Sample records for arvi prikk tnu

  1. Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) for EOS-MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier


    ARVI, which is here proposed as a tool for the remote sensing of vegetation by the EOS MODIS sensor, takes advantage of the presence of the blue channel in MODIS, together with the red and near-IR channels composing the normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI). Unlike the NDVI, ARVI resists atmospheric effects via a self-correction process for the effects of the atmosphere on the red channel. ARVI is presently shown to have a dynamic range similar to NDVI's, but is on average less sensitive to atmospheric effects by a factor of 4. A single combination of the blue and red channels in the ARVI may be used in all or most remote-sensing applications.

  2. Atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) for EOS-MODIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Y.J.; Tanre, D. )


    In this paper atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is proposed and developed to be used for remote sensing of vegetation from the earth Observing System (EOS) MODIS sensor. The same index can be used for remote sensing from Landsat TM, and the EOS-HIRIS sensor. The index takes advantage of the presence of the blue channel in the MODIS sensor, in addition to the red and the near IR channels that compose the present normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The resistance of the ARVI to atmospheric effects (in comparison to the NDVI) is accomplished by a self-correction process for the atmospheric effect on the red channel, using the difference in the radiance between the blue and the red channels to correct the radiance in the red channel. Simulations using radiative transfer computations on arithmetic and natural surface spectra, for various atmospheric conditions, show that ARVI has a similar dynamic range to the NDVI, but is, on average, four times less sensitive to atmospheric effects that the NDVI. The improvement is much better for vegetated surfaces than for soils. It is much better for moderate to small size aerosol particles (e.g., continental, urban, or smoke aerosol) than for large particle size (e.g., maritime aerosol or dust).

  3. Study of the effects of solar activities on the ionosphere as observed by VLF signals recorded at TNU station, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L. M.


    A SuperSID monitor installed at Tay Nguyen University (TNU), Vietnam is used to detect the temporal variations of Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals during 2013 and 2014 to understand the responses of the ionosphere to sunset/sunrise transitions and solar flares. Two VLF station signals are tracked, JJI/22.2 kHz in Japan and NWC/19.8 kHz in Australia. Results show that the effects of sunrise, sunset and solar flares on the NWC signal are more significantly different than those on the JJI signal. Sunset and sunrise spikes only occur on the JJI-TNU path because of longitudinal differences between the receiver and transmitter. Two sunset dips and three sunrise dips appear on the NWC signal during summer season. During intense solar flares, the dips occur after the maximum disturbance of the VLF signals for the North-South path. The appearance of these dips is explained by modal interference patterns. Observing temporal variations of sunrise and sunset dips or spikes of VLF signals during different seasons enhances the understanding of the behavior of the ionosphere.

  4. Geochemical, sedimentary and micropaleontological evidence for a Late Maastrichtian oceanic seamount within the Pindos ocean (Arvi Unit, S Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamakumbura, Romesh N.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Dixon, John E.


    We test the model of Bonneau (1984) who hypothesised that the Arvi Unit in southern Crete represents Upper Cretaceous oceanic crust of a Pindos oceanic basin. The Arvi Unit is dominated by basaltic lava flows, pelagic carbonates and terrigenous sandstone turbidites. The "enriched" within-plate-type geochemistry of the basaltic lavas is consistent with a seamount setting. The subaqueous lava structures and associated pelagic carbonates further justify a seamount origin. Peperites composed of lava-pelagic carbonate mixtures date the Arvi Unit as Late Maastrichtian using diagnostic planktic foraminifera. The lavas are overlain by pelagic carbonates, also of Late Maastrichtian age, that then pass gradationally upwards into sand to pebble-grade gravity flows. The clastic sediments contain grains derived from several sources, namely continental (metamorphic and plutonic), ophiolite-related (e.g. serpentinite, gabbro, diabase), deep-sea (e.g. chert, pelagic carbonate) and shallow-marine (e.g. shell fragments). The terrigenous detritus is inferred to have come from the Pelagonian microcontinent unit (~ Asteroussia nappe) then to the northeast where ophiolites and deep-sea sediments were obducted during Late Jurassic time. The inferred Arvi seamount was accreted at the southeasterly-subducting active margin of the Pelagonian microcontinent after Maastrichtian time, related to closure of the Pindos ocean. The new evidence from the Arvi Unit provides additional evidence for the existence of the Pindos ocean between the Apulian and Pelagonian continental units in the Greece-Albania region.

