introduce a laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 μm diameter. In this way, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC structure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems. PMID:26922872

  4. Mace-like gold hollow hierarchical micro/nanostructures fabricated by co-effect of catalytic etching and electrodeposition and their SERS performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibao; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Hua; Tian, Xingyou

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we presented the fabrication of mace-like gold hollow hierarchical micro/nanostructures (HMNs) grafted on ZnO nanorods array by using an electrochemical deposition in chloroauric acid solution on gold layer pre-coated ZnO nanorods array. Different from general electrochemical deposition process, the catalytic etching to ZnO and electrodeposition of gold are co-existed in our case, which lead to an inner hollow structure and an outer gold shell. Due to the appropriate electrodeposition conditions, the outer gold shell was built of many wimble-like nanoparticles, and the hierarchical micro/nanostructures were thus formed. In addition, because of the deposition rate is decreased gradually away from the top of ZnO nanorods, the final structures show mace-like appearance. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect of the as-prepared gold hollow HMNs was further studied by using rhodamine 6G as probe molecule. It is demonstrated that these structures show ultrahigh SERS activity, and the detecting low limit of R6G solution can be to 10‑10 M on single mace-like gold HMNs, which is quite important for their potential application in SERS-based surface analysis and sensors.

  5. Microwave characterization of nanostructured ferroelectric Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Angela L; Biggers, Rand R; Subramanyam, Guru; Kozlowski, Gregory; Kleismit, Richard A; Zate, Hollie N; Hopkins, Simon C; Glowacki, Bartek A; Riehl, Bonnie D; Peterson, Timothy L

    2008-12-03

    A series of nanostructured ferroelectric thin films of barium strontium titanate were fabricated using a pulsed laser deposition system with real-time in situ process control. Pulsed laser deposition parameters were controlled during the growth of nanostructured thin films for use in the development of high frequency tunable microwave devices. The thin films were all grown at the same substrate temperature and laser beam energy density, but the chamber oxygen partial pressure (COPP) was varied systematically from 19 mTorr through 1000 Torr. Structural and electromagnetic characterization was performed using atomic force microscopy and evanescent microwave microscopy, respectively. Atomic force microscopy showed a linear increase in grain size with increases in the ambient oxygen pressure from 38 to 150 mTorr and from 300 mTorr to 1000 Torr. The correlation of the microwave properties with the epitaxial film microstructure can be attributed to stresses and polarizability in the film. Microwave characterization showed that a COPP of 75 mTorr yielded the most desirable film in terms of tunability and loss tangent over a wide frequency range.

  6. Properties of nano-structured Ni/YSZ anodes fabricated from plasma sprayable NiO/YSZ powder prepared by single step solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, B. Shri; Balaji, N.; Kumar, S. Senthil; Aruna, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    NiO/YSZ anode coatings are fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying at different plasma powers from plasma grade NiO/YSZ powders that are prepared in a single step by solution combustion method. The process adopted is devoid of multi-steps that are generally involved in conventional spray drying or fusing and crushing methods. Density of the coating increased and porosity decreased with increase in the plasma power of deposition. An ideal nano-structured Ni/YSZ anode encompassing nano YSZ particles, nano Ni particles and nano pores is achieved on reducing the coating deposited at lower plasma powers. The coating exhibit porosities in the range of 27%, sufficient for anode functional layers. Electronic conductivity of the coatings is in the range of 600 S/cm at 800 °C.

  7. Selective and Sequential Re-Assembly of Patterned Block Copolymer Thin Film for Fabricating Polymeric, Inorganic, and Their Composite Nanostructured Arrays.

