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Sample records for arvensis surface geometry

  1. Hydrophobicity of silver surfaces with microparticle geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Ján; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Kovaľ, Karol; Kupková, Miriam; Erdélyi, Branislav; Kostecká, Zuzana; Smith, Roger M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the duration of the current deposition cycle and the number of current pulses on the geometry of silver microstructured surfaces and on the free surface energy, polarizability, hydrophobicity and thus adhesion force of the silver surfaces has been investigated. The changes in surface hydrophobicity were entirely dependent on the size and density of the microparticles on the surface. The results showed that formation of the silver microparticles was related to number of current pulses, while the duration of one current pulse played only a minor effect on the final surface microparticle geometry and thus on the surface tension and hydrophobicity. The conventional geometry of the silver particles has been transformed to the fractal dimension D. The surface hydrophobicity depended predominantly on the length of the dendrites not on their width. The highest silver surface hydrophobicity was observed on a surface prepared by 30 current pulses with a pulse duration of 1 s, the lowest one when deposition was performed by 10 current pulses with a duration of 0.1 s. The partial surface tension coefficients γDS and polarizability kS of the silver surfaces were calculated. Both parameters can be applied in future applications in living cells adhesion prediction and spectral method selection. Silver films with microparticle geometry showed a lower variability in final surface hydrophobicity when compared to nanostructured surfaces. The comparisons could be used to modify surfaces and to modulate human cells and bacterial adhesion on body implants, surgery instruments and clean surfaces.

  2. Local geometry of isoscalar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dopazo, César; Martín, Jesús; Hierro, Juan

    2007-11-01

    An inert dynamically passive scalar in a constant density fluid forced by a statistically homogeneous field of turbulence has been investigated using the results of a 256(3) grid direct numerical simulation. Mixing characteristics are characterized in terms of either principal curvatures or mean and Gauss curvatures. The most probable small-scale scalar geometries are flat and tilelike isosurfaces. Preliminary correlations between flow and scalar small-scale structures associate highly curved saddle points with large-strain regions and elliptic points with vorticity-dominated zones. The concavity of the scalar profiles along the isosurface normal coordinate xn correlates well with negative mean curvatures, Gauss curvatures displaying any sign, which correspond to scalar minima, tiles, or saddle points; on the other hand, convexity along xn is associated with positive mean curvatures, Gauss curvatures ranging from negative to positive signs, featuring maxima, tiles, or saddle points; inflection points along xn correlate well with small values of the mean curvature and zero or negative values of kg, corresponding to plane isosurfaces or saddle points with curvatures of equal and opposite signs. Small values of the scalar gradient are associated with elliptic points, either concave or convex (kg>0) , for both concave and convex scalar profiles along xn. Large values of the scalar gradient (or, equivalently, scalar fluctuation dissipation rates) are generally connected with small values of the Gauss curvature (either flat or moderate-curvature tilelike local geometries), with both concave and convex scalar profiles along xn equally probable. Vortical local flow structures correlate well with small and moderate values of the scalar gradient, while strain-dominated regions are associated with large values.

  3. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  4. Determining fault geometries from surface displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, D.; Voisin, C.; Ionescu, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    We study in this paper a half space linear elasticity model for surface displacements caused by slip along underground faults. We prove uniqueness of the fault location and (piecewise planar) geometry and of the slip field for a given surface displacement field.We then introduce a reconstruction algorithm for the realistic case where only a finite number of surface measurements are available.After showing how this algorithm performs on simulated data and assessing the effect of noise, we apply it to measured data. The data was recorded during slow slip events in Guerrero, Mexico. Since this is a well studied subduction zone, it is possible to compareour inferred fault geometry to other reconstructions (obtained using different techniques), found in the literature.

  5. Determining Fault Geometries From Surface Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, D.; Voisin, C.; Ionescu, I. R.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for determining the geometry of active parts of faults. This algorithm uses surface measurements of displacement fields and local modeling of the Earth's crust as a half-space elastic medium. The numerical method relies on iterations alternating non-linear steps for recovering the geometry and linear steps for reconstructing slip fields. Our algorithm greatly improves upon past attempts at reconstructing fault profiles. We argue that these past attempts suffered from either the restrictive assumption that the geometry of faults can be derived using only uniformly constant slips or that they relied on arbitrary assumptions on the statistics of the reconstruction error. We test this algorithm on the 2006 Guerrero, Mexico, slow slip event (SSE) and on the 2009 SSE for the same region. These events occurred on a relatively well-known subduction zone, whose geometry was derived from seismicity and gravimetric techniques, see Kostoglodov et al. (Geophys Res Lett 23(23):3385-3388, 1996), Pardo and Suarez (J Geophys Res 100(B7):357-373, 1995), Singh and Pardo (Geophys Res Lett 20(14):1483-1486, 1993), so our results can be compared to known benchmarks. Our derived geometry is found to be consistent with these benchmarks regarding dip and strike angles and the positioning of the North American Trench. In addition, our derived slip distribution is also consistent with previous studies (all done with an assumed fixed geometry), see Larson et al. (Geophys Res Lett 34(13), 2007), Bekaert et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 120(2):1357-1375, 2015), Radiguet et al. (Geophys J Int 184(2):816-828, 2011, J Geophys Res 2012), Rivet et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38(8), 2011), Vergnolle et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 115(B8), 2010), Walpersdorf et al. Geophys Res Lett 38(15), 2011), to name a few. We believe that the new computational inverse method introduced in this paper holds great promise for applications to blind inversion cases, where both geometry and

  6. Determining Fault Geometries From Surface Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, D.; Voisin, C.; Ionescu, I. R.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for determining the geometry of active parts of faults. This algorithm uses surface measurements of displacement fields and local modeling of the Earth's crust as a half-space elastic medium. The numerical method relies on iterations alternating non-linear steps for recovering the geometry and linear steps for reconstructing slip fields. Our algorithm greatly improves upon past attempts at reconstructing fault profiles. We argue that these past attempts suffered from either the restrictive assumption that the geometry of faults can be derived using only uniformly constant slips or that they relied on arbitrary assumptions on the statistics of the reconstruction error. We test this algorithm on the 2006 Guerrero, Mexico, slow slip event (SSE) and on the 2009 SSE for the same region. These events occurred on a relatively well-known subduction zone, whose geometry was derived from seismicity and gravimetric techniques, see Kostoglodov et al. (Geophys Res Lett 23(23):3385-3388, 1996), Pardo and Suarez (J Geophys Res 100(B7):357-373, 1995), Singh and Pardo (Geophys Res Lett 20(14):1483-1486, 1993), so our results can be compared to known benchmarks. Our derived geometry is found to be consistent with these benchmarks regarding dip and strike angles and the positioning of the North American Trench. In addition, our derived slip distribution is also consistent with previous studies (all done with an assumed fixed geometry), see Larson et al. (Geophys Res Lett 34(13), 2007), Bekaert et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 120(2):1357-1375, 2015), Radiguet et al. (Geophys J Int 184(2):816-828, 2011, J Geophys Res 2012), Rivet et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38(8), 2011), Vergnolle et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 115(B8), 2010), Walpersdorf et al. Geophys Res Lett 38(15), 2011), to name a few. We believe that the new computational inverse method introduced in this paper holds great promise for applications to blind inversion cases, where both geometry and

  7. Surface grid generation for complex three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung

    1988-10-01

    An outline is presented for the creation of surface grids from primitive geometry data such as obtained from CAD/CAM systems. The general procedure is applicable to any geometry including full aircraft with wing, nacelle, and empennage. When developed in an interactive graphics environment, a code based on this procedure is expected to substantially improve the turn around time for generating surface grids on complex geometries. Results are shown for a general hypersonic airplane geometry.

  8. Surface grid generation for complex three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung

    1988-01-01

    An outline is presented for the creation of surface grids from primitive geometry data such as obtained from CAD/CAM systems. The general procedure is applicable to any geometry including full aircraft with wing, nacelle, and empennage. When developed in an interactive graphics environment, a code base on this procedure is expected to substantially improve the turn around time for generating surface grids on complex geometries. Results are shown for a general hypersonic airplane geometry.

  9. Surface grid generation for complex three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung

    1988-01-01

    An outline is presented for the creation of surface grids from primitive geometry data such as obtained from CAD/CAM systems. The general procedure is applicable to any geometry including full aircraft with wing, nacelle, and empennage. When developed in an interactive graphics environment, a code based on this procedure is expected to substantially improve the turn around time for generating surface grids on complex geometries. Results are shown for a general hypersonic airplane geometry.

  10. Compressing Color Data for Voxelized Surface Geometry.

    PubMed

    Dolonius, Dan; Sintorn, Erik; Kampe, Viktor; Assarsson, Ulf

    2017-08-18

    We explore the problem of decoupling color information from geometry in large scenes of voxelized surfaces and of compressing the array of colors without introducing disturbing artifacts. In this extension of our I3D paper with the same title, we first present a novel method for connecting each node in a sparse voxel DAG to its corresponding colors in a separate 1D array of colors, with very little additional information stored to the DAG. Then, we show that by mapping the 1D array of colors onto a 2D image using a space-filling curve, we can achieve high compression rates and good quality using conventional, modern, hardware-accelerated texture compression formats such as ASTC or BC7. We additionally explore whether this method can be used to compress voxel colors for off-line storage and network transmission using conventional off-line compression formats such as JPG and JPG2K. For real-time decompression, we suggest a novel variable bitrate block encoding that consistently outperforms previous work, often achieving two times the compression at equal quality.

  11. Capillary condensation in a square geometry with surface fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubaszewska, M.; Gendiar, A.; Drzewiński, A.

    2012-12-01

    We study the influence of wetting on capillary condensation for a simple fluid in a square geometry with surface fields, where the reference system is an infinitely long slit. The corner transfer matrix renormalization group method has been extended to study a two-dimensional Ising model confined in an L×L geometry with equal surface fields. Our results have confirmed that in both geometries the coexistence line shift is governed by the same scaling powers, but their prefactors are different.

  12. Styryl-pyrones from Goniothalamus arvensis.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, A; Blázquez, M A; Rao, K S; Cortes, D

    1998-04-01

    Two novel styrl-pyrones, (+)-garvensintriol and (+)-etharvendiol, together with a known cytotoxic furano-furone, (+)-goniofufurone, have been isolated from the stem bark of Goniothalamus arvensis. A different relative configuration, cis-erythro-erythro for garvensintriol and cis-threo-erythro for etharvendiol, is established, and their absolute stereochemistry is discussed.

  13. Ideal spiral bevel gears: A new approach to surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental geometrical characteristics of spiral bevel gear tooth surfaces are discussed. The parametric representation of an ideal spiral bevel tooth is developed based on the elements of involute geometry, differential geometry, and fundamental gearing kinematics. A foundation is provided for the study of nonideal gears and the effects of deviations from ideal geometry on the contact stresses, lubrication, wear, fatigue life, and gearing kinematics.

  14. Ideal spiral bevel gears - A new approach to surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental geometrical characteristics of spiral bevel gear tooth surfaces. The parametric representation of an ideal spiral bevel tooth is developed. The development is based on the elements of involute geometry, differential geometry, and fundamental gearing kinematics. A foundation is provided for the study of nonideal gears and the effects of deviations from ideal geometry on the contact stresses, lubrication, wear, fatigue life, and gearing kinematics.

  15. Triangle Geometry Processing for Surface Modeling and Cartesian Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J. (Inventor); Melton, John E. (Inventor); Berger, Marsha J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  16. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY

    2002-09-03

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  17. Geometry of Dopamine Adsorption on Rutile (110) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Darwin; Ontaneda, Jorge; Stashans, Arvids

    2014-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) have been employed to study adsorption geometry and electronic properties of the system consisting of rutile (110) surface and dopamine molecule. Hubbard U-like term is included to consider more adequately 3d electrons of Ti atoms. Results indicate that dopamine adsorption takes place in a bidentate geometry by forming strong bonds between two molecular oxygens and two titaniums situated on the surface. Geometry changes of molecular atoms, as well as those constituting upmost layer of the surface has been discussed in detail. Reduction in the band-gap width due to the adsorption has been found implying potential interest of the system for light-harvesting solar cells.

  18. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Margolin, Len G.; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Turchi, Peter John

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  19. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Turchi, Peter John; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Bradley, Joseph Thomas; Cheng, Baolian; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Patten, Austin Randall

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  20. Self-dual geometry of generalized Hermitian surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arsen'eva, O E; Kirichenko, V F

    1998-02-28

    Several results on the geometry of conformally semiflat Hermitian surfaces of both classical and hyperbolic types (generalized Hermitian surfaces) are obtained. Some of these results are generalizations and clarifications of already known results in this direction due to Koda, Itoh, and other authors. They reveal some unexpected beautiful connections between such classical characteristics of conformally semiflat (generalized) Hermitian surfaces as the Einstein property, the constancy of the holomorphic sectional curvature, and so on. A complete classification of compact self-dual Hermitian RK-surfaces that are at the same time generalized Hopf manifolds is obtained. This provides a complete solution of the Chen problem in this class of Hermitian surfaces.

  1. Using Dynamic Geometry Software for the Intersection Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur; Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define prospective teacher views about using dynamic geometry software for intersection surfaces. The study was conducted as a case study. For this purpose, data collection tool was developed based on the opinion of two experts. The data collection tool consists of 4 open-ended questions related to the intersection…

  2. Emergent geometry, thermal CFT and surface/state correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Wen-Cong; Shu, Fu-Wen; Wu, Meng-He

    2017-09-01

    We study a conjectured correspondence between any codimension-two convex surface and a quantum state (SS-duality for short). By applying thermofield double formalism to the SS-duality, we show that thermal geometries naturally emerge as a result of hidden quantum entanglement between two boundary CFTs. We therefore propose a general framework to emerge the thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature, without knowing many details about the thermal CFT. As an example, the case of 2d CFT is considered. We calculate its information metric and show that it is either BTZ black hole or thermal AdS as expected.

  3. Martian Surface Properties: Inferences from Resolved Differences in Crater Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valiant, G. J.; Stewart, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    Impact craters are a natural probe of planetary sub-surfaces, both from the excavated material and from crater geometries, which are sensitive to material properties of the target. One of the most intriguing aspects of Martian craters is the morphology of the ejecta blankets. All fresh and many older Martian craters larger than a few km are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear fluidized, with morphologies believed to form by entrainment of liquid water. In addition to the ejecta morphology, quantitative information about the subsurface composition may be derived from geometrical measurements, e.g., rim uplift height and ejecta blanket volumes. In order to use craters to derive subsurface composition or test rampart morphology formation hypotheses, accurate measurements with quantified error estimates are required. We have developed and tested a toolkit for measurements of crater geometry using the MOLA altimetry data. Here, we present the results from geometry measurements on fresh craters in Lunae Planum and Utopia Planitia.

  4. Enhanced heterogeneous ice nucleation by special surface geometry

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yuanfei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    The freezing of water typically proceeds through impurity-mediated heterogeneous nucleation. Although non-planar geometry generically exists on the surfaces of ice nucleation centres, its role in nucleation remains poorly understood. Here we show that an atomically sharp, concave wedge can further promote ice nucleation with special wedge geometries. Our molecular analysis shows that significant enhancements of ice nucleation can emerge both when the geometry of a wedge matches the ice lattice and when such lattice match does not exist. In particular, a 45° wedge is found to greatly enhance ice nucleation by facilitating the formation of special topological defects that consequently catalyse the growth of regular ice. Our study not only highlights the active role of defects in nucleation but also suggests that the traditional concept of lattice match between a nucleation centre and crystalline lattice should be extended to include a broader match with metastable, non-crystalline structural motifs. PMID:28513603

  5. Enhanced heterogeneous ice nucleation by special surface geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Tianshu

    2017-05-01

    The freezing of water typically proceeds through impurity-mediated heterogeneous nucleation. Although non-planar geometry generically exists on the surfaces of ice nucleation centres, its role in nucleation remains poorly understood. Here we show that an atomically sharp, concave wedge can further promote ice nucleation with special wedge geometries. Our molecular analysis shows that significant enhancements of ice nucleation can emerge both when the geometry of a wedge matches the ice lattice and when such lattice match does not exist. In particular, a 45° wedge is found to greatly enhance ice nucleation by facilitating the formation of special topological defects that consequently catalyse the growth of regular ice. Our study not only highlights the active role of defects in nucleation but also suggests that the traditional concept of lattice match between a nucleation centre and crystalline lattice should be extended to include a broader match with metastable, non-crystalline structural motifs.

  6. [Phenotypic and phytochemical differences between Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L].

    PubMed

    Shelepova, O V; Voronkova, T V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Semenova, M V; Bidiukova, G F; Olekhnovich, L S

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic study of anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical characteristics of Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha canadiensis L. using hierarchical cluster analysis has been conducted and the differences between the species studied have been revealed. The ratio between the lengths of the calyx tube and the calyx lobes, the number of secretory glands on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, and the composition of the essen- tial oil were shown to be the most appropriate parameters for classification.

  7. Viscous damping of microcantilevers with modified surfaces and geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergincan, O.; Palasantzas, G.; Kooi, B. J.

    2012-08-01

    Noise measurements were performed to determine the quality factor Q and the resonating frequency shift as a function of gas pressure P for microcantilevers with modified surfaces and geometries. In the molecular and continuum regimes, energy loss is dominated by the surrounding fluid leading to reduction of the Q factor and shift of the resonance frequency by Δf, which becomes significant in the continuum regime showing sensitivity on surface changes. This is shown via three methods: frequency shift Δf vs. P, Q factor vs. P, and direct calculation using surface roughness details acquired via atomic force microscopy.

  8. Crystallization controlled by the geometry of a surface.

    PubMed

    Page, Amanda J; Sear, Richard P

    2009-12-09

    Crystallization is of great importance in fields as diverse as atmospheric chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It starts with nucleation, the formation of a microscopic crystal. Here we study, via computer simulation, the heterogeneous nucleation of a crystal in wedge-shaped grooves in a surface. We find that nucleation in these grooves is many orders of magnitude faster than on a flat surface. We also find that there is an optimum wedge angle at which nucleation is fastest. Our observation that nucleation in grooves dominates that on flat surfaces not only explains the effectiveness of scratching a surface to induce crystallization but also allows us to see the microscopic behavior that underlies this common technique. We also show how it may also be possible to control the crystal form, the polymorph, by controlling the groove geometry to favor nucleation of the desired polymorph.

  9. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-06-30

    Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power assay, flavonoid content, phenolic content and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by methanol extract (IC 50 34.71 ± 0.02) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoids and phenolics ranged 0.96-6.0 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent and 0.48-1.43 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent respectively. Significant value of rutin and caffeic acid was observed via high performance liquid chromatography. These results showed that extracts of R. arvensis exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, R. arvensis is a rich source of rutin, flavonoids and phenolics.

  10. Using surface impedance for calculating wakefields in flat geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2015-03-18

    Beginning with Maxwell's equations and assuming only that the wall interaction can be approximated by a surface impedance, we derive formulas for the generalized longitudinal and transverse impedance in flat geometry, from which the wakefields can also be obtained. From the generalized impedances, by taking the proper limits, we obtain the normal longitudinal, dipole, and quad impedances in flat geometry. These equations can be applied to any surface impedance, such as the known dc, ac, and anomalous skin models of wall resistance, a model of wall roughness, or one for a pipe with small, periodic corrugations. We show that, formore » the particular case of dc wall resistance, the longitudinal impedance obtained here agrees with a known result in the literature, a result that was derived from a very general formula by Henke and Napoly. As an example, we apply our results to representative beam and machine parameters in the undulator region of LCLS-II and estimate the impact of the transverse wakes on the machine performance.« less

  11. Inspection of Tooth Surface Geometry by Means of Vibration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanasumawong, Chanat; Matsumura, Shigeki; Houjoh, Haruo

    Tooth surface undulation is one of the important sources of gear noise and vibration. The vibration caused by this source is observed as the occurrence of non-meshing vibration component or ghost noise on a vibration spectrum. Frequently ghost noise occurs at the same frequency with natural frequency of a gear pair, consequently its amplitude is amplified to the considerable level and lead to unexpected and severe noise and vibration problems. In this paper a method for inspecting tooth surface undulation is proposed and applied to a helical gear pair. Vibration characteristics of individual gear are extracted from the vibration signal of a gear by synchronous averaging technique, then a frequency response function that can be determined experimentally is applied to the individual averaged signal to assess the tooth surface undulation. The undulations are evaluated by applying this method to the measured vibration signals of the gear pair operated at various speeds and various torques, and show good agreement with each other regardless of operating conditions and also with the expectation by precise tooth surface measurement, even though the undulation is very small in the level of 0.1µm. These results suggest the ability of this method to assess the tooth surface geometry relevant to vibration.

  12. Classification of journal surfaces using surface topography parameters and software methods to compensate for stylus geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.J.; DeVries, W.R.; Ludema, K.C.

    1983-04-01

    The statistical characteristics of surface profiles measured with a stylus tracer; their definitions, an application and enhancement using software to compensate for stylus-geometry effects are presented. After defining some of the common height-sensitive profile statistics, they are used to classify the journal surfaces of diesel-engine crank shafts produce by manufacturing methods that yield significantly different service life. Software methods are presented to try to reconstruct a surface profile from discrete measurements by accounting for the finite radius of the stylus tracer. Results indicate that using three parameters: RMS roughness, skewness and kurtosis, and a classification method termed separated subspaces, the journal surfaces produced by different combinations of grinding and lapping can be classified. The work on compensating for stylus geometry, which is verified using both mathematical simulation and experimental measurements, indicates that, at least for simple profile geometries compensation for stylus radius' can reduce errors to less than .4%.

  13. Evaluation of flavonoids and diverse antioxidant activities of Sonchus arvensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sonchus arvensis is used in the treatment of various human aliments as a traditional medicine in Pakistan. In the study its various fractions are characterized for scavenging of diverse free radicals. Results Results of the present study revealed that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radicals (DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide), however its methanolic fraction is more potent than other fractions. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical and total antioxidant activity with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. Phytochmical analysis revealed the presence kaempferol, quercetin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion From the present data it is concluded that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radical, which might be due the presence of polyphenolic constituent. PMID:23107458

  14. Effects of hillslope geometry on surface and subsurface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzevari, T.; Noroozpour, S.

    2014-07-01

    Dividing a catchment to subcatchment or hillslope scales allows for better scrutiny of the changes in spatial distribution of rainfall, soil attributes and plant cover across the catchment. An instantaneous unit hydrograph model is suggested for simulating runoff hydrographs for complex hillslopes. This model is able to estimate surface and subsurface flows of the catchment based on the Dunne-Black mechanism. For this purpose, a saturation model is used to separate the saturated and unsaturated zones in complex hillslopes. The profile curvatures (concave, straight and convex) and plan shapes (convergent, parallel and divergent) of complex hillslopes are considered, in order to compute the travel time of surface and subsurface flows. The model was used for prediction of the direct runoff hydrograph and subsurface flow hydrograph of Walnut Gulch No. 125 catchment in Arizona (USA). Based on results, the geometry of hillslopes can change the peak of the direct runoff hydrograph up to two-fold, either higher or lower. The divergent hillslopes show higher peaks in comparison with the parallel and convergent hillslopes. The highest and lowest peak flows correspond to divergent-concave and convergent-straight hillslopes, respectively.

  15. Geometry and surface controlled formation of nanoparticle helical ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan; Lawrence, Jimmy; Lee, Dong; Grason, Gregory; Emrick, Todd; Crosby, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    Helical structures are interesting because of their space efficiency, mechanical tunability and everyday uses in both the synthetic and natural world. In general, the mechanisms governing helix formation are limited to bilayer material systems and chiral molecular structures. However, in a special range of dimensions where surface energy dominates (i.e. high surface to volume ratio), geometry rather than specific materials can drive helical formation of thin asymmetric ribbons. In an evaporative assembly technique called flow coating, based from the commonly observed coffee ring effect, we create nanoparticle ribbons possessing non-rectangular nanoscale cross-sections. When released into a liquid medium of water, interfacial tension between the asymmetric ribbon and water balances with the elastic cost of bending to form helices with a preferred radius of curvature and a minimum pitch. We demonstrate that this is a universal mechanism that can be used with a wide range of materials, such as quantum dots, metallic nanoparticles, or polymers. Nanoparticle helical ribbons display excellent structural integrity with spring-like characteristics and can be extended high strains.

  16. Quasilocal energy and surface geometry of Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chengjie; Liu, Jian-Liang

    2017-04-01

    We study the quasilocal energy (QLE) and the surface geometry for Kerr spacetime in the Boyer-Lindquist coordinates without taking the slow rotation approximation. We also consider in the region r ≤2 m , which is inside the ergosphere. For a certain region, r >rk(a ) , the Gaussian curvature of the surface with constant t , r is positive, and for r >√{3 }a the critical value of the QLE is positive. We found that the three curves: the outer horizon r =r+(a ), r =rk(a ) and r =√{3 }a intersect at the point a =√{3 }m /2 , which is the limit for the horizon to be isometrically embedded into R3. The numerical result indicates that the Kerr QLE is monotonically decreasing to the ADM m from the region inside the ergosphere to large r . Based on the second law of black hole dynamics, the QLE is increasing with respect to the irreducible mass Mir. From the results of Chen-Wang-Yau, we conclude that in a certain region, r >rh(a ), the critical value of the Kerr QLE is a global minimum.

  17. Integral Solution for Diffraction Problems Involving Conducting Surfaces with Complex Geometries. 1. Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    involving conducting surfaces with complex geometries. I. Theory Mohamed F. El-Hewle and Richard 1. Cook Franh !. Seiler Research Laboratory, U.S. Air...can be generalized to a surface of an arbi- mittance are then employed with the new geometry- and trary coordinate function as follows. At a surface

  18. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  19. Effect of Geometry on Electrokinetic Characterization of Solid Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Kleinen, Jochen; Venzmer, Joachim; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    An analytical approach is presented to describe pressure-driven streaming current (Istr) and streaming potential (Ustr) generation in geometrically complex samples, for which the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation is known to be inaccurate. The new approach is valid under the same prerequisite conditions that are used for the development of the H-S equation, that is, the electrical double layers (EDLs) are sufficiently thin and surface conductivity and electroviscous effects are negligible. The analytical methodology is developed using linear velocity profiles to describe liquid flow inside of EDLs and using simplifying approximations to describe macroscopic flow. At first, a general expression is obtained to describe the Istr generated in different cross sections of an arbitrarily shaped sample. Thereafter, assuming that the generated Ustr varies only along the pressure-gradient direction, an expression describing the variation of generated Ustr along the sample length is obtained. These expressions describing Istr and Ustr generation constitute the theoretical foundation of this work, which is first applied to a set of three nonuniform cross-sectional capillaries and thereafter to a square array of cylindrical fibers (model porous media) for both parallel and transverse fiber orientation cases. Although analytical solutions cannot be obtained for real porous substrates because of their random structure, the new theory provides useful insights into the effect of important factors such as fiber orientation, sample porosity, and sample dimensions. The solutions obtained for the model porous media are used to device strategies for more accurate zeta potential determination of porous fiber plugs. The new approach could be thus useful in resolving the long-standing problem of sample geometry dependence of zeta potential measurements.

  20. Hydromechanical Normal Deformation Experiments and Coupling to Fracture Surface Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thörn, J.; Fransson, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Civil engineering structures founded in fractured crystalline rock, such as the Fennoscandian Shield (Norway-Sweden-Finland) requires allowance for both stability and/or deformations of the rock mass and groundwater ingress and groundwater pressure changes. Coupling these issues could be the key to solving the challenges that arise from construction of e.g. hydropower dams, road and railroad tunnels, and most certainly the construction of nuclear waste repositories within fractured crystalline rock, all of which are currently planned in Sweden. Excavation related deformation in fractures may cause groundwater leakage even from the most elaborate pre-excavation grouting works. A better understanding on hydraulically (or grouting) induced deformations in the near-field of tunnels, where the stress field is re-distributed due to the opening may both provide a basis for more accurate numerical modelling and grouting or excavation procedures that minimize the damage on the completed grouting fans. Subjects of this study were experiments conducted as measurement of deformations in boreholes close to tunnels due to stepwise injection tests, and laboratory hydromechanical experiments conducted as flow and normal deformation measurements in a permeameter during cycles of up to 2.5 MPa confining pressure, and subsequent surface scanning of the samples for coupling of HM-results to geometric appearance, aperture and contact geometry. When expressed in terms of hydraulic aperture (b) and fracture normal stiffness (kn) the results of both in situ and lab experiments support a previously suggested relationship based on field data where kn is inversely proportional to roughly b2. The relationship was assumed to be valid for low compressive stress across fractures with limited previous deformation. One important data set used to establish the relationship was transmissivity and storage coefficients from hydraulic interference tests previously performed at Äspö Hard Rock

  1. Height measurement of astigmatic test surfaces by a keratoscope that uses plane geometry surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tripoli, N K; Cohen, K L; Obla, P; Coggins, J M; Holmgren, D E

    1996-06-01

    To assess the accuracy with which the Keratron keratoscope (Optikon 2000, Rome, Italy) measured astigmatic test surfaces by a profile reconstruction algorithm within a plane geometry model and to discriminate between error caused by the model and error caused by other factors. Height was reported by the Keratron for eight surfaces with central astigmatism ranging from 4 to 16 diopters. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation produced theoretic reflected ring patterns on which the Keratron's reconstruction algorithm was performed. The Keratron's measurements were compared with the surfaces' formulas and the ray-traced simulations. With a new mathematical filter for smoothing ring data, now part of the Keratron's software, maximum error was 0.47% of the total height and was usually less than 1% of local power for surfaces with 4 diopters of astigmatism. For surfaces with 16 diopters of astigmatism, maximum error was as high as 2.9% of total height and was usually less than 2.5% of local power. The reconstruction algorithm accounted for 40% and 70% of height error, respectively. The efficacy of keratoscopes cannot be assumed from their design theories but must be tested. Although plane geometry surface reconstruction contributed greatly to total height error, total error was so small that it is unlikely to affect clinical use.

  2. Investigation of the electrode surface geometry effects driven by nanosecond-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. Y.; Cai, J. S.; Zhang, Z. K.; Tang, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuations with powered electrodes of different surface geometries were investigated numerically by solving the coupled plasma discharge equations, electron energy equations and the Navier-Stokes equations in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma discharge characteristics and the air flow features were simulated numerically using a simple chemical kinetics plasma model for three powered electrodes with serrated, rectangular and semicircular surfaces, respectively. The results show that the reduced electric field of the serrated electrode is globally the strongest, while that of the rectangular electrode the second strongest, and that of the semicircular electrode the weakest. The maximum values of the reduced electric field, the mean electron energy and the electron density are found to occur immediately near the right upper tips of the powered electrodes, and the streamers of the mean electron energy and electron density in the serrated electrode case are larger in size and higher in value than in the rectangular and semicircular electrode cases. On the other hand, the pressure wave in the serrated electrode case is more intensive, and propagates slightly faster than in the other two electrode cases. Besides, the heated region in the serrated electrode case is greater with a higher temperature than in the other two electrode cases. The comparison results indicate that the performance of NS-DBD plasma actuators depends significantly on the powered electrode surface geometry, and the serrated surface design is a very promising means of flow control.

  3. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Turchi, Peter John; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Bradley, Joseph Thomas; Cheng, Baolian; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Patten, Austin Randall

    2016-04-14

    There is a great interest in RMI as source of ejecta from metal shells. Previous experiments have explored wavelength amplitude (kA) variation but they have a small range of drive pressures and are in planer geometry. Simulations, both MD and hydro, have explored RMI in planer geometry. The ejecta source model from RMI is an area of active algorithm and code development in ASCI-IC Lagrangian Applications Project. PHELIX offers precise, reproducible variable driver for Hydro and material physics diagnoses with proton radiography.

  4. Adsorption of ethanol and water on calcite: dependence on surface geometry and effect on surface behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, K S; Olsson, M H M; Yang, M; Stipp, S L S

    2015-04-07

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore adsorption on calcite, from a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and water, on planar {10.4} and stepped, i.e. vicinal, surfaces. Varying the surface geometry resulted in different adsorption patterns, which would directly influence the ability of ethanol to control calcite crystal growth, dissolution, and adsorption/desorption of other ions and molecules. Ethanol forms a well-ordered adsorbed layer on planar faces and on larger terraces, such as between steps and defects, providing little chance for water, with its weaker attachment, to displace it. However, on surfaces with steps, adsorption affinity depends on the length of the terraces between the steps. Long terraces allow ethanol to form a well-ordered, hydrophobic layer, but when step density is high, ethanol adsorption is less ordered, allowing water to associate at and near the steps and even displacing pre-existing ethanol. Water adsorbed at steps forms mass transport pathways between the bulk solution and the solid surface. Our simulations confirm the growth inhibiting properties of ethanol, also explaining how certain crystal faces are more stabilized because of their surface geometry. The -O(H) functional group on ethanol forms tight bonds with calcite; the nonpolar, -CH3 ends, which point away from the surface, create a hydrophobic layer that changes surface charge, thus wettability, and partly protects calcite from precipitation and dissolution. These tricks could easily be adopted by biomineralizing organisms, allowing them to turn on and off crystal growth. They undoubtedly also play a role in the wetting properties of mineral surfaces in commercial CaCO3 manufacture, oil production, and contamination remediation.

  5. Study of the geometry effect on land surface temperature retrieval in urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Wong, Man Sing; Menenti, Massimo; Nichol, Janet

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a Single Channel Method using Urban Exitance Model (UEM-SCM) to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data in an urbanized city, and evaluates the geometry effect on land surface temperature retrieval using single channel method and split-window algorithm. The UEM-SCM incorporates the effect of urban geometry and considers both reflection caused by the target pixel and its neighboring pixels. In order to evaluate the geometry effect, the retrieved LSTs with and without geometry effect were studied. Results show that the LSTs without geometry effect are generally higher than the LSTs with geometry effect. The temperature difference occurs because the material emissivity is always lower than the effective emissivity caused by multiple scattering and reflection in urban areas (cavity effect). The LST without geometry effect also cannot fully capture the variability and complexity of urban thermal patterns. The temperature difference between with and without the geometry effect can reach 2 K in built-up areas. A comparison was also conducted between LST retrieved by split-window algorithm with and without geometry effect. Results show that the LST retrieved by split-window algorithm without geometry effect has generally higher values than the one with the geometry effect, e.g. 1.1 K on average and 1.5-2 K in built-up areas. The geometry effect will be removed and mis-deemed as atmospheric effect when the split-window algorithm without geometry effect is applied in urban areas. The split-window algorithm with the geometry effect can be used to distinguish between geometry and atmospheric effect in further study.

  6. Statistical geometry of a small surface patch in a developed sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.; Weichman, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    The fractal and marginal fractal regimes in surface geometry are studied. The basic notions of fractal geometry are applied to a small surface patch in a developed sea, corresponding to the equilibrium wave number spectrum. Topothesy, outer and inner boundaries of the fractal range, and a cascade pattern in surface geometry are discussed. Theoretical predictions of whitecap and foam coverage are presented. A fractal decomposition for a surface patch is developed based on the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The resulting series formalizes the cascade process of constructing realization of a Gaussian random patch. The implications of the research for microwave remote sensing signatures are considered.

  7. A basis for the analysis of surface geometry of spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Geometrical procedures helpful in the fundamental studies of the surface geometry of spiral bevel gears are summarized. These procedures are based upon: (1) fundamental gear geometry and kinematics as exposited by Buckingham, et al; (2) formulas developed from differential geometry; and (3) geometrical concepts developed in recent papers and reports on spiral bevel gear surface geometry. Procedures which characterize the geometry so that the surface parametric equations, the principal radii of curvature, and the meshing kinematics are systematically determined are emphasized. Initially, the focus in on theoretical, logarithmic spiral bevel gears as defined by Buckingham. The gears, however, are difficult to fabricate and are sometimes considered to be too straight. Circular-cut spiral bevel gears are an alternative to this. Surface characteristics of crown circular cut gears are analyzed.

  8. Mantle viscosity stratification and flow geometry - Implications for surface motions on earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    1993-01-01

    For a fixed heat flow, the surface flow velocity of a convecting layer is not strongly sensitive to the variation of viscosity as a function of depth. Thus, the inferred absence of a low viscosity asthenosphere on Venus can not account for the limited surface motions there. The surface velocity is dependent on the convective geometry. Cartesian geometry convection can produce large surface velocities if the high viscosity surface layer is broken in places by weak zones. On the other hand, a high viscosity surface layer may inhibit the development of large surface velocities in axisymmetric convection.

  9. Detecting Translation Errors in CAD Surfaces and Preparing Geometries for Mesh Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N Anders; Chand, K K

    2001-08-27

    The authors have developed tools for the efficient preparation of CAD geometries for mesh generation. Geometries are read from IGES files and then maintained in a boundary-representation consisting of a patchwork of trimmed and untrimmed surfaces. Gross errors in the geometry can be identified and removed automatically while a user interface is provided for manipulating the geometry (such as correcting invalid trimming curves or removing unwanted details). Modifying the geometry by adding or deleting surfaces and/or sectioning it by arbitrary planes (e.g. symmetry planes) is also supported. These tools are used for robust and accurate geometry models for initial mesh generation and will be applied to in situ mesh generation requirements of moving and adaptive grid simulations.

  10. Holographic entanglement entropy of anisotropic minimal surfaces in LLM geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanju; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Kwon, O.-Kab

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of the Zk orbifold of Lin-Lunin-Maldacena (LLM) geometries which are dual to the vacua of the mass-deformed ABJM theory with Chern-Simons level k. By solving the partial differential equations analytically, we obtain the HEEs for all LLM solutions with arbitrary M2 charge and k up to μ02 -order where μ0 is the mass parameter. The renormalized entanglement entropies are all monotonically decreasing near the UV fixed point in accordance with the F-theorem. Except the multiplication factor and to all orders in μ0, they are independent of the overall scaling of Young diagrams which characterize LLM geometries. Therefore we can classify the HEEs of LLM geometries with Zk orbifold in terms of the shape of Young diagrams modulo overall size. HEE of each family is a pure number independent of the 't Hooft coupling constant except the overall multiplication factor. We extend our analysis to obtain HEE analytically to μ04 -order for the symmetric droplet case.

  11. Aerodynamic Optimization of Rocket Control Surface Geometry Using Cartesian Methods and CAD Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Andrea; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic design is an iterative process involving geometry manipulation and complex computational analysis subject to physical constraints and aerodynamic objectives. A design cycle consists of first establishing the performance of a baseline design, which is usually created with low-fidelity engineering tools, and then progressively optimizing the design to maximize its performance. Optimization techniques have evolved from relying exclusively on designer intuition and insight in traditional trial and error methods, to sophisticated local and global search methods. Recent attempts at automating the search through a large design space with formal optimization methods include both database driven and direct evaluation schemes. Databases are being used in conjunction with surrogate and neural network models as a basis on which to run optimization algorithms. Optimization algorithms are also being driven by the direct evaluation of objectives and constraints using high-fidelity simulations. Surrogate methods use data points obtained from simulations, and possibly gradients evaluated at the data points, to create mathematical approximations of a database. Neural network models work in a similar fashion, using a number of high-fidelity database calculations as training iterations to create a database model. Optimal designs are obtained by coupling an optimization algorithm to the database model. Evaluation of the current best design then gives either a new local optima and/or increases the fidelity of the approximation model for the next iteration. Surrogate methods have also been developed that iterate on the selection of data points to decrease the uncertainty of the approximation model prior to searching for an optimal design. The database approximation models for each of these cases, however, become computationally expensive with increase in dimensionality. Thus the method of using optimization algorithms to search a database model becomes problematic as the

  12. Structured Surface Grid Generation on Boundary Represented Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J J

    2002-01-18

    Generation of surface meshes is the first step in many grid generation processes. For the generation of block-structured meshes, structured surface meshes have to be generated first. This paper investigates the problem of generating a structured surface mesh across multiple surface patches on an object with the boundary representation and relates the problem to other commonly encountered issues in CAD/CAM. It describes a method for solving the problem. This method is based on initial surface construction, point projection and a mixed model-space and parameter-space based elliptic smoothing.

  13. Rotating optical geometry sensor for inner pipe-surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Moritz; Frey, Christan W.

    2010-01-01

    The inspection of sewer or fresh water pipes is usually carried out by a remotely controlled inspection vehicle equipped with a high resolution camera and a lightning system. This operator-oriented approach based on offline analysis of the recorded images is highly subjective and prone to errors. Beside the subjective classification of pipe defects through the operator standard closed circuit television (CCTV) technology is not suitable for detecting geometrical deformations resulting from e.g. structural mechanical weakness of the pipe, corrosion of e.g. cast-iron material or sedimentations. At Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation (IOSB) in Karlsruhe, Germany, a new Rotating Optical Geometry Sensor (ROGS) for pipe inspection has been developed which is capable of measuring the inner pipe geometry very precisely over the whole pipe length. This paper describes the developed ROGS system and the online adaption strategy for choosing the optimal system parameters. These parameters are the rotation and traveling speed dependent from the pipe diameter. Furthermore, a practicable calibration methodology is presented which guarantees an identification of the several internal sensor parameters. ROGS has been integrated in two different systems: A rod based system for small fresh water pipes and a standard inspection vehicle based system for large sewer Pipes. These systems have been successfully applied to different pipe systems. With this measurement method the geometric information can be used efficiently for an objective repeatable quality evaluation. Results and experiences in the area of fresh water pipe inspection will be presented.

  14. Hydrophobicity of protein surfaces: Separating geometry from chemistry.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Lopez, Carlos F; Rossky, Peter J; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2008-02-19

    To better understand the role of surface chemical heterogeneity in natural nanoscale hydration, we study via molecular dynamics simulation the structure and thermodynamics of water confined between two protein-like surfaces. Each surface is constructed to have interactions with water corresponding to those of the putative hydrophobic surface of a melittin dimer, but is flattened rather than having its native "cupped" configuration. Furthermore, peripheral charged groups are removed. Thus, the role of a rough surface topography is removed, and results can be productively compared with those previously observed for idealized, atomically smooth hydrophilic and hydrophobic flat surfaces. The results indicate that the protein surface is less hydrophobic than the idealized counterpart. The density and compressibility of water adjacent to a melittin dimer is intermediate between that observed adjacent to idealized hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces. We find that solvent evacuation of the hydrophobic gap (cavitation) between dimers is observed when the gap has closed to sterically permit a single water layer. This cavitation occurs at smaller pressures and separations than in the case of idealized hydrophobic flat surfaces. The vapor phase between the melittin dimers occupies a much smaller lateral region than in the case of the idealized surfaces; cavitation is localized in a narrow central region between the dimers, where an apolar amino acid is located. When that amino acid is replaced by a polar residue, cavitation is no longer observed.

  15. Surface geometry based hydrophobicity of the PDMS for microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelayo, J. C.; Badiola, R. A.; Castañares, J.; Pili, U.; Violanda, R.; Bacabac, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, the surface hydrophobicity of PDMS was investigated using two methods of preparations. The first method was performed by changing the surface roughness through the use of different molds. The second method was performed by varying the reconstitution ratio (volume of elastomer base to volume of elastomer curing) of the PDMS. Variation in the hydrophobicity of the PDMS was characterized by measuring the contact angle of a liquid droplet against the surface of the PDMS. The results showed that both the surface roughness and the reconstitution ratio of the PDMS positively correlated with the contact angle measured regardless of the liquid used. The maximum and minimum contact angle obtained were θr = (138 ± 3)° and θr = (99 ± 3)°, respectively. The results demonstrate a straightforward way of fabricating microfluidic devices using PDMS with controlled hydrophobicity.

  16. Applications of Sphere Geometry in Canal Surface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    surface, the problem was solved by Pottmann and Peternell [11]. They proved the surprising result that any canal surface with rational spine curve m(t) and... Peternell [11]. In this paper we will follow the second option. It results in the concept of Minkowski Pythagorean Hodograph curves. §5. Minkowski...Boehm, General cyclides, Comput. Aided Geom. Design 15 (1998), 699-710. 11. Peternell , M., and H. Pottmann, Computing rational parametrizations of

  17. Mechanics and geometry in the seashell-like (Turritella) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiaohang; Chen, Zi; Li, Wei; Ren, Kun; Lin, Junjie; Taber, Larry A.; Chen, Wenzhe

    2013-03-01

    Helical structures are ubiquitous in nature and engineering, ranging from DNA molecules to plant tendrils, from sea snail shells to nanoribbons. While the helical shapes in natural and engineered systems often exhibit nearly uniform radius and pitch, helical shell structures with changing radius and pitch, such as seashells and some plant tendrils, adds to the variety of this family of aesthetic beauty. Here we report the first biomimetic seashell-like structure resulting from mechanics of geometric frustration. In previous studies, the total potential energy is everywhere minimized when the system achieves an equilibrium. In this study, however, the local energy minimization cannot be realized because of the geometric incompatibility, and hence the whole system deforms into a shape with a global energy minimum whereby the energy in each segment may not necessary be locally optimized. This novel approach can be applied to develop materials and systems with desirable geometries by exploiting mechanics of geometric frustration. The authors would like to thank Yushan Huang, Zhen Liu, Si Chen for their assistance in the experimental demonstration. This work has been in part supported by NSFC (Grant No.11102040 and No.11201001044), the Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research (GIAR) program, American Academy of Mechanics Founder's Award from the Robert M. and Mary Haythornthwaite Foundation, and Society in Science, The Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. Qiaohang Guo and Zi Chen contributed equally to this work.