  5. [Isolation of the cercaria Diplostomum phoxini (Faust, 1918) Arvy et Buttner, 1954 (Diplostomatidae) from fresh water mollusks of the Crimea].


    Sten'ko, R P


    Data on the biology and morphology of cercariae of Diplostomum phoxini (Faust, 1918) Arvy et Buttner, 1954 are given. The cercariae were found in Radix auricularia from the middle part of the Burulcha river (Ukranian SSR, Crimea). In November, 1974 the invasion extensity of mollusks was 16.3%. No cercariae were found in spring and summer samples. PMID:66655

  6. Characterization of Three Different Unusual S-Layer Proteins from Viridibacillus arvi JG-B58 That Exhibits Two Super-Imposed S-Layer Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Tobias J.; Raff, Johannes; Pollmann, Katrin


    Genomic analyses of Viridibacillus arvi JG-B58 that was previously isolated from heavy metal contaminated environment identified three different putative surface layer (S-layer) protein genes namely slp1, slp2, and slp3. All three genes are expressed during cultivation. At least two of the V. arvi JG-B58 S-layer proteins were visualized on the surface of living cells via atomic force microscopy (AFM). These S-layer proteins form a double layer with p4 symmetry. The S-layer proteins were isolated from the cells using two different methods. Purified S-layer proteins were recrystallized on SiO2 substrates in order to study the structure of the arrays and self-assembling properties. The primary structure of all examined S-layer proteins lack some features that are typical for Bacillus or Lysinibacillus S-layers. For example, they possess no SLH domains that are usually responsible for the anchoring of the proteins to the cell wall. Further, the pI values are relatively high ranging from 7.84 to 9.25 for the matured proteins. Such features are typical for S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus species although sequence comparisons indicate a close relationship to S-layer proteins of Lysinibacillus and Bacillus strains. In comparison to the numerous descriptions of S-layers, there are only a few studies reporting the concomitant existence of two different S-layer proteins on cell surfaces. Together with the genomic data, this is the first description of a novel type of S-layer proteins showing features of Lactobacillus as well as of Bacillus-type S-layer proteins and the first study of the cell envelope of Viridibacillus arvi. PMID:27285458

  7. Massilia arvi sp. nov., isolated from fallow-land soil previously cultivated with Brassica oleracea, and emended description of the genus Massilia.


    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yin, ChangShik; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo


    A novel bacterial strain, designated THG-RS2OT, was isolated from fallow-land soil previously cultivated with Brassica oleracea in Yongin, South Korea. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods, catalase- and oxidase-positive. Strain THG-RS2OT grew optimally at 25–37 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that strain THG-RS2OT shows highest sequence similarity with Massilia kyonggiensis KACC 17471T followed by Massilia aerilata KACC 12505T, Massilia niastensis KACC 12599T, Massilia tieshanensis KACC 14940T and Massilia haematophila KCTC 32001T. Levels of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain THG-RS2OT and the closest phylogenetic neighbours were below 55.0 % and the DNA G+C content of strain THG-RS2OT was 63.2 mol%. Major fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c). The major respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquonone-8 and predominant polar lipids were determined to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Characterization by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA–DNA hybridization, ubiquinone, polar lipid, fatty acid composition, and physiological and biochemical parameters revealed that strain THG-RS2OT represents a novel species of the genus Massilia. Hence, the present study describes a novel species for which the name Massilia arvi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-RS2OT ( = KCTC 42609T = CCTCC AB 2015115T). PMID:26220552

  8. Astronomical education in Tajikistan. Project TAJASTRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadinov, Khursandkul I.; Rahmonov, A. A.


    The centre of astronomy in Tajikistan is the Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. This institute carries out scientific research and contributes to the preparation of the astronomical staff and to astronomical education. The reform of education in Tajikistan continues and now astronomy is studied in schools (together with physics) and at universities. The Tajik State Pedagogical University resumed in 2007 the training of teachers in physics and astronomy. Since 1999 the Tajik National University (TNU) offers a a specialty in astronomy. In 2006 is restored the Small Academy of Sciences (SAS) of Tajikistan. There is a planetarium in Khujand and in 2006 the Institute of Astrophysics, TNU and the Astronomical Society of Tajikistan, along with the support IBSP/UNESCO, organised the Training Methodical Center (TMC) ``TAJASTRO'' at the Hisar astronomical observatory for students, graduate students, young scientists, and teachers at secondary schools.