    PubMed

    Zu, Xihong; Gong, Jian; Tu, Weiping; Deng, Yulin

    2011-10-04

    We report that the nanostructures of poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) thin film on a wafer substrate can be re-assembled by sequential vapor treatment using selected solvents. Metal or other inorganic nanoparticles that were randomly pre-loaded inside or on the surface of PS-b-P4VP thin film could be pulled to the rim of PS and P4VP along with the movements of PS and P4VP blocks during the treatment. As a result, the patterned polymeric or inorganic/polymer composite nanoisland and nanoring arrays were fabricated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human vascular tissues fabricated using an extracellular matrix nanofilm-based cell-accumulation technique.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshiya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Okano, Daisuke; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nanostructured titanium-silver coatings with good antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility fabricated by one-step magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Long; Hang, Ruiqiang; Gao, Ang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yueyue; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial infection and loosing are serious complications for biomedical implants in the orthopedic, dental, and other biomedical fields and the ideal implants should combine good antibacterial ability and bioactivity. In this study, nanostructured titanium-silver (Ti-Ag) coatings with different Ag contents (1.2 to 21.6 at%) are prepared on Ti substrates by magnetron sputtering. As the Ag concentration is increased, the coatings change from having dense columnar crystals to sparse ones and eventually no columnar structure. The Ti-Ag coatings can effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus during the first few days and remain moderately antibacterial after immersion for 75 days. Compared to pure Ti, the Ti-Ag coatings show good cytocompatibility as indicated by good osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, intracellular total protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, cell spreading, collagen secretion, and extracellular matrix mineralization are promoted on the coatings with the proper Ag contents due to the nanostructured morphological features. Our results indicate that favorable antibacterial activity and osseointegration ability can be simultaneously achieved by regulating the Ag contents in Ti-Ag coatings.

  10. Rapid fabrication of self-ordered porous alumina with 10-/sub-10-nm-scale nanostructures by selenic acid anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaga, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina is limited by the electrolyte during anodizing, the discovery of additional electrolytes would expand the applicability of porous alumina. In this study, we report a new self-ordered nanoporous alumina formed by selenic acid (H2SeO4) anodizing. By optimizing the anodizing conditions, anodic alumina possessing 10-nm-scale pores was rapidly assembled (within 1 h) during selenic acid anodizing without any special electrochemical equipment. Novel sub-10-nm-scale spacing can also be achieved by selenic acid anodizing and metal sputter deposition. Our new nanoporous alumina can be used as a nanotemplate for various nanostructures in 10-/sub-10-nm-scale manufacturing. PMID:24067318

  11. Fabricating nanostructures through a combination of nano-oxidation and wet etching on silicon wafers with different surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface conditions of silicon wafers with native oxide layers (NOL) or hydrogen passivated layers (HPL) and how they influence the processes of nano-oxidation and wet etching. We also explore the combination of nano-oxidation and wet etching processes to produce nanostructures. Experimental results reveal that the surface conditions of silicon wafers have a considerable impact on the results of nano-oxidation when combined with wet etching. The height and width of oxides on NOL samples exceeded the dimensions of oxides on HPL samples, and this difference became increasingly evident with an increase in applied bias voltage. The height of oxidized nanolines on the HPL sample increased after wet etching; however, the width of the lines increased only marginally. After wet etching, the height and width of oxides on the NOL were more than two times greater than those on the HPL. Increasing the applied bias voltage during nano-oxidation on NOL samples increased both the height and width of the oxides. After wet etching however, the increase in bias voltage appeared to have little effect on the height of oxidized nanolines, but the width of oxidized lines increased. This study also discovered that the use of higher applied bias voltages on NOL samples followed by wet etching results in nanostructures with a section profile closely resembling a curved surface. The use of this technique enabled researchers to create molds in the shape of a silicon nanolens array and an elegantly shaped nanoscale complex structures mold.

  12. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments.

    PubMed

    Husken, B H; Woldering, L A; Blum, C; Vos, W L

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the nanostructure is made during the fabrication of the structure. These maps are made using a series of micrographs with successively decreasing magnifications. The graphs reveal intrinsic and characteristic geometric features that can subsequently be used in different setups to act as markers. As an illustration, we probe surface cavities with radii of 65 nm on a silica opal photonic crystal with various setups: a focused ion beam workstation; a scanning electron microscope (SEM); a wide field optical microscope and a confocal microscope. We use cross-correlation techniques to recover a small area imaged with the SEM in a large area photographed with the optical microscope, which provides a possible avenue to automatic searching. We show how both structural and optical reflectivity data can be obtained from one and the same nanostructure. Since our approach does not use artificial grids or markers, it is of particular interest for samples whose structure is not known a priori, like samples created solely by self-assembly. In addition, our method is not restricted to conducting samples.