  18. Determination and application of the atomic geometries of solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, C. B.

    In order to calculate the electronic charge density and excitation spectra associated with a surface, the positions of the atomic constituents in the vicinity of the surface must be known. This paper is an assessment of the accuracy with which these positions can be determined by state-of-the-art analyses of experimental measurements, especially elastic low-energy electron diffraction, ion scattering spectroscopy (at both medium and high energies), and photoemission spectroscopy. The methodology is that of comparing the results of various techniques as applied to specific systems. Our major finding is that when carefully and accurately applied, the various methods provide structural results which are consistent to within about 0.1 Å. Perusal of the literature reveals larger discrepancies which, however, have exhibited a tendency to disappear as a function of increasing time once conflicting results became sufficiently precisely specified that the origin of the discrepancies could be identified and resolved. The examples of Pt(111), GaAs(110) and CO on Ni(100) provide explicit examples of the convergence of the various spectroscopies to common results with the passage of time. Finally, two applications of spectroscopically-determined surface structures are illustrated: the determination of surface states at the GaAs(110) surface and the description of the nature and consequences of Al replacement reactions at Al-semiconductor interfaces.

  19. Effect of Microscale Surface Geometry of Electrodes on Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Tomonori; Suito, Eiichi; Hishida, Koichi; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we experimentally revealed that the microscale surface geometry of anodes strongly affects the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs have much need to be improved in their power. The power generated by an MFC is considered to be strongly affected by the interaction between the organic bacteria and the inorganic electrode surfaces. In prior work, the nanoscale surface roughness of the anode was discussed; however, we consider that the microscale surface geometry may play a crucial role given the bacteria size of micrometer order. We used a two-chamber MFC and the direct electron transfer bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens. We prepared seven types of anode electrodes with different microscale surface geometries and experimentally found that the MFC performance depended on the contact area between the bacteria and the anode. The MFC generated the maximum power when the contact area between the anode and bacteria was the largest.

  20. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    PubMed

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  1. About the geometry of the Earth geodetic reference surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husár, Ladislav; Švaral, Peter; Janák, Juraj

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on the comparison of metrics of three most common reference surfaces of the Earth used in geodesy (excluding the plane which also belongs to reference surfaces used in geodesy when dealing with small areas): a sphere, an ellipsoid of revolution and a triaxial ellipsoid. The two latter surfaces are treated in a more detailed way. First, the mathematical form of the metric tensors using three types of coordinates is derived and the lengths of meridian and parallel arcs between the two types of ellipsoids are compared. Three kinds of parallels, according to the type of latitude, can be defined on a triaxial ellipsoid. We show that two types of parallels are spatial curves and one is represented by ellipses. The differences of curvature of both kinds of ellipsoid are analysed using the normal curvature radii. Priority of the chosen triaxial ellipsoid is documented by its better fit with respect to the high-degree geoid model EIGEN6c4 computed up to degree and order 2160.

  2. Detailed Surface Rupture Geometry from the 2016 Amatrice Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildon, Z. K.; Iezzi, F.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Gregory, L. C.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Wilkinson, M. W.; Faure Walker, J.; Roberts, G.; Livio, F.; Vittori, E.; Michetti, A.; Frigerio, C.; Ferrario, F.; Blumetti, A. M.; Guerrieri, L.; Di Manna, P.; Comerci, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Amatrice earthquake was generated by co-rupture of the Mt. Vettore and Laga faults at depth. Surface ruptures were observed for 5km along the Mt. Vettore fault, with no clear observations on the Laga fault reported to date. The surface rupture on Mt. Vettore manifests as a 15-20cm pale stripe at the base of a 60-80o dipping bedrock fault scarp and similar magnitude vertical offsets of colluvial deposits. We have measured the strike and dip of the fault alongside the coseismic throw, heave, and slip azimuth along the length of the rupture with high spatial resolution (c.2-6m, >2000 measurements). The slip azimuth is relatively constant between 210-270° even where the rupture faces uphill at its SE termination which is consistent with the regional NW-SE extension direction, defined by focal mechanisms and borehole break-out data. The simplest coseismic throw profile that would be expected is quasi-symmetric. However we found the highest values of throw (Inter Quartile Range 15-19.5cm) are skewed towards the NW end on a 1.7 km section of the fault that is oblique relative to the overall fault strike. In the centre of the rupture, orientated close to the overall fault strike, the throw is lower (IQR 7.5-13cm) and discontinuous along strike. We suggest that the skewed throw profile occurs because the strike, dip and throw must vary systematically in order to preserve the principal strain rate across a fault, in agreement with previous publications. The density of our measurements, crucially including the slip azimuth, allows us to resolve the regional debate over whether normal fault ruptures are primary tectonic features or landslides of hangingwall sediments. If the surface offsets are due to landslides, then the slip azimuth should correlate with the downslope direction of the hangingwall. We show using an available 10m DEM that this is not the case and hence the surface offsets described herein are a primary tectonic feature. This presentation offers new

  3. On the Use of CAD-Native Predicates and Geometry in Surface Meshing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Several paradigms for accessing computer-aided design (CAD) geometry during surface meshing for computational fluid dynamics are discussed. File translation, inconsistent geometry engines, and nonnative point construction are all identified as sources of nonrobustness. The paper argues in favor of accessing CAD parts and assemblies in their native format, without translation, and for the use of CAD-native predicates and constructors in surface mesh generation. The discussion also emphasizes the importance of examining the computational requirements for exact evaluation of triangulation predicates during surface meshing.

  4. The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture

    DOE PAGES

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-13

    It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.

  5. Geometry, contact, surface, and optical developments for photoconductive power switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.; Wagner, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photoconductive Power Switches (PCPSs) have the advantages of precise control, extremely fast closure times, extremely low inductances and scalability to very high voltages and currents. PCPSs have these advantages because the size or power of the switch is not related to its closure time. The closure time is determined by the external optical source that uniformly illuminates the PCPS between the electrodes. Because carriers are generated uniformly between the electrodes at the desired density, current can flow through the switch immediately without waiting for carrier transient delays. The operating voltage is determined by the switch length l, and the operating current is determined by the switch width w. The electrodes can be made as wide as desired so that the inductance can be extremely low, or the area available for heat removal can be increased and the entire switch brough into conduction at the same instant if the same optical pulse and path length are used. This paper describes recent research at Los Alamos that has improved PCPS contact fabrication technology, has developed a simple optical control illumination system using fiber optics and rectangular optics, and has improved photoconductor surface fabrication methods and processes for high electric field operation.

  6. Wideband Scattering Diffusion by using Diffraction of Periodic Surfaces and Optimized Unit Cell Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Filippo; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    A methodology to obtain wideband scattering diffusion based on periodic artificial surfaces is presented. The proposed surfaces provide scattering towards multiple propagation directions across an extremely wide frequency band. They comprise unit cells with an optimized geometry and arranged in a periodic lattice characterized by a repetition period larger than one wavelength which induces the excitation of multiple Floquet harmonics. The geometry of the elementary unit cell is optimized in order to minimize the reflection coefficient of the fundamental Floquet harmonic over a wide frequency band. The optimization of FSS geometry is performed through a genetic algorithm in conjunction with periodic Method of Moments. The design method is verified through full-wave simulations and measurements. The proposed solution guarantees very good performance in terms of bandwidth-thickness ratio and removes the need of a high-resolution printing process.

  7. Wideband Scattering Diffusion by using Diffraction of Periodic Surfaces and Optimized Unit Cell Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filippo; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    A methodology to obtain wideband scattering diffusion based on periodic artificial surfaces is presented. The proposed surfaces provide scattering towards multiple propagation directions across an extremely wide frequency band. They comprise unit cells with an optimized geometry and arranged in a periodic lattice characterized by a repetition period larger than one wavelength which induces the excitation of multiple Floquet harmonics. The geometry of the elementary unit cell is optimized in order to minimize the reflection coefficient of the fundamental Floquet harmonic over a wide frequency band. The optimization of FSS geometry is performed through a genetic algorithm in conjunction with periodic Method of Moments. The design method is verified through full-wave simulations and measurements. The proposed solution guarantees very good performance in terms of bandwidth-thickness ratio and removes the need of a high-resolution printing process. PMID:27181841

  8. Uniform, large surface-area polarization by modifying corona-electrodes geometry.

    PubMed

    Tansel, T; Ener Rusen, S; Rusen, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on the uniform, large scale polarization of ferroelectric materials by a newly designed corona charging technique developing nonconventional electrodes geometry. The results of pyroelectric measurements represented the spatial homogeneity of the polarization attained through a surface area of ~25 cm(2).

  9. Geometry Laboratory (GEOLAB) surface modeling and grid generation technology and services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Patricia A.; Smith, Robert E.; Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    The facilities and services of the GEOmetry LABoratory (GEOLAB) at the NASA Langley Research Center are described. Included in this description are the laboratory functions, the surface modeling and grid generation technologies used in the laboratory, and examples of the tasks performed in the laboratory.

  10. Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption, translocation and metabolism in field 1 bindweed (convolulus arvensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is extremely susceptible to aminocyclopyrachlor compared to other weed species. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine if absorption, translocation, and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in field bindweed differs from other, less susceptible species....

  11. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  12. On the Use of CAD-Native Predicates and Geometry in Surface Meshing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Several paradigms for accessing CAD geometry during surface meshing for CFD are discussed. File translation, inconsistent geometry engines and non-native point construction are all identified as sources of non-robustness. The paper argues in favor of accessing CAD parts and assemblies in their native format, without translation, and for the use of CAD-native predicates and constructors in surface mesh generation. The discussion also emphasizes the importance of examining the computational requirements for exact evaluation of triangulation predicates during surface meshing. The native approach is demonstrated through an algorithm for the generation of closed manifold surface triangulations from CAD geometry. CAD parts and assemblies are used in their native format, and a part's native geometry engine is accessed through a modeler-independent application programming interface (API). In seeking a robust and fully automated procedure, the algorithm is based on a new physical space manifold triangulation technique specially developed to avoid robustness issues associated with poorly conditioned mappings. In addition, this approach avoids the usual ambiguities associated with floating-point predicate evaluation on constructed coordinate geometry in a mapped space. The technique is incremental, so that each new site improves the triangulation by some well defined quality measure. The algorithm terminates after achieving a prespecified measure of mesh quality and produces a triangulation such that no angle is less than a given angle bound, a or greater than pi - 2alpha. This result also sets bounds on the maximum vertex degree, triangle aspect-ratio and maximum stretching rate for the triangulation. In addition to the output triangulations for a variety of CAD parts, the discussion presents related theoretical results which assert the existence of such an angle bound, and demonstrate that maximum bounds of between 25 deg and 30 deg may be achieved in practice.

  13. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C. D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  14. Geometry and Surface Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles Influence their Biodistribution and Uptake by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Arnida; Janát-Amsbury, M.M.; Ray, A.; Peterson, C. M.; Ghandehari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Spherical and rod-shaped gold nanoparticles with surface poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains were characterized for size, shape, charge, poly dispersity and surface plasmon resonance. The nanoparticles were injected intravenously to 6–8 weeks old female nu/nu mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors and their biodistribution in vital organs was compared. Gold nanorods were taken up to a lesser extent by the liver, had longer circulation time in the blood, and higher accumulation in the tumors, compared with their spherical counterparts. The cellular uptake of PEGylated gold nanoparticles by a murine macrophage-like cell line as a function of geometry was examined. Compared to nanospheres, PEGylated gold nanorods were taken up to a lesser extent by macrophages. These studies point to the importance of gold nanoparticle geometry and surface properties on transport across biological barriers. PMID:21093587

  15. Semi-automatic surface and volume mesh generation for subject-specific biomedical geometries.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Igor; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2012-01-01

    An overview of surface and volume mesh generation techniques for creating valid meshes to carry out biomedical flows is provided. The methods presented are designed for robust numerical modelling of biofluid flow through subject-specific geometries. The applications of interest are haemodynamics in blood vessels and air flow in upper human respiratory tract. The methods described are designed to minimize distortion to a given domain boundary. They are also designed to generate a triangular surface mesh first and then volume mesh (tetrahedrons) with high quality surface and volume elements. For blood flow applications, a simple procedure to generate a boundary layer mesh is also described. The methods described here are semi-automatic in nature because of the fact that the geometries are complex, and automation of the procedures may be possible if high quality scans are used.

  16. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer.

    PubMed

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Woodworth, C D; Sokolov, I

    2015-03-10

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  17. Laser generation and detection for surface wave interaction with different defect geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Valle, F.; Edwards, R. S.; Clough, A. R.; Rosli, M. H.; Dutton, B.

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of surface waves in the near-field of a defect has been reported by several authors. It has been demonstrated that the interaction between the incident Rayleigh wave with the reflected Rayleigh wave, plus the mode-converted surface skimming longitudinal wave, explains the significant increase in signal amplitude that is encountered as a detection point approaches a smooth machined defect inclined normal to the surface. However, this is not a typical defect geometry. For example, rolling contact fatigue in rails grows at an angle to the surface, and stress corrosion cracking grows as branched defects. We present results of experimental measurements on machined slots with varied geometries, including defects which are normal or inclined to the surface, and show the effect of branched defect geometries on the wave propagation and signal enhancement. We use laser generation and detection, and compare results with finite element method (FEM) models. We also investigate frequency enhancements for angled and branched defects, to highlight further potential measurement techniques when using scanning laser detection.

  18. An interactive user-friendly approach to surface-fitting three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. Mcneil; Dejarnette, Fred R.

    1988-01-01

    A surface-fitting technique has been developed which addresses two problems with existing geometry packages: computer storage requirements and the time required of the user for the initial setup of the geometry model. Coordinates of cross sections are fit using segments of general conic sections. The next step is to blend the cross-sectional curve-fits in the longitudinal direction using general conics to fit specific meridional half-planes. Provisions are made to allow the fitting of fuselages and wings so that entire wing-body combinations may be modeled. This report includes the development of the technique along with a User's Guide for the various menus within the program. Results for the modeling of the Space Shuttle and a proposed Aeroassist Flight Experiment geometry are presented.

  19. Effect of illuminating and viewing geometry on the color coordinates of samples with various surface textures.

    PubMed

    Billmeyer, F W; Marcus, R T

    1969-04-01

    Color measurements with several different illuminating/viewing geometries were carried out for samples with four different surface textures in four different colors: matte papers, glossy papers, ceramic or porcelain enamel tiles, and polished opaque glasses, with ISCC-NBS color designations moderate pink, pale orange-yellow, dark bluish-green, and dark gray. On a single instrument (Cary 14 spectrophotometer), three geometries were used: normal/diffuse (N/D), diffuse/normal (D/N) and normal/45 degrees (N/45). For comparison, measurements were also made on a GE spectrophotometer (GERS) using near-normal/diffuse geometry. All integrating sphere (diffuse) measurements were made with specular component both included and excluded. Specular gloss and goniophotometric reflectance measurements were made. For these samples, the Cary 14 N/D and GERS results are in good agreement, and the results with N/D and D/N geometries are essentially equivalent, but there is strong evidence of the serious problem of incomplete exclusion of the specular component with all of the integrating sphere geometries when operated in the specular-excluded mode, even with samples normally considered to be highly glossy or highly matte.

  20. Casimir Force on a Surface with Shallow Nanoscale Corrugations: Geometry and Finite Conductivity Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Guerout, R.; Lussange, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Cirelli, R. A.; Klemens, F.; Mansfield, W. M.; Pai, C. S.; Chan, H. B.

    2010-12-17

    We measure the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon plate with nanoscale, rectangular corrugations with a depth comparable to the separation between the surfaces. In the proximity force approximation (PFA), both the top and bottom surfaces of the corrugations contribute to the force, leading to a distance dependence that is distinct from a flat surface. The measured Casimir force is found to deviate from the PFA by up to 10%, in good agreement with calculations based on scattering theory that includes both geometry effects and the optical properties of the material.

  1. Geometry factor in photoprocesses on irregular (fractal) surfaces. 1. Static considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Avnir, D.

    1987-05-13

    Surface geometry effects on photoprocesses of adsorbates are discussed, with special emphasis on problems which originate from surface irregularities of silica. It is shown that the common practice of idealizing irregular surfaces as flat ones leads to inaccuracies in the evaluations of a variety of adsorption parameters, such as effective surface area, the area occupied by one molecule, intermolecular distances, etc. Data from a number of recent reports in surface photochemistry is reanalyzed to demonstrate the possible errors and to show that the interpretation of results may be altered if the calculations are carried out without the flat surface assumption. These literature examples are the photodimerization of cyanophenanthrene, the chemiluminescent oxidation of fatty acids, the benzophenone triplet quenching, and the excimerization process in pyrenyl-derivatized silica. Calculation procedures for the above mentioned parameters on irregular surfaces are suggested based both on classical surface-science considerations and on recent fractal considerations. Computational simulations demonstrate the effect of surface irregularities on these parameters. The replacement of the flat picture with the real irregular one reveals a number of new interesting concepts: the effective surface area for reaction (the reaction area) is smaller than the effective surface area available to the reactants; the effective surface area toward an excited state adsorbed molecule is different than the ground-state case; the distance between a large and small molecule depends on which molecule diffuses toward the other; in bimolecular reactions, not all of the smaller molecules are available at any time to the larger ones. Surface heterogeneity and environmental relaxation around an excited state are discussed in terms of geometry.

  2. Stress analysis and stress intensity factors for finite geometry solids containing rectangular surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.

    1975-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses and the stress intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids.

  3. Stress analysis and stress-intensity factors for finite geometry solids containing rectangular surface cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.

    1977-01-01

    The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses, and the stress-intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress-intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center-cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress-intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids

  4. Foraging on the potential energy surface: A swarm intelligence-based optimizer for molecular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D.; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials.

  5. Surface-Tunable Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer via Geometry-Controlled ZnO Nanorod Coordination.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Park, Geun Chul; Lee, Seung Muk; Lee, Jung Heon; Lim, Butaek; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Hansoo; Joo, Jinho; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    The use of ZnO nanorods (NRs) as an effective coordinator and biosensing platform to create bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is reported. Herein, a hydrothermal approach is applied to obtain morphologically controlled ZnO NRs, which are directly bound to luciferase (Luc) and carboxy-modified quantum dot (QD) acting as a donor-acceptor pair for BRET. BRET efficiency varies significantly with the geometry of ZnO NRs, which modulates the coordination between hexahistidine-tagged Luc (Luc-His6 ) and QD, owing to the combined effect of the total surface area consisting of (001) and (100) planes and their surface polarities. Unlike typical QD-BRET reactions with metal ions (e.g., zinc ions), a geometry-controlled ZnO NR platform can facilitate the design of surface-initiated BRET sensors without being supplemented by copious metal ions: the geometry-controlled ZnO NR platform can therefore pave the way for nanostructure-based biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Physical origins of ruled surfaces on the reduced density matrices geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ji-Yao; Ji, Zhengfeng; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Qi, Xiaofei; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei; Zhou, Duanlu

    2017-02-01

    The reduced density matrices (RDMs) of many-body quantum states form a convex set. The boundary of low dimensional projections of this convex set may exhibit nontrivial geometry such as ruled surfaces. In this paper, we study the physical origins of these ruled surfaces for bosonic systems. The emergence of ruled surfaces was recently proposed as signatures of symmetry-breaking phase. We show that, apart from being signatures of symmetry-breaking, ruled surfaces can also be the consequence of gapless quantum systems by demonstrating an explicit example in terms of a two-mode Ising model. Our analysis was largely simplified by the quantum de Finetti's theorem—in the limit of large system size, these RDMs are the convex set of all the symmetric separable states. To distinguish ruled surfaces originated from gapless systems from those caused by symmetry-breaking, we propose to use the finite size scaling method for the corresponding geometry. This method is then applied to the two-mode XY model, successfully identifying a ruled surface as the consequence of gapless systems.

  7. Instability of a Möbius strip minimal surface and a link with systolic geometry.

    PubMed

    Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E; Alexander, Gareth P; Moffatt, H Keith

    2015-03-27

    We describe the first analytically tractable example of an instability of a nonorientable minimal surface under parametric variation of its boundary. A one-parameter family of incomplete Meeks Möbius surfaces is defined and shown to exhibit an instability threshold as the bounding curve is opened up from a double-covering of the circle. Numerical and analytical methods are used to determine the instability threshold by solution of the Jacobi equation on the double covering of the surface. The unstable eigenmode shows excellent qualitative agreement with that found experimentally for a closely related surface. A connection is proposed between systolic geometry and the instability by showing that the shortest noncontractable closed geodesic on the surface (the systolic curve) passes near the maximum of the unstable eigenmode.

  8. Manufacturing lot affects polyethylene tibial insert volume, thickness, and surface geometry.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Milner, Jaques S; MacDonald, Steven J; Naudie, Douglas D R

    2013-08-01

    To perform wear measurements on retrieved joint replacement implants, a reference geometry of the implant's original state is required. Since implants are rarely individually scanned before implantation, a different, new implant of the same kind and size is frequently used. However, due to manufacturing variability, errors may be introduced into these measurements, as the dimensions between the retrieved and reference components may not be exactly the same. The hypothesis of this study was that new polyethylene tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots would demonstrate greater variability than those from the same lot. In total, 12 new tibial inserts of the same model and size were obtained, 5 from the same lot and the remainder from different lots. The geometry of each tibial insert was obtained using microcomputed tomography. Measurements of tibial insert volume, thickness, and three-dimensional surface deviations were obtained and compared between tibial inserts from the same and different manufacturing lots. Greater variability was found for the tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots for all types of measurements, including a fourfold difference in volume variability (p < 0.001) and a maximum of 0.21 mm difference in thickness (p < 0.001). Investigators should be aware of this potential confounding error and take steps to minimize it, such as by averaging together the geometries of multiple new components from different manufacturing lots for use as the reference geometry.

  9. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  10. Biofilm formation in geometries with different surface curvature and oxygen availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Wen; Fragkopoulos, Alexandros A.; Marquez, Samantha M.; Kim, Harold D.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria in the natural environment exist as interface-associated colonies known as biofilms . Complex mechanisms are often involved in biofilm formation and development. Despite the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, it remains unclear how physical effects in standing cultures influence biofilm development. The topology of the solid interface has been suggested as one of the physical cues influencing bacteria-surface interactions and biofilm development. Using the model organism Bacillus subtilis, we study the transformation of swimming bacteria in liquid culture into robust biofilms in a range of confinement geometries (planar, spherical and toroidal) and interfaces (air/water, silicone/water, and silicone elastomer/water). We find that B. subtilis form submerged biofilms at both solid and liquid interfaces in addition to air-water pellicles. When confined, bacteria grow on curved surfaces of both positive and negative Gaussian curvature. However, the confinement geometry does affect the resulting biofilm roughness and relative coverage. We also find that the biofilm location is governed by oxygen availability as well as by gravitational effects; these compete with each other in some situations. Overall, our results demonstrate that confinement geometry is an effective way to control oxygen availability and subsequently biofilm growth.

  11. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.

    PubMed

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-04-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.

  12. A computer program for fitting smooth surfaces to an aircraft configuration and other three dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program that uses a three-dimensional geometric technique for fitting a smooth surface to the component parts of an aircraft configuration is presented. The resulting surface equations are useful in performing various kinds of calculations in which a three-dimensional mathematical description is necessary. Programs options may be used to compute information for three-view and orthographic projections of the configuration as well as cross-section plots at any orientation through the configuration. The aircraft geometry input section of the program may be easily replaced with a surface point description in a different form so that the program could be of use for any three-dimensional surface equations.

  13. Adsorption geometry of ZnTPP molecules on Au(111): self-assembly and surface interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Charles; Rangan, Sylvie; Bartynski, Robert; Galoppini, Elena

    2014-03-01

    The interaction between Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) molecules and a Au(111) surface, from initial adsorption sites to monolayer organization, is investigated using scanning tunnel microscopy with a particular emphasis on registry of the overlayer and surface atomic structure. At low coverages ZnTPP decorates step edges. With further deposition, ZnTPP molecules form self-organized islands of flat-lying macrocycles having a well-defined registry with, and dimensions bounded by, the underlying Au(111) herringbone reconstruction. At monolayer coverage, the herringbone reconstruction persists, enabling the relationship between the geometry of the self-organized molecular layer and that of the Au(111) surface to be established. Surface annealing generates a more complex self-assembled structure characterized by Au step edges that strictly align with ZnTPP molecular rows. The underlying mechanisms for this behavior will be discussed.

  14. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry1

    PubMed Central

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space–time modulation of an X-ray beam. PMID:28381976

  15. Determination of the adsorption geometry of PTCDA on the Cu(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Simon; Krieger, Ina; Heepenstrick, Timo; Soubatch, Serguei; Sokolowski, Moritz; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2017-08-01

    The adsorption geometry, namely the height and the site, of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on the Cu(100) surface was determined by the normal incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW) technique including triangulation. The two PTCDA molecules in the superstructure unit cell, which have perpendicular azimuthal orientation, are both located at bridge sites, the long molecular axis being parallel to the bridge. Carboxylic oxygen atoms and several atoms of the carbon backbone are located close to on-top positions. The vertical distortion motif of PTCDA on Cu(100) differs from that on the three low-index Ag surfaces, because significant downward displacement of the carboxylic oxygen atoms is lacking. In particular, the carbon backbone of PTCDA adsorbs closer to the surface than extrapolated from Ag data. This suggests a relative increase of the attractive interactions between the carbon backbone of PTCDA and the Cu(100) surface versus the attractive interactions on the carboxylic oxygen atoms.

  16. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work.

  17. Influence of Geometry on a High Surface Area-Solid Phase Microextraction Sampler for Chemical Vapor Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-04

    Title of Thesis: Influence of Geometry on a High Surface Area-Solid Phase Microextraction Sampler for Chemical Vapor Collection Name of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influence of Geometry on a High Surface Area-Solid Phase Microextraction Sampler for Chemical Vapor Collection 5a. CONTRACT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The High Surface Area Solid Phase Microextraction (HSA-SPME) device is an internally heated sampling device designed for

  18. A Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Infrared Radiation Emitted from Plain Surfaces with Different Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakilabadi, K. A.; Moayeri, H.; Ghassemi, H.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, infrared radiation exiting plain surfaces with different geometries is numerically simulated. Surfaces under consideration are assumed to have steady uniform heat generation inside. Moreover, the boundaries of the surfaces are considered to be at the surroundings temperature. Infrared radiation is calculated based on the temperature profile determined for the surface. The temperature profile of the surface is determined assuming the two dimensional heat conduction equations to govern the problem. The physical domain is transformed into the appropriate computational domain and the governing equation is mapped into the suitable forms in the new coordinate system of variables. After that the temperature profile of the surface is computed, the infrared radiation distribution of the surface is evaluated based on the equations given in the manuscript. The temperature profile as well as the IR images are given in the results section. It is concluded that the maximum value of infrared radiation of the surface occurs at the center. Moreover, it is concluded that among surfaces with equal areas, the one having the largest perimeter has the least value of IR at its center.

  19. Surface geometry of protoplanetary disks inferred from near-infrared imaging polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Gu, Pin-Gao; Karr, Jennifer L.; Chapillon, Edwige; Tang, Ya-Wen; Muto, Takayuki; Dong, Ruobing; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Kwon, Jungmi; Itoh, Youchi; Carson, Joseph; Follette, Katherine B.; Mayama, Satoshi; Sitko, Michael; Janson, Markus; Grady, Carol A.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; and others

    2014-11-01

    We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) are associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.

  20. Mentha arvensis exhibit better adaptive characters in contrast to Mentha piperita when subjugated to sustained waterlogging stress.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Timbre, Khilesh; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Waterlogging is becoming a critical threat to plants growing in areas prone to flooding. Some plants adapt various morphological and biochemical alterations which are regulated transcriptionally to cope with the situation. A comparative study of waterlogging response in two different varieties of Mentha namely Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis was performed. M. arvensis showed better response towards waterlogging in comparison to M. piperita. M. arvensis maintained a healthy posture by utilizing its carbohydrate content; also, it showed a flourished vegetative growth under waterlogged condition. Soluble protein, chlorophyll content, relative water content, and nitric oxide scavenging activity were comparatively more salient in M. arvensis during this hypoxia treatment. Lipid peroxidation was less in M. arvensis. M. arvensis also showed vigorous outgrowth of adventitious roots to assist waterlogging tolerance. To further investigate the possible gene transcripts involved in this response, we did cDNA subtraction of waterlogging treated M. piperita and M. arvensis seedlings. cDNA subtraction has identified thirty seven novel putative Expressed Sequence Tags which were further classified functionally. Functional classification revealed that maximum percentage of proteins belonged to hypothetical proteins followed by proteins involved in biosynthesis. Some of the identified ESTs were further quantified for their induced expression in M. arvensis in comparison to M. piperita through quantitative real-time PCR.

  1. SU(2) flat connection on a Riemann surface and 3D twisted geometry with a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Muxin; Huang, Zichang

    2017-02-01

    Twisted geometries are understood to be the discrete classical limit of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, SU(2) flat connections on a (decorated) 2D Riemann surface are shown to be equivalent to the generalized twisted geometries in 3D space with cosmological constant. Various flat connection quantities on a Riemann surface are mapped to the geometrical quantities in discrete 3D space. We propose that the moduli space of SU(2) flat connections on a Riemann surface generalizes the phase space of twisted geometry or loop quantum gravity to include a cosmological constant.

  2. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Carrivick, J.; Evans, A.; Carver, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation. The meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. Consequently, models assessing the effect of complicated glacier surface geometry on glacier mass balance are becoming increasingly popular. Here we apply such a model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses the creation of a GIS enabling analysis of changing glacier geometry over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Long-term records of mass balance are rare for arctic Mountain glaciers, making model development and evaluation difficult. One exception is Kårsaglaciären in arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. Firstly, we present the construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären within a GIS, specifically discussing the methods of interpolation used to create the surfaces. We highlight the methods and importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the effect of the input data utilised in the kriging algorithms. Analyses integral to the modelling stage of the project, such as the geometries of the resultant surfaces as well as the interrelationships between them, will be discussed. Secondly, we present the melt model which has been constructed in order to test the effect of changing geometry on mass balance. Our melt model can carry out systematic testing of

  3. The study of combined action of agents using differential geometry of dose-effect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lam, G K

    1992-09-01

    Although graphic surfaces have been used routinely in the study of combined action of agents, they are mainly used for display purposes. In this paper, it is shown that useful mechanistic information can be obtained from an analytical study of these surfaces using the tools of differential geometry. From the analysis of some simple dose-effect surfaces, it is proposed that the intrinsic curvature, referred to in differential geometry as the Gaussian curvature, of a dose-effect surface can be used as a general criterion for the classification of interaction between different agents. This is analogous to the interpretation of the line curvature of a dose-effect curve as an indication of self-interaction between doses for an agent. In this framework, the dose-effect surface would have basic uniform fabric with zero curvature in the absence of interaction, tentatively referred to as null-interaction. Pictorially speaking, this fabric is distorted locally or globally like the stretching and shrinking of a rubber sheet by the presence of interaction mechanisms between different agents. Since self-interaction with dilution dummies does not generate intrinsic curvature, this criterion of null-interaction would describe the interaction between two truly different agents. It is shown that many of the published interaction mechanisms give rise to dose-effect surfaces with characteristic curvatures. This possible correlation between the intrinsic geometric curvature of dose-effect surfaces and the biophysical mechanism of interaction presents an interesting philosophical viewpoint for the study of combined action of agents.

  4. Numerical modelling of the effect of changing surface geometry on mountain glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Chris; Carrivick, Jonathan; Evans, Andrew; Carver, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are extremely useful indicators of environmental change. Due to their small size, they have much faster response times to climate changes than the large ice masses of Greenland and Antarctica. Mountain glaciers are important for society as sources of water for energy production and irrigation and the meltwater cycles significantly impact local ecology. We have applied a spatially distributed surface energy balance model to a glacier record spanning 100 years. Our study encompasses (i) the creation of a GIS enabling quantitative analysis of changing glacier geometry; absolute length, area, surface lowering and volume change, over the 20th and early 21st Centuries and (ii) the development and testing of a novel user-friendly distributed-surface energy balance model that is designed specifically to consider the effect that these geometrical changes have on mountain glacier mass balance. Our study site is Kårsaglaciären in Arctic Sweden for which there is a variety of data for the past 100 years, sourced from historical surveys, satellite imagery and recent field work. This contrasts with other Arctic mountain glaciers where long-term records are rare, making model development and evaluation very difficult. Kårsaglaciären has been in a state of negative balance throughout the 20th century. Disintegration of the glacier occurred during the 1920s, breaking the glacier into two separate bodies. Between 1926 and 2008, the glacier retreated 1.3 km and reduced in area by 3.41km2. In 2008 the glacier had an estimated surface area of 0.89km2 and a length of approximately 1.0km. Firstly, we present the GIS based construction of robust three-dimensional glacier surface reconstructions for Kårsaglaciären from 1926 to 2010 using a decadal interval. We highlight the kriging interpolation methods used for surface development and the importance of inter-model sensitivity analyses as well as the use of Monte Carlo simulations used to assess the

  5. Theoretical surface velocity distributions on acoustic splitter geometries for an engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Breunlin, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The potential-flow velocity distributions on several splitter geometries in an engine inlet and their variation with different splitter leading-edge shapes and distances from the inlet highlight were analyzed. The velocity distributions on the inner and outer surfaces of the splitters are presented for low-speed and cruise conditions. At zero incidence angle, the splitter with the 4-to-1 elliptical leading edge had lower peak velocities and velocity gradients than the splitter with the 2-to-1 elliptical leading edge. The velocity gradients decreased as the distance from the inlet highlight to the splitter leading edge was increased. For a given distance, the peak velocity on the splitter inner surface increased with increasing inlet incidence angle. At an incidence angle of 50 deg, the velocity level and gradients on the inner surface of the splitter in the forward position were sufficiently severe to suggest local separation.

  6. High Resolution Surface Geometry and Albedo by Combining Laser Altimetry and Visible Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; vonToussaint, Udo; Cheeseman, Peter C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate geometric and radiometric information over large areas has become increasingly important. Laser altimetry is one of the key technologies for obtaining this geometric information. However, there are important application areas where the observing platform has its orbit constrained by the other instruments it is carrying, and so the spatial resolution that can be recorded by the laser altimeter is limited. In this paper we show how information recorded by one of the other instruments commonly carried, a high-resolution imaging camera, can be combined with the laser altimeter measurements to give a high resolution estimate both of the surface geometry and its reflectance properties. This estimate has an accuracy unavailable from other interpolation methods. We present the results from combining synthetic laser altimeter measurements on a coarse grid with images generated from a surface model to re-create the surface model.

  7. Classification of journal surfaces using surface topography parameters and software methods to compensate for stylus geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. J.; Devries, W. R.; Ludema, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements made with a stylus surface tracer which provides a digitized representation of a surface profile are discussed. Parameters are defined to characterize the height (e.g., RMS roughness, skewness, and kurtosis) and length (e.g., autocorrelation) of the surface topography. These are applied to the characterization of crank shaft journals which were manufactured by different grinding and lopping procedures known to give significant differences in crank shaft bearing life. It was found that three parameters (RMS roughness, skewness, and kurtosis) are necessary to adequately distinguish the character of these surfaces. Every surface specimen has a set of values for these three parameters. They can be regarded as a set coordinate in a space constituted by three characteristics axes. The various journal surfaces can be classified along with the determination of a proper wavelength cutoff (0.25 mm) by using a method of separated subspace. The finite radius of the stylus used for profile tracing gives an inherent measurement error as it passes over the fine structure of the surface. A mathematical model is derived to compensate for this error.

  8. The impact of surface geometry, cavitation, and condensation on wetting transitions: posts and reentrant structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panter, J. R.; Kusumaatmaja, H.

    2017-03-01

    The fundamental impacts of surface geometry on the stability of wetting states, and the transitions between them are elucidated for square posts and reentrant structures in three dimensions. We identify three principal outcomes of particular importance for future surface design of liquid-repellent surfaces. Firstly, we demonstrate and quantify how capillary condensation and vapour cavitation affect wetting state stabilities. At high contact angles, cavitation is enhanced about wide, closely-spaced square posts, leading to the existence of suspended states without an associated collapsed state. At low contact angles, narrow reentrant pillars suppress condensation and enable the suspension of even highly wetting liquids. Secondly, two distinct collapse mechanisms are observed for 3D reentrant geometries, base contact and pillar contact, which are operative at different pillar heights. As well as morphological differences in the interface of the penetrating liquid, each mechanism is affected differently by changes in the contact angle with the solid. Finally, for highly-wetting liquids, condensates are shown to critically modify the transition pathways in both the base contact and pillar contact modes.

  9. The equilibrium geometry and electronic structure of Bi nanolines on clean and hydrogenated Si(001) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miwa, R H; Macleod, J M; McLean, A B; Srivastava, G P

    2005-10-01

    The equilibrium geometry, electronic structure and energetic stability of Bi nanolines on clean and hydrogenated Si(001) surfaces have been examined by means of ab initio total energy calculations and scanning tunnelling microscopy. For the Bi nanolines on a clean Si surface the two most plausible structural models, the Miki or M model (Miki et al 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 14868) and the Haiku or H model (Owen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 226104), have been examined in detail. The results of the total energy calculations support the stability of the H model over the M model, in agreement with previous theoretical results. For Bi nanolines on the hydrogenated Si(001) surface, we find that an atomic configuration derived from the H model is also more stable than an atomic configuration derived from the M model. However, the energetically less stable (M) model exhibits better agreement with experimental measurements for equilibrium geometry. The electronic structures of the H and M models are very similar. Both models exhibit a semiconducting character, with the highest occupied Bi-derived bands lying at approximately 0.5 eV below the valence band maximum. Simulated and experimental STM images confirm that at a low negative bias the Bi lines exhibit an 'antiwire' property for both structural models.

  10. The equilibrium geometry and electronic structure of Bi nanolines on clean and hydrogenated Si(001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, R. H.; MacLeod, J. M.; McLean, A. B.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2005-10-01

    The equilibrium geometry, electronic structure and energetic stability of Bi nanolines on clean and hydrogenated Si(001) surfaces have been examined by means of ab initio total energy calculations and scanning tunnelling microscopy. For the Bi nanolines on a clean Si surface the two most plausible structural models, the Miki or M model (Miki et al 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 14868) and the Haiku or H model (Owen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 226104), have been examined in detail. The results of the total energy calculations support the stability of the H model over the M model, in agreement with previous theoretical results. For Bi nanolines on the hydrogenated Si(001) surface, we find that an atomic configuration derived from the H model is also more stable than an atomic configuration derived from the M model. However, the energetically less stable (M) model exhibits better agreement with experimental measurements for equilibrium geometry. The electronic structures of the H and M models are very similar. Both models exhibit a semiconducting character, with the highest occupied Bi-derived bands lying at ~0.5 eV below the valence band maximum. Simulated and experimental STM images confirm that at a low negative bias the Bi lines exhibit an 'antiwire' property for both structural models.

  11. Effects of Regional Topography and Spacecraft Observation Geometry on Surface Soil Moisture Estimation Accuracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Akbar, R.; West, R. D.; Colliander, A.; Kim, S.; Dunbar, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive Mission (SMAP), launched in January 2015, provides near-daily global surface soil moisture estimates via combined Active Radar and Passive Radiometer observations at various spatial resolutions. The goal of this mission is to enhance our understanding of global carbon and water cycles. This presentation will focus on a comprehensive assessment of the SMAP high resolution radar backscatter data (formally the L1C_S0_HiRes data product) obtained over a 3 km Woody Savanna region in north-central California during a 2.5 month period starting late May 2015. The effects of spacecraft observation geometry (fore- and aft-looks as well as ascending and descending obits) along with regional topography on soil moisture estimation abilities will be examined. Furthermore surface soil moisture retrievals, obtained through utilization of different combinations of observation geometries, will be compared to an existing network of in situsensors. Current electromagnetic scattering and emission models do not properly account for surface topography, therefore physical forward model predictions and observations have unaccounted mismatch errors which also affect soil moisture estimation accuracies. The goal of this study is to quantify these soil moisture prediction errors and highlight the need for new and complete Electromagnetic modeling efforts.

  12. The shielding effect of small-scale martian surface geometry on ultraviolet flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Schuerger, A. C.; Venkateswaran, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The atmosphere of Mars does little to attenuate incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Large amounts of UV radiation sterilize the hardiest of terrestrial organisms within minutes, and chemically alter the soil such that organic molecules at or near the surface are rapidly destroyed. Thus the survival of any putative martian life near the surface depends to a large extent on how much UV radiation it receives. Variations in small-scale geometry of the surface such as pits, trenches, flat faces and overhangs can have a significant effect on the incident UV flux and may create "safe havens" for organisms and organic molecules. In order to examine this effect, a 1-D radiative transfer sky model with 836 meshed points (plus the Sun) was developed which includes both diffuse and direct components of the surface irradiance. This model derives the variation of UV flux with latitude and an object's Geometric Shielding Ratio (a ratio which describes the geometry of each situation). The best protection is offered by overhangs with flux reduced to a factor of 1.8±0.2×10 of the unprotected value, a reduction which does not vary significantly by latitude. Pits and cracks are less effective with a reduction in UV flux of only up to 4.5±0.5×10 for the modeled scenarios; however, they are more effective for the same geometric shielding ratio than overhangs at high latitudes due to the low height of the Sun in the sky. Lastly, polar faces of rocks have the least effective shielding geometry with at most a 1.1±0.1×10 reduction in UV flux. Polar faces of rocks are most effective at mid latitudes where the Sun is never directly overhead, as at tropical latitudes, and never exposes the back of the rock, as at polar latitudes. In the most favorable cases, UV flux is sufficiently reduced such that organic in-fall could accumulate beneath overhanging surfaces and in pits and cracks. As well, hardy terrestrial microorganisms such as Bacillus pumilus could persist for up to 100 sols on

  13. The effect of surface anisotropy and viewing geometry on the estimation of NDVI from AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, David; Verstraete, M.; Pinty, B.

    1995-01-01

    Since terrestrial surfaces are anisotropic, all spectral reflectance measurements obtained with a small instantaneous field of view instrument are specific to these angular conditions, and the value of the corresponding NDVI, computed from these bidirectional reflectances, is relative to the particular geometry of illumination and viewing at the time of the measurement. This paper documents the importance of these geometric effects through simulations of the AVHRR data acquisition process, and investigates the systematic biases that result from the combination of ecosystem-specific anisotropies with instrument-specific sampling capabilities. Typical errors in the value of NDVI are estimated, and strategies to reduce these effects are explored. -from Authors

  14. On the geometry of C3/∆27 and del Pezzo surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Compagnoni, Marco

    2010-05-01

    We clarify some aspects of the geometry of a resolution of the orbifold X = {C^3} {Δ_{27}}, the noncompact complex manifold underlying the brane quiver standard model recently proposed by Verlinde and Wijnholt. We explicitly realize a map between X and the total space of the canonical bundle over a degree 1 quasi del Pezzo surface, thus defining a desingularization of X. Our analysis relys essentially on the relationship existing between the normalizer group of ∆27 and the Hessian group and on the study of the behaviour of the Hesse pencil of plane cubic curves under the quotient.

  15. Geometry of GLP on silver surface by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, PeiDi; Bao, Lang; Huang, TianQuan; Liu, XinMing; Wu, GuoFeng

    2000-05-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most harmful zoonosis, it is a serious public health issue in some area of Sichuan province. Surface-Enhance Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy is an effective approach for the study of biomolecular adsorption on metal surface and provides information about the adsorbed species. Two samples of Leptospiral Glycolipoprotein (GLP-1) and GLP-2 which have different toxic effects have been obtained and investigated.

  16. Multiple patterns of diblock copolymer confined in irregular geometries with soft surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Sun, Min-Na; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Pan, Jun-Xing; Guo, Yu-Qi; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2015-12-01

    The different confinement shapes can induce the formation of various interesting and novel morphologies, which might inspire potential applications of materials. In this paper, we study the directed self-assembly of diblock copolymer confined in irregular geometries with a soft surface by using self-consistent field theory. Two types of confinement geometries are considered, namely, one is the concave pore with one groove and the other is the concave pore with two grooves. We obtain more novel and different structures which could not be produced in other two-dimensional (2D) confinements. Comparing these new structures with those obtained in regular square confinement, we find that the range of ordered lamellae is enlarged and the range of disordered structure is narrowed down under the concave pore confinement. We also compare the different structures obtained under the two types of confinement geometries, the results show that the effect of confinement would increase, which might induce the diblock copolymer to form novel structures. We construct the phase diagram as a function of the fraction of B block and the ratio of h/L of the groove. The simulation reveals that the wetting effect of brushes and the shape of confinement geometries play important roles in determining the morphologies of the system. Our results improve the applications in the directed self-assembly of diblock copolymer for fabricating the irregular structures. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20121404110004), the Research Foundation for Excellent Talents of Shanxi Provincial Department of Human Resources and Social Security, China, and the Scientific and Technological Innovation Programs of Higher Education Institutions in Shanxi Province, China.