  9. Regional study of the Archean to Proterozoic crust at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO+), Ontario: Predicting the geoneutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Strati, Virginia; Mantovani, Fabio; Shirey, Steven B.; McDonough, William F.


    SNO+ detector that is currently under construction in Ontario, Canada, will be a new kiloton-scale liquid scintillation detector with the capability of recording geoneutrino events that can be used to constrain the strength of the Earth's radiogenic power, and in turn, to test compositional models of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). We constructed a detailed 3-D model of the regional crust centered at SNO+ from compiled geological, geophysical, and geochemical information. Crustal cross sections obtained from refraction and reflection seismic surveys were used to characterize the crust and assign uncertainties to its structure. The average Moho depth in the study area is 42.3 ± 2.6 km. The upper crust was divided into seven dominant lithologic units on the basis of regional geology. The abundances of U and Th and their uncertainties in each upper crustal lithologic unit were determined from analyses of representative outcrop samples. The average chemical compositions of the middle and lower crust beneath the SNO+ region were determined by coupling local seismic velocity profiles with a global compilation of the chemical compositions of amphibolite and granulite facies rocks. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the geoneutrino signal originating from the regional crust at SNO+ and to track asymmetrical uncertainties of U and Th abundances. The total regional crust contribution of the geoneutrino signal at SNO+ is predicted to be 15.6-3.4+5.3 TNU (a Terrestrial Neutrino Unit is one geoneutrino event per 1032 target protons per year), with the Huronian Supergroup near SNO+ dominantly contributing 7.3-3.0+5.0 TNU to this total. Future systematically sampling of this regional unit and denser seismic surveys will better model its composition and structure, and thus reduce the uncertainty on geoneutrino signal at SNO+. The bulk crustal geoneutrino signal at SNO+ is estimated to be 30.7-4.2+6.0 TNU, which is lower than that predicted in a global-scale reference

  10. Earth's Uranium and Thorium content and geoneutrinos fluxes based on enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javoy, Marc; Kaminski, Edouard


    The Earth's thermal evolution is controlled by the amount of heat released by the radioactive decay of 40K, 238U, 235U and 232Th. Their crust and upper mantle content is inferred from direct sampling, whereas estimating the lower mantle concentrations requires indirect constraints, such as those brought by primitive chondrites, or by geoneutrinos. Here we follow the framework of "E-Earth" models, based on the isotopic and chemical composition of E-chondrites (EC), to calculate U and Th concentrations in the Earth's present day mantle, and the corresponding geoneutrinos flux. The model uses a compilation of data of U and Th contents of EC and account for the Earth differentiation and crust extraction. We obtain that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains 15.4±1.8 ppb of Uranium and 51.3±4.4 ppb of Thorium, and has an average Th/U mass ratio of 3.4±0.4, with a peak value around 3.15. The prediction of geoneutrinos events originating from the mantle (i.e., without taking into account the local contribution of the crust) is 5.1±1.0 TNU, with 4.3±0.9 TNU coming from Uranium, and 0.8±0.2 TNU from Thorium. These numbers are in good agreement with the most recent KamLAND detector estimate, and compatible with the (higher) Borexino flux. On the other hand, the KamLAND constraints are not consistent with the high content of heat producing elements in the mantle predicted by the simple application of parameterized convection model to the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle. Since the measurement error in the mantle neutrino flux is currently dominated by the crustal contribution, geoneutrinos cannot for now discriminate between CI-based and EH-base models of the Earth's composition. Further progress is expected if an ocean based geoneutrino detector is deployed.

  11. Influence of the stiffness of testing machines on the adherence of elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Barquins, M.


    It is shown that the introduction of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as the strain energy release rate G, to solve the problem of the adherence of elastomers, the edge of contact being seen as a crack propagating in mode I in the interface, allows one to predict the dependence of the adherence force with stiffness of testing machines. Moreover, it is shown the general equation of the kinetics of adherence proposed in 1978 in Maugis and Barquins, G - w = w(phi)(a/sub T/, where w is Dupre's work of adhesion and phi a dissipation function characteristic of the material only depending on temperature and crack speed, is confirmed whatever the stiffness of the testing machine and the instantaneous deformation imposed on the system. Experiments realized with a hemispherical glass lens in contact on a polyurethane surface verify theoretical predictions with an accuracy better than 1%.

  12. Total suppression of superconductivity by high magnetic fields in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.6).