  13. Fabrication of nanostructured transmissive optical devices on ITO-glass with UV1116 photoresist using high-energy electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Williams, Calum; Bartholomew, Richard; Rughoobur, Girish; Gordon, George S D; Flewitt, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2016-12-02

    High-energy electron beam lithography for patterning nanostructures on insulating substrates can be challenging. For high resolution, conventional resists require large exposure doses and for reasonable throughput, using typical beam currents leads to charge dissipation problems. Here, we use UV1116 photoresist (Dow Chemical Company), designed for photolithographic technologies, with a relatively low area dose at a standard operating current (80 kV, 40-50 μC cm(-2), 1 nAs(-1)) to pattern over large areas on commercially coated ITO-glass cover slips. The minimum linewidth fabricated was ∼33 nm with 80 nm spacing; for isolated structures, ∼45 nm structural width with 50 nm separation. Due to the low beam dose, and nA current, throughput is high. This work highlights the use of UV1116 photoresist as an alternative to conventional e-beam resists on insulating substrates. To evaluate suitability, we fabricate a range of transmissive optical devices, that could find application for customized wire-grid polarisers and spectral filters for imaging, which operate based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanosized geometries, with arrays encompassing areas ∼0.25 cm(2).

  14. Fabrication of nanostructured transmissive optical devices on ITO-glass with UV1116 photoresist using high-energy electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Calum; Bartholomew, Richard; Rughoobur, Girish; Gordon, George S. D.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy electron beam lithography for patterning nanostructures on insulating substrates can be challenging. For high resolution, conventional resists require large exposure doses and for reasonable throughput, using typical beam currents leads to charge dissipation problems. Here, we use UV1116 photoresist (Dow Chemical Company), designed for photolithographic technologies, with a relatively low area dose at a standard operating current (80 kV, 40-50 μC cm-2, 1 nAs-1) to pattern over large areas on commercially coated ITO-glass cover slips. The minimum linewidth fabricated was ˜33 nm with 80 nm spacing; for isolated structures, ˜45 nm structural width with 50 nm separation. Due to the low beam dose, and nA current, throughput is high. This work highlights the use of UV1116 photoresist as an alternative to conventional e-beam resists on insulating substrates. To evaluate suitability, we fabricate a range of transmissive optical devices, that could find application for customized wire-grid polarisers and spectral filters for imaging, which operate based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanosized geometries, with arrays encompassing areas ˜0.25 cm2.

  15. Fabrication of a chirped artificial compound eye for endoscopic imaging fiber bundle by dose-modulated laser lithography and subsequent thermal reflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shengfeng; Lyu, Jinke; Sun, Hongda; Cui, Xiaobin; Wang, Tun; Lu, Miao

    2015-03-01

    A chirped artificial compound eye on a curved surface was fabricated using an optical resin and then mounted on the end of an endoscopic imaging fiber bundle. The focal length of each lenslet on the curved surface was variable to realize a flat focal plane, which matched the planar end surface of the fiber bundle. The variation of the focal length was obtained by using a photoresist mold formed by dose-modulated laser lithography and subsequent thermal reflow. The imaging performance of the fiber bundle was characterized by coupling with a coaxial light microscope, and the result demonstrated a larger field of view and better imaging quality than that of an artificial compound eye with a uniform focal length. Accordingly, this technology has potential application in stereoscopic endoscopy.

  16. Bench-Top Fabrication of an All-PDMS Microfluidic Electrochemical Cell Sensor Integrating Micro/Nanostructured Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Saem, Sokunthearath; Zhu, Yujie; Luu, Helen; Moran-Mirabal, Jose

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, efforts in the development of lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices for point-of-care (PoC) applications have increased to bring affordable, portable, and sensitive diagnostics to the patients’ bedside. To reach this goal, research has shifted from using traditional microfabrication methods to more versatile, rapid, and low-cost options. This work focuses on the benchtop fabrication of a highly sensitive, fully transparent, and flexible poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic (μF) electrochemical cell sensor. The μF device encapsulates 3D structured gold and platinum electrodes, fabricated using a shape-memory polymer shrinking method, which are used to set up an on-chip electrochemical cell. The PDMS to PDMS-structured electrode bonding protocol to fabricate the μF chip was optimized and found to have sufficient bond strength to withstand up to 100 mL/min flow rates. The sensing capabilities of the on-chip electrochemical cell were demonstrated by using cyclic voltammetry to monitor the adhesion of murine 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of a redox reporter. The charge transfer across the working electrode was reduced upon cell adhesion, which was used as the detection mechanism, and allowed the detection of as few as 24 cells. The effective utilization of simple and low cost bench-top fabrication methods could accelerate the prototyping and development of LoC technologies and bring PoC diagnostics and personalized medicine to the patients’ bedside. PMID:28362329

  17. Continuous fabrication of scalable 2-dimensional (2D) micro- and nanostructures by sequential 1D mechanical patterning processes.