  17. Anticandidal, antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Calendula arvensis flowers.

    PubMed

    Abudunia, A-M; Marmouzi, I; Faouzi, M E A; Ramli, Y; Taoufik, J; El Madani, N; Essassi, E M; Salama, A; Khedid, K; Ansar, M; Ibrahimi, A

    2017-03-01

    Calendula arvensis (CA) is one of the important plants used in traditional medicine in Morocco, due to its interesting chemical composition. The present study aimed to determine the anticandidal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the effects of extracts of CA flowers on the growth of myeloid cancer cells. Also, to characterize the chemical composition of the plant. Flowers of CA were collected based on ethnopharmacological information from the villages around the region Rabat-Khemisset, Moroccco. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction, while aqueous extracts was obtained by maceration in cold water. CA extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity using four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, β-carotene bleaching test). Furthermore, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, also the antimicrobial activity has been evaluated by the well diffusion method using several bacterial and fungal strains. Finally, extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT test. Phytochemical quantification of the methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed that they were rich with flavonoid and phenolic content and were found to possess considerable antioxidant activities. MIC values of methanolic extracts were 12.5-25μg/mL. While MIC values of hexanolic extracts were between 6.25-12.5μg/mL and were bacteriostatic for all bacteria while methanolic and aqueous extracts were bactericidal. In addition, the extracts exhibited no activity on Candida species except the methanolic extract, which showed antifungal activity onCandida tropicalis 1 and Candida famata 1. The methanolic and aqueous extracts also exhibited antimyeloid cancer activity (IC50 of 31μg/mL). In our study, we conclude that the methanolic and aqueous extracts were a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  18. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry

    PubMed Central

    Kasal, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness. PMID:27853541

  19. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Kasal, B

    2016-10-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness.

  20. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Kasal, B.

    2016-10-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness.

  1. Automatic Generation of CFD-Ready Surface Triangulations from CAD Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Delanaye, M.; Haimes, R.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for the generation of closed manifold surface triangulations from CAD geometry. CAD parts and assemblies are used in their native format, without translation, and a part's native geometry engine is accessed through a modeler-independent application programming interface (API). In seeking a robust and fully automated procedure, the algorithm is based on a new physical space manifold triangulation technique which was developed to avoid robustness issues associated with poorly conditioned mappings. In addition, this approach avoids the usual ambiguities associated with floating-point predicate evaluation on constructed coordinate geometry in a mapped space, The technique is incremental, so that each new site improves the triangulation by some well defined quality measure. Sites are inserted using a variety of priority queues to ensure that new insertions will address the worst triangles first, As a result of this strategy, the algorithm will return its 'best' mesh for a given (prespecified) number of sites. Alternatively, the algorithm may be allowed to terminate naturally after achieving a prespecified measure of mesh quality. The resulting triangulations are 'CFD-ready' in that: (1) Edges match the underlying part model to within a specified tolerance. (2) Triangles on disjoint surfaces in close proximity have matching length-scales. (3) The algorithm produces a triangulation such that no angle is less than a given angle bound, alpha, or greater than Pi - 2alpha This result also sets bounds on the maximum vertex degree, triangle aspect-ratio and maximum stretching rate for the triangulation. In addition to tile output triangulations for a variety of CAD parts, tile discussion presents related theoretical results which assert the existence of such all angle bound, and demonstrate that maximum bounds of between 25 deg and 30 deg may be achieved in practice.

  2. Automatic Generation of CFD-Ready Surface Triangulations from CAD Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Delanaye, M.; Haimes, R.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the generation of closed manifold surface triangulations from CAD geometry. CAD parts and assemblies are used in their native format, without translation, and a part's native geometry engine is accessed through a modeler-independent application programming interface (API). In seeking a robust and fully automated procedure, the algorithm is based on a new physical space manifold triangulation technique which was developed to avoid robustness issues associated with poorly conditioned mappings. In addition, this approach avoids the usual ambiguities associated with floating-point predicate evaluation on constructed coordinate geometry in a mapped space, The technique is incremental, so that each new site improves the triangulation by some well defined quality measure. Sites are inserted using a variety of priority queues to ensure that new insertions will address the worst triangles first, As a result of this strategy, the algorithm will return its 'best' mesh for a given (prespecified) number of sites. Alternatively, the algorithm may be allowed to terminate naturally after achieving a prespecified measure of mesh quality. The resulting triangulations are 'CFD-ready' in that: (1) Edges match the underlying part model to within a specified tolerance. (2) Triangles on disjoint surfaces in close proximity have matching length-scales. (3) The algorithm produces a triangulation such that no angle is less than a given angle bound, alpha, or greater than Pi - 2alpha This result also sets bounds on the maximum vertex degree, triangle aspect-ratio and maximum stretching rate for the triangulation. In addition to tile output triangulations for a variety of CAD parts, tile discussion presents related theoretical results which assert the existence of such all angle bound, and demonstrate that maximum bounds of between 25 deg and 30 deg may be achieved in practice.

  3. Equiangular Surfaces, Self-Similar Surfaces, and the Geometry of Seashells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N.

    2007-01-01

    Logarithmic spirals are among the most fascinating curves in the plane, being the only curves that are equiangular, and the only ones that are self-similar. In this article, we show that in three dimensions, these two properties are independent. Although there are surfaces that have both properties, there are some that are equiangular, but not…

  4. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  5. Ice nucleation by electric surface fields of varying range and geometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, J Y; Patey, G N

    2013-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to show that electric field bands acting only over a portion of a surface can function as effective ice nuclei. Field bands of different geometry (rectangular, triangular, and semicircular cross sectional areas are considered) all nucleate ice, provided that the band is sufficiently large. Rectangular bands are very efficient if the width and thickness are ≳0.35 nm, and ≳0.15 nm, respectively, and the necessary dimensions are comparable for other geometries. From these simulations we also learn more about the ice nucleation and growth process. Careful analysis of different systems reveals that ice strongly prefers to grow at (111) planes of cubic ice. This agrees with an earlier theoretical deduction based on considerations of water-ice interfacial energies. We find that ice nucleated by field bands usually grows as a mixture of cubic and hexagonal ice, consistent with other simulations of ice growth, and with experiment. This contrasts with simulations carried out with nucleating fields that span the entire surface area, where cubic ice dominates, and hexagonal layers are very rarely observed. We argue that this discrepancy is a simulation artifact related to finite sample size and periodic boundary conditions.

  6. Influence of Thickness and Contact Surface Geometry of Condylar Stem of TMJ Implant on Its Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Zohreh; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Azari, Abbas

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect thickness and contact surface geometry of condylar stem of TMJ implant on its stability in total reconstruction system and evaluate the micro strain resulted in bone at fixation screw holes in jaw bone embedded with eight different designs of temporomandibular joint implants. A three dimensional model of a lower mandible of an adult were developed from a Computed Tomography scan images. Eight different TMJ implant designs and fixation screws were modeled. Three dimensional finite element models of eight implanted mandibles were analyzed. The forces assigned to the masticatory muscles for incisal clenching were applied consisting of nine important muscular loads. In chosen loading condition, The results indicated that the anatomical curvature contact surface design of TMJ implant can moderately improve the stability and the strain resulted in fixation screw holes in thinner TMJ implant was diminished in comparison with other thicknesses.

  7. An analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper P-Product internal geometry and conformity to earth surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Performance requirements regarding geometric accuracy have been defined in terms of end product goals, but until recently no precise details have been given concerning the conditions under which that accuracy is to be achieved. In order to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolutions, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor was designed to image in both forward and reverse mirror sweeps in two separate focal planes. Both hardware and software have been augmented and changed during the course of the Landsat TM developments to achieve improved geometric accuracy. An investigation has been conducted to determine if the TM meets the National Map Accuracy Standards for geometric accuracy at larger scales. It was found that TM imagery, in terms of geometry, has come close to, and in some cases exceeded, its stringent specifications.

  8. Slab geometry of the South American margin from joint inversion of body waves and surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Portner, D. E.; Lynner, C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.

    2016-12-01

    The western margin of South America is a long subduction zone with a complex, highly three -dimensional geometry. The first order structure of the slab has previously been inferred from seismicity patterns and locations of volcanoes, but confirmation of the slab geometry by seismic imaging for the entire margin has been limited by either shallow, lithospheric scale models or broader, upper mantle images, often defined on a limited spatial footprint. Here, we present new teleseismic tomographic SV seismic models of the upper mantle from 10°S to 40°S along the South American subduction zone with resolution to a depth of 1000 km as inferred from checkerboard tests. In regions near the Peru Bolivia border (12°S to 18°S) and near central Chile and western Argentina (29.5°S to 33°S) we jointly invert the multi-band direct S and SKS relative delay times with Rayleigh wave phase velocities from ambient noise and teleseismic surface wave tomography. This self-consistent model provides information from the upper crust to below the mantle transition zone along the western margin in these two regions. This consistency allows tracing the slab from the South American coastline to the sub-transition zone upper mantle. From this model we image several features, but most notable is a significant eastward step near the southern edge of the margin (24°-30° S). West of this step, a large high shear velocity body is imaged in the base of and below the transition zone. We suggest this may be a stagnant slab, which is descending into the lower mantle now that it is no longer attached to the surface. This suggests a new component to the subduction history of western South America when an older slab lead the convergence before anchoring in the transition zone, breaking off from the surface, and being overtaken by the modern, actively subducting slab now located further east.

  9. Phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Sinapis arvensis and Rapistrum rugosum.

    PubMed

    Saghi, Abolghasem; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Hammami, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, public concern relating to ecological deleterious effects of heavy metals is on the rise. To evaluate the potential of Rapistrum rugosum and Sinapis arvensis in lead- contaminate phytoremediate, a pot culture experiment was conducted. The pots were filled by soil treated with different rates of leadoxide (PbO) including 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg Pb per 1 kg soil. Germinated seeds were sown. Surprisingly, with increasing concentration of Pb, dry weight of R. rugosum and S. arvensis did not decrease significantly. In both of species, the concentration of Pb was higher in roots than shoots. In general, S.arvensis was absorbed more Pb compared to R. rugosum. The results revealed high potential of R. rugosum and S. arvensis in withdrawing Pb from contaminated soil. For both species, a positive linear relation was observed between Pb concentration in soil and roots. However, linear relationship was not observed between Pb concentration in the soil and shoots. Although both species test had low ability in translocation Pb from roots to shoots but they showed high ability in uptake soil Pb by roots. Apparently, these plants are proper species for using in phytoremediation technology.

  10. Determination of the genotoxic effects of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 μl concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 μl extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals.

  11. Covalent immobilization of β-1,4-glucosidase from Agaricus arvensis onto functionalized silicon oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raushan Kumar; Zhang, Ye-Wang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2011-01-01

    An efficient β-1,4-glucosidase (BGL) secreting strain, Agaricus arvensis, was isolated and identified. The relative molecular weight of the purified A. arvensis BGL was 98 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or 780 kDa by size exclusion chromatography, indicating that the enzyme is an octamer. Using a crude enzyme preparation, A. arvensis BGL was covalently immobilized onto functionalized silicon oxide nanoparticles with an immobilization efficiency of 158%. The apparent V (max) (k (cat)) values of free and immobilized BGL under standard assay conditions were 3,028 U mg protein(-1) (4,945 s(-1)) and 3,347 U mg protein(-1) (5,466 s(-1)), respectively. The immobilized BGL showed a higher optimum temperature and improved thermostability as compared to the free enzyme. The half-life at 65 °C showed a 288-fold improvement over the free BGL. After 25 cycles, the immobilized enzyme still retained 95% of the original activity, thus demonstrating its prospects for commercial applications. High specific activity, high immobilization efficiency, improved stability, and reusability of A. arvensis BGL make this enzyme of potential interest in a number of industrial applications.

  12. Issues Related to Cleaning Complex Geometry Surfaces with ODC-Free Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Blake F.; Wurth, Laura A.; Nayate, Pramod D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Implementing ozone depleting chemicals (ODC)-free solvents into full-scale reusable solid rocket motor cleaning operations has presented problems due to the low vapor pressures of the solvents. Because of slow evaporation, solvent retention is a problem on porous substrates or on surfaces with irregular geometry, such as threaded boltholes, leak check ports, and nozzle backfill joints. The new solvents are being evaluated to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which readily evaporates from these surfaces. Selection of the solvents to be evaluated on full-scale hardware was made based on results of subscale tests performed with flat surface coupons, which did not manifest the problem. Test efforts have been undertaken to address concerns with the slow-evaporating solvents. These concerns include effects on materials due to long-term exposure to solvent, potential migration from bolthole threads to seal surfaces, and effects on bolt loading due to solvent retention in threads. Tests performed to date have verified that retained solvent does not affect materials or hardware performance. Process modifications have also been developed to assist drying, and these can be implemented if additional drying becomes necessary.

  13. A Cartesian Grid Generation Method Considering a Complicated Cell Geometry at the Body Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahur, Paulus R.; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    A cell-splitting method for Cartesian grid generation that has the capability of taking into account the cases of thin body and sharp edge is proposed in this paper. Such cases are frequently found when solving the flow around a very thin wing, such as that of a supersonic transport (SST). The method has also been extended to treat the problem of multiple solid regions within a cell, which is sometimes encountered at a highly curved body surface. Validation of the method proposed here is carried out on a sharp, thin double wedge in a supersonic flow, where significant improvements in accuracy are achieved at the cost of a small increase in the number of cells. Furthermore, application of the present method to a model of SST shows its effectiveness on a three-dimensional, realistic geometry. As a result of making a pseudo-planar approximation for body surface elements, the total number of body surface elements was reduced by a factor of about 3.2 in this application. Local grid refinement by relocating grid cells to a curved surface is also proposed, so that a more accurate solution is obtained with a reasonable number of cells.

  14. Generalized B-spline subdivision-surface wavelets for geometry compression.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Martin; Duchaineau, Mark A; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth I

    2004-01-01

    We present a new construction of lifted biorthogonal wavelets on surfaces of arbitrary two-manifold topology for compression and multiresolution representation. Our method combines three approaches: subdivision surfaces of arbitrary topology, B-spline wavelets, and the lifting scheme for biorthogonal wavelet construction. The simple building blocks of our wavelet transform are local lifting operations performed on polygonal meshes with subdivision hierarchy. Starting with a coarse, irregular polyhedral base mesh, our transform creates a subdivision hierarchy of meshes converging to a smooth limit surface. At every subdivision level, geometric detail can be expanded from wavelet coefficients and added to the surface. We present wavelet constructions for bilinear, bicubic, and biquintic B-Spline subdivision. While the bilinear and bicubic constructions perform well in numerical experiments, the biquintic construction turns out to be unstable. For lossless compression, our transform can be computed in integer arithmetic, mapping integer coordinates of control points to integer wavelet coefficients. Our approach provides a highly efficient and progressive representation for complex geometries of arbitrary topology.

  15. Use of non-quadratic yield surfaces in design of optimal deep-draw blank geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    Planar anisotropy in the deep-drawing of sheet can lead to the formation of ears in cylindrical cups and to undesirable metal flow in the blankholder in the general case. For design analysis purposes in non-linear finite-element codes, this anisotropy is characterized by the use of an appropriate yield surface which is then implemented into codes such as DYNA3D . The quadratic Hill yield surface offers a relatively straightforward implementation and can be formulated to be invariant to the coordinate system. Non-quadratic yield surfaces can provide more realistic strength or strain increment ratios, but they may not provide invariance and thus demand certain approximations. Forms due to Hosford and Badat et al. have been shown to more accurately address the earning phenomenon. in this work, use is made of these non-quadratic yield surfaces in order to determine the optimal blank shape for cups and other shapes using ferrous and other metal blank materials with planar anisotropy. The analyses are compared to previous experimental studies on non-uniform blank motion due to anisotropy and asymmetric geometry.

  16. Role of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on laminar flow in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping; Zhang, Chengbin; Shi, Mingheng; Peterson, G. P.

    2009-08-01

    A three-dimensional model of laminar flow in microchannels is numerically analyzed incorporating surface roughness effects as characterized by fractal geometry. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function is proposed to characterize the multiscale self-affine roughness. The effects of Reynolds number, relative roughness, and fractal dimension on laminar flow are all investigated and discussed. The results indicate that unlike flow in smooth microchannels, the Poiseuille number in rough microchannels increases linearly with the Reynolds number, Re, and is larger than what is typically observed in smooth channels. For these situations, the flow over surfaces with high relative roughness induces recirculation and flow separation, which play an important role in single-phase pressure drop. More specifically, surfaces with the larger fractal dimensions yield more frequent variations in the surface profile, which result in a significantly larger incremental pressure loss, even though at the same relative roughness. The accuracy of the predicted Poiseuille number as calculated by the present model is verified using experimental data available in the literature.

  17. Multi-surface Earthquake Rupture Recorded in Pseudotachylyte Vein Geometries, Norumbega Shear Zone, southern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Pollock, S. G.; Swanson, M.; Tarling, M.; Backeberg, N. R.; Coulson, S.; Barshi, N.; Bate, C.; Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Scibek, J.; Harrichhausen, N.; Timofeev, A.; Rakoczy, P.; Nisbet, H.; Castro, A.; Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture surfaces are typically treated as single rupture planes. However, the observation of four linked, non-parallel to sub-parallel slip surfaces on a mining induced earthquake in 2004 shows that rupture geometries may be more complicated (Heesakkers et al., 2011). Multiple pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surfaces are exposed within a 1.1 km wide mylonite zone of the Paleozoic Norumbega fault system. The pseudotachylytes are present in two juxtaposed mylonite zones: the Ray Corner mylonite and a mylonite derived from Scarboro Formation metavolcanics. The Ray Corner mylonite crosscuts pelitic schists of the Cape Elizabeth Formation, at upper greenschist-facies conditions (quartz + feldspar + chlorite + muscovite ± titanite ± pyrite). The pseudotachylyte veins formed late in the deformational history, during a period of predominantly brittle dextral offset. The pseudotachylytes are cryptocrystalline and have rounded porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar. Microstructural observations show evidence for static and dynamic recrystallization overprinting the primary quench textures, suggesting that previous generations of rupture surfaces have been recycled into the mylonitic fabric (Price et al., 2012). Many of the pseudotachylyte veins have a sharp boundary on one side and are poorly defined on the other, providing insight to the propagation direction. This confirms that the paleo-earthquake ruptures occurred at conditions where quartz and feldspar were able to deform plastically, near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using differential GPS, we mapped the geometry of pseudotachylyte fault veins, injection veins, and slip surface intersections. At Ray Corner, there are 7 layer-parallel pseudotachylytes in a 4 m wide zone with linking and subsequent oblique pseudotachylytes. Some intersections between pseudotachylytes are dilational, depending on the intersection angle and relative displacement on the two faults. At these sites, pseudotachylyte melt sourced

  18. Genetic elaborations of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in Mentha arvensis genotypes: assessing genotypic and phenotypic correlations along with gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anand; Lal, R K; Chanotiya, C S; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-03-01

    Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes.

  19. Connecting the surface of the Sun to the Heliosphere : wind speed and magnetic field geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui

    2016-07-01

    The large-scale solar wind speed distribution varies in time in response to the cyclic variations of the strength and geometry of the magnetic field of the corona. Based on this idea, semi-empirical predictive laws for the solar wind speed (such as in the widely-used WSA law) use simple parameters describing the geometry of the coronal magnetic field. In practice, such scaling laws require ad-hoc corrections and empirical fits to in-situ spacecraft data, and a predictive law based solely on physical principles is still missing. I will discuss improvements to this kind of laws based on the analysis of very large samples of wind acceleration profiles in open flux-tubes (both from MHD simulations and potential-field extrapolations), and possible strategies for corona and heliosphere model coupling. I will, furthermore present an ongoing modelling effort to determine the magnetic connectivity, paths and propagation delays of any type of disturbance (slow/fast solar wind, waves, energetic particles, ballistic propagation) between the solar surface and any point in the interplanetary space at any time. This is a key point for the exploitation of data from Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus, and more generally for establishing connections between remote and in-situ spacecraft data. This is work is supported by the FP7 project #606692 (HELCATS).

  20. Isolated, slowly evolving, and dynamical trapping horizons: Geometry and mechanics from surface deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen

    2007-04-15

    We study the geometry and dynamics of both isolated and dynamical trapping horizons by considering the allowed variations of their foliating two-surfaces. This provides a common framework that may be used to consider both their possible evolutions and their deformations as well as derive the well-known flux laws. Using this framework, we unify much of what is already known about these objects as well as derive some new results. In particular we characterize and study the 'almost isolated' trapping horizons known as slowly evolving horizons. It is for these horizons that a dynamical first law holds and this is analogous and closely related to the Hawking-Hartle formula for event horizons.

  1. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  2. Preservation of pears in water in the presence of Sinapis arvensis seeds: a Greek tradition.

    PubMed

    Papatsaroucha, Eleni; Pavlidou, Sofia; Hatzikamari, Magdalini; Lazaridou, Athina; Torriani, Sandra; Gerasopoulos, Dimitris; Tzanetaki, Evanthia Litopoulou

    2012-10-15

    In this research, the microbiological and physicochemical changes during preservation of pears in water in the presence of Sinapis arvensis seeds (PWS FL) according to the traditional Greek home food manufacture were studied. Pears preserved in water served as control (PW FL). The growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) coming from the pear surface was enhanced in the presence of Sinapis seeds, while Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria declined coincidently with the lower (P<0.05) pH of the PWS FL. LAB predominated over the other microbial groups in the fermentation liquids (FLs) of both systems. All the 49 LAB isolates from one fermentation experiment were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris by the SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, while RAPD-PCR fingerprinting and partial 16S rRNA sequence determination of selected isolates did not discriminate them at the subspecies level. Fruit preserved in PWS FL had higher titratable or volatile acidity, phenolic compounds or antioxidant capacity as well as lower pH and firmness than the control fruit. All physicochemical parameters of the FLs increased except of the pH which decreased. Coincidently with higher population of LAB in PWS FL the levels of citric, lactic and acetic acid were higher than in control. Oxalic acid and related unknown substances were found at higher levels in PWS FL than the control and may be the agent(s) enhancing the growth of LAB and/or contributing partially to the decline of Enterobacteriaceae. The organoleptic test showed that fruit preserved in PWS FL had better overall acceptance than the control, and that it retained most of the positive traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Use of Microscale Geometry to Tailor Stimulus-Responsive Surface Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lin; Yin, Jie; Wang, Lifeng; Chia, Khek-Khiang; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz, Christine

    2012-02-01

    The capability to tailor stimulus-responsive surface friction, including sensitivity profile, range, temporal response and deformation mechanisms, holds great potential for an array of engineering and biomedical applications. In this study, the pH-dependent friction of layer-by-layer assemblies of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) were quantified for structures of a continuous planar film and anisotropic microtube forests via lateral force microscopy. By comparing experiments to microstructure-specific finite element modeling, a mechanistic change from surface adhesion-dominated friction (μ=0.11) to viscoelasticity-governed shear (=0.017) was predicted upon ionic crosslink density reduction of PAH/PAA from pH 5.5 to 2.0 for the film (6.5x decrease). The responsiveness of μ was further tuned by the tube forest geometry to be 3.5x. At pH 5.5, μ (=0.094) was lower than the film due to discrete tube bending/buckling and smaller tip-sample interface stress. At pH 2.0, μ (=0.027) was higher because of inter-tube contact and weaker substrate effect. This study provides an excellent platform to quantitatively access and design dynamic substrates with tailorable stimulus-responsive surface friction.

  4. From matrix models' topological expansion to topological string theories: counting surfaces with algebraic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orantin, N.

    2007-09-01

    The 2-matrix model has been introduced to study Ising model on random surfaces. Since then, the link between matrix models and combinatorics of discrete surfaces has strongly tightened. This manuscript aims to investigate these deep links and extend them beyond the matrix models, following my work's evolution. First, I take care to define properly the hermitian 2 matrix model which gives rise to generating functions of discrete surfaces equipped with a spin structure. Then, I show how to compute all the terms in the topological expansion of any observable by using algebraic geometry tools. They are obtained as differential forms on an algebraic curve associated to the model: the spectral curve. In a second part, I show how to define such differentials on any algebraic curve even if it does not come from a matrix model. I then study their numerous symmetry properties under deformations of the algebraic curve. In particular, I show that these objects coincide with the topological expansion of the observable of a matrix model if the algebraic curve is the spectral curve of this model. Finally, I show that fine tuning the parameters ensure that these objects can be promoted to modular invariants and satisfy the holomorphic anomaly equation of the Kodaira-Spencer theory. This gives a new hint that the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture is correct.

  5. Lithological and Surface Geometry Joint Inversions Using Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Bijani, Rodrigo; Farquharson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based minimum-structure geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy may be to consider two fundamentally different types of inversions: lithological and surface geometry inversions. A major advantage of these two inversion approaches is that joint inversion of multiple types of geophysical data is greatly simplified. In a lithological inversion, the subsurface is discretized into a mesh and each cell contains a particular rock type. A lithological model must be translated to a physical property model before geophysical data simulation. Each lithology may map to discrete property values or there may be some a priori probability density function associated with the mapping. Through this mapping, lithological inverse problems limit the parameter domain and consequently reduce the non-uniqueness from that presented by standard mesh-based inversions that allow physical property values on continuous ranges. Furthermore, joint inversion is greatly simplified because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function to link multiple physical property models. In a surface geometry inversion, the model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units. This parameterization is then fully consistent with Earth models built by geologists, which in 3D typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles. As for the lithological case, the physical properties of the units lying between the contact

  6. Surface Geometry and Stomatal Conductance Effects on Evaporation From Aquatic Macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Idso, Sherwood B.

    1987-06-01

    Evaporative water loss rates of several floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes were studied over a 4-year period through comparison of daily evaporative water losses from similar-sized vegetated (E) and open water (E0) surfaces. Two species with planate floating leaves (water fern and water lily) yielded E/E0 values of 0.90 for one and four growing seasons, respectively, and displayed stomatal regulation of potential evaporation. Water hyacinths grown in ponds with different diameters exhibited E/E0 ratios which decreased with increasing pond diameter for both short (0.06-0.36 m) and tall (0.63-0.81 m) plants, producing high linear correlations with amount of peripheral vegetative surface area. The latter relationships suggested an E/E0 value less than unity for a relatively extensive canopy of short water hyacinths and a value of the order of 1.4 for a tall canopy possessing similar two-dimensional surface area characteristics. The latter results were also demonstrated in a separate study utilizing polyurethane foam to insulate the peripheral exposure of tall water hyacinth canopies from advective energy. Finally, simultaneous stomatal conductance and daily E/E0 measurements on cattail and water hyacinth canopies with identical tank diameters indicated that although the mean stomatal conductance of the peripheral exposure of the cattail canopy was 72% less than that of the water hyacinth canopy, its total evaporative water loss was nearly equivalent, due to its greater height. Reducing the surface area of the peripheral cattail exposure by the fractional amount suggested by the stomatal conductance measurements harmonized its surface geometry-evaporation relationship with that of the water hyacinth canopy and once again demonstrated the reality of stomatal control of potential evaporation.

  7. Surface depression with double-angle geometry during the discharge of grains from a silo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Ramos-Reyes, A. Y.; Hidalgo-Caballero, S.

    2017-08-01

    When rough grains in loose packing conditions are discharged from a silo, a conical depression with a single slope is formed at the surface. We observed that the increase of volume fraction generates a more complex depression, characterized by two angles of discharge: one at the bottom similar to the angle of repose and a considerably larger upper angle. The change in slope appears at the boundary between a dense stagnant region at the periphery and the central flowing channel formed over the aperture. Since the material in the latter zone is always fluidized, the flow rate is unaffected by the initial packing of the bed. On the other hand, the contrast between both angles is markedly smaller when smooth particles of the same size and density are used, which reveals that high packing fraction and friction must combine to produce the observed geometry. Our results show that the surface profile helps to identify by simple visual inspection the packing conditions of a granular bed, being useful to prevent undesirable collapses during silo discharge in industry.

  8. SU-E-J-128: 3D Surface Reconstruction of a Patient Using Epipolar Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoku, J; Nakabayashi, S; Kumagai, S; Ishibashi, T; Kobayashi, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Arai, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To obtain a 3D surface data of a patient in a non-invasive way can substantially reduce the effort for the registration of patient in radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we introduced the multiple view stereo technique, which is known to be used in a 'photo tourism' on the internet. Methods: 70 Images were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera from different angles and positions. The camera positions and angles were inferred later in the reconstruction step. A sparse 3D reconstruction model was locating by SIFT features, which is robust for rotation and shift variance, in each image. We then found a set of correspondences between pairs of images by computing the fundamental matrix using the eight-point algorithm with RANSAC. After the pair matching, we optimized the parameter including camera positions to minimize the reprojection error by use of bundle adjustment technique (non-linear optimization). As a final step, we performed dense reconstruction and associate a color with each point using the library of PMVS. Results: Surface data were reconstructed well by visual inspection. The human skin is reconstructed well, althogh the reconstruction was time-consuming for direct use in daily clinical practice. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction using multi view stereo geometry is a promising tool for reducing the effort of patient setup. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI(25861128)

  9. Nanoindentation characterisation of human colorectal cancer cells considering cell geometry, surface roughness and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Uva, Antonio E.; Papi, Massimiliano; Fiorentino, Michele; De Spirito, Marco; Monno, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of cancer cells is an issue of crucial importance as specific cell mechanical properties have been measured and utilized as possible biomarkers of cancer progression. Atomic force microscopy certainly occupies a prominent place in the field of the mechanical characterisation devices. We developed a hybrid approach to characterise different cell lines (SW620 and SW480) of the human colon carcinoma submitted to nanoindentation measurements. An ad hoc algorithm was written that compares the force-indentation curves experimentally retrieved with those predicted by a finite element model that simulates the nanoindentation process and reproduces the cell geometry and the surface roughness. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the values of the cell mechanical properties implemented in the finite element model until the difference between the experimental and numerical force-indentation curves reaches the minimum value. The occurrence of this indicates that the implemented material properties are very close to the real ones. Different hyperelastic constitutive models, such as Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean were utilized to describe the structural behaviour of indented cells. The algorithm was capable of separating, for all the cell lines investigated, the mechanical properties of cell cortex and cytoskeleton. Material properties determined via the algorithm were different with respect to those obtained with the Hertzian contact theory. This demonstrates that factors such as: the cell geometry/anatomy and the hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, which are not contemplated in the Hertz’s theory hypotheses, do affect the nanoindentation measurements. The proposed approach represents a powerful tool that, only on the basis of nanoindentation measurements, is capable of characterising material at the subcellular level.

  10. Nanoindentation characterisation of human colorectal cancer cells considering cell geometry, surface roughness and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Uva, Antonio E; Papi, Massimiliano; Fiorentino, Michele; De Spirito, Marco; Monno, Giuseppe

    2017-01-27

    Characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of cancer cells is an issue of crucial importance as specific cell mechanical properties have been measured and utilized as possible biomarkers of cancer progression. Atomic force microscopy certainly occupies a prominent place in the field of the mechanical characterisation devices. We developed a hybrid approach to characterise different cell lines (SW620 and SW480) of the human colon carcinoma submitted to nanoindentation measurements. An ad hoc algorithm was written that compares the force-indentation curves experimentally retrieved with those predicted by a finite element model that simulates the nanoindentation process and reproduces the cell geometry and the surface roughness. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the values of the cell mechanical properties implemented in the finite element model until the difference between the experimental and numerical force-indentation curves reaches the minimum value. The occurrence of this indicates that the implemented material properties are very close to the real ones. Different hyperelastic constitutive models, such as Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean were utilized to describe the structural behaviour of indented cells. The algorithm was capable of separating, for all the cell lines investigated, the mechanical properties of cell cortex and cytoskeleton. Material properties determined via the algorithm were different with respect to those obtained with the Hertzian contact theory. This demonstrates that factors such as: the cell geometry/anatomy and the hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, which are not contemplated in the Hertz's theory hypotheses, do affect the nanoindentation measurements. The proposed approach represents a powerful tool that, only on the basis of nanoindentation measurements, is capable of characterising material at the subcellular level.

  11. Biaxial stresses, surface roughness and microstructure in evaporated TiO 2 films with different deposition geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chuen-Lin

    2009-11-01

    The residual stresses, surface roughness and microstructure in titanium oxide films prepared by electron-beam evaporation and deposited with different geometries were investigated, with particular focus on the in-plane anisotropy of the biaxial stresses and microstructures. Thin films were deposited with various deposition angles on B270 glass substrates and silicon wafers. Two different types of deposition geometries were studied. The residual stress in the thin films was examined by a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. The optical constants, biaxial stress and surface roughness were found to be related to the evolution of the anisotropic microstructures in the films. The results revealed that the anisotropic stresses that developed in the evaporated titanium oxide films were dependent upon the deposition geometry and microstructure of the films.

  12. A new class of actuator surface models incorporating wind turbine blade and nacelle geometry effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    It was shown by Kang, Yang and Sotiropoulos that the nacelle has significant effects on the turbine wake even in the far wake region, which the standard actuator line model is not able to predict. We develop a new class of actuator surface models for the blades and nacelle, which is able to resolve the effects of both tip vortices and nacelle vortex. The new nacelle model, which is based on distributing forces from the actual nacelle geometry as in the diffused interface immersed boundary methods, is first tested by carrying out LES of the flow past a sphere and demonstrating good agreement with available in the literature DNS results. The proposed model is subsequently validated by simulating the flow past the hydrokinetic turbine used in the simulations of Kang et al. and good agreement with the measurements is demonstrated. Finally, the proposed model is applied to utility scale wind turbines to elucidate the role of nacelle vortex dynamics on turbine wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories. Computational resources were provided by SNL and MSI.

  13. Durable, superoleophobic polymer–nanoparticle composite surfaces with re-entrant geometry via solvent-induced phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-02-01

    Superoleophobic plastic surfaces are useful in a wide variety of applications including anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and low-drag. Existing examples of superoleophobic surfaces typically rely on poorly adhered coatings or delicate surface structures, resulting in poor mechanical durability. Here, we report a facile method for creating re-entrant geometries desirable for superoleophobicity via entrapment of nanoparticles in polycarbonate surfaces. Nanoparticle incorporation occurs during solvent-induced swelling and subsequent crystallization of the polymer surface. The resulting surface was found to comprise of re-entrant structures, a result of the nanoparticle agglomerates acting as nucleation points for polymer crystallization. Examples of such surfaces were further functionalized with fluorosilane to result in a durable, super-repellent surface. This method of impregnating nanoparticles into polymer surfaces could prove useful in improving the anti-bacterial, mechanical, and liquid-repellent properties of plastic devices.

  14. Durable, superoleophobic polymer–nanoparticle composite surfaces with re-entrant geometry via solvent-induced phase transformation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Superoleophobic plastic surfaces are useful in a wide variety of applications including anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and low-drag. Existing examples of superoleophobic surfaces typically rely on poorly adhered coatings or delicate surface structures, resulting in poor mechanical durability. Here, we report a facile method for creating re-entrant geometries desirable for superoleophobicity via entrapment of nanoparticles in polycarbonate surfaces. Nanoparticle incorporation occurs during solvent-induced swelling and subsequent crystallization of the polymer surface. The resulting surface was found to comprise of re-entrant structures, a result of the nanoparticle agglomerates acting as nucleation points for polymer crystallization. Examples of such surfaces were further functionalized with fluorosilane to result in a durable, super-repellent surface. This method of impregnating nanoparticles into polymer surfaces could prove useful in improving the anti-bacterial, mechanical, and liquid-repellent properties of plastic devices. PMID:26876479

  15. The sensitivity of biological finite element models to the resolution of surface geometry: a case study of crocodilian crania

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alistair R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of finite element analysis (FEA) in biomechanical investigations depends upon understanding the influence of model assumptions. In producing finite element models, surface mesh resolution is influenced by the resolution of input geometry, and influences the resolution of the ensuing solid mesh used for numerical analysis. Despite a large number of studies incorporating sensitivity studies of the effects of solid mesh resolution there has not yet been any investigation into the effect of surface mesh resolution upon results in a comparative context. Here we use a dataset of crocodile crania to examine the effects of surface resolution on FEA results in a comparative context. Seven high-resolution surface meshes were each down-sampled to varying degrees while keeping the resulting number of solid elements constant. These models were then subjected to bite and shake load cases using finite element analysis. The results show that incremental decreases in surface resolution can result in fluctuations in strain magnitudes, but that it is possible to obtain stable results using lower resolution surface in a comparative FEA study. As surface mesh resolution links input geometry with the resulting solid mesh, the implication of these results is that low resolution input geometry and solid meshes may provide valid results in a comparative context. PMID:26056620

  16. The sensitivity of biological finite element models to the resolution of surface geometry: a case study of crocodilian crania.

    PubMed

    McCurry, Matthew R; Evans, Alistair R; McHenry, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of finite element analysis (FEA) in biomechanical investigations depends upon understanding the influence of model assumptions. In producing finite element models, surface mesh resolution is influenced by the resolution of input geometry, and influences the resolution of the ensuing solid mesh used for numerical analysis. Despite a large number of studies incorporating sensitivity studies of the effects of solid mesh resolution there has not yet been any investigation into the effect of surface mesh resolution upon results in a comparative context. Here we use a dataset of crocodile crania to examine the effects of surface resolution on FEA results in a comparative context. Seven high-resolution surface meshes were each down-sampled to varying degrees while keeping the resulting number of solid elements constant. These models were then subjected to bite and shake load cases using finite element analysis. The results show that incremental decreases in surface resolution can result in fluctuations in strain magnitudes, but that it is possible to obtain stable results using lower resolution surface in a comparative FEA study. As surface mesh resolution links input geometry with the resulting solid mesh, the implication of these results is that low resolution input geometry and solid meshes may provide valid results in a comparative context.

  17. A rare chemical burn due to Ranunculus arvensis: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Abdullah O; Saritemur, Murat; Atac, Kenan; Guclu, Sibel; Ozlu, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis, a plant that is a member of Ranunculaceae family, generally used for local treatment of joint pain, muscle pain, burns, lacerations, edema, abscess drainage, hemorrhoids, and warts among the population. In this case report, we presented three patients who developed chemical skin burns after using R. arvensis plant locally for knee pain. The destructive effect of the plant has been reported previously to be more in fresh plants and less in dried plants. Although protoanemonin, which is considered as the main toxic substance, was reported to be absent in dried or boiled plants, the plant was boiled, cooled, and wrapped over the region with pain in our cases. Therefore, we thought that protoanemonin may be considered to be heat resistant. Also, the burn management proceeded up to surgery by using the flap technique in one of our patients in contrast to the cases found in published reports who were treated by antibiotics and dressings.

  18. Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 1. EXAFS studies of the geometry of coprecipitated and adsorbed arsenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waychunas, G. A.; Rea, B. A.; Fuller, C. C.; Davis, J. A.

    1993-05-01

    EXAFS spectra were collected on both the As and Fe K-edges from samples of two-line ferrihydrite with adsorbed (ADS) and coprecipitated (CPT) arsenate prepared over a range of conditions and arsenate surface coverages. Spectra also were collected for arsenate adsorbed on the surfaces of three FeOOH crystalline polymorphs, α (goethite), β (akaganeite), and γ (lepidocrocite), and as a free ion in aqueous: solution. Analyses of the As EXAFS show clear evidence for inner sphere bidentate (bridging) arsenate complexes on the ferrihydrite surface and on the surfaces of the crystalline FeOOH polymorphs. The bridging arsenate is attached to adjacent apices of edge-sharing Fe oxyhydroxyl octahedra. The arsenic-iron distance at the interface ( 3.28 ±0.01 Å) is close to that expected for this geometry on the FeOOH polymorph surfaces, but is slightly shorter on the ferrihydrite surfaces ( 3.25 ± 0.02 Å). Mono-dentate arsenate linkages ( 3.60 ± 0.03 Å) also occur on the ferrihydrite, but are not generally observed on the crystalline FeOOH polymorphs. The proportion of monodentate bonds appears largest for adsorption samples with the smallest As/Fe molar ratio. In all cases the arsenate tetrahedral complex is relatively undistorted with As-O bonds of 1.66 ± 0.01 Å. Precipitation of arsenate or scorodite-like phases was not observed for any samples, all of which were prepared at a pH value of 8. The Fe EXAFS results confirm that the Fe-Fe correlations in the ferrihydrite are progressively disrupted in the CPT samples as the As/Fe ratio is increased. Coherent crystallite size is probably no more than 10 Å in diameter and no Fe oxyhydroxyl octahedra corner-sharing linkages (as would be present in FeOOH polymorphs) are observed at the largest As/Fe ratios. Comparison of the number and type of Fe-Fe neighbors with the topological constraints imposed by the arsenate saturation limit in the CPT samples (about 0.7 As/Fe) indicates ferrihydrite units consisting mainly of Fe

  19. Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 1. EXAFS studies of the geometry of coprecipitated and adsorbed arsenate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.A.; Rea, B.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    EXAFS spectra were collected on both the As and Fe K-edges from samples of two-line ferrihydrite with adsorbed (ADS) and coprecipitated (CPT) arsenate prepared over a range of conditions and arsenate surface coverages. Spectra also were collected for arsenate adsorbed on the surfaces of three FeOOH crystalline polymorphs, ?? (goethite), ?? (akaganeite), and ?? (lepidocrocite), and as a free ion in aqueous: solution. Analyses of the As EXAFS show clear evidence for inner sphere bidentate (bridging) arsenate complexes on the ferrihydrite surface and on the surfaces of the crystalline FeOOH polymorphs. The bridging arsenate is attached to adjacent apices of edge-sharing Fe oxyhydroxyl octahedra. The arsenic-iron distance at the interface (3.28 ??0.01 A ??) is close to that expected for this geometry on the FeOOH polymorph surfaces, but is slightly shorter on the ferrihydrite surfaces (3.25 ?? 0.02 A ??). Mono-dentate arsenate linkages (3.60 ?? 0.03 A ??) also occur on the ferrihydrite, but are not generally observed on the crystalline FeOOH polymorphs. The proportion of monodentate bonds appears largest for adsorption samples with the smallest As Fe molar ratio. In all cases the arsenate tetrahedral complex is relatively undistorted with As-O bonds of 1.66 ?? 0.01 A ??. Precipitation of arsenate or scorodite-like phases was not observed for any samples, all of which were prepared at a pH value of 8. The Fe EXAFS results confirm that the Fe-Fe correlations in the ferrihydrite are progressively disrupted in the CPT samples as the As Fe ratio is increased. Coherent crystallite size is probably no more than 10 A?? in diameter and no Fe oxyhydroxyl octahedra corner-sharing linkages (as would be present in FeOOH polymorphs) are observed at the largest As Fe ratios. Comparison of the number and type of Fe-Fe neighbors with the topological constraints imposed by the arsenate saturation limit in the CPT samples (about 0.7 As Fe) indicates ferrihydrite units consisting mainly

  20. Vegetative reproduction and chemical control with post-emergent herbicides of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Gyenes, V; Béres, I; Lehoczky, E; Kazinczi, G; Nyári, A

    2005-01-01

    It is clearly seen from data that roots of Convolvulus arvensis L. have more and less intensive regenerative period during growing season. The more intensive period is in autumn, because in that time roots culminate nutrients, carbohydrate as starch and sugar. The less intensive regenerative or shoot-growing period is in spring, called "late spring bud dormancy". Experiments were conducted to get more information and further details about the regenerative capacity of roots close to and far from the collar of Convolvulus arvensis L. Root segments closer to collar have an intensive regenerative capacity than those ones further to collar. By data of Bakke et al. (1939) is well known, roots exhumed from deep soil layers are able to create shoots with low intensity. So finally we can exclaim that regenerative capacity is decreasing further to collar. Using mechanical weed control it is sufficient to till the upper layer of soil, but many times. Chemical treatments are most effective in the integrated weed control. It is clearly seen that auxin-type herbicide such as 2,4-D, fluroxipir, MCPA. dicamba give the best result. They gave 95% weed control effect used them separately or in combination with other herbicides. Combination of Banvel 480 S (dicamba) and Logran 75 WG (triasulfuron) introduced 95% weed control effect. Only one time got absolutely 100% weed control effect, in the case of Glyphosate active substance. Caused total plant destruction. Excellent result was given with the application of Pledge 50WP (flumioxazin). Herbicides mentioned above are absolutely allowed to take an important and significant part in chemical plant protection against Convolvulus arvensis L. Other herbicides like Granstar 75DF (tribenuron-methyl), Basis 75DF (rimsulfuron + tifensulfuron-methyl) and Huszár (jodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + mefenpir-diethyl) are not so effective against Convolvulus arvensis L., as compared to the previous ones.

  1. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  2. Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species. PMID:24386242

  3. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Semur, Heybet; Kose, Ozkan; Ozhasenekler, Ayhan; Celiktas, Mustafa; Basbug, Murat; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2011-02-21

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature.

  4. Antimicrobial, antitumor and brine shrimp lethality assay of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Saeed, Asma; Saeed, Ahmad; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor activity, brine shrimp lethality assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol Extract (ME), Water Extract (WE), Acetone Extract (AE), Chloroform Extract (CE), Methanol-Water Extract (MWE), Methanol-Acetone Extract (MAE), Methanol-Chloroform Extract (MCE) of Ranunculus arvensis (L.). Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At10) induced potato disc assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with brine shrimp lethality assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with six bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus anginosus and antifungal screening was done against five fungal strains including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigates, Fusarium solani and Mucor species by using disc diffusion method. Best antitumor activity was obtained with ME and WE, having highest IC50 values 20.27 ± 1.62 and 93.01 ± 1.33μg/disc. Brine shrimp lethality assay showed LC50 values of AE, MAE and ME were obtained as 384.66 ± 9.42μg/ml, 724.11 ± 8.01μg/ml and 978.7 ±8.01 μg/ml respectively. WE of R. arvensis revealed weak antimicrobial result against the tested microorganisms. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the plant extracts was found to be insignificant. These findings demonstrate that extracts of R. arvensis possesses significant antitumor activity. Further extensive study is necessary to assess the therapeutic potential of the plant.