    Rullier-Albenque, F; Alloul, H; Proust, Cyril; Lejay, P; Forget, A; Colson, D


    We have studied the variation of transverse magnetoresistance of underdoped YBCO(6.6) crystals, either pure or with reduced T(c) down to 3.5 K by electron irradiation, in fields up to 60 T. We find evidence that the superconducting fluctuation contribution to the conductivity is suppressed only above a threshold field H(c)'(T), which is found to vanish at T(c)' > T(c). In the pure YBCO(6.6) sample, H(c)' is already 50 T at T(c). We find that increasing disorder weakly depresses H(c)'(0), T(c)', and T(nu), the onset of the Nernst signal. Thus, these energy scales appear more characteristic of the 2D local pairing than the pseudogap temperature which is not modified by disorder. PMID:17678247

  13. Quantum Boosting and Fast Classical Metrics for Tree Cover Detection in Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyda, E.; Basu, S.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.


    New volumes of high resolution remote sensing imagery hold greatpromise for Earth science, and with it, new challenges in machinelearning. Familiar heuristic training routines become impractical asdatasets scale to terabytes and beyond. Now, emerging quantumhardware from D-wave Systems allows us to explore alternatives basedon the principles of adiabatic quantum computation. As part of aprogram to develop tree cover estimates for the continental UnitedStates based on one-meter-resolution National Agriculture ImageryProgram (NAIP) data, we have implemented a binary classifier, known asQboost, to combine in a principled manner decision stumps definedon features extracted from 8x8 pixel squares. Qboost was originallydeveloped to be trained on D-wave hardware. Prototyped on NAIP datafor the state of California, the classifier discrimates tree-covered regions with a validationerror rate of 8%. Additionally, we identify quadratic combinationsof the Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) and standarddeviations of intensity or near-infrared reflectance that providefast, simple, classical metrics to identify tree cover. They cut by nearly half theerror rates of ARVI used alone or of our best single-featurediscriminant.

  14. Analysis of Vegetation and Atmospheric Correction Indices for Landsat Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Tasha R.; Desai, M.


    Vegetation and Atmospheric Indices are mathematical combinations of remote sensing bands which are useful in distinguishing the various values of the spectral reflectance. In this paper we study how the applications of various atmospherically corrected indices and vegetation indices can aide in retrieving the amount of surface reflectance from a remotely sensed image. Specifically, this paper studies and compares three vegetation indices and one atmospherically resistant index. These indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Green Vegetation Index (GVI), and the Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI), respectively. The algorithms attempt to estimate the optical characteristics of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. It will be shown that the NDVI algorithm followed by the ARVI correcting algorithm provided significant improvements in the tonal qualities of the retrieved images. The results are presented on 1987 TM images over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and are compared with a set of United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S) maps.

  15. [The new possibility for the treatment of acute cough].


    Klyachkina, I L


    Acute cough associated with influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is one of the most common complaints prompting the patient to visit a general practitioner or an otorhinolaryngologist based at the outpatient clinic. Acute cough during ARVI in the practically healthy subjects is as a rule non-productive, frequently dry, and becomes resolved within 2-3 weeks. In certain cases, however, the cough during ARVI can be productive with the well apparent abnormal expectoration of sputum especially in the aged and elderly subjects, young children, and patients suffering from the chest injuries, dry pleuritis, and other disorders. The early prescription of mucoactive preparations can prevent the development of subacute cough. In such cases, it is recommended to use the mucokinetic ambroxol that improves the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and does not require strong exertion for sputum expectoration. An important aspect in the mechanism of action of ambroxol is the stimulation of surfactant production, antioxidation effect, the improvement of rheological properties of bronchial mucus, ant-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The application of the new pharmaceutical dose form of ambroxol, neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets), produces a very rapid effect (within 1 day after the intake) due to the fast absorption of this medication in the oral cavity, its rapid penetration into the circulatory system and achievement of the high concentration in blood plasma. The volatile metabolites of ambroxol that form as a result of tablet disintegration, such as ambroxol itself, menthol, and cineol, exert the mucolytic, antiseptic, and antibacterial actions, after they reach the trachea and bronchi. Irrigation of the receptors present in the inflamed mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity, with these volatile substances produces an immediate cough-suppressive effect. It is concluded that the preparations of neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets

  16. [Results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan].