    PubMed

    Ok, Jong G; Panday, Ashwin; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L

    2014-12-21

    We present a versatile and simple methodology for continuous and scalable 2D micro/nano-structure fabrication via sequential 1D patterning strokes enabled by dynamic nano-inscribing (DNI) and vibrational indentation patterning (VIP) as well as a 'single-stroke' 2D patterning using a DNI tool in VIP.

  18. A new strategy to fabricate composite thin films with tunable micro- and nanostructures via self-assembly of block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingjuan; Wang, Qian; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2015-12-04

    A new and facile strategy to fabricate composite thin films with tunable morphologies via self-assembly of block copolymer molecules at the air/liquid interface is first reported. The morphologies (parallel nanowires and foams) of these freestanding thin films can be tuned by varying the molecular structure or other experimental conditions.

  19. Fabrication of Nanostructured Medical-Grade Stainless Steel by Mechanical Alloying and Subsequent Liquid-Phase Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahinejad, Erfan; Hadianfard, Mohammad J.; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Mashhadi, Shirazeh Bagheri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2012-08-01

    This article focuses on the microstructure of medical-grade P558 (ASTM F2581) stainless steel produced by mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering. Rietveld X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reflect that the mechanically alloyed stainless steel powder is a nanocrystal dispersed amorphous matrix composite. Mn-11.5 wt pct Si eutectic alloy as additive improves densification of the synthesized P558 alloy via liquid-phase sintering mechanism. X-ray mapping shows that after sintering at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 1 hour, a uniform distribution of dissolved Mn and Si is achieved. Moreover, the development of a nanostructured, fully austenitic stainless steel after sintering at the same temperature is realized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  20. LiFePO4 Nanostructures Fabricated from Iron(III) Phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by Hydrothermal Method.

    PubMed

    Saji, Viswanathan S; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Electrode materials having nanometer scale dimensions are expected to have property enhancements due to enhanced surface area and mass/charge transport kinetics. This is particularly relevant to intrinsically low electronically conductive materials such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), which is of recent research interest as a high performance intercalation electrode material for Li-ion batteries. Many of the reported works on LiFePO4 synthesis are unattractive either due to the high cost of raw materials or due to the complex synthesis technique. In this direction, synthesis of LiFePO4 directly from inexpensive FePO4 shows promise.The present study reports LiFePO4 nanostructures prepared from iron (III) phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by precipitation-hydrothermal method. The sintered powder was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Two synthesis methods, viz. bulk synthesis and anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted synthesis are reported. By bulk synthesis, micro-sized particles having peculiar surface nanostructuring were formed at precipitation pH of 6.0 to 7.5 whereas typical nanosized LiFePO4 resulted at pH ≥ 8.0. An in-situ precipitation strategy inside the pores of AAO utilizing the spin coating was utilized for the AAO-template-assisted synthesis. The template with pores filled with the precipitate was subsequently subjected to hydrothermal process and high temperature sintering to fabricate compact rod-like structures.

  1. Fabrication of high aspect ratio tungsten nanostructures on ultrathin c-Si membranes for extreme UV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delachat, F.; Le Drogoff, B.; Constancias, C.; Delprat, S.; Gautier, E.; Chaker, M.; Margot, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a full process for fabricating high aspect ratio diffraction optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The transmissive optics consists in nanometer scale tungsten patterns standing on flat, ultrathin (100 nm) and highly transparent (>85% at 13.5 nm) silicon membranes (diameter of 1 mm). These tungsten patterns were achieved using an innovative pseudo-Bosch etching process based on an inductively coupled plasma ignited in a mixture of SF6 and C4F8. Circular ultra-thin Si membranes were fabricated through a state-of-the-art method using direct-bonding with thermal difference. The silicon membranes were sputter-coated with a few hundred nanometers (100-300 nm) of stress-controlled tungsten and a very thin layer of chromium. Nanoscale features were written in a thin resist layer by electron beam lithography and transferred onto tungsten by plasma etching of both the chromium hard mask and the tungsten layer. This etching process results in highly anisotropic tungsten features at room temperature. The homogeneity and the aspect ratio of the advanced pattern transfer on the membranes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy after focus ion beam milling. An aspect ratio of about 6 for 35 nm size pattern is successfully obtained on a 1 mm diameter 100 nm thick Si membrane. The whole fabrication process is fully compatible with standard industrial semiconductor technology.