  5. Non-parametric deprojection of surface brightness profiles of galaxies in generalised geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, D.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We present a new Bayesian non-parametric deprojection algorithm DOPING (Deprojection of Observed Photometry using an INverse Gambit), that is designed to extract 3-D luminosity density distributions ρ from observed surface brightness maps I, in generalised geometries, while taking into account changes in intrinsic shape with radius, using a penalised likelihood approach and an Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimiser. Methods: We provide the most likely solution to the integral equation that represents deprojection of the measured I to ρ. In order to keep the solution modular, we choose to express ρ as a function of the line-of-sight (LOS) coordinate z. We calculate the extent of the system along the z-axis, for a given point on the image that lies within an identified isophotal annulus. The extent along the LOS is binned and density is held a constant over each such z-bin. The code begins with a seed density and at the beginning of an iterative step, the trial ρ is updated. Comparison of the projection of the current choice of ρ and the observed I defines the likelihood function (which is supplemented by Laplacian regularisation), the maximal region of which is sought by the optimiser (Metropolis Hastings). Results: The algorithm is successfully tested on a set of test galaxies, the morphology of which ranges from an elliptical galaxy with varying eccentricity to an infinitesimally thin disk galaxy marked by an abruptly varying eccentricity profile. Applications are made to faint dwarf elliptical galaxy Ic 3019 and another dwarf elliptical that is characterised by a central spheroidal nuclear component superimposed upon a more extended flattened component. The result of deprojection of the X-ray image of cluster A1413 - assumed triaxial - the axial ratios and inclination of which are taken from the literature, is also presented.

  6. Study of X-ray diffraction from a surface acoustic wave in the grazing geometry with allowance for the curvature of the unperturbed crystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, A. R. Kocharyan, V. R.; Levonyan, L. V.; Khachaturyan, G. K.

    2006-12-15

    Fresnel X-ray diffraction from a concave crystal surface in the presence of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) has been considered for grazing angles of incidence in noncoplanar symmetric Laue geometry. It is shown that the main peak and diffraction satellites are focused at different distances from a crystal. The effect of deviation from the Bragg angle, the spectral line width, and the SAW amplitude on the X-ray diffraction pattern has been analyzed. It is established that the contrast of an X-ray diffraction pattern of an SAW in Bragg-Laue grazing geometry is related to the character of irregularities of the crystal surface, and the pattern details depend on the measurement mode. The sensitivity of the method is about a nanometer. The focal image of the SAW serves as a scale landmark for determining the crystal surface characteristics.

  7. Swept Mechanism of Micro-Milling Tool Geometry Effect on Machined Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper (OFHC) Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhanqiang; Li, Yuchao; Qiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cutting tool geometry should be very much considered in micro-cutting because it has a significant effect on the topography and accuracy of the machined surface, particularly considering the uncut chip thickness is comparable to the cutting edge radius. The objective of this paper was to clarify the influence of the mechanism of the cutting tool geometry on the surface topography in the micro-milling process. Four different cutting tools including two two-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° cutting tools, as well as two three-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° were investigated by combining theoretical modeling analysis with experimental research. The tool geometry was mathematically modeled through coordinate translation and transformation to make all three cutting edges at the cutting tool tip into the same coordinate system. Swept mechanisms, minimum uncut chip thickness, and cutting tool run-out were considered on modeling surface roughness parameters (the height of surface roughness Rz and average surface roughness Ra) based on the established mathematical model. A set of cutting experiments was carried out using four different shaped cutting tools. It was found that the sweeping volume of the cutting tool increases with the decrease of both the cutting tool helix angle and the flute number. Great coarse machined surface roughness and more non-uniform surface topography are generated when the sweeping volume increases. The outcome of this research should bring about new methodologies for micro-end milling tool design and manufacturing. The machined surface roughness can be improved by appropriately selecting the tool geometrical parameters. PMID:28772479

  8. Swept Mechanism of Micro-Milling Tool Geometry Effect on Machined Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper (OFHC) Surface Roughness.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhanqiang; Li, Yuchao; Qiao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Cutting tool geometry should be very much considered in micro-cutting because it has a significant effect on the topography and accuracy of the machined surface, particularly considering the uncut chip thickness is comparable to the cutting edge radius. The objective of this paper was to clarify the influence of the mechanism of the cutting tool geometry on the surface topography in the micro-milling process. Four different cutting tools including two two-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° cutting tools, as well as two three-fluted end milling tools with different helix angles of 15° and 30° were investigated by combining theoretical modeling analysis with experimental research. The tool geometry was mathematically modeled through coordinate translation and transformation to make all three cutting edges at the cutting tool tip into the same coordinate system. Swept mechanisms, minimum uncut chip thickness, and cutting tool run-out were considered on modeling surface roughness parameters (the height of surface roughness Rz and average surface roughness Ra) based on the established mathematical model. A set of cutting experiments was carried out using four different shaped cutting tools. It was found that the sweeping volume of the cutting tool increases with the decrease of both the cutting tool helix angle and the flute number. Great coarse machined surface roughness and more non-uniform surface topography are generated when the sweeping volume increases. The outcome of this research should bring about new methodologies for micro-end milling tool design and manufacturing. The machined surface roughness can be improved by appropriately selecting the tool geometrical parameters.

  9. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.

  10. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  11. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M; Queener, Hope M; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-07-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (-0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma.

  12. Geometry and segmentation mechanisms of the surface traces associated with the 1912 Selsund Earthquake, Southern Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellou, M.; Bergerat, F.; Homberg, C.; Angelier, J.

    2003-04-01

    In South Iceland, plate separation occurs along several active zones: the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ), the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and the Reykjanes Ridge (RR). Their relative positions involve the development of a complex transform zone: the 70 km-long E-W trending South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). The SISZ absorbs a left-lateral transform motion, but almost large active faults are N-S trending right-lateral strike-slip faults. The Selsund fault is one of these major historical faults. The Selsund earthquake, which occurred on May 6th 1912, was the first instrumentally recorded earthquake (M=7) in Iceland. To characterise the geometry of the surface deformation, we carried out field measurements and kinematic GPS mapping along the 9 km-long visible fault trace. A co-seismic displacement of about 2,4m along the fault has been determined based on the push-up structure analysis. Using empirical relationships, we conclude that for such displacement the true rupture length of the Selsund fault would be approximately of 44 km. Profile displacement suggests that the fault extends northward and southward, although chaotic rocks (Aa Lava Flows) prevent to make an accurate mapping. The surface traces reveal systematic en-échelon left-stepping segmentation at three different scales. We thus defined the segment (several hundred meters), the array of fractures (few tens of meters) and the individual fracture (2-6m). The array of fractures are composed by en-échelon arrangement of individual fractures and push-ups. Individual fractures are either open fracture, simple fracture (without displacement), or fracture with vertical offset. The open and simple fractures are 2-5m long and strike N20° to N50°. The vertical offset ranges between 0,3 and 0,6m. Fracture lengths of west down fractures range between 6 and 9m. Offset of east down fractures are smaller (4-6m), but these fractures are more numerous. The segments make an average angle of 10-30° clockwise relative to

  13. Using the dynamically coupled behavior of land-surface geometry and soil thickness in developing and testing hillslope evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furbish, David Jon

    Many landforms whose dynamics we wish to understand evolve too slowly to directly measure their rates of change, so extracting basic kinematic information from these landforms for the purpose of testing dynamical models that are aimed at describing their geomorphic behavior is problematical. Hillslopes undergoing dispersive soil transport are a particularly good example. That is, land-surface configuration, viewed alone, is not necessarily indicative of a steady or transient state. Differences in hillslope geometry associated with alternative, hypothesized forms of the soil transport relation are not readily distinguishable at an arbitrary instant from effects related to uncertainty in parametric quantities, and initial and boundary conditions, thus making it difficult to test alternative transport relations. This and similar problems beg for strategies to extract kinematic information from limited observations of landforms, with the aim of exacting more demanding tests of our models. One possibility involves focusing on several variable quantities whose behaviors are coupled. The essential idea is that this obliges a proposed (coupled) model to correctly "predict" an observable landform configuration that is defined by more than one quantity. This places more stringent demands on the model, and may provide sufficient information to discriminate between the effects of alternative models for comparison with field observations. This idea is illustrated with the simple, familiar example of forced convection in Hagen-Poiseuille flow, then examined in more detail for the case of hillslope evolution in which the land-surface geometry and soil thickness are coupled; alternative models assume that transport is proportional to either the land-surface gradient or to the product of soil thickness and surface gradient. Numerical simulations illustrate how, for both models, it is possible to distinguish steady from transient hillslope conditions based on observations of both

  14. Electronic structure and binding geometry of tetraphenylporphyrin-derived molecules adsorbed on metal and metal oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coh, Senia

    Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP)-derived molecules have been studied extensively as efficient photosensitizers when chemisorbed on the metal oxide substrates in dye-sensitized solar cells. Still, many fundamental electronic properties of the dye/oxide interface are not understood and need careful consideration. In this thesis we present a comprehensive study of the electronic structure, energy level alignment and the adsorption geometry of the TPP-derived dye molecules adsorbed on TiO2(110), ZnO(1120) and Ag(100) single crystal surfaces using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) based surface sensitive techniques. The alignment of the molecular energy levels with respect to the TiO 2 and ZnO band edges for all TPP-derived molecules we studied was found to be insensitive to either the nature of the functional groups located on the phenyl rings, presence of zinc as a central metal ion and different binding geometry of the molecules. Binding geometry, molecule-molecule interaction and the aggregation effects in the adsorbed layer, that were observed in the UV-visible spectra of the molecules adsorbed on ZnO substrate were not observed in the ultraviolet photoemission (UPS) and inverse photoemission (IPS) spectra of the occupied and unoccupied molecular states. Using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), binding geometry of the two representative TPP-derivatives was directly determined to be upright, with the porphyrin ring under large angle with respect to the surface for the p-ZnTCPP molecules and with the porphyrin ring parallel to the surface for the m-ZnTCPP molecules. We observe that the energies and the energy level alignment of the ZnTPP molecular levels measured in UPS and IPS depend on the substrate on which the molecules are adsorbed (Ag(100) or TiO2(110) single crystal surfaces). The differences are attributed to different charge screening properties of these two materials. Image charges created in the substrates during

  15. Alternethanoxins A and B, polycyclic ethanones produced by Alternaria sonchi , potential mycoherbicides for Sonchus arvensis biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Andolfi, Anna; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Motta, Andrea

    2009-08-12

    Alternaria sonchi is a fungal pathogen isolated from Sonchus arvensis and proposed as a biocontrol agent of this noxious perennial weed. Different phytotoxic metabolites were isolated from solid culture of the fungus. Two new polycyclic ethanones, named alternethanoxins A and B, were characterized using essentially spectroscopic and chemical methods. Tested by leaf disk-puncture assay on the fungal host plant and a number of nonhost plants, alternethanoxins A and B were shown to be phytotoxic, whereas they did not possess antimicrobial activity tested at 100 microg/disk. Hence, alternethanoxins A and B have potential as nonselective natural herbicides. Some structure-activity relationship observations were also made.

  16. Planification de trajectoires pour placement automatise de fibres sur surfaces de geometries complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hely, Clement

    During the past 50 years, the use of composite materials drastically increase, mainly thanks to the interest of aeronautical industries for these strong and lightweight materials. To improve the productivity of composite materials manufacturing some of the largest aeronautics companies began to develop automated processes such as Automated Fibre Placement (AFP). The AFP workcells currently used by the industry were mainly developed for production of large, nearly flat, plates with low curvatures such as aircraft fuselages. However, the fields of aeronautics and sport goods production begin nowadays to show an interest for manufacturing of smaller and more complex parts. The aim of the project in which this research takes place is to design a new AFP workcell and to develop new techniques allowing production of parts with small size and complex geometry. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the path planning on multi-axial revolution surfaces, e.g. Y-shaped tubes of constant circular cross section. Several path planning algorithms will be presented aiming at the exhaustive coverage of a mandrel with pre-impregnated (prepreg) composite tape. The methodology used in two of these algorithms is to individually cover each branch of the Y-shaped part with paths deriving from a helix. In the first one, the helix will be cut at the boundary between a branch and the junction region (algorithm HD) while in the second (algorithm HA) the pseudo-helix path can be adjusted to follow this boundary. These two methods were shown to have some drawbacks compromising their practical use and possibly leading to parts with diminished mechanical properties. To avoid these drawbacks, two others algorithms were developed with a new methodology. With them, the aim is to cover two branches of the Y-shape with a continuous course (i.e. without cut). The first one uses a well known strategy which defines plies with a constant fibre orientation. Parallel paths are then computed to

  17. Effect of surface-plasmon polaritons on spontaneous emission and intermolecular energy-transfer rates in multilayered geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Marocico, C. A.; Knoester, J.

    2011-11-15

    We use a Green's tensor method to investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules placed in two types of layered geometries: a slab geometry and a planar waveguide. We focus especially on the role played by surface-plasmon polaritons in modifying the spontaneous emission and energy-transfer rates as compared to free space. In the presence of more than one interface, the surface-plasmon polariton modes split into several branches, and each branch can contribute significantly to modifying the electromagnetic properties of atoms and molecules. Enhancements of several orders of magnitude both in the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules are obtained and, by tuning the parameters of the geometry, one has the ability to control the range and magnitude of these enhancements. For the energy-transfer rate interference effects between contributions of different plasmon-polariton branches are observed as oscillations in the distance dependence of this rate.

  18. Shielded resistive electromagnets of arbitrary surface geometry using the boundary element method and a minimum energy constraint.

    PubMed

    Harris, Chad T; Haw, Dustin W; Handler, William B; Chronik, Blaine A

    2013-09-01

    Eddy currents are generated in MR by the use of rapidly switched electromagnets, resulting in time varying and spatially varying magnetic fields that must be either minimized or corrected. This problem is further complicated when non-cylindrical insert magnets are used for specialized applications. Interruption of the coupling between an insert coil and the MR system is typically accomplished using active magnetic shielding. A new method of actively shielding insert gradient and shim coils of any surface geometry by use of the boundary element method for coil design with a minimum energy constraint is presented. This method was applied to shield x- and z-gradient coils for two separate cases: a traditional cylindrical primary gradient with cylindrical shield and, to demonstrate its versatility in surface geometry, the same cylindrical primary gradients with a rectangular box-shaped shield. For the cylindrical case this method produced shields that agreed with analytic solutions. For the second case, the rectangular box-shaped shields demonstrated very good shielding characteristics despite having a different geometry than the primary coils.

  19. White Light Used to Enable Enhanced Surface Topography, Geometry, and Wear Characterization of Oil-Free Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucero, John M.

    2003-01-01

    A new optically based measuring capability that characterizes surface topography, geometry, and wear has been employed by NASA Glenn Research Center s Tribology and Surface Science Branch. To characterize complex parts in more detail, we are using a three-dimensional, surface structure analyzer-the NewView5000 manufactured by Zygo Corporation (Middlefield, CT). This system provides graphical images and high-resolution numerical analyses to accurately characterize surfaces. Because of the inherent complexity of the various analyzed assemblies, the machine has been pushed to its limits. For example, special hardware fixtures and measuring techniques were developed to characterize Oil- Free thrust bearings specifically. We performed a more detailed wear analysis using scanning white light interferometry to image and measure the bearing structure and topography, enabling a further understanding of bearing failure causes.

  20. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [Spanish] En el presente articulo se aportan los resultados y conclusiones de un estudio, llevado a cabo en Nepal, en el que se abordaron aspectos ecologicos, comportamentales y morfologicos (tanto del ultimo estado de la fase larvaria como del adulto) de Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888. El principal objetivo del estudio radicaba en mostrar las principales diferencias que separan a esta

  1. Geometry of Optimal Paths around Focal Singular Surfaces in Differential Games

    SciTech Connect

    Melikyan, Arik Bernhard, Pierre

    2005-06-15

    We investigate a special type of singularity in non-smooth solutions of first-order partial differential equations, with emphasis on Isaacs' equation. This type, called focal manifold, is characterized by the incoming trajectory fields on the two sides and a discontinuous gradient. We provide a complete set of constructive equations under various hypotheses on the singularity, culminating with the case where no a priori hypothesis on its geometry is known, and where the extremal trajectory fields need not be collinear. We show two examples of differential games exhibiting non-collinear fields of extremal trajectories on the focal manifold, one with a transversal approach and one with a tangential approach.

  2. Corn mint (Mentha arvensis) extract diminishes acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salin, Olli; Törmäkangas, Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Saario, Elise; Hagström, Marja; Ketola, Raimo A; Saikku, Pekka; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia M

    2011-12-28

    Corn mint ( Mentha arvensis ) provides a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, which may have prophylactic properties against inflammations. This study investigated whether corn mint extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae , infection. The extract inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae CWL-029 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was confirmed against a clinical isolate K7. The phenolic composition of the extract was analyzed by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF/MS, the main components being linarin and rosmarinic acid. These compounds were active in vitro against C. pneumoniae. Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 μM. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts.

  3. Physical-property-, lithology- and surface-geometry-based joint inversion using Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijani, Rodrigo; Lelièvre, Peter G.; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Farquharson, Colin G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the applicability of Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization (PMOGO) algorithms for solving different types of geophysical inverse problems. The standard deterministic approach is to combine the multiple objective functions (i.e. data misfit, regularization and joint coupling terms) in a weighted-sum aggregate objective function and minimize using local (decent-based) smooth optimization methods. This approach has some disadvantages: (1) appropriate weights must be determined for the aggregate, (2) the objective functions must be differentiable and (3) local minima entrapment may occur. PMOGO algorithms can overcome these drawbacks but introduce increased computational effort. Previous work has demonstrated how PMOGO algorithms can overcome the first issue for single data set geophysical inversion, that is, the trade-off between data misfit and model regularization. However, joint inversion, which can involve many weights in the aggregate, has seen little study. The advantage of PMOGO algorithms for the other two issues has yet to be addressed in the context of geophysical inversion. In this paper, we implement a PMOGO genetic algorithm and apply it to physical-property-, lithology- and surface-geometry-based inverse problems to demonstrate the advantages of using a global optimization strategy. Lithological inversions work on a mesh but use integer model parameters representing rock unit identifiers instead of continuous physical properties. Surface geometry inversions change the geometry of wireframe surfaces that represent the contacts between discrete rock units. Despite the potentially high computational requirements of global optimization algorithms (compared to local), their application to realistically sized 2-D geophysical inverse problems is within reach of current capacity of standard computers. Furthermore, they open the door to geophysical inverse problems that could not otherwise be considered through traditional

  4. Physical property-, lithology- and surface geometry-based joint inversion using Pareto multi-objective global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijani, Rodrigo; Lelièvre, Peter G.; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Farquharson, Colin G.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the applicability of Pareto Multi-Objective Global Optimization (PMOGO) algorithms for solving different types of geophysical inverse problems. The standard deterministic approach is to combine the multiple objective functions (i.e. data misfit, regularization and joint coupling terms) in a weighted-sum aggregate objective function and minimize using local (decent-based) smooth optimization methods. This approach has some disadvantages: 1) appropriate weights must be determined for the aggregate, 2) the objective functions must be differentiable, and 3) local minima entrapment may occur. PMOGO algorithms can overcome these drawbacks but introduce increased computational effort. Previous work has demonstrated how PMOGO algorithms can overcome the first issue for single data set geophysical inversion, i.e. the tradeoff between data misfit and model regularization. However, joint inversion, which can involve many weights in the aggregate, has seen little study. The advantage of PMOGO algorithms for the other two issues has yet to be addressed in the context of geophysical inversion. In this paper, we implement a PMOGO genetic algorithm and apply it to physical property-, lithology- and surface geometry-based inverse problems to demonstrate the advantages of using a global optimization strategy. Lithological inversions work on a mesh but use integer model parameters representing rock unit identifiers instead of continuous physical properties. Surface geometry inversions change the geometry of wireframe surfaces that represent the contacts between discrete rock units. Despite the potentially high computational requirements of global optimization algorithms (compared to local), their application to realistically-sized 2D geophysical inverse problems is within reach of current capacity of standard computers. Furthermore, they open the door to geophysical inverse problems that could not otherwise be considered through traditional optimization

  5. A statistical model for the wettability of surfaces with heterogeneous pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockway, Lance; Taylor, Hayden

    2016-10-01

    We describe a new approach to modeling the wetting behavior of micro- and nano-textured surfaces with varying degrees of geometrical heterogeneity. Surfaces are modeled as pore arrays with a Gaussian distribution of sidewall reentrant angles and a characteristic wall roughness. Unlike conventional wettability models, our model considers the fraction of a surface’s pores that are filled at any time, allowing us to capture more subtle dependences of a liquid’s apparent contact angle on its surface tension. The model has four fitting parameters and is calibrated for a particular surface by measuring the apparent contact angles between the surface and at least four probe liquids. We have calibrated the model for three heterogeneous nanoporous surfaces that we have fabricated: a hydrothermally grown zinc oxide, a film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microspheres formed by spinodal decomposition, and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film with pores defined by sacrificial polystyrene microspheres. These three surfaces show markedly different dependences of a liquid’s apparent contact angle on the liquid’s surface tension, and the results can be explained by considering geometric variability. The highly variable PTFE pores yield the most gradual variation of apparent contact angle with probe liquid surface tension. The PVDF microspheres are more regular in diameter and, although connected in an irregular manner, result in a much sharper transition from non-wetting to wetting behavior as surface tension reduces. We also demonstrate, by terminating porous zinc oxide with three alternative hydrophobic molecules, that a single geometrical model can capture a structure’s wetting behavior for multiple surface chemistries and liquids. Finally, we contrast our results with those from a highly regular, lithographically-produced structure which shows an extremely sharp dependence of wettability on surface tension. This new model could be valuable in designing and

  6. Statistical shape modeling describes variation in tibia and femur surface geometry between Control and Incidence groups from the osteoarthritis initiative database.

    PubMed

    Bredbenner, Todd L; Eliason, Travis D; Potter, Ryan S; Mason, Robert L; Havill, Lorena M; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2010-06-18

    We hypothesize that variability in knee subchondral bone surface geometry will differentiate between patients at risk and those not at risk for developing osteoarthritis (OA) and suggest that statistical shape modeling (SSM) methods form the basis for developing a diagnostic tool for predicting the onset of OA. Using a subset of clinical knee MRI data from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI), the objectives of this study were to (1) utilize SSM to compactly and efficiently describe variability in knee subchondral bone surface geometry and (2) determine the efficacy of SSM and rigid body transformations to distinguish between patients who are not expected to develop osteoarthritis (i.e. Control group) and those with clinical risk factors for OA (i.e. Incidence group). Quantitative differences in femur and tibia surface geometry were demonstrated between groups, although differences in knee joint alignment measures were not statistically significant, suggesting that variability in individual bone geometry may play a greater role in determining joint space geometry and mechanics. SSM provides a means of explicitly describing complete articular surface geometry and allows the complex spatial variation in joint surface geometry and joint congruence between healthy subjects and those with clinical risk of developing or existing signs of OA to be statistically demonstrated. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  8. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (sinapis arvensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  9. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF EXTENT AND GEOMETRY OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACE ON HYDROLOGIC BALANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the urbanization of watersheds, impervious surface is the primary agent of hydrologic change. The impact of impervious surface on hydrology and sediment transport is understood only in terms of unverified models not specifically adapted for urban watersheds. Therefore, in this...

  10. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF EXTENT AND GEOMETRY OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACE ON HYDROLOGIC BALANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the urbanization of watersheds, impervious surface is the primary agent of hydrologic change. The impact of impervious surface on hydrology and sediment transport is understood only in terms of unverified models not specifically adapted for urban watersheds. Therefore, in this...

  11. OPUS - Outer Planets Unified Search with Enhanced Surface Geometry Parameters - Not Just for Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Mitchell; Showalter, Mark Robert; Ballard, Lisa; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Heather, Neil

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, with the massive influx of data into the PDS from a wide array of missions and instruments, finding the precise data you need has been an ongoing challenge. For remote sensing data obtained from Jupiter to Pluto, that challenge is being addressed by the Outer Planets Unified Search, more commonly known as OPUS.OPUS is a powerful search tool available at the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node (RMS) - formerly the PDS Rings Node. While OPUS was originally designed with ring data in mind, its capabilities have been extended to include all of the targets within an instrument's field of view. OPUS provides preview images of search results, and produces a zip file for easy download of selected products, including a table of user specified metadata. For Cassini ISS and Voyager ISS we have generated and include calibrated versions of every image.Currently OPUS supports data returned by Cassini ISS, UVIS, VIMS, and CIRS (Saturn data through June 2010), New Horizons Jupiter LORRI, Galileo SSI, Voyager ISS and IRIS, and Hubble (ACS, WFC3 and WFPC2).At the RMS Node, we have developed and incorporated into OPUS detailed geometric metadata, based on the most recent SPICE kernels, for all of the bodies in the Cassini Saturn observations. This extensive set of geometric metadata is unique to the RMS Node and enables search constraints such as latitudes and longitudes (Saturn, Titan, and icy satellites), viewing and illumination geometry (phase, incidence and emission angles), and distances and resolution.Our near term plans include adding the full set of Cassini CIRS Saturn data (with enhanced geometry), New Horizons MVIC Jupiter encounter images, New Horizons LORRI and MVIC Pluto data, HST STIS observations, and Cassini and Voyager ring occultations. We also plan to develop enhanced geometric metadata for the New Horizons LORRI and MVIC instruments for both the Jupiter and the Pluto encounters.OPUS: http://pds-rings.seti.org/search/

  12. Orientational Order on Surfaces: The Coupling of Topology, Geometry, and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, M.; Nitschke, I.; Praetorius, S.; Voigt, A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the numerical investigation of surface bound orientational order using unit tangential vector fields by means of a gradient flow equation of a weak surface Frank-Oseen energy. The energy is composed of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions, as well as a penalization term to enforce the unity of the vector field. Four different numerical discretizations, namely a discrete exterior calculus approach, a method based on vector spherical harmonics, a surface finite element method, and an approach utilizing an implicit surface description, the diffuse interface method, are described and compared with each other for surfaces with Euler characteristic 2. We demonstrate the influence of geometric properties on realizations of the Poincaré-Hopf theorem and show examples where the energy is decreased by introducing additional orientational defects.

  13. The influence of proximal stem geometry and surface finish on the fixation of a double-tapered cemented femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Longjohn, Donald B; Dorr, Lawrence D; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2011-01-04

    In this study, the in vitro fixation of four otherwise identical double-tapered stem-types, varying only in surface finish (polished or matte) and proximal stem geometry (with or without flanges) were compared under two conditions. First, four specimens of each stem type were tested with initially bonded stem-cement interfaces, representing early post-operative conditions. Then, simulating conditions a few weeks to months later, stems were implanted in unused synthetic femurs, with a thin layer coating the stem to prevent stem-cement adhesion. Per-cycle motions were measured at both cement interfaces throughout loading. Overall, surface finish had the smallest relative effect on fixation compared to flanges. Flanges increased axial fixation by 22 μm per-cycle, regardless of surface finish (P=0.01). Further, all stems moved under dynamic load at the stem-cement interface during the first few cycles of loading, even without a thin film. The results indicate that flanges have a greater effect on fixation than surface finish, and therefore adverse findings about matte surfaces should not necessarily apply to all double-tapered stems. Specifically, dorsal flanges enhance the stability of a tapered cemented femoral stem, regardless of surface finish.

  14. Impact of Cubic Pin Finned Surface Structure Geometry upon Spray Cooling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Eric A.; Kim, Jungho; Kiger, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of enhanced surface structures on heat flux using spray cooling. The surface enhancements consisted of cubic pin fins machined on the top surface of copper heater blocks. The structure height, pitch, and width were parametrically vaned. Each copper block had a projected cross-sectional area of 2.0 sq cm. Measurements were also obtained on a heater block with a flat surface for baseline comparison purposes. A 2 x 2 nozzle array was used with PF-5060 as the working fluid. Thermal performance data were obtained under nominally degassed (chamber pressure of 41.4 kPa) and gassy conditions (chamber with N2 gas at 100.7 kPa) with a bulk fluid temperature of 20.5 C. Results for both the degassed and gassy cases show that structure width and separation distance have a dominant effect upon the heat transfer for the size ranges used. Cubic pin fin height had little impact upon heat flux. The maximum critical heat flux (CHF) attained for any of the surfaces was 121 W/sq cm, giving an enhancement of 51% relative to the flat surface case under nominally degassed conditions. The gassy case had a maximum CHF of 149 W/sq cm, giving an enhancement of 38% relative to the flat surface case.

  15. Scaffold's surface geometry significantly affects human stem cell bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Antonio; d'Aquino, Riccardo; Cusella-De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; De Francesco, Francesco; Giordano, Antonio; Laino, Gregorio; Piattelli, Adriano; Traini, Tonino; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have observed dental pulp stem cells (SBP-DPSCs) performances on different scaffolds, such as PLGA 85:15, hydroxyapatite chips (HA) and titanium. Stem cells were challenged with each engineered surface, either in plane cultures or in a rotating apparatus, for a month. Gingival fibroblasts were used as controls. Results showed that stem cells exerted a different response, depending on the different type of textured surface: in fact, microconcavities significantly affected SBP-DPSC differentiation into osteoblasts, both temporally and quantitatively, with respect to the other textured surfaces. Actually, stem cells challenged with concave surfaces differentiated quicker and showed nuclear polarity, an index of secretion, cellular activity and matrix formation. Moreover, bone-specific proteins were significantly expressed and the obtained bone tissue was of significant thickness. Thus, cells cultured on the concave textured surface had better cell-scaffold interactions and were induced to secrete factors that, due to their autocrine effects, quickly lead to osteodifferentiation, bone tissue formation, and vascularization. The worst cell performance was obtained using convex surfaces, due to the scarce cell proliferation on to the scaffold and the poor matrix secretion. In conclusion, this study stresses that for a suitable and successful bone tissue reconstruction the surface texture is of paramount importance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The theory of cyclic voltammetry of electrochemically heterogeneous surfaces: comparison of different models for surface geometry and applications to highly ordered pyrolytic graphite.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kristopher R; Lawrence, Nathan S; Hartshorne, R Seth; Compton, Richard G

    2012-05-28

    The cyclic voltammetry at electrodes composed of multiple electroactive materials, where zones of one highly active material are distributed over a substrate of a second, less active material, is investigated by simulation. The two materials are assumed to differ in terms of their electrochemical rate constants towards any given redox couple. For a one-electron oxidation or reduction, the effect on voltammetry of the size and relative surface coverages of the zones as well as the rate constant of the slower zone are considered for systems where it is much slower than the rate constant of the faster zones. The occurrence of split peak cyclic voltammetry where two peaks are observed in the forward sweep, is studied in terms of the diffusional effects present in the system. A number of surface geometries are compared: specifically the more active zones are modelled as long, thin bands, as steps in the surface, as discs, and as rings (similar to a partially blocked electrode). Similar voltammetry for the band, step and ring models is seen but the disc geometry shows significant differences. Finally, the simulation technique is applied to the modelling of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and experimental conditions under which it may be possible to observe split peak voltammetry are predicted.

  17. A numerical study of the interaction between unsteady free-stream disturbances and localized variations in surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodonyi, R. J.; Tadjfar, M.; Welch, W. J. C.; Duck, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study of the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves due to the interaction between a small free-stream disturbance and a small localized variation of the surface geometry has been carried out using both finite-difference and spectral methods. The nonlinear steady flow is of the viscous-inviscid interactive type while the unsteady disturbed flow is assumed to be governed by the Navier-Stokes equations linearized about this flow. Numerical solutions illustrate the growth or decay of the T-S waves generated by the interaction between the free-stream disturbance and the surface distortion, depending on the value of the scaled Strouhal number. An important result of this receptivity problem is the numerical determination of the amplitude of the T-S waves.

  18. A numerical study of the interaction between unsteady free-stream disturbances and localized variations in surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodonyi, R. J.; Tadjfar, M.; Welch, W. J. C.; Duck, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study of the generation of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves due to the interaction between a small free-stream disturbance and a small localized variation of the surface geometry has been carried out using both finite-difference and spectral methods. The nonlinear steady flow is of the viscous-inviscid interactive type while the unsteady disturbed flow is assumed to be governed by the Navier-Stokes equations linearized about this flow. Numerical solutions illustrate the growth or decay of the T-S waves generated by the interaction between the free-stream disturbance and the surface distortion, depending on the value of the scaled Strouhal number. An important result of this receptivity problem is the numerical determination of the amplitude of the T-S waves.

  19. The Effect of Geometry on the Wake Structure of a Surface Mounted Obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Bhagirath; Pardyjak, Eric; Brown, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to better understand the flow structure in the wake of a square cylinder as a function of its height and develop a parameterization for tall buildings for the QUIC-URB wind model. The experiments were conducted in an open-circuit wind tunnel in a fully turbulent boundary layer. 2D PIV was used to measure the flow field along the vertical symmetry plane of the model buildings. Numerous experimental cases were run in which the geometry was varied by increasing the wall-normal height H of a square cylinder (where W=L; L is streamwise length and W is spanwise width) from H/L=1 to H/L=3 in increments of 0.3L. Preliminary results indicate that a saddle point appears for heights greater than H/L=1.6. The saddle is accompanied by a significant modification of the wake structure. This change can be attributed to the enhanced flux of momentum around the sidewall into the near-wake as the height of the model building is increased. Future work will include horizontal plane measurements in the wake of the model building to further explore the mechanisms that lead to the change in the flow structure.

  20. CALCULATION OF PARTICLE BOUNCE AND TRANSIT TIMES ON GENERAL GEOMETRY FLUX SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.; Menard, J.

    2007-01-01

    A viable nuclear fusion reactor must confi ne energetic plasmas long enough so that the fusion energy produced exceeds the energy consumed to heat the plasma and maintain confi nement. It is well-known that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or plasma fl uid instabilities limit confi nement. One such important instability is the resistive wall mode (RWM). Plasma rotation faster than a critical frequency has been observed to stabilize the RWM. Some theories predict that the critical frequency will vary inversely with the characteristic times particles take to orbit the plasma. Previous calculations of these orbit times have assumed high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section, approximations unsuitable for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Analytic solutions for the orbit times have been derived as functions of particle energy and magnetic moment for low aspect ratio and elliptical cross-sections. Numeric solutions for arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional geometry were also computed using Mathematica and IDL and agree with the analytic forms. In typical parameter regimes for NSTX, the generalized orbit times can differ from the high aspect ratio, circular approximations by as much as 40%. This result might help to assess how accurately theory describes RWM stabilization in NSTX. If theory and experiment are found to agree, generalized orbit times can be used to predict RWM stabilization in low aspect ratio nuclear fusion reactors.

  1. Surface complexation and precipitate geometry for aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite: II. XANES analysis and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.; Rehr, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis of sorption complexes has the advantages of high sensitivity (10- to 20-fold greater than extended X-ray absorption fine structure [EXAFS] analysis) and relative ease and speed of data collection (because of the short k-space range). It is thus a potentially powerful tool for characterization of environmentally significant surface complexes and precipitates at very low surface coverages. However, quantitative analysis has been limited largely to "fingerprint" comparison with model spectra because of the difficulty of obtaining accurate multiple-scattering amplitudes for small clusters with high confidence. In the present work, calculations of the XANES for 50- to 200-atom clusters of structure from Zn model compounds using the full multiple-scattering code Feff 8.0 accurately replicate experimental spectra and display features characteristic of specific first-neighbor anion coordination geometry and second-neighbor cation geometry and number. Analogous calculations of the XANES for small molecular clusters indicative of precipitation and sorption geometries for aqueous Zn on ferrihydrite, and suggested by EXAFS analysis, are in good agreement with observed spectral trends with sample composition, with Zn-oxygen coordination and with changes in second-neighbor cation coordination as a function of sorption coverage. Empirical analysis of experimental XANES features further verifies the validity of the calculations. The findings agree well with a complete EXAFS analysis previously reported for the same sample set, namely, that octahedrally coordinated aqueous Zn2+ species sorb as a tetrahedral complex on ferrihydrite with varying local geometry depending on sorption density. At significantly higher densities but below those at which Zn hydroxide is expected to precipitate, a mainly octahedral coordinated Zn2+ precipitate is observed. An analysis of the multiple scattering paths contributing to the XANES

  2. Liquid drops on vertical and inclined surfaces; I. An experimental study of drop geometry.

    PubMed

    ElSherbini, A I; Jacobi, A M

    2004-05-15

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the geometric parameters necessary to describe the shapes of liquid drops on vertical and inclined plane surfaces. Two liquids and eight surfaces have been used to study contact angles, contact lines, profiles, and volumes of drops of different sizes for a range of surface conditions. The results show the contact-angle variation along the circumference of a drop to be best fit by a third-degree polynomial in the azimuthal angle. This contact-angle function is expressed in terms of the maximum and minimum contact angles of the drop, which are determined for various conditions. The maximum contact angle, thetamax, is approximately equal to the advancing contact angle, thetaA, of the liquid on the surface. As the Bond number, Bo, increases from 0 to a maximum, the minimum contact angle, thetamin, decreases almost linearly from the advancing to the receding angle. A general relation is found between thetamin/thetaA and Bo for different liquid-surface combinations. The drop contour can be described by an ellipse, with the aspect ratio increasing with Bo. These experimental results are valuable in modeling drop shape, as presented in Part II of this work.

  3. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; Defelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface-the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter.

  4. Initial geometries, interaction mechanism and high stability of silicene on Ag(111) surface

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junfeng; Zhao, Jijun

    2012-01-01

    Using ab initio methods, we have investigated the structures and stabilities of SiN clusters (N ≤ 24) on Ag(111) surface as the initial stage of silicene growth. Unlike the dome-shaped graphene clusters, Si clusters prefer nearly flat structures with low buckling, more stable than directly deposition of the 3D freestanding Si clusters on Ag surface. The p-d hybridization between Ag and Si is revealed as well as sp2 characteristics in SiN@Ag(111). Three types of silicene superstructures on Ag(111) surface have been considered and the simulated STM images are compared with experimental observations. Molecular dynamic simulations show high thermal stability of silicene on Ag(111) surfaces, contrast to that on Rh(111). The present theoretical results constitute a comprehensive picture about the interaction mechanism of silicene on Ag(111) surface and explain the superiority of Ag substrate for silicene growth, which would be helpful for improving the experimentally epitaxial growth of silicene. PMID:23155482

  5. Surface chemistry of alanine on Cu{111}: Adsorption geometry and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldanza, Silvia; Cornish, Alix; Nicklin, Richard E. J.; Zheleva, Zhasmina V.; Held, Georg

    2014-11-01

    Adsorption of L-alanine on the Cu{111} single crystal surface was investigated as a model system for interactions between small chiral modifier molecules and close-packed metal surfaces. Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy are used to determine the chemical state, bond coordination and out-of-plane orientation of the molecule on the surface. Alanine adsorbs in its anionic form at room temperature, whilst at low temperature the overlayer consists of anionic and zwitterionic molecules. NEXAFS spectra exhibit a strong angular dependence of the π* resonance associated with the carboxylate group, which allows determining the tilt angle of this group with respect to the surface plane (48° ± 2°) at room temperature. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) shows a p(2√{ 13} × 2√{ 13}) R 13 ° superstructure with only one domain, which breaks the mirror symmetry of the substrate and, thus, induces global chirality to the surface. Temperature-programmed XPS (TP-XPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments indicate that the zwitterionic form converts into the anionic species (alaninate) at 293 K. The latter desorbs/decomposes between 435 K and 445 K.

  6. Surface hopping dynamics of direct trans --> cis photoswitching of an azobenzene derivative in constrained adsorbate geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floß, Gereon; Granucci, Giovanni; Saalfrank, Peter

    2012-12-01

    With ongoing miniaturization of electronic devices, the need for individually addressable, switchable molecules arises. An example are azobenzenes on surfaces which have been shown to be switchable between trans and cis forms. Here, we examine the "direct" (rather than substrate-mediated) channel of the trans → cis photoisomerization after ππ* excitation of tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene physisorbed on surfaces mimicking Au(111) and Bi(111), respectively. In spirit of the direct channel, the electronic structure of the surface is neglected, the latter merely acting as a rigid platform which weakly interacts with the molecule via Van-der-Waals forces. Starting from thermal ensembles which represent the trans-form, sudden excitations promote the molecules to ππ*-excited states which are non-adiabatically coupled among themselves and to a nπ*-excited and the ground state, respectively. After excitation, relaxation to the ground state by internal conversion takes place, possibly accompanied by isomerization. The process is described here by "on the fly" semiclassical surface hopping dynamics in conjunction with a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and configuration-interaction type methods. It is found that steric constraints imposed by the substrate lead to reduced but non-vanishing, trans → cis reaction yields and longer internal conversion times than for the isolated molecule. Implications for recent experiments for azobenzenes on surfaces are discussed.

  7. Optimizing Geometry Mediated Skin Friction Drag on Riblet-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth

    2016-11-01

    Micro-scale riblets have been shown to modify the skin friction drag on patterned surfaces. Shark skin is widely known as a natural example of this passive drag reduction mechanism and artificial riblet tapes have been previously used in the America's Cups tournament resulting in a 1987 victory. Previous experiments with riblet surfaces in turbulent boundary layer flow have shown 4-8% reduction in the skin friction drag. Our computations with sinusoidal riblet surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flow and experiments with V-grooves in laminar Taylor-Couette flow also show that the reduction in skin friction can be substantial and depends on the spacing and height of the riblets. In the boundary layer setting, this frictional reduction is also a function of the length of the plate in the flow direction, while in the Taylor Couette setting it depends on the gap size. In the current work, we use scaling arguments and conformal mapping to establish a simplified theory for laminar flow over V-groove riblets and explore the self-similarity of the velocity contours near the patterned surface. We combine these arguments with theoretical and numerical calculations using Matlab and OpenFOAM to show that the drag reduction achievable in laminar flow over riblet surfaces depends on a rescaled form of the Reynolds number combined with the aspect ratio of the texture (defined in terms of the ratio of the height to spacing of the riblets). We then use these results to explain the underlying physical mechanisms driving frictional drag reduction and offer recommendations for designing low drag surfaces.

  8. Critical coupling of surface plasmons in graphene attenuated total reflection geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    We study the optical response of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure in Otto configuration with graphene sheet, paying especial attention to the occurrence of total absorption. Our results show that due to excitation of surface plasmons on the graphene sheet, two different conditions of total absorption may occur. At these conditions, the energy loss of the surface plasmon by radiation is equal to its energy loss by absorption into the graphene sheet. We give necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption.

  9. Characterizing the sub-surface geometry of the Main Frontal Thrust in the Bardibas area of central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. V.; Hubbard, J.; Polivka, P.; Peterson, D. E.; Sapkota, S. N.; Schmid, A.; Tapponnier, P.; Timsina, C.; Foster, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) represents the most frontal surface expression of the Himalayan orogen. It is contained within the Miocene-Holocene age Siwalik Group. To better constrain the sub-surface geometry and slip history of the MFT, we conducted seismic reflection surveys around the town of Bardibas in central Nepal. Previous surveys in the area have used surface data and shallow trenches to identify the surface rupture of the great 1934 earthquake. The seismic surveys are intended to (1) confirm that the rupture identified at the surface is a through-going feature at depth; (2) image the geometry and infer the kinematics of the fault to assess the behaviour of the fault at longer timescales, and (3) evaluate how the many surface fault strands interact at depth. The surveys were conducted using a 6300 kg vibroseis minibuggy during January-March, 2014. 34 km of data were acquired in 3 long transects across the Main Frontal Thrust. The data were acquired using 264 channels with 5 m spacing. Vertical stacks of 6-12 sweeps were done at each station to improve the signal to noise ratio of the data. The seismic lines follow several of the dry riverbeds in the area and are generally orthogonal to the range front. The three seismic lines encompass a ~5 km southward step in the deformation front, with the front extending further south on the eastern side. We acquired one line on each side of the step (~2-3 km away) and the central line at the step. The Siwalik Group is strongly folded in this region. Measurements of bedding attitudes were done throughout the area to complement the seismic data. The bedding planes are generally tilted to the NE with a NW-SE strike. The faults at the surface are mostly ENE-WSW. This discrepancy seems to be spatially correlated with the southward step. Folding near the outcropping faults is asymmetric, typically with steep, narrow forelimbs and shallow, wide back-limbs. The river terraces, however, are sub-horizontal and uplifted over

  10. Influence of tailored MLI for complex surface geometries on heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, H.; Mayrhofer, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Complex, non-developable surfaces require a tailored multi-layer insulation (MLI) for lowest heat load. The most experiments showing the heat transfer through MLI are performed under quasi-ideal conditions determining the principle insulation quality. But the surface to be insulated in real cryostats implies feed-throughs and other non-developable surface parts. The thermal performance of MLI is degraded significantly at cutting points. To investigate this degrading effect a LN2-filled cylinder with a diameter of 219 mm and a length of 1820 mm was insulated with MLI and the heat load was measured by means of calorimetry. In addition the heat load to an insulated cylinder with eighteen branches was measured. Both cylinders have the same surface of 1.37 m2 for a comparison of the results. This article describes the experiments with different ways of tailoring the MLI for the cylinder with branches and discusses their results. It was shown that the cutting points at the branches have a significant degrading influence on the thermal performance of MLI.