    Nurgozhin, T S; Guliaev, A E; Ermekbaeva, B A; Zhaugasheva, S K; Abuova, G T; An, É A


    This paper reports results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The study included 16312 patients examined in different cities during 2011-2012. It showed that ascoril expectorant (Glenmark) at a standard dose is an effective agent for the treatment of cough in children above 3 years and adults aged up to 78 years with ARVI and acute bronchitis, exacerbation of these conditions or grade I-II chronic obstructire pulmonary disease. Most patients reported good therapeutic effect within 1 day after intake. Ascoril expectorant caused no adverse reactions and was well tolerated by the patients. 91% of the attending physicians describe the drug as highly effective. PMID:24417069

  17. Checking various vegetation indices for estimating vegetation in arid regions and Presented a model (Case Study:Sadough- Yazd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Saeideh; Zehtabian, Gholamreza; Azarnivand, Hossein; Ahmadi, Hassan


    Vegetation is one of the natural recourses components and achieve Quantitative information of them have a major role in the management of land. Using satellite images is one of the new techniques in the field of qualitative and quantitative studies of the vegetation .Studies show that the use of spectral vegetation indices and ratios may serve as a useful approach in this area, especially in the desert zoon. In this study, using Landsat TM imagery sensors, to calculate different vegetation indices and their ability checking vegetation in arid regions. After multivariate regression analysis between the actual values and parameters, and validation of models optimal model was selected. The results showed that the index of ARVI with the corresponding coefficients is better results in estimating the amount of vegetation in arid regions. Keywords: vegetation, satellite images, vegetation index, arid region, Saduq

  18. Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.


    The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

  19. Relocation of the Mw 6.4 July 1, 2009 earthquake to the south of Crete and modeling of its associated small tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchini, Gian Maria; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatiana; Karastathis, Vassilis K.; Mouzakiotis, Aggelos; Voulgaris, Nikolaos


    On July 1, 2009 (09:30 UTC) a Mw6.4 earthquake ruptured south of Crete Island triggering a small tsunami. Eyewitness reported the tsunami from Myrtos and Arvi Port, in the SE coast of Crete, and in Chrisi islet. In Arvi 4 or 5 wave arrivals were reported after a withdrawal of the sea of about 1 m. The sea disturbance lasted for about 1 h. The earthquake occurred as the result of the subduction of the oceanic African Plate beneath the continental Eurasian Plate along the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ). South of Crete the Nubia-Aegean convergence rate (~3.5 cm/yr) is partially accommodated by low-angle (~20-25°) thrust faults at 20-40km depths and by steeper (>30°) reverse-faults at shallower depths. The area of interest has been struck by large magnitude earthquakes in historical times that in some cases triggered damaging tsunamis (e.g AD 1303). Routine earthquake locations performed by NOA do not provide good quality hypocenters for the area under investigation given the poor azimuthal coverage and the low density of the seismic stations. The 2009 earthquake, given its tsunamigenic nature, has been identified as a key event to study the central segment of the HSZ. We performed the relocation of the 2009 mainshock along with the seismicity of the area (ML>=3, period 2008-2015) using the NLLoc algorithm and testing several 1D velocity models available for the area and a 2D velocity model obtained from a published N-S seismic refraction profile across Crete. The hypocenters obtained from NLLoc have been subsequently relocated with HypoDD algorithm using catalog phase data. The results from the various relocation procedures showed a shallow hypocentral depth (12-17km) of the 2009 event and its likely intraplate nature. A set of hypocentral solutions were selected on the basis of minimum RMS and smaller errors with the aim to perform tsunami simulations with varying source parameters. Two different fault dips were used to discriminate between the intraplate (dip 32

  20. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.


    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  1. Remote and field level quantification of vegetation covariates for malaria mapping in three rice agro-village complexes in Central Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Funes, Jose; Caamano, Erick X; Muriu, Simon; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J


    Background We examined algorithms for malaria mapping using the impact of reflectance calibration uncertainties on the accuracies of three vegetation indices (VI)'s derived from QuickBird data in three rice agro-village complexes Mwea, Kenya. We also generated inferential statistics from field sampled vegetation covariates for identifying riceland Anopheles arabiensis during the crop season. All aquatic habitats in the study sites were stratified based on levels of rice stages; flooded, land preparation, post-transplanting, tillering, flowering/maturation and post-harvest/fallow. A set of uncertainty propagation equations were designed to model the propagation of calibration uncertainties using the red channel (band 3: 0.63 to 0.69 μm) and the near infra-red (NIR) channel (band 4: 0.76 to 0.90 μm) to generate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The Atmospheric Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) was also evaluated incorporating the QuickBird blue band (Band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 μm) to normalize atmospheric effects. In order to determine local clustering of riceland habitats Gi*(d) statistics were generated from the ground-based and remotely-sensed ecological databases. Additionally, all riceland habitats were visually examined using the spectral reflectance of vegetation land cover for identification of highly productive riceland Anopheles oviposition sites. Results The resultant VI uncertainties did not vary from surface reflectance or atmospheric conditions. Logistic regression analyses of all field sampled covariates revealed emergent vegetation was negatively associated with mosquito larvae at the three study sites. In addition, floating vegetation (-ve) was significantly associated with immature mosquitoes in Rurumi and Kiuria (-ve); while, turbidity was also important in Kiuria. All spatial models exhibit positive autocorrelation; similar numbers of log-counts tend to cluster in geographic space. The