  2. Controllable fabrication of large-scale hierarchical silver nanostructures for long-term stable and ultrasensitive SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Jinghuai; Cheng, Mingfei; Gong, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to prepare effective and long-term stable hierarchical silver nanostructures serving as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates simply via displacement reaction on Aluminum foils. In our experiments, Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used as cationic surfactant to control the velocity of displacement reaction as well as the hierarchical morphology of the resultant. We find that the volume ratio of CTAB to AgNO3 plays a dominant role in regulating the hierarchical structures besides the influence of displacement reaction time. These as-prepared hierarchical morphologies demonstrate excellent SERS sensitivity, structural stability and reproducibility with low values of relative standard deviation less than 20 %. The high SERS analytical enhancement factor of ~6.7 × 108 is achieved even at the concentration of Crystal Violet (CV) as low as 10-7 M, which is sufficient for single-molecule detection. The detection limit of CV is 10-9 M in this study. We believe that this simple and rapid approach integrating advantages of low-cost production and high reproducibility would be a promising way to facilitate routine SERS detection and will get wide applications in chemical synthesis.

  3. Use of Synergistic Interactions to Fabricate Strong, Tough, and Conductive Artificial Nacre Based on Graphene Oxide and Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sijie; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Hu, Han; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is the strongest and stiffest material, leading to the development of promising applications in many fields. However, the assembly of graphene nanosheets into macrosized nanocomposites for practical applications remains a challenge. Nacre in its natural form sets the "gold standard" for toughness and strength, which serves as a guide to the assembly of graphene nanosheets into high-performance nanocomposites. Here we show the strong, tough, conductive artificial nacre based on graphene oxide through synergistic interactions of hydrogen and covalent bonding. Tensile strength and toughness was 4 and 10 times higher, respectively, than that of natural nacre. The exceptional integrated strong and tough artificial nacre has promising applications in aerospace, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering, especially for flexible supercapacitor electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity. The use of synergistic interactions is a strategy for the development of high-performance nanocomposites.

  4. Electrical Investigation of Nanostructured Fe2O3/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated Using the Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Shehab A.; Ibrahim, Mervat M.

    2017-07-01

    Iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanocrystals have been synthesized via the sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological features of these nanocrystals were studied using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Colloidal solution of synthesized α-Fe2O3 (hematite) was spin-coated onto a single-crystal p-type silicon (p-Si) wafer to fabricate a heterojunction diode with Mansourconfiguration Ag/Fe2O3/p-Si/Al. This diode was electrically characterized at room temperature using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the voltage range from -9 V to +9 V. The fabricated diode showed a good rectification behavior with a rectification factor 1.115 × 102 at 6 V. The junction parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance and shunt resistance are determined using conventional I-V characteristics. For low forward voltage, the conduction mechanism is dominated by the defect-assisted tunneling process with conventional electron-hole recombination. However, at higher voltage, I-V ohmic and space charge-limited current conduction was became less effective with the contribution of the trapped-charge-limited current at the highest voltage range.

  5. Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructured titania materials by prism holographic lithography and the sol-gel reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Gyu; Jeon, Tae Yoon; Yang, Seung-Man

    2013-08-06

    We present a simple, easy method for fabricating high-quality titania inverted replicas of 3D holographically featured structures. A combination of single-prism holographic lithography and sol-gel chemistry was used to prepare 3D titania inverse structures with flat and completely open surfaces without the use of additional postprocessing steps, such as reactive ion etching, ion-beam milling, and/or polishing steps. A hydrophobic, stable liquid titania precursor facilitated the complete infiltration of the precursor into the hydrophobic 3D SU-8 polymer template, which produced very uniform high-quality titania inverse structures. Although the degree of film shrinkage during the calcination process was large (∼34%), the optical strength of the 3D titania inverse photonic crystals doubled because of the high-refractive-index contrast. Compared to titania inverse opal structures, the filling fraction (∼27%) of titania materials has been doubled. This is the first work to fabricate titania inverse photonic crystals with a high filling fraction by utilizing prism holographic lithography and the sol-gel chemistry reaction of a stable titania precursor. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of a crystalline anatase or rutile phase depending on the calcination temperature.