  11. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface—the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter. PMID:23847474

  12. Orienting in Virtual Environments: How Are Surface Features and Environmental Geometry Weighted in an Orientation Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debbie M.; Bischof, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding…

  13. Near-surface location, geometry, and velocities of the Santa Monica Fault Zone, Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Okaya, D.; Rymer, M.J.; Bawden, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction imaging, combined with existing borehole, earthquake, and paleoseismic trenching data, suggest that the Santa Monica fault zone in Los Angeles consists of multiple strands from several kilometers depth to the near surface. We interpret our seismic data as showing two shallow-depth low-angle fault strands and multiple near-vertical (???85??) faults in the upper 100 m. One of the low-angle faults dips northward at about 28?? and approaches the surface at the base of a topographic scarp on the grounds of the Wadsworth VA Hospital (WVAH). The other principal low-angle fault dips northward at about 20?? and projects toward the surface about 200 m south of the topographic scarp, near the northernmost areas of the Los Angeles Basin that experienced strong shaking during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The 20?? north-dipping low-angle fault is also apparent on a previously published seismic-reflection image by Pratt et al. (1998) and appears to extend northward to at least Wilshire Boulevard, where the fault may be about 450 m below the surface. Slip rates determined at the WVAH site could be significantly underestimated if it is assumed that slip occurs only on a single strand of the Santa Monica fault or if it is assumed that the near-surface faults dip at angles greater than 20-28??. At the WVAH, tomographic velocity modeling shows a significant decrease in velocity across near-surface strands of the Santa Monica fault. P-wave velocities range from about 500 m/sec at the surface to about 4500 m/sec within the upper 50 m on the north side of the fault zone at WVAH, but maximum measured velocities on the south side of the low-angle fault zone at WVAH are about 3500 m/sec. These refraction velocities compare favorably with velocities measured in nearby boreholes by Gibbs et al. (2000). This study illustrates the utility of com- bined seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction methods, which allow more accurate

  14. Geometry-independent neutral desorption device for the sensitive EESI-MS detection of explosives on various surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haiwei; Yang, Shuiping; Li, Jianqiang; Hu, Bin; Chen, Huanwen; Zhang, Lili; Fei, Qiang

    2010-04-01

    A novel geometry-independent neutral desorption (GIND) device was successfully developed, which made neutral desorption (ND) sampling easier and more robust on virtually all types of surfaces. The GIND device features a small air-tight enclosure with fixed space between the ND gas emitter, the sample surface, and the sample collector. Besides easy fabrication and convenient use, this configuration facilitates efficient neutral sample transfer and results in high sensitivity by preventing material loss during the ND process. The effects of various operating parameters of the GIND device such as desorption gas composition, surface wetness, gas flow rate, distance between the surface and the gas emitter, internal diameter of the sample outlet, and GIND device material were experimentally investigated. By using the GIND device, trace amounts of typical explosives such as TNT, RDX, HMX, TATP, etc., were successfully sampled from many different kinds of surfaces, including human skin, glove, glass, envelope, plastic, leather, glass, and clothes. GIND-sampled explosives were detected by multiple-stage extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Ion/molecule reactions of explosives such as RDX and TATP were implemented in the EESI source for the rapid detection with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. The typical time for a single sample analysis was a few seconds. Successful transportation of the neutral analytes over a distance longer than 10 m was demonstrated, without either significant signal loss or serious delay of signal response. The limit of detection for these explosives in the study was in the range of ca. 59-842 fg (S/N = 3, n = 8) on various surfaces. Acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) values (ca. 4.6-10.2%, n = 8) were obtained for all the surfaces tested, showing the successful sampling of trace non-volatile explosive compounds (sub-picogram) by the GIND device for the EESI mass spectrometric analysis.

  15. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    PubMed

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, M Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb). We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  16. Ozone Exposure of a Weed Community Produces Adaptive Changes in Seed Populations of Spergula arvensis

    PubMed Central

    Landesmann, Jennifer B.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Martínez-Ghersa, M. Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb). We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production. PMID:24086640

  17. Effect of surface interactions and geometry on the motion of micro bio robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Denise; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Steager, Edward B.; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-10-01

    Micro Bio Robots (MBRs) are synthetic microstructures with a monolayer of flagellated bacteria adhered to the surface. The flagella of the bacteria propel the microstructure causing it to rotate and translate in a fluidic environment on a planar surface in the absence of external forces. This paper investigates the force contributions of bacteria adhered to the edge versus the center of the micro-structure by selectively altering their behavior using near-UV light. In particular, we investigate the forces that cause predominant clockwise MBR rotation when viewed from above. Additionally, asymmetric shapes, particularly gears, are used to compare the effect of the adherent bacteria with that of collisions among free-swimming bacteria and the microstructure. We find that bacteria adhered near the edge of the MBR interact with the glass substrate under the MBR, accounting for statistically biased clockwise rotation of MBRs.

  18. Joint effects of illumination geometry and object shape in the perception of surface reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Maria; Brainard, David H

    2011-01-01

    Surface properties provide useful information for identifying objects and interacting with them. Effective utilization of this information, however, requires that the perception of object surface properties be relatively constant across changes in illumination and changes in object shape. Such constancy has been studied separately for changes in these factors. Here we ask whether the separate study of the illumination and shape effects is sufficient, by testing whether joint effects of illumination and shape changes can be predicted from the individual effects in a straightforward manner. We found large interactions between illumination and object shape in their effects on perceived glossiness. In addition, analysis of luminance histogram statistics could not account for the interactions. PMID:23145259

  19. Continuous flow micro-bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals: the effect of geometry, surface texture, and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Garza-García, Lucía D; García-López, Erika; Camacho-León, Sergio; Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, María; López-Pacheco, Felipe; López-Meza, Julián; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Tapia-Mejía, Eduardo J; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rodríguez-González, Ciro A; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-04-07

    We used continuous flow micro-devices as bioreactors for the production of a glycosylated pharmaceutical product (a monoclonal antibody). We cultured CHO cells on the surface of PMMA/PDMS micro-channels that had been textured by micromachining and coated with fibronectin. Three different micro-channel geometries (a wavy channel, a zigzag channel, and a series of donut-shape reservoirs) were tested in a continuous flow regime in the range of 3 to 6 μL min(-1). Both the geometry of the micro-device and the flow rate had a significant effect on cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and monoclonal antibody production. The most efficient configuration was a series of donut-shaped reservoirs, which yielded mAb concentrations of 7.2 mg L(-1) at residence times lower than one minute and steady-state productivities above 9 mg mL(-1) min(-1). These rates are at about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in suspended-cell stirred tank fed-batch bioreactors.

  20. The anomalous effect of surface diffusion on the nuclear magnetic resonance signal in restricted geometry.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, E P N S; Apalkov, V M; Cymbalyuk, G S

    2010-04-14

    Anisotropy of diffusion properties in a specimen plays a key role in numerous applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, like non-invasive tracking of fibers in the central nervous system. We suggest that contrasting fiber structures with certain diameters could be improved if second-order effects are taken into account. We introduce a procedure consisting of two standard diffusion NMR experiments differing in their gradient pulse characteristics. These two echo signals will be called the background and principal signals. We show that the difference obtained by subtracting one echo signal from the other has either typical or anomalous properties. In the typical case, as the duration of the gradient pulse in the second experiment is set to smaller and smaller values, the difference from the background echo signal tends toward its maximum. In contrast, in the anomalous case the difference between the background and the principal signals has a maximum at a certain nonzero duration of the pulse in the second experiment. This critical duration is determined by different characteristics, including the diameters of fibers. For this anomalous effect to take place the fast surface diffusion channel coupled to the surrounding media is required. The diffusion of magnetic molecules along the surface of restricted media and the coupling of the surface and the bulk translational motions can strongly modify the echo attenuation NMR signal. The origin of this strong anomalous effect is the change of the symmetry of the lowest diffusion eigenmode of the system. We illustrate the effect of surface diffusion for a cylindrically symmetric system and describe the experimental conditions under which the anomalous behavior of the echo signals can be observed.

  1. Dynamics and mass balance of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica: 1. Geometry and surface velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanaugh, J. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Morse, D. L.; Conway, H.; Rignot, E.

    2009-11-01

    Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, exemplifies a little-studied type of outlet glacier, one that flows slowly through a region of rugged topography and dry climate. This glacier, in addition, connects the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with the McMurdo Dry Valleys, a region much studied for geomorphology, paleoclimate, and ecology. Here we report extensive new measurements of surface velocities, ice thicknesses, and surface elevations, acquired with InSAR, GPS, and GPR. The latter two were used to construct elevation models of the glacier's surface and bed. Ice velocities in 2002-2004 closely matched those in 2000 and the mid-1970s, indicating negligible interannual variations of flow. Comparing velocities with bed elevations shows that, along much of the glacier, flow concentrates in a narrow axis of relatively fast flowing ice that overlies a bedrock trough. The flow of the glacier over major undulations in its bed can be regarded as a “cascade” it speeds up over bedrock highs and through valley narrows and slows down over deep basins and in wide spots. This pattern is an expected consequence of mass conservation for a glacier near steady state. Neither theory nor data from this Taylor Glacier study support the alternative view, recently proposed, that an outlet glacier of this type trickles slowly over bedrock highs and flows fastest over deep basins.

  2. Surface Geometry and Geomorphology of the Rodgers Creek Fault, San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault, part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area, is geometrically segmented by bends on multiple scales. North of Sonoma Mountain, along the northern half of the fault, sections of the fault trace trend approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion (~N34°W) and display a right-stepping pattern across releasing double bends. Within the releasing bends, the fault trends >5° oblique to plate motion and shows geomorphic evidence of extension. The largest right bend, ~1 km at Santa Rosa, corresponds to the lowest elevations along the fault. To the south, the fault makes a broad restraining double bend around the southwest flank of Sonoma Mountain and trends up to ~13° compressively oblique to plate motion. Long-term uplift (Sonoma Mountain) east of the bend suggests a reduction in slip on the fault to the south. The restraining bend corresponds to the north end of a pronounced aseismic region along the fault that may represent a spatial change in the mode of strain accommodation. Aerial photo analysis (1:6 k) of well-preserved geomorphology at the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault, where the fault makes another left bend with respect to plate motion, reveals a section that is undergoing progressive inversion from localized transtension (at a right bend) to transpression. This inversion is manifest as a northwest- lengthening zone of uplift within the fault zone. The youngest push-ups appear to be overprinting a relict pull-apart and sag pond. This and possibly older sag deposits along the margin of the uplift may mark former positions of a releasing geometry in the fault trace, presently located directly north of the uplift front. Geometric and overprinting relations suggest that the main trace of the fault rotates and translates through the passing bends. This mode of fault-bend migration contrasts with a previously proposed model in which new transverse structures develop progressively

  3. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Liquid Laminar Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Post Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Abolfazl

    2011-12-01

    Frictional resistance reduction of liquid flow over surfaces has recently become a more important topic of research in the field of fluid dynamics. Scientific and technological progress and continued interest in nano and micro-technology have required new developments and approaches related to reducing frictional resistance, especially in liquid flow through nano and micro-channels. The application of superhydrophobic surfaces could be very effective in achieving the desired flow through such small channels. Superhydrophobic surfaces are created by intentionally creating roughnesses on the surface and applying a uniform hydrophobic coating to the entire surface. Liquid droplet tests have revealed that because of the trapped air within the cavities such surfaces could have contact angles as high as 179º. Such a property gives superhydrophobic surfaces liquid repelling characteristics making them very suitable for frictional resistance reduction in liquid flow through nano or micro-channels, provided wetting of the cavities could be avoided. This study presents 3-D numerical simulation results of liquid laminar flow over post patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The research was performed in three phases, 1) pressure-driven flow with square micro-posts, 2) Couette flow with square micro-posts, and 3) pressure-driven flow with rectangular micro-posts at various aspect ratios. In phases (1) and (2) the influences of important parameters such as the cavity fraction, in the range of 0.0-0.9998, and the relative module width, from 0.01 to 1.5, on frictional resistance reduction in the creeping flow regime were explored. Phase (1) also addressed the effect of varying Reynolds number from 1 to 2500 on frictional resistance. Phase (3) was conducted for aspect ratios of 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 2, 4, and 8 also in the creeping flow regime. The obtained results suggest that important parameters such as cavity fraction (relative area of the cavities), relative module width (combined

  4. A stable finite difference method for the elastic wave equation on complex geometries with free surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Appelo, D; Petersson, N A

    2007-12-17

    The isotropic elastic wave equation governs the propagation of seismic waves caused by earthquakes and other seismic events. It also governs the propagation of waves in solid material structures and devices, such as gas pipes, wave guides, railroad rails and disc brakes. In the vast majority of wave propagation problems arising in seismology and solid mechanics there are free surfaces. These free surfaces have, in general, complicated shapes and are rarely flat. Another feature, characterizing problems arising in these areas, is the strong heterogeneity of the media, in which the problems are posed. For example, on the characteristic length scales of seismological problems, the geological structures of the earth can be considered piecewise constant, leading to models where the values of the elastic properties are also piecewise constant. Large spatial contrasts are also found in solid mechanics devices composed of different materials welded together. The presence of curved free surfaces, together with the typical strong material heterogeneity, makes the design of stable, efficient and accurate numerical methods for the elastic wave equation challenging. Today, many different classes of numerical methods are used for the simulation of elastic waves. Early on, most of the methods were based on finite difference approximations of space and time derivatives of the equations in second order differential form (displacement formulation), see for example [1, 2]. The main problem with these early discretizations were their inability to approximate free surface boundary conditions in a stable and fully explicit manner, see e.g. [10, 11, 18, 20]. The instabilities of these early methods were especially bad for problems with materials with high ratios between the P-wave (C{sub p}) and S-wave (C{sub s}) velocities. For rectangular domains, a stable and explicit discretization of the free surface boundary conditions is presented in the paper [17] by Nilsson et al. In summary

  5. Surface term for the capillary condensation transitions in a slit geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek

    2006-11-01

    It is shown that a bare simple fluid model (SFM) proposed some years ago for studying adsorption between two semi-infinite solid walls can be improved by modifying the surface term in the grand potential for the film phase. Such a correction substantially improves the agreement between the predictions for phase transitions provided by that SFM and results obtained from calculations carried out for He4 with the density-functional method at zero temperature. The corrective term depends on the strength of the adsorption potential and observables of bulk helium.

  6. Optimizing measurement geometry for seismic near-surface full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuber, André; Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2017-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an increasingly popular tool for analysing seismic data. Current practise is to record seismic data sets that are suitable for reflection processing, that is, a very dense spatial sampling and a high fold are required. Using tools from optimized experimental design (ED), we demonstrate that such a dense sampling is not necessary for FWI purposes. With a simple noise-free acoustic example, we show that only a few suitably selected source positions are required for computing high-quality images. A second, more extensive study includes elastic FWI with noise-contaminated data and free-surface boundary conditions on a typical near-surface setup, where surface waves play a crucial role. The study reveals that it is sufficient to employ a receiver spacing in the order of the minimum shear wavelength expected. Furthermore, we show that horizontally oriented sources and multicomponent receivers are the preferred option for 2-D elastic FWI, and we found that with a small amount of carefully selected source positions, similarly good results can be achieved, as if as many sources as receivers would have been employed. For the sake of simplicity, we assume in our simulations that the full data information content is available, but data pre-processing and the presence of coloured noise may impose restrictions. Our ED procedure requires an a priori subsurface model as input, but tests indicate that a relatively crude approximation to the true model is adequate. A further pre-requisite of our ED algorithm is that a suitable inversion strategy exists that accounts for the non-linearity of the FWI problem. Here, we assume that such a strategy is available. For the sake of simplicity, we consider only 2-D FWI experiments in this study, but our ED algorithm is sufficiently general and flexible, such that it can be adapted to other configurations, such as crosshole, vertical seismic profiling or 3-D surface setups, also including larger scale

  7. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  8. Surface-tension-driven Stokes flow: A numerical method based on conformal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchak, Peter; Crowdy, Darren G.

    2016-07-01

    A novel numerical scheme is presented for solving the problem of two dimensional Stokes flows with free boundaries whose evolution is driven by surface tension. The formulation is based on a complex variable formulation of Stokes flow and use of conformal mapping to track the free boundaries. The method is motivated by applications to modelling the fabrication process for microstructured optical fibres (MOFs), also known as "holey fibres", and is therefore tailored for the computation of multiple interacting free boundaries. We give evidence of the efficacy of the method and discuss its performance.

  9. Effect of geometry variations on lee-surface vortex-induced heating for flat-bottom three-dimensional bodies at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have shown that vortices can produce relatively severe heating on the leeward surfaces of conceptual hypersonic vehicles and that surface geometry can strongly influence this vortex-induced heating. Results which show the effects of systematic geometry variations on the vortex-induced lee-surface heating on simple flat-bottom three-dimensional bodies at angles of attack of 20 deg and 40 deg are presented. The tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 6 and at a Reynolds number of 1.71 x 10 to the 7th power per meter.

  10. Extrinsic geometry of strings and the Gauss map of surfaces in R sup n

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, R.; Viswanathan, K.S. )

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports on a two-dimensional Euclidean string world sheet realized as a conformal immersion in R{sup n} which is mapped into the Grassmannian G{sub 2,n} through the generalized Gauss map. In order for the Grassmannian to represent tangent planes to a given surface, n {minus} 2 integrability conditions must be satisfied by the G{sub 2,n} fields. These conditions are explicitly derived for arbitrary n by realizing G{sub 2,n} as a quadric in CP{sup n{minus}1}. Both the intrinsic and the extrinsic geometrical properties of the string world sheet are expressed in terms of the Kahler {sigma} model fields.

  11. Dissociation of sarin on a cement analogue surface: Effects of humidity and confined geometry

    SciTech Connect

    O’Brien, Christopher J.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Tenney, Craig M.

    2016-11-22

    Here, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the dissociation of sarin (GB) on the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) mineral tobermorite (TBM), a surrogate for cement. CSH minerals (including TBM) and amorphous materials of similar composition are the major components of Portland cement, the binding agent of concrete. Metadynamics simulations were used to investigate the effect of the TBM surface and confinement in a microscale pore on the mechanism and free energy of dissociation of GB. Our results indicate that both the adsorption site and the humidity of the local environment significantly affect the sarin dissociation energy. In particular, sarin dissociation in a low-water environment occurs via a dealkylation mechanism, which is consistent with previous experimental studies.

  12. Dissociation of sarin on a cement analogue surface: Effects of humidity and confined geometry

    DOE PAGES

    O’Brien, Christopher J.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Tenney, Craig M.

    2016-11-22

    Here, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the dissociation of sarin (GB) on the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) mineral tobermorite (TBM), a surrogate for cement. CSH minerals (including TBM) and amorphous materials of similar composition are the major components of Portland cement, the binding agent of concrete. Metadynamics simulations were used to investigate the effect of the TBM surface and confinement in a microscale pore on the mechanism and free energy of dissociation of GB. Our results indicate that both the adsorption site and the humidity of the local environment significantly affect the sarin dissociation energy. In particular,more » sarin dissociation in a low-water environment occurs via a dealkylation mechanism, which is consistent with previous experimental studies.« less

  13. Sensing (un)binding events via surface plasmons: effects of resonator geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Claudio, Virginia; Käll, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    The resonance conditions of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) can be perturbed in any number ways making plasmon nanoresonators viable tools in detection of e.g. phase changes, pH, gasses, and single molecules. Precise measurement via LSPR of molecular concentrations hinge on the ability to confidently count the number of molecules attached to a metal resonator and ideally to track binding and unbinding events in real-time. These two requirements make it necessary to rigorously quantify relations between the number of bound molecules and response of plasmonic sensors. This endeavor is hindered on the one hand by a spatially varying response of a given plasmonic nanosensor. On the other hand movement of molecules is determined by stochastic effects (Brownian motion) as well as deterministic flow, if present, in microfluidic channels. The combination of molecular dynamics and the electromagnetic response of the LSPR yield an uncertainty which is little understood and whose effect is often disregarded in quantitative sensing experiments. Using a combination of electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the plasmon resonance peak shift of various metal nanosensors (disk, cone, rod, dimer) and stochastic diffusion-reaction simulations of biomolecular interactions on a sensor surface we clarify the interplay between position dependent binding probability and inhomogeneous sensitivity distribution. We show, how the statistical characteristics of the total signal upon molecular binding are determined. The proposed methodology is, in general, applicable to any sensor and any transduction mechanism, although the specifics of implementation will vary depending on circumstances. In this work we focus on elucidating how the interplay between electromagnetic and stochastic effects impacts the feasibility of employing particular shapes of plasmonic sensors for real-time monitoring of individual binding reactions or sensing low concentrations

  14. Switching Dynamics and Structures of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals in the Surface-Stabilized Geometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclennan, Joseph Edward

    Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (FLCs) confined to a narrow gap between solid substrates are orientationally ordered at the FLC-subtrate interfaces. In these Surface -Stabilized (or SSFLC) cells, the FLC forms an inhomogeneous, anisotropic dielectric with an optic axis whose orientation varies slowly on a length scale determined by the layer structure, surface interactions, applied electric fields, and the bulk elastic constants. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical techniques developed in an effort to improve our understanding of the fundamental structures and responses of SSFLCs. First, we have made a major effort to determine the optical transmission characteristics of SSFLC cells. Polarized light spectrophotometry has been used to obtain the transmission spectra of cells as a function of applied field. The corresponding theoretical spectra are found by solving the non-linear equations which determine the structural arrangement of the FLC molecules, and then numerically integrating Maxwell's equations in the cell. The model structures yield optical properties which are in good agreement with the observations. Secondly, we have demonstrated that under certain conditions it is necessary to include the effects of thermal fluctuations in order to describe the switching dynamics satisfactorily. When a sufficiently thick cell is subjected to an abrupt reversal of the electric field direction, stroboscopic microscopy reveals that the switching process is characterized by a transient, foam-like texture that scatters light strongly. In a cell with well-aligned liquid crystal layers, the foam is highly anisotropic, having the appearance of stripes which run approximately along the liquid crystal layers. This foam is an array of topological defects caused by thermal fluctuations in the original polarization field of the cell before the field reversal. The switched domains are elongated because of the electro-static self-interaction of the ferroelectric dipoles

  15. Genome-specific SCAR markers help solve taxonomy issues: a case study with Sinapis arvensis (Brassiceae, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Pankin, Artem A; Khavkin, Emil E

    2011-03-01

    Traditional taxonomy and nomenclature of Brassiceae (Brassicaceae) species do not reflect their phylogeny. Revision of the species and generic limits supported by extensive molecular data seems crucial. Genome-specific polymorphisms extracted from non-coding and coding sequences were used to develop 14 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers specific for the Brassica B genome. These SCARs were verified against 77 accessions of six U-triangle Brassica species and used to screen 23 accessions of seven wild Brassiceae species to test for their cross-species amplification. SCARs were found in all B-genome Brassica species and also in Sinapis arvensis. SCAR markers can be employed for discerning B-genome chromosomes in Brassica species and S. arvensis to reliably identify B-genome species and their natural hybrids. The combined molecular evidence supports the suggestion to revise the generic limits of Brassica and Sinapis.

  16. Surface transport in the Ria de Vigo - Transport barriers in a tidal estuary with a complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; von Kameke, A.; Montero, P.; Allen-Perkins, S.; Venancio, A.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.

    2012-04-01

    We study the submesoscale surface transport in the Ria de Vigo, NW Spain, an estuary with tidal and wind-driven circulation, analyzing the output of the coastal model MOHID with state-of-the-art Lagrangian methods, and comparing the results to drifter experiments. We extract Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) as ridges in fields of the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) that can be identified with transport barriers. The LCS reveal the fundamental structure of the modelled circulation in the estaury that is a superposition of the tidal inflow and outflow, the wind-driven currents and the long-term drift on the shelf. In the Ria de Vigo, LCS are attached to prominent coastal boundaries, as islands or capes, indicating that the geometry of the flow patterns is dominated by bathymetry. Although the vertical flow which is not represented in the horizontal surface flow can be important at the coast, the found transport patterns can be seen as the surface footprint of the 3D circulation in the estaury. Comparing the trajectories of real surface drifters from four deployments to the computed transport barriers in different typical meteorological sitiations, we find that the drifter trajectories are in agreement with the different coherent water masses predicted by the model. The knowledge of the global transport patterns of water masses in this highly populated coastal region is indispensable for the assessment of the fate of contaminations, like possible oil spills or released waste water, but also for biological studies that deal with the drift of eggs and larvae of fish and other marine species, or investigate plankton blooms.

  17. Axial Surface Mapping of Wrinkle Ridges on Solis Planum, Mars from MOLA Topography: Constraints on Subsurface Blind Thrust Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, A.; Mueller, K.; Golombek, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    We undertook axial surface mapping of selected wrinkle ridges on Solis Planum, Mars in order to assess the subsurface geometry of blind thrusts proposed to exist beneath them. This work builds on previous work that defined structural families of wrinkle ridges based on their surface morphology in this region. Although a growing consensus exists for models of wrinkle ridge kinematics and mechanics, a number of current problems remain. These include the origin of topographic offset across the edges of wrinkle ridges, the relationship between broad arches and superposed ridges, the origin of smaller wrinkles, and perhaps most importantly, the trajectory of blind thrusts that underlie wrinkle ridges and accommodate shortening at deeper crustal levels. We are particularly interested in defining the depths at which blind thrusts flatten under wrinkle ridges in order to provide constraints on the brittle-ductile transition during Early Hesperian time. We also seek to test whether wrinkle ridges on Solis Planum develop above reactivated faults or newly formed ones.

  18. Effect of plant density on competitiveness of Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and S. arvensis under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2005-01-01

    Under Mediterranean climate, oilseed rape is subjected especially to the competition of weeds with respect to water. Herbicides registered for this crop do not effectively control species of the same family, in particular Sinapis alba and Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, there are no results of the effect of plant density on the competitiveness of these species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the competitiveness of the species varies according to the total density. The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions, according to a replacement series method. Plant densities tested were 2, 4 and 8 plants per pot. The results of the replacement series diagram and those of relative crowding coefficients showed that Brassica napus was the most competitive, whatever the density is. This classification is explained primarily by leaf area. Indeed, the intraspecific competition due to B. napus has affected more its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Conversely, the intraspecific competition due to S. arvensis has less affected its leaf area than the interspecific competition. Regarding S. alba, the intraspecific competition effect was less severe than the interspecific competition effect due to B. napus and more severe than the interspecific competition effect due to S. arvensis on S. alba

  19. Validation of endogenous reference genes in Buglossoides arvensis for normalizing RT-qPCR-based gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Selection of a stably expressed reference gene (RG) is an important step for generating reliable and reproducible quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) gene expression data. We, in this study, have sought to validate RGs for Buglossoides arvensis, a high nutraceutical value plant whose refined seed oil is entering the market under the commercial trade name Ahiflower™. This weed plant has received attention for its natural ability to significantly accumulate the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) stearidonic acid (SDA, C18:4n-3) in its seeds, which is uncommon for most plant species. Ten candidate RGs (β-Act, 18S rRNA, EF-1a, α-Tub, UBQ, α-actin, CAC, PP2a, RUBISCO, GAPDH) were isolated from B. arvensis and TaqMan™ compliant primers/probes were designed for RT-qPCR analysis. Abundance of these gene transcripts was analyzed across different tissues and growth regimes. Two of the most widely used algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, showed variation in expression levels of these RGs. However, combinatorial analysis of the results clearly identified CAC and α-actin as the most stable and unstable RG candidates, respectively. This study has for the first time identified and validated RGs in the non-model system B. arvensis, a weed plant projected to become an important yet sustainable source of dietary omega-3 PUFA.

  20. Use of a 3D laser scan technique to compare the surface geometry of the medial coronoid process in dogs affected with medial compartment disease with unaffected controls.

    PubMed

    Breit, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Kristina; Pichler, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    Subchondral bone surface geometry of the medial coronoid process was examined in 20 grossly normal elbow joints of adult German Shepherd dogs (GSDs) and compared with results obtained from 10 joints of adult GSDs and 12 joints of adult Rottweilers affected with bilateral fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FMCP). Additionally, seven dogs (4 GSDs and 3 Rottweilers) with unilateral FMCP were investigated. The subchondral contour of the ulnar trochlear notch was digitised to obtain the 3D coordinates of its surface points. Geometry was investigated in two defined section planes along the longitudinal and transverse axes of the medial coronoid process. The coordinates of the surface points in the section planes were normalised along one axis and geometry was estimated by the position of the surface points along its third coordinate and by calculation of the angle of inclination of the medial coronoid process. Subchondral bone surface geometry was not related to the type of fragmentation (i.e. single sagittal versus multiple sagittal or transverse fragmentation). No differences were noted when comparing joints of dogs affected unilaterally with FMCP and their contralateral normal joints. In addition, no differences in geometry were seen between GSDs affected with fragmentation and normal GSDs. The most evident differences were found between Rottweilers affected with FMCP and normal GSDs as well as FMCP affected GSDs. The results suggest that subchondral bone geometry (geometric incongruity) plays no role in the development of FMCP. Geometric differences between breeds were more prevalent than differences between normal joints and those affected with FMCP within one breed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Juliá, Luis; Fajari, Lluis; Almajano, MaríaPilar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O2 and 20% CO2) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant. PMID:26785344

  2. Participation of Photosynthesis in Floral Induction of the Long Day Plant Anagallis arvensis L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Quedado, Rosario M.; Friend, Douglas J.

    1978-01-01

    The saturating photon flux density (400 to 700 nanometers) for induction of flowering of the long day plant Anagallis arvensis L. was 1,900 micromoles per square meter per second (6,000 foot-candles) when an 8-hour daylength was extended to 24 hours by a single period of supplementary irradiation. The saturating photon flux density for photosynthetic CO2 uptake during the same single supplementary light period was lower, at about 1,000 to 650 micromoles per square meter per second (3,000 to 2,000 foot-candles). The per cent flowering and mean number of floral buds per plant were significantly reduced when the light extension treatment was given in CO2-free air, and glucose (10 kilograms per cubic meter in water) relieved this effect. Glucose solution also significantly increased flowering of plants given supplementary light treatment in atmospheric air under a photon flux density of 80 micromoles per square meter per second. Increasing the CO2 concentration to 1.27 grams per cubic meter of CO2 in air during the supplementary light period did not increase flowering. It is concluded that high photon flux densities promote flowering of Anagallis through both increased photosynthesis and the photomorphogenic action of high irradiance. PMID:16660610

  3. The greater effectiveness of Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices in improving productivity, oil content and tolerance of salt-stressed menthol mint (Mentha arvensis).

    PubMed

    Bharti, Nidhi; Baghel, Savita; Barnawal, Deepti; Yadav, Anju; Kalra, Alok

    2013-07-01

    Mentha arvensis is cultivated in large parts of the world for its menthol-rich essential oil. The study investigates the potential of four mycorrhizal fungi, viz. Glomus mosseae (Gm), Glomus aggregatum (Ga), Glomus fasciculatum (Gf) and Glomus intraradices (Gi) in alleviating NaCl-induced salt stress in Mentha arvensis cv. Kosi and establishes the specificity of interaction between different mycorrhizal species and their effectiveness in mitigating salt stress in Mentha arvensis. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Mentha plants were subjected to NaCl-induced salinity. Among the four Glomus species, Gm and Gi reduced salt-induced herb yield losses: a loss of 27.53% and 25.58% respectively under salt stress in comparison to 51.00% in non-mycorrhizal M. arvensis salt-stressed plants. Gm- and Gi-inoculated plants also recorded higher leaf:stem ratio, oil content, and oil yield and menthol concentration in essential oil under both saline and non-saline conditions. Better performance in terms of herb yield, and oil content and yield was observed in Gi- and Gm-inoculated M. arvensis plants, suggesting the capability of Gi and Gm in protecting plants from the detrimental effects of salt stress; beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, however, may vary with host and environment. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Water slug formation and motion in gas flow channels: the effects of geometry, surface wettability, and gravity.

    PubMed

    Cheah, May J; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Benziger, Jay B

    2013-08-06

    Water emerging from ∼100 μm pores into millimeter-size gas flow channels forms drops that grow and become slugs which span the flow channel. Flowing gas causes the slugs to detach and move down the channel. The effect of channel geometry, surface wettability, and gravity on the formation and motion of water slugs has been analyzed using high-speed video images of the drops and differential pressure-time traces. Drops grow and appear, assuming a sequence of shapes that minimize the total interfacial energy of the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces. The drops are initially spherical caps centered on the pore (the liquid contacts one wall). Above a certain size, the drops move to the corner, forming "corner drops" (the liquid contacts two walls). Corner drops grow across the channel, evolving into partial liquid bridges (drops confined by three walls), and finally the drops span the channel cross-section forming slugs (contacting all four walls). Smaller slugs are formed in channels with hydrophobic walls than in channels with hydrophilic walls. Smaller slugs are formed in channels with curved walls than in square or rectangular channels. Slugs move when the differential gas pressure overcomes the force to move the advancing and receding gas-liquid-solid contact lines of the slugs. Residual water left behind in corners by moving slugs reduces the barriers for drops to form slugs, causing the steady-state slug volumes to be smaller than those seen at start-up in dry channels.

  5. Development of a novel Sinapis arvensis disomic addition line in Brassica napus containing the restorer gene for Nsa CMS and improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and pod shattering.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenhui; Li, Yunchang; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shengyi; Yan, Xiaohong; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yinde; Xu, Yusong; Peng, Pengfei; Hu, Qiong

    2010-04-01

    An allo-cytoplasmic male sterile line, which was developed through somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis (thus designated as Nsa CMS line), possesses high potential for hybrid production of rapeseed. In order to select for restorer lines, fertile plants derived from the same somatic hybridization combination were self-pollinated and testcrossed with the parental Nsa CMS line for six generations. A novel disomic alien addition line, B. napus-S. arvensis, has been successfully developed. GISH analysis showed that it contains one pair of chromosomes from S. arvensis and 19 pairs from B. napus, and retains stable and regular mitotic and meiotic processes. The addition line displays very strong restoration ability to Nsa CMS line, high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and a low incidence of pod shattering. Because the addition line shares these very important agricultural characters, it is a valuable restorer to Nsa CMS line, and is named NR1 here (Nsa restorer no. 1).

  6. Bringing Together Evolution on Serpentine and Polyploidy: Spatiotemporal History of the Diploid-Tetraploid Complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary ‘dead-ends’ but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e

  7. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae).

    PubMed

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e.g., via

  8. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  9. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion

  10. PENGEOM-A general-purpose geometry package for Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in material systems defined by quadric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansa, Julio; Salvat-Pujol, Francesc; Díaz-Londoño, Gloria; Carnicer, Artur; Lallena, Antonio M.; Salvat, Francesc

    2016-02-01

    The Fortran subroutine package PENGEOM provides a complete set of tools to handle quadric geometries in Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport. The material structure where radiation propagates is assumed to consist of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The PENGEOM subroutines (a subset of the PENELOPE code) track particles through the material structure, independently of the details of the physics models adopted to describe the interactions. Although these subroutines are designed for detailed simulations of photon and electron transport, where all individual interactions are simulated sequentially, they can also be used in mixed (class II) schemes for simulating the transport of high-energy charged particles, where the effect of soft interactions is described by the random-hinge method. The definition of the geometry and the details of the tracking algorithm are tailored to optimize simulation speed. The use of fuzzy quadric surfaces minimizes the impact of round-off errors. The provided software includes a Java graphical user interface for editing and debugging the geometry definition file and for visualizing the material structure. Images of the structure are generated by using the tracking subroutines and, hence, they describe the geometry actually passed to the simulation code.

  11. Do the effects of crops on skylark (Alauda arvensis) differ between the field and landscape scales?

    PubMed Central

    Barbottin, Aude; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of biodiversity in agricultural areas involves actions at the landscape scale, and the management of cropping patterns is considered an important means of achieving this goal. However, most of the available knowledge about the impact of crops on biodiversity has been obtained at the field scale, and is generally grouped together under the umbrella term “crop suitability.” Can field-scale knowledge be used to predict the impact on populations across landscapes? We studied the impact of maize and rapeseed on the abundance of skylark (Alauda arvensis). Field-scale studies in Western Europe have reported diverse impacts on habitat selection and demography. We assessed the consistency between field-scale knowledge and landscape-scale observations, using high-resolution databases describing crops and other habitats for the 4 km2 grid scales analyzed in the French Breeding Bird Survey. We used generalized linear models to estimate the impact of each studied crop at the landscape scale. We stratified the squares according to the local and geographical contexts, to ensure that the conclusions drawn were valid in a wide range of contexts. Our results were not consistent with field knowledge for rapeseed, and were consistent for maize only in grassland contexts. However, the effect sizes were much smaller than those of structural landscape features. These results suggest that upscaling from the field scale to the landscape scale leads to an integration of new agronomic and ecological processes, making the objects studied more complex than simple “crop ∗ species” pairs. We conclude that the carrying capacity of agricultural landscapes cannot be deduced from the suitability of their components. PMID:26213656

  12. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer.

  13. Automatic construction of subject-specific human airway geometry including trifurcations based on a CT-segmented airway skeleton and surface.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Wenzel, Sally E; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-04-01

    We propose a method to construct three-dimensional airway geometric models based on airway skeletons, or centerlines (CLs). Given a CT-segmented airway skeleton and surface, the proposed CL-based method automatically constructs subject-specific models that contain anatomical information regarding branches, include bifurcations and trifurcations, and extend from the trachea to terminal bronchioles. The resulting model can be anatomically realistic with the assistance of an image-based surface; alternatively a model with an idealized skeleton and/or branch diameters is also possible. This method systematically identifies and classifies trifurcations to successfully construct the models, which also provides the number and type of trifurcations for the analysis of the airways from an anatomical point of view. We applied this method to 16 normal and 16 severe asthmatic subjects using their computed tomography images. The average distance between the surface of the model and the image-based surface was 11 % of the average voxel size of the image. The four most frequent locations of trifurcations were the left upper division bronchus, left lower lobar bronchus, right upper lobar bronchus, and right intermediate bronchus. The proposed method automatically constructed accurate subject-specific three-dimensional airway geometric models that contain anatomical information regarding branches using airway skeleton, diameters, and image-based surface geometry. The proposed method can construct (i) geometry automatically for population-based studies, (ii) trifurcations to retain the original airway topology, (iii) geometry that can be used for automatic generation of computational fluid dynamics meshes, and (iv) geometry based only on a skeleton and diameters for idealized branches.

  14. π conjugation in the epitaxial Si(111)-(√{3 }×√{3 }) surface: Unconventional "bamboo hat" bonding geometry for Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Miao; Ni, Xiaojuan; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The recently observed (√{3 }×√{3 }) surface reconstruction in heteroepitaxial Si(111) thin films on metal substrates is widely considered as a promising platform to realize two-dimensional Dirac and topological states, yet its formation mechanism and structural stability remain poorly understood, leading to the controversial terminology of "multilayer silicene." Based on valence bond and conjugation theory, we propose a π -conjugation plus charge-transfer model to elucidate such a unique "bamboo hat" surface geometry. The formation of planar ring-shaped π conjugation and charge transfer from the rings to the upper buckled Si atoms greatly lowers the surface dangling-bond energy. We justify this unconventional Si structural model by analyzing from first-principles surface stress tensors and surface energies as a function of strain. Within the same formalism, additional metastable surface reconstructions with similar "bamboo hat" features are predicted, which opens possibilities to other exotic electronic states in Si.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of the interfacial interactions between a randomly rough sludge floc and membrane surface in a membrane bioreactor based on fractal geometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijia; Zhou, Xiaoling; Shen, Liguo; Cai, Xiang; Wang, Fangyuan; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Li, Renjie; Wu, Xilin; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantification of interfacial interactions between a randomly rough particle and membrane surface was proposed. It was found that sludge flocs in a membrane bioreactor were of apparent fractal characteristics, and could be modeled by the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function. By combining the surface element integration (SEI) method, differential geometry and composite Simpson's rule, the quantitation method for calculating such interfacial interactions was further developed. The correctness and feasibility of the new method were verified. This method was then applied to evaluate the interfacial interactions between a randomly rough particle and membrane surface. It was found that, randomly rough particle possesses stronger interaction strength than regularly rough particle but weaker strength than smooth particle with membrane surface, indicating significant effects of surface morphology and roughness. The proposed method in this study has broad application prospect in membrane fouling study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geometry of Exploration: Water below the Surface of Mars? NASA Connect: Program 3 in the 1999-2000 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 4-8 explore the concepts of geometry in the context of space navigation. The units in this series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each unit consists of a storyline presenting…

  17. [Chemical composition and microstructural peculiarities of overground and underground vegetative organs of field restharrow (Ononis arvensis L.)].

    PubMed

    Sichinava, M B; Mchelidze, K Z; Churadze, M V; Alaniia, M D; Aneli, Dzh N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of the study of anatomy and chemical composition of Field Restharrow (Ononis arvensis L.). The existence of triterpene alcohol α-onocerin and isoflavons in the overground organs of the plant is established by chemical analysis. Oxycumarines - scopoletin and scopolin are isolated and identified. Morphological characterization of the whole plant is given. Anatomy of the vegetative organs of the species is examined. Among the main microstructural characteristics multilayer integumentary tissues, active periderm and sclerenchyma cells were specified in roots; and complex radial rays and structural units of wood, located radially, were observed in the central cylinder. Shoots are characterized with intensive pubescence. Mechanical tissues of different structures exist in the parenchime of crust and central cylinder of shoots. Vessels with spiral and spiro-annular thickened walls are located in the libriforms of wood. Leaves of Ononis arvensis are bifacial, mesophile is of dorsiventral structure; central conductive bunch is complex-collateral. Basal cells of upper and lower epidermis belong to of bent-walled type, where paracytal and anisocytal cells of stomatal apparatus are scattered chaotically.

  18. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  19. Diverse and recombinant DNA betasatellites are associated with a begomovirus disease complex of Digera arvensis, a weed host.

    PubMed

    Mubin, M; Briddon, R W; Mansoor, S

    2009-06-01

    Weeds are considered as a source of new viruses and reservoirs of economically important viruses but are often neglected during diversity studies. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the components of a begomovirus disease complex associated with yellow vein disease of Digera arvensis, a common weed. The begomovirus associated with the disease showed 98% nucleotide sequence identity with Cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus. Two species of betasatellite were identified. The first betasatellite species was an isolate of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite. The second was a recombinant consisting for the most part of sequence derived from a Tobacco leaf curl betasatellite but with the satellite conserved region (SCR) and some sequence between the SCR and adenine-rich (A-rich) region derived from a Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite. The alphasatellite isolated from this weed was near identical to an isolate recently characterized from potato. The presence of multiple and recombinant betasatellites in D. arvensis indicates that weeds can be important sources of multiple begomovirus components that affect crop plants. Furthermore, the presence of a recombinant betasatellite suggested that weeds are likely vessels for recombination and evolution of components of begomovirus complexes.

  20. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  1. Effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on the disease development, growth, oil yield and biochemical changes in plants of Mentha arvensis

    PubMed Central

    Perveen, K.; Haseeb, A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was carried out to determine the effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on the disease development, growth, oil yield and biochemical changes in the plants of Mentha arvensis. With the increase in initial inoculum levels of S. sclerotiorum a corresponding decrease in plant fresh and dry weights were recorded. The maximum reduction in the shoot-roots/suckers fresh weight and shoot-roots/suckers dry weights (39.8%, 43.6%, 40.3% and 42.9%), respectively, was observed at the highest initial inoculum level of 12 g fungal mycelium/5 kg soil as compared to uninoculated control. The infection of roots and suckers due to S. sclerotiorum increased with increasing initial inoculum levels. At the lowest initial inoculum (1.0 g mycelium/5 kg soil), infection was observed 18.0% and at the highest (12 g mycelium/5 kg soil), it was 80.2%. Significant (P ⩽ 0.01) reduction in oil yield, total chlorophyll, total phenol and total sugar content of M. arvensis plants was observed at the lowest inoculum level as compared to uninoculated control. PMID:23961091

  2. Nickel tolerance of serpentine and non-serpentine Knautia arvensis plants as affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Sudová, Radka

    2014-04-01

    Serpentine soils have naturally elevated concentrations of certain heavy metals, including nickel. This study addressed the role of plant origin (serpentine vs. non-serpentine) and symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant Ni tolerance. A semi-hydroponic experiment involving three levels of Ni and serpentine and non-serpentine AMF isolates and populations of a model plant species (Knautia arvensis) revealed considerable negative effects of elevated Ni availability on both plant and fungal performance. Plant growth response to Ni was independent of edaphic origin; however, higher Ni tolerance of serpentine plants was indicated by a smaller decline in the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and restricted root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Serpentine plants also retained relatively more Mg in their roots, resulting in a higher shoot Ca/Mg ratio. AMF inoculation, especially with the non-serpentine isolate, further aggravated Ni toxicity to host plants. Therefore, AMF do not appear to be involved in Ni tolerance of serpentine K. arvensis plants.