  2. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti


    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes

  3. Measurement of the W+- + b anti-b cross-section in 695-pb-1 of p anti-p collisions at CDF II.

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, Mitchell Paul; /Michigan U.


    W{sup {+-}} + b{bar b} events contain the associated production of a W{sup {+-}} boson, a pair of bottom quarks (b{bar b}), and any number of additional partons. This process is of much importance at hadron collider experiments due to its role as a background source in searches for Standard Model Higgs boson and single top-quark production. In this thesis the results are presented for a measurement of the b-jet cross-section in W{sup {+-}} + b{bar b} events containing 1 or 2 jets in 695 pb{sup -1} of {radical}s =1.96 TeV p{bar p} collisions at the CDF experiment. This is the first measurement of the cross-section of W{sup {+-}} b{bar b} performed in any experiment. The cross-section is defined to be proportional to the number of b-jets from W{sup {+-}} b{bar b} events with one or two jets, and a leptonically decaying W{sup {+-}} with decay products passing kinematics cuts (p{sub T}({ell}{sup {+-}}) {ge} 20.0 GeV, |{eta}({ell}{sup {+-}})| {le} 1.1, p{sub T}({nu}) {ge} 25.0 GeV). The invariant mass distribution of jets identified as containing a long-lived hadron is fit with components for bottom, charm, and light-flavor to find the fraction due to true b-decays. Background b-jet sources are subtracted to isolate the contribution of W{sup {+-}} b{bar b} to the data. The cross-section is measured to be 0.90 {+-} 0.20(stat.) {+-} 0.26(syst.)pb, which compares well with the leading order theoretical prediction of 0.74 {+-} 0.18 pb.

  4. Aguapanela, a new tarantula genus from the Colombian Andes (Araneae, Theraphosidae).


    Perafán, Carlos; Cifuentes, Yeimy; Estrada-Gomez, Sebastián


    A new monotypic genus of Theraphosidae is described from Colombia: Aguapanela Perafán & Cifuentes gen. nov. with only the type species Aguapanela arvi Perafán, Cifuentes & Estrada sp. nov., from Caldas and Medellin, Antioquia, Colombian Andes. The new genus differs from other theraphosid spiders mainly in the presence of stridulatory setae on the palps and legs I and II, together with the presence of type III and IV urticating setae. Males lack a tibial apophysis on leg I and have a simple palpal bulb with the subtegulum less extended than usual in Theraphosinae, elongated curved embolus, ventrally concave, and with two prolateral keels very flat and developed on the dorsal edge. The female spermathecae have two digitiform elongated and granulated seminal receptacles attached to a semicircular wide membranous base. We describe, diagnose and illustrate the new genus and give some biological remarks. Morphological, systematic and biogeographic aspects are discussed. Chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of its venom are analyzed. PMID:26624422

  5. Estimation of vegetation fraction in arid areas using ALOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hosseiniasl, A.; Ebrahimi, M.


    Fraction of vegetation (Fv) plays an important role in ecosystems. Estimation of Fv is essential for drought monitoring, natural resources studies, estimation of soil erosion volume etc. The aim of this study is to estimate Fv in an arid area in Iran using ALOS Imagery (June 2008). In order to find the best index for estimation of Fv, Seventeen vegetation indices (ARVI, DVI, EVI, GEMI, IPVI, MSAVI1, MSAVI2, NDVI, PVI, SAVI, SARVI, SARVI2, SR, TSAVI, WDVI) were used. The canopy cover percentage of 52 sample plots (50m by 50m) was measured in the field in June 2009. Regression models were used to assess the relationships between the field data and the calculated Fv. The 52 sample plots were randomly divided two times to 30 calibrations and 22 validations, and to 35 and 17 samples. Results revealed that selecting the calibration and validation data randomly leads to different results. Therefore, cross-validation method was used to reduce random division effect. Results indicated that, among all indices, vegetation indices such as MSAVI1, PVI, WDVI and TSAVI which are based on soil line have higher R2 and lower RMSE (R2 > 0.63, RMSE ~ 3%). The results confirm the dominant effect of soil reflectance in arid areas.