  6. Fabrication of Millimeter-Long Carbon Tubular Nanostructures Using the Self-Rolling Process Inherent in Elastic Protein Layers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyojin; Deravi, Leila F; Park, Sung-Jin; Jang, Jingon; Lee, Takhee; Kang, Cheong; Lee, Jin Seok; Parker, Kevin Kit; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2017-08-01

    Millimeter-long conducting fibers can be fabricated from carbon nanomaterials via a simple method involving the release of a prestrained protein layer. This study shows how a self-rolling process initiated by polymerization of a micropatterned layer of fibronectin (FN) results in the production of carbon nanomaterial-based microtubular fibers. The process begins with deposition of carbon nanotube (CNT) or graphene oxide (GO) particles on the FN layer. Before polymerization, particles are discrete and nonconducting, but after polymerization the carbon materials become entangled to form an interconnected conducting network clad by FN. Selective removal of FN using high-temperature combustion yields freestanding CNT or reduced GO microtubular fibers. The properties of these fibers are characterized using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The data suggest that this method may provide a ready route to rapid design and fabrication of aligned biohybrid nanomaterials potentially useful for future electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nanostructure copper oxocobaltate fabricated by co-precipitation route using copper and cobalt nitrate as precursors: characterization by combined diffuse reflectance and FT infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rezvani, Zoya

    2014-09-15

    Nanostructure copper oxocobaltate has been fabricated by a co-precipitation route using copper and cobalt nitrate as precursors. The physicochemical properties of copper cobaltate have been characterized via X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates the presence of a spinel crystalline phase, (Cu0.30Co0.70)Co2O4, copper oxocobaltate with face-centered cubic lattice and Fd3m space group. FESEM images also illustrated a typical hexagonal morphology with particle size 25 nm, showing a good nanoscale crystalline morphology, which corresponds well with their XRD results. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups bonded to the metals, stretching vibration of the cobalt-oxygen bond in an octahedral coordination and the characteristic band assigned to the vibration of Cu-O bond. UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectrum shows a broad band over the whole visible range and broad band between 200 nm and 390 nm ascribed to the ligand to metal charge transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controllable fabrication of zinc borate hierarchical nanostructure on brucite surface for enhanced mechanical properties and flame retardant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Pang, Hongchang; Chen, Wendan; Lin, Yuan; Zong, Lishuai; Ning, Guiling

    2014-05-28

    A novel and efficient halogen-free composite flame retardant (CFR) consisting of a brucite core and a fine zinc borate [Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3] hierarchical nanostructure shell was designed and synthesized via a facile nanoengineering route. It had been demonstrated that this unique hybrid structure possessed a high BET specific surface area (65 m(2)/g) and could significantly enhance the interfacial interaction when mixing with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). This improved the transfer of stress between CFR particles and EVA matrix and increased the viscosity of EVA/EVA blends, which was beneficial for droplet inhibition and char forming. The mechanical properties and flammability behaviors of the EVA/CFR blends had been compared with the EVA/physical mixture (PM, with the given proportion of brucite and Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3). The mechanical properties of EVA/CFR blends, especially the tensile strength (TS), presented a remarkable increase reaching at least a 20% increment. Meanwhile, with the same 45 wt % of fillers, the EVA/CFR formulation could achieve a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 33 (37.5 % higher than that of EVA/PM blends) and UL-94 V-0 rating. Moreover, the heat release rate (HRR), peak heat release rate (PHRR), total heat released (THR), smoke production rate (SPR) and mass loss rate (MLR) were considerably reduced, especially PHRR and SPR for EVA/CFR blends were reduced to 32%. According to this study, the design of fine structure might pave the way for the future development of halogen-free flame retardants combining both enhanced mechanical properties and excellent flame retardant behaviors.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of a magnetic micro-actuator based on deformable Fe-doped PDMS artificial cilium using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengli; Alici, Gursel; Zhang, Binbin; Beirne, Stephen; Li, Weihua