  3. Effect of water stress on the agressiveness of oilsseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and two mustards (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2003-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a winter sown crop, may compete for water especially with Brassicaceae weeds. Investigating plant competition under water stress conditions is necessary for achieving a good yield in a Mediterranean climate characterized by a scarse water availability. This experiment was carried out to study the competiveness of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with two brassicaceae weeds (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.). Species were grown at a density of two plants per bucket either in monoculture or as a binary mixture under water stress conditions in a greenhouse. Results of monoculture showed that B. napus had the highest shoot dry matter. Shoot dry matter of B. napus was more reduced by intraspecific competition than by interspecific competition due to S. arvensis. Shoot dry matter of S. alba in monoculture was higher than in mixture with S. arvensis, but more reduced in mixture with B. napus. In case of S. arvensis, shoot dry matter was more reduced by interspecific competition than by intraspecific competition. Agressivity based on grain yield showed, that B. napus was the most agressive species followed by S. alba. This agressivity did not change by the imposed water stress.

  4. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-12-22

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae).

  5. CCl4 induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in rats: hepatoprotective effect of Sonchus arvensis.

    PubMed

    Alkreathy, Huda Mohammad; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sahreen, Sumaira

    2014-11-21

    Sonchus arvesis is traditionally reported in various human ailments including hepatotoxicity in Pakistan. Presently we designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Sonchus arvesis against carbon tetrachloride induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in hepatic tissues of experimental rats. 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Sonchus arvensis against CCl4 induced genotoxicity, DNA damages and antioxidant depletion. Rats of normal control group were given free access of food and water add labitum. Group II rats received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. Group III and IV received 1 ml of 100 mg/kg b.w. and 200 mg/kg b.w. SME via gavage after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas group V was given 1 ml of silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI only received 200 mg/kg b.w. SME. Protective effects of SME were checked by measuring serum markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes, genotoxicity and DNA dmages. Results of the present study showed that treatment of SME reversed the activities of serum marker enzymes and cholesterol profile as depleted with CCl4 treatment. Activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes of liver tissue homogenate; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were reduced with administration of CCl4, which were returned to the control level with SME treatment. CCl4-induced hepatic cirrhosis decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and increased lipid peroxidative products (TBARS), were normalized by treatment with SME. Moreover, administration of CCl4 caused genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation which were significantly restored towards the normal level with SME. These results reveal that treatment of SME may be useful in the prevention of hepatic stress.

  6. QM/MM Geometry Optimization on Extensive Free-Energy Surfaces for Examination of Enzymatic Reactions and Design of Novel Functional Properties of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigehiko; Uchida, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Higashi, Masahiro; Kosugi, Takahiro; Kamiya, Motoshi

    2017-05-05

    Many remarkable molecular functions of proteins use their characteristic global and slow conformational dynamics through coupling of local chemical states in reaction centers with global conformational changes of proteins. To theoretically examine the functional processes of proteins in atomic detail, a methodology of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free-energy geometry optimization is introduced. In the methodology, a geometry optimization of a local reaction center is performed with a quantum mechanical calculation on a free-energy surface constructed with conformational samples of the surrounding protein environment obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation with a molecular mechanics force field. Geometry optimizations on extensive free-energy surfaces by a QM/MM reweighting free-energy self-consistent field method designed to be variationally consistent and computationally efficient have enabled examinations of the multiscale molecular coupling of local chemical states with global protein conformational changes in functional processes and analysis and design of protein mutants with novel functional properties.

  7. QM/MM Geometry Optimization on Extensive Free-Energy Surfaces for Examination of Enzymatic Reactions and Design of Novel Functional Properties of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shigehiko; Uchida, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Higashi, Masahiro; Kosugi, Takahiro; Kamiya, Motoshi

    2017-05-01

    Many remarkable molecular functions of proteins use their characteristic global and slow conformational dynamics through coupling of local chemical states in reaction centers with global conformational changes of proteins. To theoretically examine the functional processes of proteins in atomic detail, a methodology of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free-energy geometry optimization is introduced. In the methodology, a geometry optimization of a local reaction center is performed with a quantum mechanical calculation on a free-energy surface constructed with conformational samples of the surrounding protein environment obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation with a molecular mechanics force field. Geometry optimizations on extensive free-energy surfaces by a QM/MM reweighting free-energy self-consistent field method designed to be variationally consistent and computationally efficient have enabled examinations of the multiscale molecular coupling of local chemical states with global protein conformational changes in functional processes and analysis and design of protein mutants with novel functional properties.

  8. A new perspective on plasmonics: Confinement and propagation length of surface plasmons for different materials and geometries [A new perspective on materials for plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Dastmalchi, Babak; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2015-09-21

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating on the surface of a metal. Thanks to subwavelength confinement, they can concentrate optical energy on the micrometer or even nanometer scale, enabling new applications in bio-sensing, optical interconnects, and nonlinear optics, where small footprint and strong field concentration are essential. The major obstacle in developing plasmonic applications is dissipative loss, which limits the propagation length of surface plasmons and broadens the bandwidth of surface-plasmon resonances. Here, a new analysis of plasmonic materials and geometries is presented which fully considers the tradeoff between propagation length and degree of confinement. It is based on a two-dimensional analysis of two independent figures of merit and the analysis is applied to relevant plasmonic materials, e.g., noble metals, aluminum, silicon carbide, doped semiconductors, graphene, etc. Furthermore, the analysis provides guidance on how to improve the performance of any particular plasmonic application and substantially eases the selection of the plasmonic material.

  9. Subtracted geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Zain Hamid

    In this thesis we study a special class of black hole geometries called subtracted geometries. Subtracted geometry black holes are obtained when one omits certain terms from the warp factor of the metric of general charged rotating black holes. The omission of these terms allows one to write the wave equation of the black hole in a completely separable way and one can explicitly see that the wave equation of a massless scalar field in this slightly altered background of a general multi-charged rotating black hole acquires an SL(2, R) x SL(2, R) x SO(3) symmetry. The "subtracted limit" is considered an appropriate limit for studying the internal structure of the non-subtracted black holes because new 'subtracted' black holes have the same horizon area and periodicity of the angular and time coordinates in the near horizon regions as the original black hole geometry it was constructed from. The new geometry is asymptotically conical and is physically similar to that of a black hole in an asymptotically confining box. We use the different nice properties of these geometries to understand various classically and quantum mechanically important features of general charged rotating black holes.

  10. Combining Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation and a Non Contact Continuous Flow Surface Sampling Probe/Electrospray Emitter for Mass Spectrometry-Based Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection into a continuous flow surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter for mass spectrometry based chemical imaging. The flow probe/emitter device was placed in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collected was immediately aspirated into the probe and on to the electrospray emitter, ionized and detected with the mass spectrometer. Freehand drawn ink lines and letters and an inked fingerprint on microscope slides were analyzed. The circular laser ablation area was about 210 m in diameter and under the conditions used in these experiments the spatial resolution, as determined by the size of the surface features distinguished in the chemical images, was about 100 m.

  11. A Microstructural Approach Toward the Quantification of Anomaly Bond Coat Surface Geometry Change in NiCoCrAlY Plasma-Sprayed Bond Coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbeigi-Roodposhti, Peiman; Jordan, Eric; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional behavior of NiCoCrAlY bond coat surface geometry change (known as rumpling) was characterized during 120 h of thermal cycling. The proposed scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based 3D imaging method allows for recording the change in both height and width at the same location during the heat treatment. Statistical analysis using both profile information [two dimensions (2D)] and surface information [three dimensions (3D)] demonstrated a typical nature of rumpling as increase in height and decrease in width. However, it also revealed an anomaly of height reduction between 40 and 80 cycles. Such behavior was further investigated by analyzing the bearing area ratio curve of the surface and attributed to filling of voids and valleys by the growth of thermally grown oxide.

  12. Geometry- and Length Scale-Dependent Deformation and Recovery on Micro- and Nanopatterned Shape Memory Polymer Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei Li; Low, Hong Yee

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nanoscale surface textures, when optimally designed, present a unique approach to improve surface functionalities. Coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers may generate reversibly tuneable surface properties. A shape memory polyetherurethane is used to prepare various surface textures including 2 μm- and 200 nm-gratings, 250 nm-pillars and 200 nm-holes. The mechanical deformation via stretching and recovery of the surface texture are investigated as a function of length scales and shapes. Results show the 200 nm-grating exhibiting more deformation than 2 μm-grating. Grating imparts anisotropic and surface area-to-volume effects, causing different degree of deformation between gratings and pillars under the same applied macroscopic strain. Full distribution of stress within the film causes the holes to deform more substantially than the pillars. In the recovery study, unlike a nearly complete recovery for the gratings after 10 transformation cycles, the high contribution of surface energy impedes the recovery of holes and pillars. The surface textures are shown to perform a switchable wetting function. This study provides insights into how geometric features of shape memory surface patterns can be designed to modulate the shape programming and recovery, and how the control of reversibly deformable surface textures can be applied to transfer microdroplets. PMID:27026290

  13. An evaluation of the influence of measurement geometry on the uncertainties of photometric model results based on the laboratory measurements of particulate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhongqiu

    2017-01-01

    Sunlight reflected by particulate surfaces carries important information about its physical properties. Modeling the reflectance of different types of particulate samples is an attractive field of study, so estimating the favorable measurement geometry for accurate inversion of photometric model parameters is necessary. This research examines the distribution of the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) with different particle sizes by multi-angular reflectance. Two types of particulate samples (one with low reflectance and the other with moderate reflectance) with particle sizes of 0.3, 0.45 and 0.9 mm were measured over a wide viewing range under the assumption of left-to-right symmetry of the BRF. Based on these measurements, we computed the reflectance of particulate surfaces by a photometric model and analyzed the influence of measurement geometry (different combinations of incident zenith angle, viewing zenith angle and azimuth angle) on the inverted parameters and the results modeled by the best-fit parameters. The results show that by using the measurements in the single azimuth (including the principal plane) to invert the model parameters, the difference between the modeled results and measured results will exceed the reflectance change caused by the samples' particle size; this difference is also found when we used the combined measurements at two different incident zenith angles. Including the measurements in the principal plane, an increase in the number of azimuth angles will improve the match between the modeled results and measurements. Our results also confirm that the single-scattering albedo is the only model parameter that could be empirically used to determine the particle sizes of our samples over a wide range of measurement directions. This study proposes several favorable combinations of measurement geometry and also appears to provide a promising empirical reference for the particulate surfaces similar to ours in future laboratory

  14. Fracture resistance of tooth restored with four glass fiber post systems of varying surface geometries-An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Sathish, Emmanuel; Venkatalakshmi-Aparna, Potluri; Balagopal, Sunderasan

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to relate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth in relation to post geometry. Material and Methods Forty single rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented by step - back technique and obturated by lateral condensation. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Reforpost glass fiber X-ray®, RelyX®, Exacto conical® and Parapost Fiber Lux®. The post spaces were prepared using respective drills and luted. The core build up was done and metal crowns were luted. Fracture resistance was determined in universal testing machine. The statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Kramer test. Results The teeth restored with Reforpost showed highest fracture resistance followed by Parapost and Exacto conical. The teeth restored with RelyX showed least fracture resistance. The teeth restored with Parapost had less unfavourable fracture followed by exacto conical. Conclusions Parallel design had less number of catastrophic failure and had better fracture resistance. Key words:Fracture resistance, glass fiber post, post geometry, stress. PMID:26855705

  15. Three-dimensional surface geometries of the rabbit soleus muscle during contraction: input for biomechanical modelling and its validation.

    PubMed

    Böl, Markus; Leichsenring, Kay; Weichert, Christine; Sturmat, Maike; Schenk, Philipp; Blickhan, Reinhard; Siebert, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    There exists several numerical approaches to describe the active contractile behaviour of skeletal muscles. These models range from simple one-dimensional to more advanced three-dimensional ones; especially, three-dimensional models take up the cause of describing complex contraction modes in a realistic way. However, the validation of such concepts is challenging, as the combination of geometry, material and force characteristics is so far not available from the same muscle. To this end, we present in this study a comprehensive data set of the rabbit soleus muscle consisting of the muscles' characteristic force responses (active and passive), its three-dimensional shape during isometric, isotonic and isokinetic contraction experiments including the spatial arrangement of muscle tissue and aponeurosis-tendon complex, and the fascicle orientation throughout the whole muscle at its optimal length. In this way, an extensive data set is available giving insight into the three-dimensional geometry of the rabbit soleus muscle and, further, allowing to validate three-dimensional numerical models.

  16. Radiation transport simulation of the Martian GCR surface flux and dose estimation using spherical geometry in PHITS compared to MSL-RAD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-McLaughlin, John

    2017-08-01

    Planetary bodies and spacecraft are predominantly exposed to isotropic radiation environments that are subject to transport and interaction in various material compositions and geometries. Specifically, the Martian surface radiation environment is composed of galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced by their interaction with the Martian atmosphere, albedo particles from the Martian regolith and occasional solar particle events. Despite this complex physical environment with potentially significant locational and geometric dependencies, computational resources often limit radiation environment calculations to a one-dimensional or slab geometry specification. To better account for Martian geometry, spherical volumes with respective Martian material densities are adopted in this model. This physical description is modeled with the PHITS radiation transport code and compared to a portion of measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory. Particle spectra measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and PHITS model results calculated for this time period are compared. Results indicate good agreement between simulated dose rates, proton, neutron and gamma spectra. This work was originally presented at the 1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in 2016 in Boulder, CO.

  17. Effects of thermal power plant effluents on formation and senescence of reproductive parts of Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Saquib, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon and particulates are the major air pollutants emitted in huge amounts by the Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) running on 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents significantly affect reproductive phase of Anagallis arvensis L. Samples of 10 plants each were randomly collected at monthly intervals at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant complex. Bud formation and flowering were delayed in the population thriving at 0.5 km from the pollution source. As a 2 month old stage, 60% of the population showed a decline in bud formation in the vicinity of the source compared to a heavy bud emergence in the whole population thriving 20 km away from it. Bud formation, flowering fruit set and seed set showed a correlation with multiple growth factors viz productivity, shoot length and distance from the source.

  18. Low levels of specularity support operational color constancy, particularly when surface and illumination geometry can be inferred

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Smithson, Hannah E.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether surface specularity alone supports operational color constancy – the ability to discriminate changes in illumination or reflectance. Observers viewed short animations of illuminant or reflectance changes in rendered scenes containing a single spherical surface, and were asked to classify the change. Performance improved with increasing specularity, as predicted from regularities in chromatic statistics. Peak performance was impaired by spatial rearrangements of image pixels that disrupted the perception of illuminated surfaces, but was maintained with increased surface complexity. The characteristic chromatic transformations that are available with non-zero specularity are useful for operational color constancy, particularly if accompanied by appropriate perceptual organisation. PMID:26974938

  19. Evolutionary processes in a continental island system: molecular phylogeography of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (Ranunculaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Bittkau, C; Comes, H P

    2005-11-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of past fragmentation, dispersal, and genetic drift on taxon diversification. We used phylogeographical (nested clade) and population genetic analyses to elucidate the relative roles of these processes in the evolutionary history of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (= 'coenospecies'). We surveyed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in 455 individuals from 47 populations (nine taxa) of the alliance throughout its core range in the Aegean Archipelago and surrounding mainland areas of Greece and Turkey. The study revealed the presence of three major lineages, with largely nonoverlapping distributions in the Western, Central, and Eastern Aegean. There is evidence supporting the idea that these major lineages evolved in situ from a widespread (pan-Aegean) ancestral stock as a result of multiple fragmentation events, possibly due to the influence of post-Messinian sea flooding, Pleistocene eustatic changes and corresponding climate fluctuations. Over-sea dispersal and founder events appear to have played a rather insignificant role in the group's history. Rather, all analytical approaches identified the alliance as an organism group with poor seed dispersal capabilities and a susceptibility to genetic drift. In particular, we inferred that the observed level of cpDNA differentiation between Kikladian island populations of Nigella degenii largely reflects population history, (viz. Holocene island fragmentation) and genetic drift in the near absence of seed flow since their time of common ancestry. Overall, our cpDNA data for the N. arvensis alliance in general, and N. degenii in particular, indicate that historical events were important in determining the phylogeographical patterns seen, and that genetic drift has historically been relatively more influential on population structure than has cytoplasmic gene flow.

  20. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  1. Simulation study of free-energy barriers in the wetting transition of an oily fluid on a rough surface with reentrant geometry.

    PubMed

    Savoy, Elizabeth S; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2012-11-20

    When in contact with a rough solid surface, fluids with low surface tension, such as oils and alkanes, have their lowest free energy in the fully wetted state. For applications where nonwetting by these phillic fluids is desired, some barrier must be introduced to maintain the nonwetted composite state. One way to create this free-energy barrier is to fabricate roughness with reentrant geometry, but the question remains as to whether the free-energy barrier is sufficiently high to prevent wetting. Our goal is to quantify the free-energy landscape for the wetting transition of an oily fluid on a surface of nails and identify significant surface features and conditions that maximize the wetting free-energy barrier (ΔGfwd*). This is a departure from most work on wetting, which focuses on the equilibrium composite and wetted states. We use boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) (Glowacki, D. R.; Paci, E.; Shalashilin, D. V. J. Phys. Chem. B2009, 113, 16603-16611) with a modified control scheme to evaluate both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition over a range of surface affinities (chemistry). We find that the reentrant geometry of the nails does create a free-energy barrier to transition for phillic chemistry whereas a corresponding system on straight posts wets spontaneously and, that doubling the nail height more than doubles ΔGfwd*. For neutral to phillic chemistry, the dewetting free-energy barrier is at least an order of magnitude higher than that for wetting, indicating an essentially irreversible wetting transition. Transition rates from BXD simulations and the associated trends agree well with those in our previous study that used forward flux sampling to compute transition rates for similar systems.

  2. Microscale and nanoscale surface strain mapping of single asperity wear in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene: Effects of materials, load, and asperity geometry.

    PubMed

    Wernlé, James D; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2010-06-15

    Wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a limiting factor in longevity of joint replacements. Therefore, there is a desire to create new materials and enhance processing conditions associated with current materials to reduce wear. This requires understanding the effects of processing on performance of implants and of micron-scale wear mechanisms ongoing. Our goal is to generate detailed understanding of the micron-scale deformation-structure-properties relationships associated with UHMWPE subject to asperity wear processes and ultimately to be predictive of material success, in vivo. In this work, a surface strain analysis technique is developed and used to measure permanent strain from asperity deformations on the nano and micro scales. Deformation was applied to four material types (GUR 1050, GUR 1020, Hylamer, and Marathon) varying in molecular weight, crystallinity, and crosslinking. Surface strains were determined by mapping surface deformation fields and were compared across loading conditions and spatial scale, with variations in tip geometry and size, contact load, and material. Surface strains increased with asperity load for a fixed tip and were dependent on UHMWPE material, with a highly crystalline form exhibiting the most plastic strain and a crosslinked form exhibiting the least. Different asperity geometry [spherical microindenters with radius of 20 and 1500 mum, and a nanoindenter (Berkovich-type)] resulted in different surface strains (e.g., Berkovich vs. spherical were not similar) even when the nominal contact stress was similar. Finally, the extent of deformation during asperity wear correlates to the level of viscoelastic recovery of the materials observed after indentation testing. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation of crystal surface finish and geometry on single LYSO scintillator detector performance for depth-of-interaction measurement with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm3 and 2×2×20 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 μm roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns, respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  4. Investigation of Crystal Surface Finish and Geometry on Single LYSO Scintillator Detector Performance for Depth-of-Interaction Measurement with Silicon Photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-21

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm(3) and 2×2×20 mm(3) with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 micron roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  5. Investigation of Crystal Surface Finish and Geometry on Single LYSO Scintillator Detector Performance for Depth-of-Interaction Measurement with Silicon Photomultipliers

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm3 and 2×2×20 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 micron roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays. PMID:23087497

  6. Effects of surface texture and measurement geometry on the near infrared water-of-hydration absorption bands. Implications for the Martian regolith water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.

    Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy is widely used to detect mineral hydration on Solar System surfaces by the observation of absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. Recent studies established empirical relationships between the strength of the 3 µm band and the water content of the studied minerals (Milliken et al., 2005). These results have especially been applied to the OMEGA dataset to derive global maps of the Martian regolith water content (Jouglet et al., 2006 and Milliken et al., 2006). However, parameters such as surface texture and measurement geometry are known to have a strong effect on reflectance spectra but their influence on the hydration bands is poorly documented. The aim of this work is the determination of the quantitative effects of particle size, mixing between materials with different albedo and measurement geometry on the absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. We used both an experimental and a modeling approach to study these effects. Bidirectional reflectance spectra were measured for series of well characterized samples (smectite, volcanic tuff and coals, pure and mixed) and modeled with optical constants of a smectite (Roush, 2005). Criteria commonly used to estimate the strength of the bands were then calculated on these spectra. We show that particle size has a strong effect on the 1.9 and 3 µm bands strength, especially for the finest particles (less than 200 µm). Mixing between a fine smectite powder and anthracite powders with various particle sizes (modeled by a synthetic neutral material) highlights the strong effect of the materials albedo on the hydration band estimation criteria. Measurement geometry has a significant effect on the bands strength for high phase angles. Furthermore, the relative variations of band strength with measurement geometry appear very dependent on the surface texture. We will present in details the relationships between these physical parameters and various criteria chosen to estimate the hydration bands

  7. Modeling three-dimensional surface morphology of biocake layer in a membrane bioreactor based on fractal geometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Leihong; Yang, Lining; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Yu, Haiying; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Renjie

    2016-12-01

    While the adsorptive fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly dependent of the surface morphology, little progress has been made on modeling biocake layer surface morphology. In this study, a novel method, which combined static light scattering method for fractal dimension (Df) measurement with fractal method represented by the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function, was proposed to model biocake layer surface in a MBR. Characterization by atomic force microscopy showed that the biocake surface was stochastic, disorder, self-similarity, and with non-integer dimension, illustrating obvious fractal features. Fractal dimension (Df) of sludge suspension experienced a significant change with operation of the MBR. The constructed biocake layer surface by the proposed method was quite close to the real surface, showing the feasibility of the proposed method. It was found that Df was the critical factor affecting surface morphology, while other factors exerted moderate or minor effects on the roughness of biocake layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bed-form climb models to analyze geometry and preservation potential of clastic facies and erosional surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Martinez, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Based on a combination of Walther's Law of Facies and bed-form climb theory, the authors propose a model that explains how erosion surfaces and vertical sequences of clastic strata are preserved where deposition occurs in channelized or locally erosional environments including fluvial and submarine-channel deposits, barred beaches, and transgressive coastlines. the model considers both lateral and vertical migration of a scour surface and its associated depositional products. As in studies of bed-form climb, they recognize subcritical, critical, and supercritical climb of scour surfaces relative to adjacent depositional forms. 12 figures.

  9. The effect of geometry and post-annealing on surface acoustic wave characteristics of AlN thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Duy-Thach; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes experimental relationship between surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of two-port SAW resonators based on polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films grown on Si substrates by using a pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering system and their geometry's parameters. Moreover, the influence of post-deposition heat treatment on SAW properties of AlN thin films was investigated at different annealing temperature (600 °C and 900 °C). The measurement results show the number of the inter-digital transducers (IDT) finger pairs ( N), the number of reflectors grating pairs ( R) and the IDT center-to-center distance ( L) related to insertion loss of SAW resonators. The best result of insertion loss was 15.6 dB for SAW resonators with R = 160 pair, N = 5 pair and L = 750 μm. At the same geometry parameters, the SAW velocity and insertion loss were improved slightly after annealing at 600 °C and were worse for the films annealed at 900 °C by changes in the surface morphology and stress on the film.

  10. Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desseyn, H. O.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…

  11. Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desseyn, H. O.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…

  12. Modeling and simulating of V-shaped piezoelectric micro-cantilevers using MCS theory considering the various surface geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, A. H.; Kianfar, A.; Korayem, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used as a tool in studying surfaces and mechanical properties of materials at nanoscale. This paper deals with mechanical and vibration analysis of AFM vibration in the non-contact and tapping modes for V-shaped piezoelectric micro-cantilever (MC) with geometric discontinuities and cross section variation in the air ambient. In the vibration analysis, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory based on modified couple stress (MCS) theory has been used. The governing equation of motion has been derived by using Hamilton's principle. By adopting finite element method (FEM), the MC differential equation has been solved. Damping matrix was considered in the modal space. Frequency response was obtained by using Laplace transform, and it has been compared with experimental results. Newmark algorithm has been used based on constant average acceleration to analyze time response of MC, and then time response results in the vibration mode, far from the sample surface have been compared with experimental data. In vicinity of sample surface, MC is influenced by various nonlinear forces between the probe tip and sample surface, including van der Waals, contact, and capillary forces. Time response was examined at different distances between MC base and sample surface, and the best distance was selected for topography. Topography results of different types of roughness showed that piezoelectric MC has been improved in the air ambient. Topography showed more accurate forms of roughness, when MC passes through sample surface at higher frequencies. The surface topography investigation for tapping and non-contact modes showed that using of these two modes are suitable for topography.

  13. Surface geometry of (1×1)PHx/Ge(111) determined with angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terminello, L. J.; Leung, K. T.; Hussain, Z.; Hayashi, T.; Zhang, X. S.; Shirley, D. A.

    1990-06-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) obtained from the phosphorus 1s core level was studied to determine the chemisorption geometry of (1×1)PHx/Ge(111), prepared by partial dissociation of PH3 adsorbed on Ge(111). We determined that the phosphorus adsorbs 2.26 Å above a first-layer germanium atom, and preferentially tilts toward the second-layer germanium atom with a 0.63-Å lateral displacement from a true atop position. Other geometrical parameters determined from the multiple-scattering, spherical-wave analysis of the ARPEFS include the first- to second-layer germanium Ge(1)-Ge(2) spacing (0.68 Å) and the second- to third-layer germanium Ge(2)-Ge(3) spacing (2.68 Å). This represents a 17% contraction for Ge(1)-Ge(2) and a 9% expansion for Ge(2)-Ge(3). The importance of adsorbate scattering and how it affects data interpretation are also discussed. Comparison of this chemisorption system with other systems is made.

  14. Surface hopping dynamics of direct trans → cis photoswitching of an azobenzene derivative in constrained adsorbate geometries.

    PubMed

    Floß, Gereon; Granucci, Giovanni; Saalfrank, Peter

    2012-12-21

    With ongoing miniaturization of electronic devices, the need for individually addressable, switchable molecules arises. An example are azobenzenes on surfaces which have been shown to be switchable between trans and cis forms. Here, we examine the "direct" (rather than substrate-mediated) channel of the trans → cis photoisomerization after ππ∗ excitation of tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene physisorbed on surfaces mimicking Au(111) and Bi(111), respectively. In spirit of the direct channel, the electronic structure of the surface is neglected, the latter merely acting as a rigid platform which weakly interacts with the molecule via Van-der-Waals forces. Starting from thermal ensembles which represent the trans-form, sudden excitations promote the molecules to ππ∗-excited states which are non-adiabatically coupled among themselves and to a nπ∗-excited and the ground state, respectively. After excitation, relaxation to the ground state by internal conversion takes place, possibly accompanied by isomerization. The process is described here by "on the fly" semiclassical surface hopping dynamics in conjunction with a semiempirical Hamiltonian (AM1) and configuration-interaction type methods. It is found that steric constraints imposed by the substrate lead to reduced but non-vanishing, trans → cis reaction yields and longer internal conversion times than for the isolated molecule. Implications for recent experiments for azobenzenes on surfaces are discussed.

  15. Effect of surface geometry in steam absorption into a falling film of aqueous solution of LiBr

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyota, Masanori; Morioka, Itsuki; Ousaka, Akiharu

    1996-03-01

    Absorption chillers are becoming attractive since they do not use Freon gases which destroy the ozone layer and can be driven by heat. Improvement of the absorber is necessary to make absorption chillers compact. In this paper, heat-transfer surfaces which show maximum absorption performance are sought. Grooved pipes are known to be effective for promoting gas absorption into falling water. They are tested for water vapor absorption with four different groove depths as well as two different knurled surfaces. The pipe with the deepest groove shows enhancement of about 1.5--1.9 in the Reynolds number range of 200--500. The knurled surfaces are not effective for absorption, but they have better wettability at a lower flow rate and furthermore for higher knurl height, absorption increases at larger flow rates. Film thickness is measured by the contact probe method. The average film thickness curve has large undulation for deeper grooves but it is flat for the shallow grooves.

  16. Geometry and evolution of a planar fault surface: Implications for the stress field orientation in the northern Walker Lane

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Power, W.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors present quantitative shape and roughness data to describe an extraordinarily planar fault surface in the southern Pah Rah Range, Washoe Co., Nevada. The planar nature of the fault surface is interpreted to be the result of alternating strike-slip and dip-slip motion during its formation. The most likely explanation for mixed mode faulting is repeated changes in the magnitudes or directions of the principal stresses. The orientation, slip directions, and faulting history from this fault surface constrain the regional stress field in the northern Walker Lane from Miocene time to the present. Mesoscopic structures record multiple reactivations of the fault. The fault is characterized by a 0--1 m thick zone of brecciated and comminuted rock. This gouge is recemented; frictional wear on clasts within the cemented gouge and on the gouge itself documents continued fault slip after the cementing occurred. The planar bedrock scarp is developed within the gouge, and is 1--1.5m high and 300m long. It is coated with a thin veneer of tan clayey material which is 1mm thick. The main bedrock scarp is cut by several sets of minor faults and shear zones; the planar fault surface serves as a marker horizon for determining relative displacement on these features. The fault is part of the left-lateral Olinghouse fault system in the northern Walker Lane. It crops out just north of the Truckee River, 25 km east of Reno, and cuts basaltic flow breccia of the Miocene Lousetown Fm. The planar fault surface strikes E-W and is sub-vertical; this differs from the 060[degree] strike of the Olinghouse system as a whole. Total displacement, based on gouge thickness, is at least 100--1,000m.

  17. A new perspective on plasmonics: Confinement and propagation length of surface plasmons for different materials and geometries [A new perspective on materials for plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Dastmalchi, Babak; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; ...

    2015-09-21

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating on the surface of a metal. Thanks to subwavelength confinement, they can concentrate optical energy on the micrometer or even nanometer scale, enabling new applications in bio-sensing, optical interconnects, and nonlinear optics, where small footprint and strong field concentration are essential. The major obstacle in developing plasmonic applications is dissipative loss, which limits the propagation length of surface plasmons and broadens the bandwidth of surface-plasmon resonances. Here, a new analysis of plasmonic materials and geometries is presented which fully considers the tradeoff between propagation length and degree of confinement. It is based on amore » two-dimensional analysis of two independent figures of merit and the analysis is applied to relevant plasmonic materials, e.g., noble metals, aluminum, silicon carbide, doped semiconductors, graphene, etc. Furthermore, the analysis provides guidance on how to improve the performance of any particular plasmonic application and substantially eases the selection of the plasmonic material.« less

  18. Accounting for the Effects of Surface BRDF on Satellite Cloud and Trace-Gas Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity Applied to OMI Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Most satellite nadir ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms make use of climatological surface reflectivity databases. For example, cloud and NO2 retrievals for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) use monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatologies that do not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun-sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. The geometry-dependent LER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare the geometry-dependent and climatological LERs for two wavelengths, 354 and 466 nm, that are used in OMI cloud algorithms to derive cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and geometry-dependent LERs is carried out. Geometry-dependent LER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as inputs to our OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with geometry-dependent LERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50% in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  19. Accounting for the effects of surface BRDF on satellite cloud and trace-gas retrievals: a new approach based on geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity applied to OMI algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Most satellite nadir ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms make use of climatological surface reflectivity databases. For example, cloud and NO2 retrievals for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) use monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatologies that do not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun-sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. The geometry-dependent LER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare the geometry-dependent and climatological LERs for two wavelengths, 354 and 466 nm, that are used in OMI cloud algorithms to derive cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and geometry-dependent LERs is carried out. Geometry-dependent LER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as inputs to our OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with geometry-dependent LERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50 % in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  20. Accounting for the Effects of Surface BRDF on Satellite Cloud and Trace-Gas Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity Applied to OMI Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Most satellite nadir ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms make use of climatological surface reflectivity databases. For example, cloud and NO2 retrievals for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) use monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatologies that do not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun-sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. The geometry-dependent LER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over land and the Cox-Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare the geometry-dependent and climatological LERs for two wavelengths, 354 and 466 nm, that are used in OMI cloud algorithms to derive cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and geometry-dependent LERs is carried out. Geometry-dependent LER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as inputs to our OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with geometry-dependent LERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50% in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) analysis of the genomic relationships among Sinapis arvensis, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shufang; Han, Yonghua; Wu, Xiaoming; An, Tingting; Tang, Jiali; Shen, Junjun; Li, Zongyun

    2012-06-01

    To further understand the relationships between the SS genome of Sinapis arvensis and the AA, BB genomes in Brassica, genomic DNA of Sinapis arvensis was hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of Brassica nigra (BB genome), and the metaphase chromosomes and interphase nucleus of Brassica rapa (AA genome) by comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH). As a result, every chromosome of B. nigra had signals along the whole chromosomal length. However, only half of the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus and the chromosomes showed rich signals in Brassica rapa. Interphase nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes of S. arvensis were simultaneously hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA of B. nigra and biotin-labeled genomic DNA of B. rapa. Signals of genomic DNA of B. nigra hybridized throughout the length of all chromosomes and all the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus, except chromosome 4, of which signals were weak in centromeric regions. Signals of the genomic DNA of B. rapa patterned the most areas of ten chromosomes and ten condensed heterochromatic areas, others had less signals. The results showed that the SS genome had homology with AA and BB genomes, but the homology between SS genome and AA genome was clearly lower than that between the SS genome and BB genome.

  2. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinikos, N.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Meletlidou, E.

    2014-06-15

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label.

  3. Droplet relaxation in Hele-Shaw geometry: Application to the measurement of the nematic-isotropic surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Patrick; Poy, Guilhem

    2015-12-01

    Shape measurements after the coalescence of isotropic droplets embedded in a thin sample of a homeotropic nematic phase provides a tool to measure the nematic-isotropic surface tension. In addition, this experiment allows us to check the scaling laws recently given by Brun et al. [P.-T. Brun, M. Nagel, and F. Gallaire, Phys. Rev. E 88, 043009 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.043009] to explain the relaxation of ellipsoidal droplets in a Hele-Shaw cell.

  4. Enhanced Plasmon Coupling in Crossed Dielectric/metal Nanowire Composite Geometries and Applications to Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    January 2007; published online 27 February 2007" Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy !SERS" was performed on Ga2O3 /Ag and ZnO/Ag nanowires, which were... Ga2O3 nanowires was performed by the vapor-liquid-solid !VLS" growth mechanism,12,13 using Si!100" and Si!111" substrates14 and a 20 nm Au film. Ga...nm line of an Ar ion laser was used as the excitation source. The VLS growth resulted in Ga2O3 wires with a large number of crossings, as shown in Fig

  5. On the geometry of a smooth model of a fibre product of families of K3 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikol'skaya, O. V.

    2014-02-01

    The Hodge conjecture on algebraic cycles is proved for a smooth projective model X of a fibre product X_1\\times_C X_2 of nonisotrivial 1-parameter families of K3 surfaces (possibly with degeneracies) X_{k} \\to C ( k=1,2) over a smooth projective curve C under the assumption that, for generic geometric fibres X_{1s} and X_{2s}, the ring \\operatorname{End}_{\\operatorname{Hg}(X_{1s})}\\operatorname{NS}_{ Q}(X_{1s})^{\\perp} is an imaginary quadratic field, \\operatorname{rank}\\operatorname{NS}(X_{1s})\

  6. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boularas, A.; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-01

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip-sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  7. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  8. Moulding technique demonstrates the contribution of surface geometry to the super-hydrophobic properties of the surface of a water strider.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; De Souza, Emerson; Fujisaki, Kenji; Gorb, Stanislav

    2008-05-01

    Water striders (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerridae) have a complex three-dimensional waterproof hairy cover which renders them super-hydrophobic. This paper experimentally demonstrates for the first time the mechanism of the super-hydrophobicity of the cuticle of water striders. The complex two-level microstructure of the surface, including the smallest microtrichia (200-300 nm wide, 7-9 microm long), was successfully replicated using a two-step moulding technique. The mould surface exhibited super-hydrophobic properties similar to the original insect surface. The average water contact angle (CA) of the mould was 164.7 degrees , whereas the CA of the flat polymer was about 92 degrees . These results show that (i) in water striders, the topography of the surface plays a dominant role in super-hydrophobicity, (ii) very low surface energy bulk material (typically smaller than 0.020 N m(-1)) is not necessary to achieve super-hydrophobicity; and (3) the two-step moulding technique may be used to mimic quite complex biological functional surfaces.

  9. Experimental investigation of heat transfer efficiency on the convex surface of the annular channel of varying geometry intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komov, A. T.; Varava, A. V.; Zakharenkov, A. V.; Dedov, A. V.; Boltenko, E. A.; Agishev, B. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The work is a continuation of the experimental studies on the enhancement of heat transfer in the fuel assembly on the experimental stand in National Research University "Moscow Power Engineering Institute". The description of the experimental setup, construction and main geometrical parameters of intensifier are presented. The new experimental data on the pressure loss and heat transfer coefficient using an edge enhancer - twisted wire single-phase convection mode are presented. In the research, the range mode parameters and geometric characteristics of the intensifier were extended. The relation of the coefficients of hydraulic resistance and the Nusselt number of steps twist twisted wire was found, the effect of the ribs on the heat transfer coefficient was shown. It is found that for any twist pitch ranging from 20 to 100 mm corresponds to a maximum heat transfer rib height H = 0,35. An increase in the heat transfer coefficient in the convex heating surface was experimentally obtained.

  10. Geometry and spatial variations of seismic reflection intensity of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate off the Boso Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryousuke

    2017-07-01

    In the region off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, the Pacific plate is subducting westward beneath both the Honshu island arc and Philippine Sea plate, while the Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward beneath the Honshu island arc. These complex tectonic interactions have caused numerous seismic events occurred in the past. To better understand these seismic events, it is important to determine the geometry of the plate boundary, in particular the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate. We conducted an active-source seismic refraction survey in July and August 2009 from which we obtained a 2-D P-wave velocity structure model along a 216-km profile. We used the velocity model and previously published data that indicate a P-wave velocity of 5.0 km/s for the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate to delineate its boundary with the overriding Honshu island arc. Our isodepth contours of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate show that its dip is shallow at depths of 10 to 15 km, far off the Boso Peninsula. This shallow dip may be a result of interference from the Pacific plate slab, which is subducting westward under the Philippine Sea plate. Within our survey data, we recognized numerous seismic reflections of variable intensity, some of which came from the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate. An area of high seismic reflection intensity corresponds with the main slip area of the Boso slow slip events. Our modeling indicates that those reflections can be explained by an inhomogeneous layer close to the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate.

  11. A numerical study of the effect of geometry variation, turbulence models, and dissipation on the flow past control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaussee, Denny S.

    1993-01-01

    The steady 3D viscous flow past the ONERA M6 wing and a slender delta wing-body with trailing edge control surfaces has been computed. A cell-centered finite-volume Navier-Stokes patched zonal method has been used for the numerical simulation. Both diagonalized and LUSGS schemes have been implemented. Besides the standard nonplanar zonal interfacing techniques, a new virtual zone capability has been employed. For code validation, the transonic flow past the ONERA M5 wing is calculated for angles-of-attack of 3.06 deg and 5.06 deg and compared with the available experiments. The wing-body computational results are compared with experimental data for both trailing-edge flaps deflected. The experimental flow conditions are M subinfinity = 0.4, a turbulent Reynolds number of 5.41 million based on a mean aerodynamic chord of 25.959 inches, adiabatic wall, and angles-of-attack varying from 0 deg to 23.85 deg. The computational results are presented for the 23.85 deg angle-of-attack case. The effects of the base flow due to a model sting, the varying second and fourth order numerical dissipation, and the turbulence model are all considered.

  12. A three-dimensional analysis of the geometry and curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Emily K.; Karnick, Pushpak

    2006-02-01

    This study uses new three-dimensional imaging techniques to compare the articular curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids. It has been hypothesized that the curvature of the anteroposterior contour of the lateral condyle in particular can be used to differentiate humans and apes and reflect locomotor function. This study draws from a large comparative sample of extant hominoids to obtain quantitative curvature data. Three-dimensional models of the proximal tibiae of 26 human, 15 chimpanzee, 15 gorilla, 17 orangutan, 16 gibbon and four Australopithecus fossil casts (AL 129-1b, AL 288-1aq, AL 333x-26, KNM-KP 29285A) were acquired with a Cyberware Model 15 laser digitizer. Curvature analysis was accomplished using a software program developed at Arizona State University's Partnership for Research In Stereo Modeling (PRISM) lab, which enables the user to extract curvature profiles and compute the difference between analogous curves from different specimens. Results indicate that the curvature of chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan tibiae is significantly different from the curvature of human tibiae, thus supporting the hypothesized dichotomy between humans and great apes. The non-significant difference between gibbons and all other taxa indicates that gibbons have an intermediate pattern of articular curvature. All four Australopithecus tibia were aligned with the great apes.

  13. Adsorption geometry and electronic properties of flat-lying monolayers of tetracene on the Ag(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, N. L.; Nechaev, I. A.; Höfer, U.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The geometrical and electronic properties of the monolayer (ML) of tetracene (Tc) molecules on Ag(111) are systematically investigated by means of DFT calculations with the use of a localized basis set. The bridge and hollow adsorption positions of the molecule in the commensurate γ -Tc/Ag(111) are revealed to be the most stable and equally favorable irrespective to the approximation chosen for the exchange-correlation functional. The binding energy is entirely determined by the long-range dispersive interaction. The former lowest unoccupied molecular orbital remains being unoccupied in the case of γ -Tc/Ag(111) as well as in the α phase with increased coverage. The unit cell of the α phase with point-on-line registry was adapted for calculations based on the available experimental data and computed structures of the γ phase. The calculated position of the Tc/Ag(111) interface state is found to be noticeably dependent on the lattice constant of the substrate, however its energy shift with respect to the Shockley surface state of the unperturbed clean side of the slab is sensitive only to the adsorption distance and in good agreement with the experimentally measured energy shift.

  14. A Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) tilt-correction method for radiation observed by automatic weather stations on snow-covered surfaces: application to Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zender, Charles S.; van As, Dirk; Smeets, Paul C. J. P.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-03-01

    cycles and inter-annual variabilities of albedo agree better with previous studies. This tilt-corrected shortwave radiation data set derived using the Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) method provide more accurate observations and validations for surface energy budgets studies on the Greenland Ice Sheet, including albedo variations, surface melt simulations and cloud radiative forcing estimates.

  15. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  16. Geometry and active tectonics of the Los Osos-Hosgri Fault Intersection in Estero Bay, CA: Reconciling seismicity patterns with near-surface geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, J. T.; Hardebeck, J.; Johnson, S. Y.; Kluesner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing active structures within structurally complex fault intersections is essential for unraveling the deformational history and for assessing the importance of fault intersections in regional earthquake hazard assessments. We employ an integrative, multi-scale geophysical approach to describe the 3D geometry and active tectonics of the offshore Los Osos fault (LOF) in Estero Bay, California. The shallow structure of the LOF, as imaged with multibeam and high-resolution seismic-reflection data, reveals a complex west-diverging zone of active faulting that bends into and joins the Hosgri fault. The down-dip geometry of the LOF as revealed by gravity, magnetic, and industry multi-channel seismic data, is vertical to steeply-dipping and varies along strike. As the LOF extends offshore, it is characterized by SW-side-up motion on a series of W-NW trending, steeply SW-dipping reverse faults. The LOF bends to the north ( 23°) as it approaches the Hosgri fault and dips steeply to the NE along a magnetic basement block. Inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms within Estero Bay yields maximum compressive stress axes that are near-horizontal and trend approximately N15E. This trend is consistent with dextral strike-slip faulting along NW-SE trending structures such as the Hosgri fault and northern LOF, and oblique dip-slip motion along the W-NW trending section of the LOF. Notably, NW-SE trending structures illuminated by seismicity in Estero Bay coincide with, but also appear to cross-cut, LOF structures imaged in the near-surface. We suggest this apparent disconnect reflects ongoing fault reorganization at a dynamic and inherently unstable fault intersection, in which the seismicity reflects active deformation at depth that is not clearly expressed in the near-surface geology. Direct connectivity between the Hosgri and Los Osos faults suggests a combined earthquake rupture is possible; however, the geometrical complexity along the offshore LOF may limit the

  17. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess.

  18. Crystal and geometry-optimized structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and physicochemical studies of a new Co(II) complex with the ligand 2-amino-6-methoxypyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nbili, W.; Soudani, S.; Kaabi, K.; Wojtaś, M.; Ferretti, V.; Lefebvre, F.; Jelsch, C.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2017-10-01

    The crystal structure of the new complex [Co(C5H7N3O)2(H2O)4](NO3)2ṡ4H2O synthesized in aqueous solution has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar with lattice parameters: a = 7.3056(2), b = 8.4065(2), c = 10.4724(3) Å, α = 103.9470(19), β = 105.6600(14), γ = 91.1350(18)°, V = 598.54(3) Å3 and Z = 1. The Co(II) central ion is in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by two nitrogen atoms of two 2-amino-6-methoxypyrimidine ligands and four oxygen atoms of coordinated water molecules. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds which link the molecules into a three-dimensional network. Intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces. Electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were derived. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. The compound was characterized by thermal analysis to determine its thermal behavior with respect to temperature.