  6. Direct and indirect methods for correcting the aerosol effect on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier


    Aspects of aerosol studies and remote sensing are reviewed. Aerosol scatters solar radiation before it reaches the surface and scatters and absorbs it again after it is reflected from the surface and before it reaches the satellite sensor. The effect is spectrally and spatially dependent. Therefore atmospheric aerosol (dust, smoke and air pollution particles) has a significant effect on remote sensing. Correction for the aerosol effect was never achieved on an operational basis though several case studies were demonstrated. Correction can be done in a direct way by deriving the aerosol loading from the image itself and correcting for it using the appropriate radiative transfer model or by an indirect way, by defining remote sensing functions that are less dependent on the aerosol loading. To some degree this was already achieved in global remote sensing of vegetation where a composite of several days of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) measurements, choosing the maximal value, was used instead of a single cloud screened value. The Atmospheric Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) introduced recently for the NASA Earth Observing System EOS-MODIS is the most appropriate example of indirect correction, where the index is defined in such a way that the atmospheric effect in the blue spectral channel cancels to a large degree the atmospheric in the red channel in computations of a vegetation index. Atmospheric corrections can also use aerosol climatology and ground based instrumentation.

  7. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].


    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F


    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  8. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, L.


    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  9. Radiative transfer in shrub savanna sites in Niger: Preliminary results from HAPEX-Sahel. Part 3: Optical dynamics and vegetation index sensitivity to biomass and plant cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanLeeuwen, W. J. D.; Huete, A. R.; Duncan, J.; Franklin, J.


    A shrub savannah landscape in Niger was optically characterized utilizing blue, green, red and near-infrared wavelengths. Selected vegetation indices were evaluated for their performance and sensitivity to describe the complex Sahelian soil/vegetation canopies. Bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) of plants and soils were measured at several view angles, and used as input to various vegetation indices. Both soil and vegetation targets had strong anisotropic reflectance properties, rendering all vegetation index (6) responses to be a direct function of sun and view geometry. Soil background influences were shown to alter the response of most vegetation indices. N-space greenness had the smallest dynamic range in VI response, but the n-space brightness index provided additional useful information. The global environmental monitoring index (GEMI) showed a large 6 dynamic range for bare soils, which was undesirable for a vegetation index. The view angle response of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), atmosphere resistant vegetation index (ARVI) and soil atmosphere resistant vegetation index (SARVI) were asymmetric about nadir for multiple view angles, and were, except for the SARVI, altered seriously by soil moisture and/or soil brightness effects. The soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) was least affected by surface soil moisture and was symmetric about nadir for grass vegetation covers. Overall the SAVI, SARVI and the n-space vegetation index performed best under all adverse conditions and were recommended to monitor vegetation growth in the sparsely vegetated Sahelian zone.

  10. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.


    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  11. Relations between Root-zone Soil Moisture and MODIS-derived Vegetation Indices in Oak savanna and Open Grassland in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Chadwick, O.; Roberts, D.


    Optical remote sensing cannot provide direct quantification of soil moisture, but here we test the idea that plant available soil moisture can be inferred through calibration of images that quantify plant-leaf water and photosynthetic relationships. We measured relationships between volumetric soil water content in the rooting zone of annual grasslands and oak savanna and six vegetation indices (VIs) derived from MODIS data (NDVI, EVI, ARVI, SAVI,VARI and NDWI). The measured sites were part of the AmeriFlux network in California: Tonzi Ranch (oak savanna)and Vaira Ranch(open grassland). To reduce the empirical effect of linking vegetation indices to soil moisture directly, measured gross primary production (GPP) was used to bridge them. The results showed that (1) VARI was most sensitive to soil moisture variations; (2) in open grassland GPP is significantly controlled by the available water in the soil but the relationship is not linear----- GPP continues to increase in the growing season as long as soil moisture is sufficient. In oak savanna, the relationship is less obvious because oak trees can exploit water in deep soil layers. The results also demonstrated a strong linear relationship between GPP and vegetation indices for both oak savanna and open grassland. Therefore, based on the relation between GPP and root-zone soil moisture and the relation between GPP and VI, we estimated soil moisture as a function of a VI. Likely, the functional parameters are dependent on vegetation types, soil texture and topography. In order to explore the sensitivity of this relationship in areas where soil moisture and vegetation production data are not available, we will use DayCENTURY and ISOLSM models to simulate soil moisture and primary production at instrumented sites with meteorological data and soil properties data. The simulation tested in Tonzi Ranch and Vaira Ranch suggest that we can estimate root-zone soil moisture with optical remotely sensed data at large scale.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Bandpasses for Producing Vegetation Indices from Recombined NEON Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.