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a 3D extrusion printer to fabricate artificial magnetic cilium. The cilia are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with iron particles so that they remain slender and flexible. They can be driven by a magnetic field to closely mimic the behaviour of biological cilia. Doping iron particles to the polymers has already been done; however, to the best of our knowledge, printing such active and soft magnetic structures has not. The existing methods for manufacturing magnetic polymeric structures are complex and difficult to use for the fabrication of micro-sized high-aspect-ratio cilia. The 3D printing technique we propose here is simple and inexpensive compared to previously suggested fabrication methods. In this study, free-standing magnetic PDMS cilia were fabricated in different sizes up to 5 mm in length and 1 mm in width. The stress-strain curves of the PDMS cilia were experimentally obtained to quantify the effect of the concentration of the iron particles on the modulus of elasticity of the cilia. The higher the iron concentration, the higher the modulus of elasticity. We have quantified the characteristics of the cilia made of 40% w/w iron particles in PDMS. A single cilium (5 × 1 × 0.0035 mm) can output up to 27 μN blocking force under a magnetic field of 160 mT. These cilia can be used as a mixer in lap-on-chip applications and as the anchoring and propulsion legs of endoscopic capsule robots operating within the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Analytical expressions estimating the blocking force are established and compared with the experimental results.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of buckypaper-based nanostructured electrodes as a novel material for biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Laith; Urban, Gerald; Krüger, Michael

    2011-04-07

    The fabrication process of buckypapers (BPs) made from stable suspensions of as-received or functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with high purity (97.5 wt%, Baytubes), their characterization and their utilization towards novel biofuel cell electrode applications are reported. The BPs can vary in thickness between 1 μm and 200 μm, are mechanically robust, flexible, stable in solvents, possess high meso-porosities as well as high apparent electrical conductivities of up to 2500 S m(-1). Potentiodynamic measurements of biocathodes based on bilirubin oxidase (BOD)-decorated BPs for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral media (phosphate buffer solution) containing glucose indicate that BP electrodes based on functionalized MWCNTs (fBPs) perform better than BP electrodes of as-received MWCNTs and have high potential as an effective electrode material in biofuel cells and biosensors.

  11. The influence of the thermal diffusivity of the substrates on fabrication of metal nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Akihiro; Nakajima, Yasutaka; Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of nanowire gratings by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses to platinum thin films on various substrates: silicon carbide, aluminum nitride, silicon and fused silica. Scanning electron microscopy showed that many cracks were formed on the nanowire surfaces formed on silicon carbide, aluminum nitride and silicon substrates, while few cracks were formed on a fused silica substrate. Elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that melting or evaporation of the platinum thin film could hardly occur in the case of the silicon carbide and aluminum nitride substrates. Calculated results by two temperature models revealed that the lattice temperature within the platinum thin films after laser irradiation depends on the thermal diffusivity of the substrates, which could influence the melting phase existence time. From the experimental and the calculated results, melting of the metal thin film could have influenced metal nanowire grating formation.

  12. Fabrication and electrical transport properties of binary Co-Si nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Porrati, F.; Huth, M.; Kaempken, B.; Terfort, A.

    2013-02-07

    CoSi-C binary alloys have been fabricated by focused electron beam-induced deposition by the simultaneous use of dicobaltoctacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, and neopentasilane, Si{sub 5}H{sub 12}, as precursor gases. By varying the relative flux of the precursors, alloys with variable chemical composition are obtained, as shown by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements strongly indicate the formation of cobalt silicide and cobalt disilicide nanoclusters embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements show that the transport properties are governed by electron tunneling between neighboring CoSi or CoSi{sub 2} nanoclusters. In particular, by varying the metal content of the alloy, the electrical conductivity can be finely tuned from the insulating regime into the quasi-metallic tunneling coupling regime.

  13. Fabrication and electrical transport properties of binary Co-Si nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porrati, F.; Kämpken, B.; Terfort, A.; Huth, M.

    2013-02-01

    CoSi-C binary alloys have been fabricated by focused electron beam-induced deposition by the simultaneous use of dicobaltoctacarbonyl, Co2(CO)8, and neopentasilane, Si5H12, as precursor gases. By varying the relative flux of the precursors, alloys with variable chemical composition are obtained, as shown by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements strongly indicate the formation of cobalt silicide and cobalt disilicide nanoclusters embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements show that the transport properties are governed by electron tunneling between neighboring CoSi or CoSi2 nanoclusters. In particular, by varying the metal content of the alloy, the electrical conductivity can be finely tuned from the insulating regime into the quasi-metallic tunneling coupling regime.