  19. Potential change in flaw geometry of an initially shallow finite-length surface flaw during a pressurized-thermal-shock transient

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, D.K.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1993-09-01

    This study presents preliminary estimates on whether an shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during a postulated PTS transient. Analysis results obtained based on the assumptions of (1) linear-elastic material response, and (2) cladding with same toughness as the base metal, indicate that a nearly semicircular flaw would likely propagate in the axial direction followed by propagation into the wall of the vessel. Note that these results correspond to initiation within the lower-shelf fracture toughness temperature range, and that their general validity within the lower-transition temperature range remains to be determined. The sensitivity of the numerical results aid conclusions to the following analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) linear-elastic vs elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) base-material-only vs bimaterial cladding-base vessel-model assumption. The sensitivity evaluation indicates that the analysis results are very sensitive to the above assumptions.

  20. Surface complexation and precipitate geometry for aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite I: X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    "Two-line" ferrihydrite samples precipitated and then exposed to a range of aqueous Zn solutions (10-5 to 10-3 M), and also coprecipitated in similar Zn solutions (pH 6.5), have been examined by Zn and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Typical Zn complexes on the surface have Zn-O distances of 1.97(0.2) A?? and coordination numbers of about 4.0(0.5), consistent with tetrahedral oxygen coordination. This contrasts with Zn-O distances of 2.11(.02) A?? and coordination numbers of 6 to 7 in the aqueous Zn solutions used in sample preparation. X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) fits to the second shell of cation neighbors indicate as many as 4 Zn-Fe neighbors at 3.44(.04) A?? in coprecipitated samples, and about two Zn-Fe neighbors at the same distance in adsorption samples. In both sets of samples, the fitted coordination number of second shell cations decreases as sorption density increases, indicating changes in the number and type of available complexing sites or the onset of competitive precipitation processes. Comparison of our results with the possible geometries for surface complexes and precipitates suggests that the Zn sorption complexes are inner sphere and at lowest adsorption densities are bidentate, sharing apical oxygens with adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra. Coprecipitation samples have complexes with similar geometry, but these are polydentate, sharing apices with more than two adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 polyhedra. The results are inconsistent with Zn entering the ferrihydrite structure (i.e., solid solution formation) or formation of other Zn-Fe precipitates. The fitted Zn-Fe coordination numbers drop with increasing Zn density with a minimum of about 0.8(.2) at Zn/(Zn + Fe) of 0.08 or more. This change appears to be attributable to the onset of precipitation of zinc hydroxide polymers with mainly tetrahedral Zn coordination. At the highest loadings studied, the nature of the complexes changes further

  1. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  2. Chemical Variability, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and Hydrosol Extract of Calendula arvensis L. from Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 53 compounds amounting to 92.3 - 98.5% with yields varied of 0.09 - 0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7 - 29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2 - 12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1 - 12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6 - 19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5 - 23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Distribution of hydrogen-metabolizing bacteria in alfalfa field soil. [Medicago sativa L. ; Convolvulus arvensis L. ; Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, S.D.; Kapulnik, Y.; Phillips, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    H/sub 2/ evolved by alfalfa root nodules during the process of N/sub 2/ fixation may be an important factor influencing the distribution of soil bacteria. To test this hypothesis under field conditions, over 700 bacterial isolates were obtained from fallow soil or from the 3-mm layer of soil surrounding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules, alfalfa roots, or bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) roots. Bacteria were isolated under either aerobic or microaerophilic conditions and were tested for their capacity to metabolize H/sub 2/. Isolates showing net H/sub 2/ uptake and /sup 3/H/sub 2/ incorporation activity under laboratory conditions were assigned a Hup/sup +/ phenotype, whereas organisms with significant H/sub 2/ output capacity were designated as a Hout/sup +/ phenotype. Under aerobic isolation conditions two Hup/sup +/ isolates were obtained, whereas under microaerophilic conditions five Hup/sup +/ and two Hout/sup +/ isolates were found. The nine isolates differed on the basis of 24 standard bacteriological characteristics or fatty acid composition. Five of the nine organisms were isolated from soil around root nodules, whereas the other four were found distributed among the other three soil environments. On the basis of the microaerophilic isolations, 4.8% of the total procaryotic isolates from soil around root nodules were capable of oxidizing H/sub 2/, and 1.2% could produce H/sub 2/. Two of the Hup/sup +/ isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti by root nodulation tests, but the fact that none of the isolates reduced C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ under the assay conditions suggested that the H/sub 2/ metabolism traits were associated with various hydrogenase systems rather than with nitrogenase activity.

  4. How to identify dear enemies: the group signature in the complex song of the skylark Alauda arvensis.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie; Aubin, Thierry; Lehongre, Katia; Rybak, Fanny

    2008-02-01

    Song geographic variation and Neighbour-Stranger (N-S) discrimination have been intensively but separately studied in bird species, especially in those with small- to medium-sized repertoires. Here, we establish a link between the two phenomena by showing that dialect features are used for N-S recognition in a territorial species with a large repertoire, the skylark Alauda arvensis. In this species, during the breeding season, many pairs settle in stable and adjoining territories gathered in locations spaced by a few kilometres. In a first step, songs produced by males established in different locations were recorded, analyzed and compared to identify possible microgeographic variation at the syntax level. Particular common sequences of syllables (phrases) were found in the songs of all males established in the same location (neighbours), whereas males of different locations (strangers) shared only few syllables and no sequences. In a second step, playback experiments were conducted and provided evidence for N-S discrimination consistent with the dear-enemy effect, i.e. reduced aggression from territorial birds towards neighbours than towards strangers. In addition, a similar response was observed when a ;chimeric' signal (shared phrases of the location artificially inserted in the song of a stranger) and a neighbour song were broadcast, indicating that shared sequences were recognized and identified as markers of the group identity. We thus show experimentally that the shared phrases found in the songs of neighbouring birds constitute a group signature used by birds for N-S discrimination, and serve as a basis for the dear-enemy effect.

  5. Geometry in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer graphics in the teaching of geometry. Describes five types of geometry: Euclidean geometry, transformation geometry, coordinate geometry, three-dimensional geometry, and geometry of convex sets. (YP)

  6. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  7. A Close View Into the 3D Geometry of Grain-to-Grain Contacts and Surface Roughness in Sandstones Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; David, C.; Louis, L.; Martinez Nistal, A.

    2003-12-01

    Due to its sharp resolution (< 1 micron) and its ability in building 3D reconstructions from images scanned at various depths, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is a powerful tool to render the three-dimensional geometry of microstructural features like pores, cracks and grains. This technique was used in particular to study the grain-to-grain contacts and grain surface topology at small scale in several sandstones. For that purpose, the rock samples to be studied were impregnated with a fluorescent dyed (Rhodamine B) resin in order to discriminate the void space from the grains. The next stage is then to make thin-sections with a thickness larger than usual (> 100 microns) that can be studied under LSCM. Three different sandstones have been studied: the Rothbach sandstone (Vosges mountains, Eastern France), the Bentheim sandstone (Germany) and the Darley Dale sandstone (UK). On each sample several three dimensional blocks have been investigated with size 228 by 152 microns and depths ranging from 35 to 100 microns. From each block, series of tens of parallel "virtual sections" have been recorded, separated by 1 or 2 microns in depth. We show on several examples the complex structure of grain-to-grain contacts which may be associated to the heterogeneity in cement distribution. In particular for the Rothbach sandstone, we found that the topology of the grain surfaces is dominated by the coating of clay particles which leads to a high surface roughness. Complementary SEM studies revealed that the clays are also present as cementing material between the grains. A thorough petrophysical study has shown that the anisotropy of P wave velocity in the Rothbach sandstone can be explained by an anisotropic distribution of cement: whereas this could not be confirmed from our LSCM and SEM analysis, we observed that the spatial distribution of contact lengths is anisotropic which explains qualitatively the spatial variability of P wave velocity. Finally we show

  8. Transition of the Slab Geometry at the Eastern End of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt from Ambient Noise and Earthquake Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, J.; Clayton, R. W.; Spica, Z.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the largest continental volcanic arcs on the North America plate, spanning 1200 km in central Mexico. Its diversity in volcanic style and non-parallel orientation with the trench are explained by along-strike variations in the subduction parameters of the Rivera and Cocos plates. However, the abrupt termination of the TMVB on its eastern end with the Pico de Orizaba volcano is puzzling as the transition of the Cocos flat-slab geometry to normal subduction appears to be smooth through this region. There is evidence that a tear in the slab is developing, but it is unclear how this feature can support the unusually large topographic gradient. Here, we use 6-70 s surface waves from ambient-noise cross-correlations, correlations of coda of cross-correlations, and earthquake data, to image the shear wave velocity structure to a depth of 150 km. The structures observed in the proposed velocity model are in agreement with the major tectonic features of the region. Low velocities correlate well with the active volcanos of the TMVB and the Veracruz Basin whereas high velocities coincide with the southern end of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range. Large velocity contrasts for the upper crust also show strong correspondence with the tectonostratigraphic terrane boundaries. A strong negative velocity perturbation that transitions to positive at 30 km depth and continues with a NE-SW orientation beneath Los Tuxtlas volcanic field is imaged and suggested to be related to the anomalous south-west dipping structure that has been evidenced by previous receiver function studies.

  9. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits.

  10. An improved combinatorial geometry model for arbitrary geometry in DSMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaran, H.; Minuchehr, A.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on a new direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code based on combinatorial geometry (CG) for simulation of any rarefied gas flow. The developed code, called DgSMC-A, has been supplied with an improved CG modeling able to significantly optimize the particle-tracking process, resulting in a highly reduced runtime compared to the conventional codes. The improved algorithm inserts a grid over the geometry and saves those grid elements containing some part of the geometry border. Since only a small part of a grid is engaged with the geometry border, significant time can be saved using the proposed algorithm. Embedding the modified algorithm in the DgSMC-A resulted in a fast, robust and self-governing code needless to any mesh generator. The code completely handles complex geometries created with first-and second-order surfaces. In addition, we developed a new surface area calculator in the CG methodology for complex geometries based on the Monte Carlo method with acceptable accuracy. Several well-known test cases are examined to indicate the code ability to deal with a wide range of realistic problems. Results are also found to be in good agreement with references and experimental data.

  11. A finite element analysis of the exact nonlinear formulation of a lifting surface in steady incompressible flow, with the evaluation of the correct wake geometry. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, E. O.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of steady incompressible flow for lifting surfaces is considered. An integral equation is solved relating the values of the potential discontinuity on the lifting surface and its wake to the values of the normal derivative of the potential which are known from the boundary conditions. The lifting surface and the wake are divided into small quadrilateral surface elements. The values of the potential discontinuity and the normal derivative of the potential are assumed to be constant within each lifting surface element and equal to their values at the centroids of the lifting surface elements. This yields a set of linear algebraic equations. An iteration procedure is used to obtain the wake geometry: the velocities at the corner points of the wake elements are calculated and the wake streamlines are aligned to be parallel to the velocity vector. The procedure is repeated until convergence is attained.

  12. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  13. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  14. Mentha arvensis (Linn.)-mediated green silver nanoparticles trigger caspase 9-dependent cell death in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Prajna Paramita; Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Karak, Niranjan; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Leaf extract of Mentha arvensis or mint plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of green silver nanoparticles (GSNPs) as a cost-effective, eco-friendly process compared to that of chemical synthesis. The existence of nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic-force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses, which ascertained the formation of spherical GSNPs with a size range of 3–9 nm. Anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) were studied and compared with those of chemically synthesized (sodium borohydride [NaBH4]-mediated) silver nanoparticles (CSNPs). Materials and methods Cell survival of nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells was studied by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell-cycle analyses were carried out using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell morphology was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Expression patterns of PARP1, P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax and cleaved caspase 9 as well as caspase 3 proteins in treated and untreated MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied by Western blot method. Results MTT assay results showed that Mentha arvensis-mediated GSNPs exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231), which were at par with that of CSNPs. Cell cycle analyses of MCF7 cells revealed a significant increase in sub-G1 cell population, indicating cytotoxicity of GSNPs. On the other hand, human peripheral blood lymphocytes showed significantly less cytotoxicity compared with MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells when treated with the same dose. Expression patterns of proteins suggested that GSNPs triggered caspase 9-dependent cell death in both cell lines. The Ames test showed that GSNPs were nonmutagenic in nature. Conclusion GSNPs synthesized using Mentha

  15. Mentha arvensis (Linn.)-mediated green silver nanoparticles trigger caspase 9-dependent cell death in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Prajna Paramita; Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Policegoudra, Rudragoud S; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Karak, Niranjan; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2017-01-01

    Leaf extract of Mentha arvensis or mint plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of green silver nanoparticles (GSNPs) as a cost-effective, eco-friendly process compared to that of chemical synthesis. The existence of nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic-force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses, which ascertained the formation of spherical GSNPs with a size range of 3-9 nm. Anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) were studied and compared with those of chemically synthesized (sodium borohydride [NaBH4]-mediated) silver nanoparticles (CSNPs). Cell survival of nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells was studied by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell-cycle analyses were carried out using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell morphology was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Expression patterns of PARP1, P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax and cleaved caspase 9 as well as caspase 3 proteins in treated and untreated MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied by Western blot method. MTT assay results showed that Mentha arvensis-mediated GSNPs exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231), which were at par with that of CSNPs. Cell cycle analyses of MCF7 cells revealed a significant increase in sub-G1 cell population, indicating cytotoxicity of GSNPs. On the other hand, human peripheral blood lymphocytes showed significantly less cytotoxicity compared with MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells when treated with the same dose. Expression patterns of proteins suggested that GSNPs triggered caspase 9-dependent cell death in both cell lines. The Ames test showed that GSNPs were nonmutagenic in nature. GSNPs synthesized using Mentha arvensis may be considered as a promising anticancer agent in

  16. SABRINA: an interactive solid geometry modeling program for Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    SABRINA is a fully interactive three-dimensional geometry modeling program for MCNP. In SABRINA, a user interactively constructs either body geometry, or surface geometry models, and interactively debugs spatial descriptions for the resulting objects. This enhanced capability significantly reduces the effort in constructing and debugging complicated three-dimensional geometry models for Monte Carlo Analysis.

  17. Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…

  18. Learning Geometry through Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…

  19. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  20. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 1 to monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils of Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth. and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Salehi, B; Schnitzler, P; Ayatollahi, S A; Kobarfard, F; Fathi, M; Eisazadeh, M; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2017-08-30

    In recent years, with increased the prevalence of viral infections and having no specific for  their treatment  and also the continuous appearance of resistant viral strains, the finding of novel antiviral agents is necessary. In this study, monoterpenes of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils from Sinapis arvensis L., Lallemantia royleana Benth. and Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro on Vero cell line CCL-81-ATCC using a plaque reduction assay. The antiviral activity of three monoterpenes (thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene) and three essential oils were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay, direct plaque test. In addition, the modes of antiviral action of these compounds were investigated during the viral infection cycle. Results showed that the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.002%, 0.037%, >0.1%, 0.035%, 0.018% and 0.001% for thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, S. arvensis oil, L. royleana oil and P. vulgaris oil, respectively. A manifestly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-1 could be exhibited for compounds tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, compounds were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the compounds, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 80% when HSV-1 was preincubated with p-cymene. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the compounds were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-1 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that compounds affected HSV-1 mostly before adsorption and might interact with the viral envelope. Thymol exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as antiviral agent for treatment of herpetic infections.

  1. Towards resolving the Knautia arvensis agg. (Dipsacaceae) puzzle: primary and secondary contact zones and ploidy segregation at landscape and microgeographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Rauchová, Jana; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Kubešová, Magdalena; Suda, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Detailed knowledge of variations in ploidy levels and their geographic distributions is one of the key tasks faced in polyploid research in natural systems. Flow cytometry has greatly facilitated the field of cytogeography by allowing characterization of ploidy levels at both the regional and population scale, and at multiple stages of the life cycle. In the present study, flow cytometry was employed to investigate the patterns and dynamics of ploidy variation in the taxonomically challenging complex Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) and some of its allies (K. dipsacifolia, K. slovaca) in Central Europe. Methods DNA ploidy levels were estimated by DAPI flow cytometry in 5205 adult plants, 228 seedlings and 400 seeds collected from 292 Knautia populations in seven European countries. The flow cytometric data were supplemented with conventional chromosome counts. A subset of 79 accessions was subjected to estimation of the absolute genome size using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Key Results and Conclusions Five different ploidy levels (from 2x to 6x) were found, with triploids of K. arvensis being recorded for the first time. The species also exhibited variation in the monoploid genome size, corresponding to the types of habitats occupied (grassland diploid populations had larger genome sizes than relict and subalpine diploid populations). Disregarding relict populations, the distribution of 2x and 4x cytotypes was largely parapatric, with a diffuse secondary contact zone running along the north-west margin of the Pannonian basin. Spatial segregation of the cytotypes was also observed on regional and microgeographic scales. The newly detected sympatric growth of diploids and tetraploids in isolated relict habitats most likely represents the primary zone of cytotype contact. Ploidy level was found to be a major determinant of the strength of inter-cytotype reproductive barriers. While mixed 2x + 4x populations virtually lacked the intermediate

  2. Rewetting of Vertical Hot Surface in a Centrally Heated Annulus and a 6 x 6 Rod Bundle Geometry During Reflood Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Seok Cho; Sang-Ki Moon; Ki-Yong Choi; Se-Young Chun; Moon-Ki Chung; Won-Pil Baek

    2006-07-01

    A series of bottom reflood tests were carried out to investigate thermal-hydraulic characteristics during the reflood phase. This paper includes descriptions of three related groups of reflood tests categorized by the geometry of a flow channel and an electric power shape of heater rods. A centrally-heated annular geometry with an outer-visualizing tube was adopted for the first two groups of tests (group-A and -B), and a 6 x 6 rod bundle geometry for the other group of tests (group-C). The ranges of experimental parameters are 2{approx}8 cm/s of flooding velocity, 20{approx}80 deg. C of inlet subcooling temperature, and 500{approx}700 deg. C of initial wall temperature. In the single rod annular flow channel reflood test, quench front behavior can be easily observed through the visualizing window and a dominant flow regime near downstream of quench front is inverted annular film boiling regardless of the flooding velocity. For the case of the 6 x 6 rod bundle experiments, on the other hand, the dominant flow regime is dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB), and therefore the thermal hydraulic behavior becomes more complicated and chaotic due to the interaction between liquid phase such as droplet and liquid film and vapor phase generated from liquid-wall heat transfer. (authors)

  3. The Geometry of the Universe: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Hyperbolic geometry occurs on hyperbolic planes--the most commonly cited one being a saddle shape. In this article, the author explores negative hyperbolic curvature, and provides a detailed description of how she constructed two hyperbolic paraboloids. Hyperbolic geometry occurs on surfaces that have negative curvature. (Contains 11 figures and 4…

  4. Geometry and Erdkinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nathaniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…

  5. Geometry and Erdkinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nathaniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…

  6. The geometric properties of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data and their conformity to Landsat-4 data and to earth's surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Gokham, B.; Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of two TIPS processed Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper scenes was analyzed and compared with that of SCROUNGE processed Landsat-4 data. Swath-to-swath and band-to-band registration of Washington, DC, and northeastern Iowa scenes was found to be similar to or better than that of Landsat-4 data. Results indicate a high degree of geometric conformity between the images produced by the different systems. The geometric conformity of the TIPS processed images to the Space Oblique Mercator projection, however, proved to be less accurate than the targeted processing error of 15 meters.

  7. The influence of fault geometry and frictional contact properties on slip surface behavior and off-fault damage: insights from quasi-static modeling of small strike-slip faults from the Sierra Nevada, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, E.; Pollard, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and geophysical investigations demonstrate that faults are geometrically complex structures, and that the nature and intensity of off-fault damage is spatially correlated with geometric irregularities of the slip surfaces. Geologic observations of exhumed meter-scale strike-slip faults in the Bear Creek drainage, central Sierra Nevada, CA, provide insight into the relationship between non-planar fault geometry and frictional slip at depth. We investigate natural fault geometries in an otherwise homogeneous and isotropic elastic material with a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (DDM). Although the DDM is a powerful tool, frictional contact problems are beyond the scope of the elementary implementation because it allows interpenetration of the crack surfaces. By incorporating a complementarity algorithm, we are able to enforce appropriate contact boundary conditions along the model faults and include variable friction and frictional strength. This tool allows us to model quasi-static slip on non-planar faults and the resulting deformation of the surrounding rock. Both field observations and numerical investigations indicate that sliding along geometrically discontinuous or irregular faults may lead to opening of the fault and the formation of new fractures, affecting permeability in the nearby rock mass and consequently impacting pore fluid pressure. Numerical simulations of natural fault geometries provide local stress fields that are correlated to the style and spatial distribution of off-fault damage. We also show how varying the friction and frictional strength along the model faults affects slip surface behavior and consequently influences the stress distributions in the adjacent material.

  8. Modifying the anti-wetting property of butterfly wings and water strider legs by atomic layer deposition coating: surface materials versus geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yong; Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Aurelia C.; Wang, Melissa H.; Xiu, Yonghao; Wong, Ching Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Although butterfly wings and water strider legs have an anti-wetting property, their working conditions are quite different. Water striders, for example, live in a wet environment and their legs need to support their weight and bear the high pressure during motion. In this work, we have focused on the importance of the surface geometrical structures in determining their performance. We have applied an atomic layer deposition technique to coat the surfaces of both butterfly wings and water strider legs with a uniform 30 nm thick hydrophilic Al2O3 film. By keeping the surface material the same, we have studied the effect of different surface roughness/structure on their hydrophobic property. After the surface coating, the butterfly wings changed to become hydrophilic, while the water strider legs still remained super-hydrophobic. We suggest that the super-hydrophobic property of the water strider is due to the special shape of the long inclining spindly cone-shaped setae at the surface. The roughness in the surface can enhance the natural tendency to be hydrophobic or hydrophilic, while the roughness in the normal direction of the surface is favorable for forming a composite interface.

  9. Modifying the anti-wetting property of butterfly wings and water strider legs by atomic layer deposition coating: surface materials versus geometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Aurelia C; Wang, Melissa H; Xiu, Yonghao; Wong, Ching Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-03

    Although butterfly wings and water strider legs have an anti-wetting property, their working conditions are quite different. Water striders, for example, live in a wet environment and their legs need to support their weight and bear the high pressure during motion. In this work, we have focused on the importance of the surface geometrical structures in determining their performance. We have applied an atomic layer deposition technique to coat the surfaces of both butterfly wings and water strider legs with a uniform 30 nm thick hydrophilic Al(2)O(3) film. By keeping the surface material the same, we have studied the effect of different surface roughness/structure on their hydrophobic property. After the surface coating, the butterfly wings changed to become hydrophilic, while the water strider legs still remained super-hydrophobic. We suggest that the super-hydrophobic property of the water strider is due to the special shape of the long inclining spindly cone-shaped setae at the surface. The roughness in the surface can enhance the natural tendency to be hydrophobic or hydrophilic, while the roughness in the normal direction of the surface is favorable for forming a composite interface.

  10. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  11. Influence of the leaf extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied in mice exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiation. The 10 mg/kg of mint extract was found to afford best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors in this group at 30 days post-irradiation, and further experiments were carried out using this dose of mint extract. The mice treated with 10 mg/kg body weight mint extract or oil were exposed to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for the induction of radiation-sickness and mortality up to 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract pretreatment was found to reduce the severity of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all exposure doses and a significant increase in the animal survival was observed when compared with the oil + irradiation group. All of the animals that were treated with 10 mg/kg mint extract and then exposed to 7 Gy irradiation were protected against the radiation-induced mortality when compared with the concurrent oil + irradiation group, in which 20% animals died by 30 days post-irradiation. The mint extract treatment protected the mice against the gastrointestinal death as well as bone marrow deaths. The DRF was found to be 1.2. The drug was non-toxic up to a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight, the highest drug dose that could be tested for acute toxicity. From our study it is clear that mint extract provides protection against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality and the optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg is safe from the point of drug-induced toxicity.

  12. The excitation and detection of a leaky surface electromagnetic wave on a high-index dielectric grating in a prism-coupler geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A periodically corrugated interface between vacuum and a high-index dielectric medium supports a p-polarized leaky surface electromagnetic wave whose sagittal plane is perpendicular to the generators of the interface. This wave is bound to the surface in the vacuum region, but radiates into the high-index dielectric medium. We study the excitation of this wave by p-polarized light incident from a prism on whose planar base the highindex dielectric medium in the form of a film is bonded. The unilluminated surface of the film is periodically corrugated, and is in contact with vacuum. Peaks and dips in the dependence of several low-order diffraction efficiencies on the angle of incidence (Wood anomalies) are the signatures of the excitation of the surface wave.

  13. Developments in special geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-02-01

    We review the special geometry of Script N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we disucss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  14. R2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture

    PubMed Central

    Manukyan, Liana; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science. PMID:26039509

  15. Computational modeling of geometry effects on the IDL surface concentration in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field - links to atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, H.; Mohammadpourfard, M.; Khajeh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Effect of geometry on the atherosclerosis is a significant issue, so the 3D s-shape and 2D axisymmetric stenosis tube as a blood vessel have been analyzed in this work. This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake, inlet Re number and infiltration velocity in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. It is observed that, application of magnetic field leads to production of a vortex in the flow, high strain rate, increment of WSS, and also reduction in LSC. For solving the mass transport equation, Lumen-wall model has been used. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe3O4) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

  16. Effect of the submergence, the bed form geometry, and the speed of the surface water flow on the mitigation of pesticides in agricultural ditches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Olivier; Margoum, Christelle; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Guillemain, CéLine; Gouy, VéRonique

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides, which have been extensively used in agriculture, have become a major environmental issue, especially regarding surface and groundwater contamination. Of particular importance are vegetated farm drainage ditches, which can play an important role in the mitigation of pesticide contamination by adsorption onto ditch bed substrates. This role is, however, poorly understood, especially regarding the influence of hydrodynamic parameters, which make it difficult to promote best management practice of these systems. We have assessed the influence of three of these parameters (speed of the surface water flow, submergence, and geometrical characteristics of the bed forms) on the transfer and adsorption of selected pesticides (isoproturon, diuron, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin) into the bed substrate by performing experiments with a tilted experimental flume, using hemp fibers as a standard of natural organic substrates that are found at the bottom of agricultural ditches. Results show the transfer of pesticides from surface water flow into bed substrate is favored, both regarding the amounts transferred into the bed substrate and the kinetics of the transfer, when the surface water speed and the submergence increase and when the bed forms are made of rectangular shapes. Extrapolation of flume data over a distance of several hundred meters suggests that an interesting possibility for improving the mitigation of pesticides in ditches would be to increase the submergence and to favor bed forms that tend to enhance perturbations and subsequent infiltration of the surface water flow.

  17. Synthesis of rGO-Ag nanoparticles for high-performance SERS and the adsorption geometry of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole on Ag surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. L.; Yang, S. S.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, Z. C.

    2014-03-01

    The sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with diameters of 30˜50 nm were self-assembled onto the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets simply by mixing AgNO3 aqueous solution and GO dispersion via a synchronous reduction process. Structure and morphology of the rGO-AgNPs hybrids were well characterized. More significantly, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) adsorbed on the solid rGO-AgNPs surface shown that the rGO-AgNPs system gives a very strong SERS intensity at in-plane vibrational modes in comparison to the out-of-plane vibrational modes. This large enhancement effect is most likely a result of charge-transfer (CT) mechanism. Based on the surface selection rules and the information provided by the highly enhanced in-plane vibrational modes, it can be found that MBI molecule was adsorbed on AgNPs surface as a thiol form via the sulphur and nitrogen atoms with a slightly tilted geometric conformation.

  18. Geometry of blind thrusts

    SciTech Connect

    Kligfield, R.; Geiser, P.; Geiser, J.

    1985-01-01

    Blind thrusts are structures which at no time in their history broke the erosion surface and along which displacement progressively changes upwards. Faults of the stiff layer along which displacement progressively decreases to zero (tip) are one prominent type of blind thrust structure. Shortening above such tips is accommodated entirely by folding whereas shortening below the tip is partitioned between folding and faulting. For these types of faults it is possible to determine the original length of the stiff layer for balancing purposes. A systematic methodology for line length and area restoration is outlined for determining blind thrust geometry. Application of the methodology is particularly suitable for use with microcomputers. If the folded form of the cover is known along with the position of the fault and its tip, then it is possible to locate hanging and footwall cutoffs. If the fault trajectory, tip, and a single hanging wall footwall cutoff pair are known, then the folded form of the cover layer can be determined. In these constructions it is necessary to specify pin lines for balancing purposes. These pin lines may or may not have a zero displacement gradient, depending upon the amount of simple shear deformation. Examples are given from both Laramide structures of the western USA and the Appalachians.

  19. Novel nanophotonics geometries for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-10-01

    We describe our latest experimental and theoretical results on two promising nanophotonics geometries for sensor applications. These geometries are based on various combinations of nanohole and/or microdroplet arrays on the surfaces of metal films which support propagation of surface plasmon-polaritons. These novel geometries exhibit large enhancements of local electromagnetic field, which can be used in various nonlinear optical sensing arrangements. For example, liquid microdroplets on the gold film surface support surface plasmon whispering gallery modes. Local field enhancement due to excitation of such modes is determined by combination of both cavity electrodynamics and surface plasmon-polariton related effects. In addition, individual microdroplets have interesting imaging properties, which may be used in high-resolution visualization of individual viruses and cells.

  20. The Beauty of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  1. Twistors to twisted geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone

    2010-10-15

    In a previous paper we showed that the phase space of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph can be parametrized in terms of twisted geometries, quantities describing the intrinsic and extrinsic discrete geometry of a cellular decomposition dual to the graph. Here we unravel the origin of the phase space from a geometric interpretation of twistors.

  2. Geometry + Technology = Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…

  3. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability…

  4. Geometry of multihadron production

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  5. Geometry + Technology = Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…

  6. Complete-velocity-range description of negative-ion conversion of neutral atoms on an alkali-metal-halide surface under grazing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hu; Zhou, Wang; Zhang, Meixiao; Zhou, Lihua; Ma, Yulong; Wang, Guangyi; Wu, Yong; Li, Bowen; Chen, Ximeng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple theoretical approach to consider negative-ion conversion of neutral atoms grazing on alkali-metal-halide crystal surfaces over the complete velocity range. The conversion process is viewed as a series of successive binary collisions between the projectile and the negatively charged sites on the surface along their trajectories due to localization of valence-band electrons at the anionic sites of the crystal. Conversion from F0 to F- via grazing scattering in LiF(100) and KI(100) is demonstrated with this model, which incorporates the key factors of image interaction and Mott-Littleton polarization interaction for electron capture. It also incorporates the decrease in the electron affinity due to Coulomb barrier tunneling of large-velocity negative ions to the vacuum level near surface anion sites. The pronounced differences in the efficiency of F- formation at LiF(100) and KI(100) surfaces are well explained by the proposed model. The relative efficiency and related saturation of the negative-ion formation for LiF and KI crystals compare well with experimental results.

  7. Medicinal and aromatic plant materials as nitrification inhibitors for augmenting yield and nitrogen uptake of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. Var. Piperascens).

    PubMed

    Kiran, Usha; Patra, D D

    2003-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative performance of medicinal and aromatic plant materials and dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors to regulate transformation of N from urea. Their effect on the efficiencies of use of N by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis cv. Hy 77) was tested. Urea was coated with these materials viz., Mentha spicata, Artemisia annua or DCD at the rate of 5% (w/w) of fertilizer urea using an appropriate coating technique. Nimin (tetranortriterpenoids, an ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) coating was done at the rate of 1% w/w of urea. Fertilizer nitrogen was applied at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) soil. These natural coating materials significantly increased the herb and essential oil yields of the crop at both rates of fertilizer nitrogen compared to urea alone and were found to be as effective as DCD in retarding NO3- formation in soil. Herb yield increased by 6-81% when compared to uncoated urea. The increase in essential oil yield ranged between 3% and 68% due to coating. The effectiveness of the nitrification-inhibitor--coated urea, however, varied with the soils used and the rate of fertilizer nitrogen applied. The results suggest that the natural products could be potential nitrification inhibitors for increasing fertilizer N use efficiency.

  8. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Nesa, Mst Luthfun; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain.

  9. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesa, Mst. Luthfun; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain. PMID:25648520

  10. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil.

  11. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    PubMed

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C.

  12. Burial and seed survival in Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Sinapis arvensis including a comparison of transgenic and non-transgenic lines of the crop.

    PubMed Central

    Hails, R S; Rees, M; Kohn, D D; Crawley, M J

    1997-01-01

    The creation of transgenic plants through genetic engineering has focused interest on how the fitness of a plant species may be altered by small changes in its genome. This study concentrates on a key component of fitness: persistence of seeds overwinter. Seeds of three lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera DC Metzger) and of charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.) were buried in nylon mesh bags at two depths in four habitats in each of three geographically separated sites: Cornwall, Berkshire and Sutherland. Seeds were recovered after 12 and 24 months. Charlock exhibited much greater seed survival (average 60% surviving the first year and 32.5% surviving the second year) than oilseed rape (1.5% surviving the first year and 0.2% surviving the second) at all sites. Charlock showed higher survival at 15 cm burial than 2 cm burial at certain sites, but oilseed rape showed no depth effect. Different genetic lines of oilseed rape displayed different rates of seed survival; non-transgenic rape showed greater survival (2%) than the two transgenic lines, one developed for tolerance to the antibiotic kanamycin (0.3%) and one for tolerance to both kanamycin and the herbicide glufosinate (0.25%). The absolute and relative performances of the different genetic lines of oilseed rape were context specific, illustrating the need to test hypotheses in a wide range of ecological settings. PMID:9061957

  13. Geometry creation for MCNP by Sabrina and XSM

    SciTech Connect

    Van Riper, K.A.

    1994-02-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code MCNP is based on a surface description of 3-dimensional geometry. Cells are defined in terms of boolean operations on signed quadratic surfaces. MCNP geometry is entered as a card image file containing coefficients of the surface equations and a list of surfaces and operators describing cells. Several programs are available to assist in creation of the geometry specification, among them Sabrina and the new ``Smart Editor`` code XSM. We briefly describe geometry creation in Sabrina and then discuss XSM in detail. XSM is under development; our discussion is based on the state of XSM as of January 1, 1994.

  14. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  15. In situ measurements of polarization properties of snow surface under the Brewster geometry in Hokkaido, Japan, and northwest Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Tomonori; Hori, Masahiro; Aoki, Teruo; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Kuchiki, Katsuyuki; Niwano, Masashi; Matoba, Sumito; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Stamnes, Knut

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based measurements of spectral degree of linear polarization (DLP) of various snow types were made during intensive field campaigns in a snowfield in Hokkaido, Japan, and on the northwest Greenland ice sheet in 2012. Spectral measurements were conducted under the solar zenith angle of approximately the Brewster angle in order to quantify the polarization properties of light reflected from snow. We obtained spectral DLPs for five different snow types in both field campaigns including precipitation particles, needles, surface hoar, melt forms, and melt freeze crust covering the snow surface. The measurements showed that in the visible region the spectral dependence of the DLP was small while in the near infrared region it increased with increasing snow grain size with some distinct local peaks. The angular dependence indicated that the DLP exhibited small angular dependence in the visible region while in the near-infrared region it exhibited large and broad peaks in the forward direction. Especially for the melt-freeze crust, the DLP approached 1.0 at wavelengths close to λ = 1.5 and 2.0 μm. These features can be explained by (1) the relative contribution of surface versus volume scattering to the reflected light, (2) the incident angle (solar zenith angle) of approximately the Brewster angle, and (3) the ratio between direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation incident on the snow surface. The spectral DLP was found to be quiet sensitive to the incident solar radiation and solar elevation as well as snow optical properties. Comparison between the spectral DLP and snow grain size obtained by snow pit work shows that the DLP for λ > 1.5 μm was very sensitive to large snow grains close to the surface. This finding suggests that polarization measurements obtained from airborne/satellite polarimeters will be useful for surface snow grain size retrievals and help improve the accuracy of such retrievals based on the intensity-only measurements

  16. Effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide/isopropyl alcohol wet etching on geometry and surface roughness of silicon nanowires fabricated by AFM lithography

    PubMed Central

    Yusoh, Siti Noorhaniah

    2016-01-01

    Summary The optimization of etchant parameters in wet etching plays an important role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. Wet etching of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on silicon nanowires fabricated by AFM lithography is studied herein. TMAH (25 wt %) with different IPA concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 30 vol %) and etching time durations (30, 40, and 50 s) were investigated. The relationships between etching depth and width, and etching rate and surface roughness of silicon nanowires were characterized in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The obtained results indicate that increased IPA concentration in TMAH produced greater width of the silicon nanowires with a smooth surface. It was also observed that the use of a longer etching time causes more unmasked silicon layers to be removed. Importantly, throughout this study, wet etching with optimized parameters can be applied in the design of the devices with excellent performance for many applications. PMID:27826521

  17. Beyond core knowledge: Natural geometry

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth; Lee, Sang Ah; Izard, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    For many centuries, philosophers and scientists have pondered the origins and nature of human intuitions about the properties of points, lines, and figures on the Euclidean plane, with most hypothesizing that a system of Euclidean concepts either is innate or is assembled by general learning processes. Recent research from cognitive and developmental psychology, cognitive anthropology, animal cognition, and cognitive neuroscience suggests a different view. Knowledge of geometry may be founded on at least two distinct, evolutionarily ancient, core cognitive systems for representing the shapes of large-scale, navigable surface layouts and of small-scale, movable forms and objects. Each of these systems applies to some but not all perceptible arrays and captures some but not all of the three fundamental Euclidean relationships of distance (or length), angle, and direction (or sense). Like natural number (Carey, 2009), Euclidean geometry may be constructed through the productive combination of representations from these core systems, through the use of uniquely human symbolic systems. PMID:20625445

  18. Sub-Surface Carbon Dioxide Concentration Measurement Using a Fiber Based Sensor in a Call/Return Geometry for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, G. R.; Soukup, B.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.; Barr, J. L.; Dobeck, L.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is a means to mitigate the increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by capturing the CO2 at a source such as a power generation facility and storing the captured CO2 in geologic formations. Many technologic advances will need to occur for successful carbon sequestration including near surface monitoring tools and techniques to ensure site integrity and public safety. Researchers at Montana State University (MSU) are developing a scalable fiber sensor array in a call/return configuration for monitoring near sub-surface CO2 concentrations. The low cost fiber sensor array being developed at MSU for sub-surface CO2 detection for monitoring carbon sequestration sites will utilize a series of fiber probes connected to a two detectors and a 1 x N fiber switch that can direct the light to one of N fiber probes. The fiber sensor array will utilize a single tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser with a center wavelength of 2.004 μm to access CO2 absorption features. The output from the DFB laser is incident on an inline fiber splitter that directs part of the light to a reference detector while the remaining light is directed to a fiber probe where the laser light interacts with the CO2. The light from the fiber probe is directed back through the switch and is incident on a transmission detector. The transmission as a function of wavelength is measured and a CO2 concentration is calculated. The fiber sensor array can easily be reconfigured by simply moving the fiber probes. Low cost is achieved by using inexpensive passive components in the fiber probes while limiting the number of the more expensive components including the DFB laser, the two detectors, and the single fiber switch. The fiber sensor was tested over a thirty day period at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) facility that was developed for testing surface and near surface carbon sequestration monitoring instrumentation using a controlled

  19. Core foundations of abstract geometry.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Huang, Yi; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-27

    Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children's use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Children's navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, children's analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, children's performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, children's use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.

  20. Variable geometry trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertshaw, H. H.; Reinholtz, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Vibration control and kinematic control with variable-geometry trusses are covered. The analytical approach taken is to model each actuator with lumped masses and model a beam with finite elements, including in each model the generalized reaction forces from the beam on the actuator or vice versa. It is concluded that, from an operational standpoint, the variable-geometry truss actuator is more favorable than the inertia-type actuator. A spatial variable-geometry truss is used to test out rudimentary robotic tasks.

  1. Applications of Differential Geometry to Cartography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Thome, Nestor

    2004-01-01

    This work introduces an application of differential geometry to cartography. The mathematical aspects of some geographical projections of Earth surface are revealed together with some of its more important properties. An important problem since the discovery of the 'spherical' form of the Earth is how to compose a reliable map of the surface of…

  2. Applications of Differential Geometry to Cartography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Thome, Nestor

    2004-01-01

    This work introduces an application of differential geometry to cartography. The mathematical aspects of some geographical projections of Earth surface are revealed together with some of its more important properties. An important problem since the discovery of the 'spherical' form of the Earth is how to compose a reliable map of the surface of…

  3. Effects of Surface Modification and Bulk Geometry on the Biotribological Behavior of Cross-Linked Polyethylene: Wear Testing and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Saiga, Kenichi; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Kadono, Yuho; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Moro, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The wear and creep deformation resistances of polymeric orthopedic bearing materials are both important for extending their longevity. In this study, we evaluated the wear and creep deformation resistances, including backside damage, of different polyethylene (PE) materials, namely, conventional PE, cross-linked PE (CLPE), and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)- (PMPC-) grafted CLPE, through wear tests and finite element analysis. The gravimetric and volumetric degrees of wear of disks (3 or 6 mm in thickness) of these materials against a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy pin were examined using a multidirectional pin-on-disk tester. Cross-linking and PMPC grafting decreased the gravimetric wear of the PE disks significantly. The volumetric wear at the bearing surface and the volumetric penetration in the backside of the 3-mm thick PE disk were higher than those of the 6-mm thick PE disk, regardless of the bearing material. The geometrical changes induced in the PE disks consisted of creep, because the calculated internal von Mises stress at the bearing side of all disks and that at the backside of the 3-mm thick disks exceeded their actual yield strengths. A highly hydrated bearing surface layer, formed by PMPC grafting, and a cross-linking-strengthened substrate of adequate thickness are essential for increasing the wear and creep deformation resistances. PMID:26583106

  4. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  5. What Is Geometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chern, Shiing-Shen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)

  6. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  7. Flyby Geometry Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    The Flyby Geometry Optimization Tool is a computer program for computing trajectories and trajectory-altering impulsive maneuvers for spacecraft used in radio relay of scientific data to Earth from an exploratory airplane flying in the atmosphere of Mars.

  8. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  9. What Is Geometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chern, Shiing-Shen

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)

  10. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  11. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  12. Benzene selectivity in competitive arene hydrogenation: Effects of single-site catalyst···acidic oxide surface binding geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Weixing; Stalzer, Madelyn Marie; Nicholas, Christopher P.; ...

    2015-04-17

    Organozirconium complexes are chemisorbed on Brønsted acidic sulfated ZrO2 (ZrS), sulfated Al2O3 (AlS), and ZrO2–WO3 (ZrW). Under mild conditions (25 °C, 1 atm H2), the supported Cp*ZrMe3, Cp*ZrBz3, and Cp*ZrPh3 catalysts are very active for benzene hydrogenation with activities declining with decreasing acidity, ZrS >> AlS ≈ ZrW, arguing that more Brønsted acidic oxides (those having weaker corresponding conjugate bases) yield stronger surface organometallic electrophiles and for this reason have higher benzene hydrogenation activity. Benzene selective hydrogenation, a potential approach for carcinogenic benzene removal from gasoline, is probed using benzene/toluene mixtures, and selectivities for benzene hydrogenation vary with catalyst asmore » ZrBz3+/ZrS–, 83% > Cp*ZrMe2+/ZrS–, 80% > Cp*ZrBz2+/ZrS–, 67% > Cp*ZrPh2+/ZrS–, 57%. For Cp*ZrBz2+/ZrS–, which displays the highest benzene hydrogenation activity with moderate selectivity in benzene/toluene mixtures. Other benzene/arene mixtures are examined, and benzene selectivities vary with arene as mesitylene, 99%, > ethylbenzene, 86% > toluene, 67%. Structural and computational studies by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, XAS, and periodic DFT methods applied to supported Cp*ZrMe3 and Cp*ZrBz3 indicate that larger Zr···surface distances are present in more sterically encumbered Cp*ZrBz2+/AlS– vs Cp*ZrMe2+/AlS–. Furthermore, the combined XAS, solid state NMR, and DFT data argue that the bulky catalyst benzyl groups expand the “cationic” metal center–anionic sulfated oxide surface distances, and this separation/weakened ion-pairing enables the activation/insertion of more sterically encumbered arenes and influences hydrogenation rates and selectivity patterns.« less

  13. Crystal and geometry-optimized structure, and Hirshfeld surface analysis of 1-(2-bromo-eth-yl)indoline-2,3-dione.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, N; Sundar, T V; Sathish, G; Venkatesan, P

    2016-11-01

    In the title compound, C10H8BrNO2, the isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) moiety is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.026 Å). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ab plane, and enclosing R4(4)(24) loops. There are a low percentage (19.3%) of inter-molecular H⋯H contacts in the structure, as estimated by the analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces. This could be due to the presence of the Br atom, present in the bromo-ethyl-ene group, which makes ca 18.7% Br⋯H contacts.

  14. Crystal and geometry-optimized structure, and Hirshfeld surface analysis of 1-(2-bromo­eth­yl)indoline-2,3-dione

    PubMed Central

    Sharmila, N.; Sundar, T. V.; Sathish, G.; Venkatesan, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H8BrNO2, the isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) moiety is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.026 Å). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ab plane, and enclosing R 4 4(24) loops. There are a low percentage (19.3%) of inter­molecular H⋯H contacts in the structure, as estimated by the analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces. This could be due to the presence of the Br atom, present in the bromo­ethyl­ene group, which makes ca 18.7% Br⋯H contacts. PMID:27840710

  15. Geometry of the proximal humeral articular surface in young children: a study to define normal and analyze the dysplasia due to brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Michael L; Woolwine, Spencer; van de Bunt, Fabian; Merton, Gabriel; Burchette, Raoul

    2013-09-01

    Little is known regarding the morphology of the proximal humerus in growing children. This study reports bilateral magnetic resonance imaging measurements in children with internal rotation contractures from birth palsy, hypothesizing that dysplasia alters normal humeral sphericity and symmetry. We studied 25 children with unilateral internal rotation contractures (mean age, 3.7 years) for humeral shape by bilateral magnetic resonance imaging studies at the mid-glenoid level. Local radii of curvature were compared for symmetry and orientation. Neither side showed uniform radii (sphericity), but normal humeri showed symmetry lost in dysplasia. Internal rotation contractures were correlated with flattening of the anterior humeral head (P = .0002). All heads were flatter in the region of articular contact. The skew axis (the largest cross-sectional diameter of the proximal humerus) was collinear with the articular surface centerline in normal humeri, an alignment often lost with dysplasia, resulting in a skew axis angle. The severity of glenoid deformity correlated with progressive posterior displacement of the humeral head center (P < .0003). The normal humeral articular surface in the young child is not spherical and is flatter in the middle than at the periphery but is symmetric about its central axis. Internal rotation contractures result in loss of this symmetry with characteristic flattening of the anterior humeral head and development of a skew axis angle. Posterior displacement of the humeral head center of rotation beyond 50% of the calculated head radius warrants vigilance and possibly surgical intervention because there is a high likelihood for development of a pseudoglenoid. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Software Geometry in Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).

  17. SOC and Fractal Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, R. T. J.

    2013-06-01

    When Mandelbrot, the father of modern fractal geometry, made this seemingly obvious statement he was trying to show that we should move out of our comfortable Euclidean space and adopt a fractal approach to geometry. The concepts and mathematical tools of fractal geometry provides insight into natural physical systems that Euclidean tools cannot do. The benet from applying fractal geometry to studies of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) are even greater. SOC and fractal geometry share concepts of dynamic n-body interactions, apparent non-predictability, self-similarity, and an approach to global statistics in space and time that make these two areas into naturally paired research techniques. Further, the iterative generation techniques used in both SOC models and in fractals mean they share common features and common problems. This chapter explores the strong historical connections between fractal geometry and SOC from both a mathematical and conceptual understanding, explores modern day interactions between these two topics, and discusses how this is likely to evolve into an even stronger link in the near future.

  18. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  19. Complex geometry and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Y.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1990-06-01

    The analytic properties of string theory are reviewed. It is demonstrated that the theory of strings is connected with contemporary fields of complex geometry. A massless classical point-like particle which moves in Minkowski space of D dimensions is considered. The formulation used to develop string theory is based on the Polyakov approach. In order to find the quantum scattering amplitude in the Polyakov approach, the functional integral over all Riemannian surfaces is calculated. The simplest case of the amplitude of vacuum-vacuum transitions Z of a closed string is considered. The description of linear bundles in the divisor terms is given.

  20. On the geometry of a smooth model of a fibre product of families of K3 surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nikol'skaya, O V

    2014-02-28

    The Hodge conjecture on algebraic cycles is proved for a smooth projective model X of a fibre product X{sub 1}×{sub C}X{sub 2} of nonisotrivial 1-parameter families of K3 surfaces (possibly with degeneracies) X{sub k}→C (k=1,2) over a smooth projective curve C under the assumption that, for generic geometric fibres X{sub 1s} and X{sub 2s}, the ring End{sub Hg(X{sub 1{sub s)}}}NS{sub Q}(X{sub 1s}){sup ⊥} is an imaginary quadratic field, rankNS(X{sub 1s})≠18, and End{sub Hg(X{sub 2{sub s)}}}NS{sub Q}(X{sub 2s}){sup ⊥} is a totally real field or else rankNS(X{sub 1s})

  1. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to Predict Impacts of Changes in Land Management and Policy: Development and Testing of an Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Topping, Christopher J.; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis) in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information necessary to simulate their behaviour. Population responses emerge from individuals interacting with each other and the environment. Model development and testing was carried out using pattern-oriented modelling. The testing procedure was based on the model's ability to represent detailed real world patterns of distribution and density, reproductive performance and seasonal changes in territory numbers. Data to support this was collected over a 13-year period and comprised detailed field observations of breeding birds and intensive surveys. The model was able to recreate the real world data patterns accurately; it was also able to simultaneously fit a number of other secondary system properties which were not formally a part of the testing procedure. The correspondence of model output to real world data and sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed, and the model's description is provided in ODdox format (a formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied purposes. PMID:23762430

  3. A natural formula containing lactoferrin, Equisetum arvensis, soy isoflavones and vitamin D3 modulates bone remodeling and inflammatory markers in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Menghini, L; Ferrante, C; Leporini, L; Recinella, L; Chiavaroli, A; Leone, S; Pintore, G; Vacca, M; Orlando, G; Brunetti, L

    2016-01-01

    A pivotal role in osteoporosis development is played by radical oxygen species (ROS), the increased production of which is related to inhibited osteoblastic activity and bone formation. A new field of research could involve medicinal plants with antioxidant and protective effects in osteoporosis. Furthermore, considering the multifactorial metabolic aspects of osteoporosis, the pharmacological association of multiple medicinal plants could improve patient response. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the protective effects of a natural formula containing lactoferrin 12%, Equisetum arvensis ES 54%, soy isoflavones 34% and vitamin D3 0.002%, in PBMC and C2C12 cells and in the bone matrix of young (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) female Sprague-Dawley rats, following chronic (21 days) administration. In this context, we assayed the activities of several inflammation and bone homeostasis mediators, such as IL-6, TNFα, PGE2, osteoprotegerin, RANK, RANKL and NFkB. In vitro studies showed that natural formula (5-1000μg/ml) was able to significantly inhibit ROS and PGE2 production. In the same concentration range, the natural formula inhibited both TNFα and IL-6 gene expression. In the in vivo studies, we administered to young and aged female rats the natural formula at 5mg/rat for 21 days, finding a significant reduction in inflammatory PGE2 and NFkB activity. Nevertheless, we observed a significant increase in osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio only in aged rats, compared to the respective control group. In conclusion, our findings corroborate the rational use of natural formula in the prevention and management of osteoporotic disease.

  4. Modelling Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to predict impacts of changes in land management and policy: development and testing of an agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Topping, Christopher J; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis) in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information necessary to simulate their behaviour. Population responses emerge from individuals interacting with each other and the environment. Model development and testing was carried out using pattern-oriented modelling. The testing procedure was based on the model's ability to represent detailed real world patterns of distribution and density, reproductive performance and seasonal changes in territory numbers. Data to support this was collected over a 13-year period and comprised detailed field observations of breeding birds and intensive surveys. The model was able to recreate the real world data patterns accurately; it was also able to simultaneously fit a number of other secondary system properties which were not formally a part of the testing procedure. The correspondence of model output to real world data and sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed, and the model's description is provided in ODdox format (a formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied purposes.

  5. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ℓ-manifold, determines a (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometry (k+ℓ≤4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ℓ-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+ℓ)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(∞) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(Σ^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently

  6. Detection of edges using local geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Manohar, M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing.

  7. Contact Geometry of Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliou, Peter J.

    2009-10-01

    Cartan's method of moving frames is briefly recalled in the context of immersed curves in the homogeneous space of a Lie group G. The contact geometry of curves in low dimensional equi-affine geometry is then made explicit. This delivers the complete set of invariant data which solves the G-equivalence problem via a straightforward procedure, and which is, in some sense a supplement to the equivariant method of Fels and Olver. Next, the contact geometry of curves in general Riemannian manifolds (M,g) is described. For the special case in which the isometries of (M,g) act transitively, it is shown that the contact geometry provides an explicit algorithmic construction of the differential invariants for curves in M. The inputs required for the construction consist only of the metric g and a parametrisation of structure group SO(n); the group action is not required and no integration is involved. To illustrate the algorithm we explicitly construct complete sets of differential invariants for curves in the Poincaré half-space H3 and in a family of constant curvature 3-metrics. It is conjectured that similar results are possible in other Cartan geometries.

  8. Geometry of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics using CATIA created geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gengler, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed to link the geometry definition residing on a CAD/CAM system with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool needed to evaluate aerodynamic designs and requiring the memory capacity of a supercomputer. Requirements for surfaces suitable for CFD analysis are discussed. Techniques for developing surfaces and verifying their smoothness are compared, showing the capability of the CAD/CAM system. The utilization of a CAD/CAM system to create a computational mesh is explained, and the mesh interaction with the geometry and input file preparation for the CFD analysis is discussed.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics using CATIA created geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengler, Jeanne E.

    1989-07-01

    A method has been developed to link the geometry definition residing on a CAD/CAM system with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool needed to evaluate aerodynamic designs and requiring the memory capacity of a supercomputer. Requirements for surfaces suitable for CFD analysis are discussed. Techniques for developing surfaces and verifying their smoothness are compared, showing the capability of the CAD/CAM system. The utilization of a CAD/CAM system to create a computational mesh is explained, and the mesh interaction with the geometry and input file preparation for the CFD analysis is discussed.

  11. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  12. Students Discovering Spherical Geometry Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…

  13. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  14. Geometry dependence of stellarator turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A. H.

    2009-11-01

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST [F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000); P. Xanthopoulos, W. A. Cooper, F. Jenko, Yu. Turkin, A. Runov, and J. Geiger, Phys. Plasmas 16, 082303 (2009)], we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the two-dimensional structure of the microturbulence over that surface and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrödinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.

  15. Spinors in Physics and Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautman, A.; Furlan, G.

    1988-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Killing Spinors According to O. Hijazi and Applications * Self-Duality Conditions Satisfied by the Spin Connections on Spheres * Maslov Index and Half - Forms * Spin - 3/2 Fields on Black Hole Spacetimes * Indecomposable Conformal Spinors and Operator Product Expansions in a Massless QED Model * Nonlinear Spinor Representations * Nonlinear Wave Equations for Intrinsic Spinor Coordinates * Twistors - "Spinors" of SU(2,2), Their Generalizations and Achievements * Spinors, Reflections and Clifford Algebras: A Review * overline {SL}(n, R) Spinors for Particles, Gravity and Superstrings * Spinors on Compact Riemann Surfaces * Simple Spinors as Urfelder * Applications of Cartan Spinors to Differential Geometry in Higher Dimensions * Killing Spinors on Spheres and Projective Spaces * Spinor Structures on Homogeneous Riemannian Spaces * Classical Strings and Minimal Surfaces * Representing Spinors with Differential Forms * Inequalities for Spinors Norms in Clifford Algebras * The Importance of Spin * The Theory of World Spinors * Final List of Participants

  16. Density functional theory study of adsorption geometries and electronic structures of azo-dye-based molecules on anatase TiO2 surface for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Prajongtat, Pongthep; Suramitr, Songwut; Nokbin, Somkiat; Nakajima, Koichi; Mitsuke, Koichiro; Hannongbua, Supa

    2017-09-01

    Structural and electronic properties of eight isolated azo dyes (ArNNAr', where Ar and Ar' denote the aryl groups containing benzene and naphthalene skeletons, respectively) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and TD-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) methods The effect of methanol solvent on the structural and electronic properties of the azo dyes was elucidated by employing a polarizable continuum model (PCM). Then, the azo dyes adsorbed onto the anatase TiO2 (101) slab surface through a carboxyl group. The geometries and electronic structures of the adsorption complexes were determined using periodic DFT based on the PWC/DNP method. The calculated adsorption energies indicate that the adsorbed dyes preferentially take configuration of the bidentate bridging rather than chelating or monodentate ester-type geometries. Furthermore, the azo compounds having two carboxyl groups are coordinated to the TiO2 surface more preferentially through the carboxyl group connecting to the benzene skeleton than through that connecting to the naphthalene skeleton. The dihedral angles (ΦB-N) between the benzene- and naphthalene-skeleton moieties are smaller than 10° for the adsorbed azo compounds containing one carboxyl group. In contrast, ΦB-N>30° are obtained for the adsorbed azo compounds containing two carboxyl groups. The almost planar conformations of the former appear to strengthen both π-electrons conjugation and electronic coupling between low-lying unoccupied molecular orbitals of the azo dyes and the conduction band of TiO2. On the other hand, such coupling is very weak for the latter, leading to a shift of the Fermi level of TiO2 in the lower-energy direction. The obtained results are useful to the design and synthesize novel azo-dye-based molecules that give rise to higher photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Geometry of spinor regularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.; Lounesto, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Kustaanheimo theory of spinor regularization is given a new formulation in terms of geometric algebra. The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel matrix and its subsidiary condition are put in a spinor form directly related to the geometry of the orbit in physical space. A physically significant alternative to the KS subsidiary condition is discussed. Derivations are carried out without using coordinates.

  18. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  19. Listening to Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…

  20. GEOMETRY, TENTATIVE GUIDES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIER, KATHERINE M.

    PRESENTED IS A FUSED COURSE IN PLANE, SOLID, AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY. ELEMENTARY SET THEORY, LOGIC, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION PROVIDE UNIFYING THREADS THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. THE TWO CURRICULUM GUIDES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR USE WITH TWO DIFFERENT TEXTS. EITHER CURRICULUM GUIDE MAY BE USED DEPENDING UPON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHER AND THE NEEDS…

  1. The Helen of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John

    2010-01-01

    The cycloid has been called the Helen of Geometry, not only because of its beautiful properties but also because of the quarrels it provoked between famous mathematicians of the 17th century. This article surveys the history of the cycloid and its importance in the development of the calculus.

  2. Core Geometry Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirata, Li Ann

    Core Geometry is a course offered in the Option Y sequence of the high school mathematics program described by the Hawaii State Department of Education's guidelines. The emphasis of this course is on the general awareness and use of the relationships among points, lines, and figures in planes and space. This sample course is based on the…

  3. Emergent Hyperbolic Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    A large variety of interacting complex systems are characterized by interactions occurring between more than two nodes. These systems are described by simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are formed by simplices (nodes, links, triangles, tetrahedra etc.) that have a natural geometric interpretation. As such simplicial complexes are widely used in quantum gravity approaches that involve a discretization of spacetime. Here, by extending our knowledge of growing complex networks to growing simplicial complexes we investigate the nature of the emergent geometry of complex networks and explore whether this geometry is hyperbolic. Specifically we show that an hyperbolic network geometry emerges spontaneously from models of growing simplicial complexes that are purely combinatorial. The statistical and geometrical properties of the growing simplicial complexes strongly depend on their dimensionality and display the major universal properties of real complex networks (scale-free degree distribution, small-world and communities) at the same time. Interestingly, when the network dynamics includes an heterogeneous fitness of the faces, the growing simplicial complex can undergo phase transitions that are reflected by relevant changes in the network geometry.

  4. Emergent Hyperbolic Network Geometry.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2017-02-07

    A large variety of interacting complex systems are characterized by interactions occurring between more than two nodes. These systems are described by simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are formed by simplices (nodes, links, triangles, tetrahedra etc.) that have a natural geometric interpretation. As such simplicial complexes are widely used in quantum gravity approaches that involve a discretization of spacetime. Here, by extending our knowledge of growing complex networks to growing simplicial complexes we investigate the nature of the emergent geometry of complex networks and explore whether this geometry is hyperbolic. Specifically we show that an hyperbolic network geometry emerges spontaneously from models of growing simplicial complexes that are purely combinatorial. The statistical and geometrical properties of the growing simplicial complexes strongly depend on their dimensionality and display the major universal properties of real complex networks (scale-free degree distribution, small-world and communities) at the same time. Interestingly, when the network dynamics includes an heterogeneous fitness of the faces, the growing simplicial complex can undergo phase transitions that are reflected by relevant changes in the network geometry.

  5. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  6. Origami, Geometry and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  7. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  8. Emergent Hyperbolic Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    A large variety of interacting complex systems are characterized by interactions occurring between more than two nodes. These systems are described by simplicial complexes. Simplicial complexes are formed by simplices (nodes, links, triangles, tetrahedra etc.) that have a natural geometric interpretation. As such simplicial complexes are widely used in quantum gravity approaches that involve a discretization of spacetime. Here, by extending our knowledge of growing complex networks to growing simplicial complexes we investigate the nature of the emergent geometry of complex networks and explore whether this geometry is hyperbolic. Specifically we show that an hyperbolic network geometry emerges spontaneously from models of growing simplicial complexes that are purely combinatorial. The statistical and geometrical properties of the growing simplicial complexes strongly depend on their dimensionality and display the major universal properties of real complex networks (scale-free degree distribution, small-world and communities) at the same time. Interestingly, when the network dynamics includes an heterogeneous fitness of the faces, the growing simplicial complex can undergo phase transitions that are reflected by relevant changes in the network geometry. PMID:28167818

  9. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  10. Listening to Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…

  11. Fractal geometry of music.

    PubMed Central

    Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J

    1990-01-01

    Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061

  12. Teaching Geometry with Tangrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dorothy S.; Bologna, Elaine M.

    1982-01-01

    Geometry is viewed as the most neglected area of the elementary school mathematics curriculum. Tangram activities provide numerous worthwhile mathematical experiences for children. A method of constructing tangrams through paper folding is followed by suggested spatial visualization, measurement, and additional activities. (MP)

  13. Geoff Giles and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    Geoff Giles died suddenly in 2005. He was a highly original thinker in the field of geometry teaching. As early as 1964, when teaching at Strathallen School in Perth, he was writing in "MT27" about constructing tessellations by modifying the sides of triangles and (irregular) quadrilaterals to produce what he called "trisides" and "quadrisides".…

  14. Origami, Geometry and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  15. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  16. Gravity is Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  17. Geometry and physics

    PubMed Central

    Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740

  18. Geoff Giles and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    Geoff Giles died suddenly in 2005. He was a highly original thinker in the field of geometry teaching. As early as 1964, when teaching at Strathallen School in Perth, he was writing in "MT27" about constructing tessellations by modifying the sides of triangles and (irregular) quadrilaterals to produce what he called "trisides" and "quadrisides".…

  19. Gravity is Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  20. Advanced geometries and regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  1. Geometry of PDE's. IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prástaro, Agostino

    2008-02-01

    Following our previous results on this subject [R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(I): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. The general theory, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 239-266; R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(II): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. Applications to Riemannian geometry PDE's, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 267-285; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's and Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996; A. Prástaro, Quantum and integral (co)bordism in partial differential equations, Acta Appl. Math. (5) (3) (1998) 243-302; A. Prástaro, (Co)bordism groups in PDE's, Acta Appl. Math. 59 (2) (1999) 111-201; A. Prástaro, Quantized Partial Differential Equations, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2004, 500 pp.; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. I: Integral bordism groups in PDE's, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 319 (2006) 547-566; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. II: Variational PDE's and integral bordism groups, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 321 (2006) 930-948; A. Prástaro, Th.M. Rassias, Ulam stability in geometry of PDE's, Nonlinear Funct. Anal. Appl. 8 (2) (2003) 259-278; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, I, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, II, Collier-MacMillan, Canada, Ltd, Toronto, Ontario, 1968], integral bordism groups of the Navier-Stokes equation are calculated for smooth, singular and weak solutions, respectively. Then a characterization of global solutions is made on this ground. Enough conditions to assure existence of global smooth solutions are given and related to nullity of integral characteristic numbers of the boundaries. Stability of global solutions are related to some characteristic numbers of the space-like Cauchy dataE Global solutions of variational problems constrained by (NS) are classified by means of suitable integral bordism groups too.

  2. Geometry and the Design of Product Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherico, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The most common question the author's students ask is, "When will I ever use this in real life?" To address this question in her geometry classes, the author sought to create a project that would incorporate a real-world business situation with their lesson series on the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects--specifically, prisms,…

  3. Effectivizing the geometry of the curve complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aougab, Tarik

    This thesis is devoted to understanding how the geometry of the curve complex of a surface S, the Teichmuller space of S, and of the mapping class group of S explicitly depend on the underlying topology of S. Moreover, this thesis demonstrates that the geometry of the mapping class group, and the tools used to study this geometry such as Masur and Minsky's celebrated distance formula, can be used to answer basic, but surprisingly challenging questions related to the combinatorial properties of curves on surfaces. In particular, we prove that all curve graphs are uniformly hyperbolic, independent of the topology of the underlying surface. We also give effective versions of several results regarding train track splitting sequences, and the subset of the curve graph corresponding to curves which bound disks in a handlebody. Finally, we study the local geometry of a family of curve graphs all related to the same surface, and specifically we give upper and lower bounds on the maximum size of a complete subgraph for these graphs.

  4. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  5. Geometry and the Design of Product Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherico, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The most common question the author's students ask is, "When will I ever use this in real life?" To address this question in her geometry classes, the author sought to create a project that would incorporate a real-world business situation with their lesson series on the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects--specifically, prisms,…

  6. Children's Use of Geometry for Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on navigation has shown that humans and laboratory animals recover their sense of orientation primarily by detecting geometric properties of large-scale surface layouts (e.g. room shape), but the reasons for the primacy of layout geometry have not been clarified. In four experiments, we tested whether 4-year-old children reorient by the…

  7. Morphotectonic, Quaternary and Structural Geology Analyses of the Shallow Geometry of the Mw 6.1, 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Fault (central Italy): A Missed Opportunity for Surface Faulting Prevention.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.; Pantosti, D.; Smedile, A.; De Martini, P. M.; Di Naccio, D.; Gueli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The surface-rupturing 2009 L'Aquila earthquake evidenced the limited knowledge of active faults in the Middle Aterno Valley area. Gaps in detailed mapping of Quaternary deposits and tectonic landforms did not trigger researches on active faults, but after the tragic event. We present a morphotectonic study of geometry and evolution of the activated fault system (Paganica-San Demetrio, PSDFS). The LIDAR analysis and field survey yield to a new geological and structural map of the area with an unprecedented detail for the Quaternary deposits. It shows an alluvial depositional system prograding and migrating due to fault system evolution. The normal faults offset both the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock. The structural analysis allows us to recognize two fault systems: (A) NNE- and WNW-trending conjugate extensional system overprinting a strike-slip kinematics and (B) dip-slip NW-trending system. Crosscut relationship suggests that the activity of system B prevails, since Early Pleistocene, on system A, which earlier may have controlled a differently shaped basin. System B is the main responsible for the present-day compound outline of the Middle Aterno Valley, while system A major splays now act as segment boundaries. The long-term expression of B results in prominent fault scarps offsetting Quaternary deposits, dissecting erosional and depositional flat landforms. We retrieved detailed morphologic throws along fault scarps and we dated landforms by 14C, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence), CRN (Cosmogenic Radionuclide) and tephra chronology. We show the persistent role of extensional faulting in dominating Quaternary landform evolution and we estimate slip-rate of the PSDFS at different time-scales. The results support repeated activity of PSDFS for ~20 km total length, thus implying M6.6 maximum expected earthquake. Such an approach should have been applied beforehand for the actual hazard estimation, to trigger, early enough, the adoption of precautionary

  8. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices.

  9. Setting the Stage with Geometry: Lessons & Worksheets to Build Skills in Measuring Perimeter, Area, Surface Area, and Volume. Poster/Teaching Guide. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Setting the Stage with Geometry" is a new math program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards that is designed to help students in grades 6-8 build and reinforce basic geometry skills for measuring 2D and 3D shapes. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation, this program seeks to provide skill-building math…

  10. Geometry of thermodynamic control.

    PubMed

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E; DeWeese, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    A deeper understanding of nonequilibrium phenomena is needed to reveal the principles governing natural and synthetic molecular machines. Recent work has shown that when a thermodynamic system is driven from equilibrium then, in the linear response regime, the space of controllable parameters has a Riemannian geometry induced by a generalized friction tensor. We exploit this geometric insight to construct closed-form expressions for minimal-dissipation protocols for a particle diffusing in a one-dimensional harmonic potential, where the spring constant, inverse temperature, and trap location are adjusted simultaneously. These optimal protocols are geodesics on the Riemannian manifold and reveal that this simple model has a surprisingly rich geometry. We test these optimal protocols via a numerical implementation of the Fokker-Planck equation and demonstrate that the friction tensor arises naturally from a first-order expansion in temporal derivatives of the control parameters, without appealing directly to linear response theory.

  11. E 8 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederwall, Martin; Rosabal, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate exceptional generalised diffeomorphisms based on E 8(8) in a geometric setting. The transformations include gauge transformations for the dual gravity field. The surprising key result, which allows for a development of a tensor formalism, is that it is possible to define field-dependent transformations containing connection, which are covariant. We solve for the spin connection and construct a curvature tensor. A geometry for the Ehlers symmetry SL( n + 1) is sketched. Some related issues are discussed.

  12. Emergent geometry, emergent forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We give a brief account of some aspects of Finkelstein’s quantum relativity, namely an extension of it that derives elements of macroscopic geometry and the Lagrangians of the standard model including gravity from a presumed quantum version of spacetime. These emerge as collective effects in this quantal substrate. Our treatment, which is largely self-contained, differs mathematically from that originally given by Finkelstein. Dedicated to the memory of David Ritz Finkelstein

  13. Freezing in confined geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

  14. Freezing in confined geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

  15. Integral geometry and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.

  16. Noncommutative geometry and arithmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, P.

    2009-09-01

    We intend to illustrate how the methods of noncommutative geometry are currently used to tackle problems in class field theory. Noncommutative geometry enables one to think geometrically in situations in which the classical notion of space formed of points is no longer adequate, and thus a “noncommutative space” is needed; a full account of this approach is given in [3] by its main contributor, Alain Connes. The class field theory, i.e., number theory within the realm of Galois theory, is undoubtedly one of the main achievements in arithmetics, leading to an important algebraic machinery; for a modern overview, see [23]. The relationship between noncommutative geometry and number theory is one of the many themes treated in [22, 7-9, 11], a small part of which we will try to put in a more down-to-earth perspective, illustrating through an example what should be called an “application of physics to mathematics,” and our only purpose is to introduce nonspecialists to this beautiful area.

  17. Poisson-Riemannian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, Edwin J.; Majid, Shahn

    2017-04-01

    We study noncommutative bundles and Riemannian geometry at the semiclassical level of first order in a deformation parameter λ, using a functorial approach. This leads us to field equations of 'Poisson-Riemannian geometry' between the classical metric, the Poisson bracket and a certain Poisson-compatible connection needed as initial data for the quantisation of the differential structure. We use such data to define a functor Q to O(λ2) from the monoidal category of all classical vector bundles equipped with connections to the monoidal category of bimodules equipped with bimodule connections over the quantised algebra. This is used to 'semiquantise' the wedge product of the exterior algebra and in the Riemannian case, the metric and the Levi-Civita connection in the sense of constructing a noncommutative geometry to O(λ2) . We solve our field equations for the Schwarzschild black-hole metric under the assumption of spherical symmetry and classical dimension, finding a unique solution and the necessity of nonassociativity at order λ2, which is similar to previous results for quantum groups. The paper also includes a nonassociative hyperboloid, nonassociative fuzzy sphere and our previously algebraic bicrossproduct model.

  18. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  19. Integral geometry and holography

    DOE PAGES

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; ...

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulkmore » curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.« less

  20. Automatic Conversion of Conceptual Geometry to CFD Geometry for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual aircraft design is usually based on simple analysis codes. Its objective is to provide an overall system performance of the developed concept, while preliminary aircraft design uses high-fidelity analysis tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis codes or finite element structural analysis codes. In some applications, such as low-boom supersonic concept development, it is important to be able to explore a variety of drastically different configurations while using CFD analysis to check whether a given configuration can be tailored to have a low-boom ground signature. It poses an extremely challenging problem of integrating CFD analysis in conceptual design. This presentation will discuss a computer code, called iPatch, for automatic conversion of conceptual geometry to CFD geometry. In general, conceptual aircraft geometry is not as well-defined as a CAD geometry model. In particular, a conceptual aircraft geometry model usually does not define the intersection curves for the connecting surfaces. The computer code iPatch eliminates the gap between conceptual geometry and CFD geometry by accomplishing the following three tasks automatically: (1) use bicubic B-splines to extrapolate (if necessary) each surface in a conceptual geometry so that all the independently defined geometry components (such as wing and fuselage) can be intersected to form a watertight CFD geometry, (2) compute the intersection curves of surface patches at any resolution (up to 10-7 accuracy) specified by users, and (3) write the B-spline surface patches and the corresponding boundary points for the watertight CFD geometry in the format that can be directly exported to the meshing tool VGRID in the CFD software TetrUSS. As a result, conceptual designers can get quick feedback on the aerodynamic characteristics of their concepts, which will allow them to understand some subtlety in their concepts and to be able to assess their concepts with a higher degree of

  1. SABRINA - an interactive geometry modeler for MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.T.; Murphy, J. )

    1988-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks when analyzing a complex three-dimensional system with Monte Carlo is geometry model development. SABRINA attempts to make the modeling process more user-friendly and less of an obstacle. It accepts both combinatorial solid bodies and MCNP surfaces and produces MCNP cells. The model development process in SABRINA is highly interactive and gives the user immediate feedback on errors. Users can view their geometry from arbitrary perspectives while the model is under development and interactively find and correct modeling errors. An example of a SABRINA display is shown. It represents a complex three-dimensional shape.

  2. Holographic Geometries for Condensed Matter Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keränen, V.; Thorlacius, L.

    2015-01-01

    Holographic modeling of strongly correlated many-body systems motivates the study of novel spacetime geometries where the scaling behavior of quantum critical systems is encoded into spacetime symmetries. Einstein-Dilaton-Maxwell theory has planar black brane solutions that exhibit Lifshitz scaling and in some cases hyperscaling violation. Entanglement entropy and Wilson loops in the dual field theory are studied by inserting simple geometric probes involving minimal surfaces into the black brane geometry. Coupling to background matter fields leads to interesting low-energy behavior in holographic models, such as U(1) symmetry breaking and emergent Lifshitz scaling.

  3. Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that

  4. Differential geometry based multiscale models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atomistic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations that are

  5. GEMPAK: An arbitrary aircraft geometry generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, S. H.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Small, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program, GEMPAK, has been developed to aid in the generation of detailed configuration geometry. The program was written to allow the user as much flexibility as possible in his choices of configurations and the detail of description desired and at the same time keep input requirements and program turnaround and cost to a minimum. The program consists of routines that generate fuselage and planar-surface (winglike) geometry and a routine that will determine the true intersection of all components with the fuselage. This paper describes the methods by which the various geometries are generated and provides input description with sample input and output. Also included are descriptions of the primary program variables and functions performed by the various routines. The FORTRAN program GEMPAK has been used extensively in conjunction with interfaces to several aerodynamic and plotting computer programs and has proven to be an effective aid in the preliminary design phase of aircraft configurations.

  6. The Magnetic Field Geometry of Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Victor; Jardine, Moira; Vidotto, Aline; Donati, Jean-Francois; Folsom, Colin; Boro Saikia, Sudeshna; Bouvier, Jerome; Fares, Rim; Gregory, Scott; Hussain, Gaitee; Jeffers, Sandra; Marsden, Stephen; Morin, Julien; Moutou, Claire; do Nascimento, Jose-Dias, Jr.; Petit, Pascal; Rosen, Lisa; Waite, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging has been used to map the large-scale surface magnetic fields of cool stars across a wide range of stellar masses and rotation periods. The derived field geometries are surprising, with many stars showing strong azimuthal fields that are not observed on the Sun. In this poster, using 100 magnetic maps of over 50 stars, we present results showing how the magnetic field geometry of cool stars varies as a function of fundamental parameters. The stellar mass, and hence internal structure, critically influences the field geometry, although this is modified by the stellar rotation rate. We discuss the implications of these results for dynamo theory and the nature of stellar magnetic activity.

  7. First-order Dyson coordinates and geometry.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2013-08-15

    The mathematical constructs of the Dyson coordinates and geometry are introduced. The former are a unitary transformation of the normal coordinates and the anharmonic vibrational counterpart of the Dyson orbitals in electronic structure theory. The first-order Dyson coordinates bring the sums of the harmonic force constants and their first-order diagrammatic perturbation corrections (the first-order Dyson self-energy) to a diagonal form. The first-order Dyson geometry has no counterpart in electronic structure theory. It is the point on the potential energy surface at which the sums of the energy gradients and their first-order diagrammatic perturbation corrections vanish. It agrees with the vibrationally averaged geometry of vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) theory in the bulk limit. These constructs provide a unified view of the relationship of VSCF and its diagrammatically size-consistent modifications as well as the self-consistent phonon method widely used in solid-state physics.

  8. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  9. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  10. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  11. Geometrie verstehen: statisch - kinematisch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Ekkehard

    Dem Allgemeinen steht begrifflich das Besondere gegenüber. In diesem Sinne sind allgemeine Überlegungen zum Verstehen von Mathematik zu ergänzen durch Untersuchungen hinsichtlich des Verstehens der einzelnen mathematischen Disziplinen, insbesondere der Geometrie. Hier haben viele Schülerinnen und Schüler Probleme. Diese rühren hauptsächlich daher, dass eine fertige geometrische Konstruktion in ihrer statischen Präsentation auf Papier nicht mehr die einzelnen Konstruktionsschritte erkennen lässt; zum Nachvollzug müssen sie daher ergänzend in einer Konstruktionsbeschreibung festgehalten werden.

  12. Models of molecular geometry.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Ronald J; Robinson, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Although the structure of almost any molecule can now be obtained by ab initio calculations chemists still look for simple answers to the question "What determines the geometry of a given molecule?" For this purpose they make use of various models such as the VSEPR model and qualitative quantum mechanical models such as those based on the valence bond theory. The present state of such models, and the support for them provided by recently developed methods for analyzing calculated electron densities, are reviewed and discussed in this tutorial review.

  13. Diffusion in quantum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2012-08-01

    The change of the effective dimension of spacetime with the probed scale is a universal phenomenon shared by independent models of quantum gravity. Using tools of probability theory and multifractal geometry, we show how dimensional flow is controlled by a multiscale fractional diffusion equation, and physically interpreted as a composite stochastic process. The simplest example is a fractional telegraph process, describing quantum spacetimes with a spectral dimension equal to 2 in the ultraviolet and monotonically rising to 4 towards the infrared. The general profile of the spectral dimension of the recently introduced multifractional spaces is constructed for the first time.

  14. Core geometry in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Moira R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on animals, infants, children, and adults provides evidence that distinct cognitive systems underlie navigation and object recognition. Here we examine whether and how these systems interact when children interpret 2D edge-based perspectival line drawings of scenes and objects. Such drawings serve as symbols early in development, and they preserve scene and object geometry from canonical points of view. Young children show limits when using geometry both in non-symbolic tasks and in symbolic map tasks that present 3D contexts from unusual, unfamiliar points of view. When presented with the familiar viewpoints in perspectival line drawings, however, do children engage more integrated geometric representations? In three experiments, children successfully interpreted line drawings with respect to their depicted scene or object. Nevertheless, children recruited distinct processes when navigating based on the information in these drawings, and these processes depended on the context in which the drawings were presented. These results suggest that children are flexible but limited in using geometric information to form integrated representations of scenes and objects, even when interpreting spatial symbols that are highly familiar and faithful renditions of the visual world. PMID:25441089

  15. Proterozoic Geomagnetic Field Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzik, J. E.; Evans, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Pre-Mesozoic continental reconstructions and paleoclimatic inferences from paleomagnetism rely critically upon the assumption of a time-averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field. We have been testing the GAD assumption and localized non-dipole components in a different manner, by observing directional variations within the Matachewan, Mackenzie and Franklin dyke swarms. Large dyke swarms, commonly emplaced within a few million years, provide the necessary broad areal coverage to perform a test of global geomagnetic field geometry. Our analysis varies the quadrupole and octupole values of the generalized paleolatitude equation to determine a minimal angular dispersion and maximum precision of paleopoles from each dyke swarm. As a control, paleomagnetic data from the central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) show the sensitivities of our method to non-GAD contributions to the ancient geomagnetic field. Within the uncertainties, CAMP data are consistent with independent estimates of non-GAD contributions derived from global tectonic reconstructions (Torsvik & Van der Voo, 2002). Current results from the three Proterozoic dyke swarms all have best fits that are non-dipolar, but they differ in their optimal quadrupole/ octupole components. Treated together under the hypothesis of a static Proterozoic field geometry, the data allow a pure GAD geodynamo within the uncertainty of the method. Current results were performed using Fisherian statistics, but Bingham statistics will be included to account for the ellipticity of data.

  16. Critique of information geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Skilling, John

    2014-12-05

    As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples.

  17. Noncommutative geometry of Zitterbewegung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Michał; Franco, Nicolas; Miller, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Drawing from the advanced mathematics of noncommutative geometry, we model a "classical" Dirac fermion propagating in a curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the inherent causal structure of the model encodes the possibility of Zitterbewegung—the "trembling motion" of the fermion. We recover the well-known frequency of Zitterbewegung as the highest possible speed of change in the fermion's "internal space." Furthermore, we show that the bound does not change in the presence of an external electromagnetic field and derive its explicit analogue when the mass parameter is promoted to a Yukawa field. We explain the universal character of the model and discuss a table-top experiment in the domain of quantum simulation to test its predictions.

  18. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-07-28

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.

  19. The geometry of the 37-tile microwave antenna support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The geometry of the support structure for a proposed parabolic shaped microwave antenna is examined. The surface of the antenna is comprised of 37 hexagonal shaped tiles, each connected to a truss module. The units are joined together to form a rigidized, faceted, concave parabolic surface. The geometry specifications are described through an explanation of the structural components which make up the antenna, a description of the coordinate system devised to identify the structure, and a presentation of the nondimensional results.

  20. Magnetism in curved geometries

    DOE PAGES

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; ...

    2016-08-17

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya-like interaction. Asmore » a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. Finally, these recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.« less

  1. Magnetism in curved geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-08-17

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. Finally, these recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  2. Magnetism in curved geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. These recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  3. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    DOEpatents

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source. (auth)

  4. Sheared-flow Modes in Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski; T.S. Hahm; W.W. Lee; Z. Lin

    1999-10-01

    Using a Fourier-Bessel representation for the fluctuating (turbulent) electrostatic potential, an equation governing the sheared-flow modes in toroidal geometry is derived from the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, where both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic responses of the electrons are taken into account. It is shown that the principal geometrical effect on sheared-flow modes of the electrostatic potential is due to the flux-surface average of 1/B, where B is the magnetic field strength.

  5. Generalized Kähler Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Generalized Kähler geometry is the natural analogue of Kähler geometry, in the context of generalized complex geometry. Just as we may require a complex structure to be compatible with a Riemannian metric in a way which gives rise to a symplectic form, we may require a generalized complex structure to be compatible with a metric so that it defines a second generalized complex structure. We prove that generalized Kähler geometry is equivalent to the bi-Hermitian geometry on the target of a 2-dimensional sigma model with (2, 2) supersymmetry. We also prove the existence of natural holomorphic Courant algebroids for each of the underlying complex structures, and that these split into a sum of transverse holomorphic Dirac structures. Finally, we explore the analogy between pre-quantum line bundles and gerbes in the context of generalized Kähler geometry.

  6. Thermodynamics of Asymptotically Conical Geometries.

    PubMed

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Gibbons, Gary W; Saleem, Zain H

    2015-06-12

    We study the thermodynamical properties of a class of asymptotically conical geometries known as "subtracted geometries." We derive the mass and angular momentum from the regulated Komar integral and the Hawking-Horowitz prescription and show that they are equivalent. By deriving the asymptotic charges, we show that the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics hold. We also propose an analog of Christodulou-Ruffini inequality. The analysis can be generalized to other asymptotically conical geometries.

  7. Investigating Fractal Geometry Using LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses dimensionality in Euclidean geometry. Presents methods to produce fractals using LOGO. Uses the idea of self-similarity. Included are program listings and suggested extension activities. (MVL)

  8. Subaperture stitching tolerancing for annular ring geometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Greg A; Burge, James H

    2015-09-20

    Subaperture stitching is an economical way to extend small-region, high-resolution interferometric metrology to cover large-aperture optics. Starting from system geometry and measurement noise knowledge, this work derives an analytical expression for how noise in an annular ring of subapertures leads to large-scale errors in the computed stitched surface. These errors scale as sin(πp/M)(-2) where p is the number of sine periods around the annular full-aperture and M is the number of subaperture measurements. Understanding how low-spatial-frequency surface errors arise from subaperture noise is necessary for tolerancing systems which use subaperture stitching.

  9. Conformal Lorentz geometry revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teleman, Kostake

    1996-02-01

    . We also show that Mach's principle on inertial motions receives an explanation in our theory by considering the particular geodesic paths, for which one of the partners of an interacting pair is fixed and sent to infinity. In fact we study a dynamical system (W,L) which presents some formal and topological similarities with a system of two particles interacting gravitationally. (W,L) is the only conformally invariant relativistic two-point dynamical system. At the end we show that W can be naturally regarded as the base of a principal GL(2,C)-bundle which comes with a natural connection. We study this bundle from differential geometric point of view. Physical interpretations will be discussed in a future paper. This text is an improvement of a previous version, which was submitted under the title ``Hypertwistor Geometry.'' [See, K. Teleman, ``Hypertwistor Geometry (abstract),'' 14th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Florence, Italy, 1995.] The change of the title and many other improvements are due to the valuable comments of the referee, who also suggested the author to avoid hazardous interpretations.

  10. Sweet-Tooth Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Regina M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an engaging project in which students have to design and construct a three-dimensional candy box that would appeal to children. Requires students to make the box out of prisms, pyramids, or cylinders, determine the surface area and volume of the solids, and write a persuasive business letter. (YDS)

  11. Sweet-Tooth Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Regina M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an engaging project in which students have to design and construct a three-dimensional candy box that would appeal to children. Requires students to make the box out of prisms, pyramids, or cylinders, determine the surface area and volume of the solids, and write a persuasive business letter. (YDS)

  12. GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…

  13. Sex Differences in Geometry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dees, Roberta L.

    The following questions are addressed: (1) Are there sex differences in achievement, either in entering knowledge of geometry in the fall, or in achievement in acquiring standard geometry content by year's end? (2) Are there sex differences in the performance of students on the van Hiele test, either at the beginning or end of the year? and (3)…

  14. GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…

  15. Linguistic geometry for autonomous navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stilman, B.

    1995-09-01

    To discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, we develop a formal theory, the Linguistic Geometry. This paper reports two examples of application of Linguistic Geometry to autonomous navigation of aerospace vehicles that demonstrate dramatic search reduction.

  16. Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H.; Cabrini, S.; Kevan, S.D.; Su, R.

    2011-02-03

    Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.

  17. Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-02-07

    We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

  18. Fractal Geometry of Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Radlinski, A.P.; Radlinska, E.Z.; Agamalian, M.; Wignall, G.D.; Lindner, P.; Randl, O.G.

    1999-04-01

    The analysis of small- and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering data for sedimentary rocks shows that the pore-rock fabric interface is a surface fractal (D{sub s}=2.82) over 3 orders of magnitude of the length scale and 10 orders of magnitude in intensity. The fractal dimension and scatterer size obtained from scanning electron microscopy image processing are consistent with neutron scattering data. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Tectonic wedges: geometry and kinematic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Torres, L. M.; Ramon-Lluch, R.; Eguiluz, L.

    1994-10-01

    The geometry of several tectonic wedge combinations was studied in an outcrop in the Basque Basin, Western Pyrenees. Three types of tectonic wedges were distinguished: simple, double and triple wedge. On the surface the geometry of the observed tectonic wedges is always highly elemental: emergent thrust, horse or klippe. The final stage in the evolution of a tectonic wedge is its delamination. This can occur by the spreading of the thrusts which conform the wedge, or by the development of back thrusts associated to them. The relative age of the back thrust with respect to the thrust indicates whether the original structure was a simple thrust or a tectonic wedge. If this criterion is applied to the Pyrenean Orogen, this range corresponds to a tectonic wedge.

  20. Dewetting processes in a cylindrical geometry.

    PubMed

    Callegari, G; Calvo, A; Hulin, J P

    2005-03-01

    Dewetting of liquid films of water-glycerol solutions of different viscosities has been studied experimentally in PVC cylindrical tubes. In contrast with plane surfaces, the dewetting capillary number Ca(vd) increases with the film thickness ho over a large part of the experimental range and follows a same global trend independent of viscosity as a function of ho. This increase is only partly explained by variations of the capillary driving force predicted in a recent theoretical work for a cylindrical geometry. An additional explanation is suggested, based on different spatial distributions of the viscous dissipation in the dewetting bump in the planar and cylindrical geometries. This mechanism is investigated for films of different thicknesses in a numerical model assuming a polynomial variation of the liquid thickness with distance in the bump region.