    Hyperspectral imaging systems can be used to produce spectral reflectance curves giving rich information about composition, relative abundances of materials, mixes and combinations. However, as each spectral return from these systems is a vector with several hundred elements, they can be very difficult to process and analyze, and problemeatic to compare within, across, and between datasets over time and space. Vegetation indices (e.g. NDVI, ARVI, EVI, et al) attempt to combine spectral features in to single-value scores. When derived from calibrated and atmospherically compensated reflectance data, these indices can be quantitatively compared. Historically, these indices have been calculated from multispectral sensor data. These sensors have a handful (4 to 16 or so) of bandbasses ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm FWHM covering specific spectral regions for a variety of reasons, including both intended applications and system limitations. Hyperspectral sensors, however, cover the spectrum with many, many narrow (5 to 10 nm) bandpasses. This allows for analyses using the full, detailed spectral curve, or combination of the bands in to regions by averaging or in to composites using transforms or other techniques. This raises the question of exactly which bands should be used and combined in what manner for ideally deriving well-known vegetation indices typically made from multispectral data. In this study we use derivatives and other curve and signal analysis techniques to analyze vegetation reflectance spectra to quantitatively define optimal bandpasses for several vegetation indices and combine the 5 nm hypserspectral bandpasses of the NEON Imaging Spectrometer to synthesize them.

  13. Water quality and pollution status of Chambal river in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.


    Saksena, D N; Garg, R K; Rao, R J


    The physico-chemical characteristics of Chambal river water in National Chambal sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) have been studied. The stretch of Chambal river contained in the National Chambal sanctuary (located at 25 degrees 23'-26 degrees 52'N, 76 degrees 28'-79 degrees 15'E) is extending up to 600 km downstream from Kota (Rajasthan) to the confluence of the Chambal with Yamuna river (Etawah). The river flow in Madhya Pradesh spans up to approximately 400 km. Three sampling stations viz., Station A--near Palighat, district Sheopurkalan, Station B--near Rajghat, district Morena and Station C--near Baraighat, district Bhind were established for the collection of water samples during April, 2003 to March, 2004. The water quality parameters namely transparency (12.12-110 cm), colour (transparent-very turbid), turbidity (1-178 TNU), electrical conductivity (145.60-884 microS cm(-1)), total dissolved solids (260-500 mgl(-1)), pH (7.60-9.33), dissolved oxygen (4.86-14.59 mgl(-1)), free carbon dioxide (0-16.5 mgl(-1)), total alkalinity (70-290 mgl(-1)), total hardness (42-140 mgl(-1)), chloride (15.62-80.94 mgl(-1)), nitrate (0.008-0.025 mgl(-1)), nitrite (0.002-0.022 mgl(-1)), sulphate (3.50-45 mgl(-1)), phosphate (0.004-0.050 mgl(-1)), silicate (2.80-13.80 mgl(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand (0.60-5.67 mgl(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (2.40-26.80 mgl(-1)), ammonia (nil-0.56 mgl(-1)), sodium (14.30-54.40 mgl(-1)) and potassium (2.10 mgl(-1)-6.30 mgl(-1)) reflects on the pristine nature of the river in National Chambal sanctuary. On the basis of various parameters studied, Chambal river in this stretch can be placed under the category of oligosaprobic. The water quality analysis, indicated that the riverwater in the sanctuary area is pollution free and can serve as a good habitat for many aquatic animals including endangered species. PMID:19295068

  14. The red edge in arid region vegetation: 340-1060 nm spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Murray, Bruce C.; Chehbouni, A.; Njoku, Eni


    The remote sensing study of vegetated regions of the world has typically been focused on the use of broad-band vegetation indices such as NDVI. Various modifications of these indices have been developed in attempts to minimize the effect of soil background, e.g., SAVI, or to reduce the effect of the atmosphere, e.g., ARVI. Most of these indices depend on the so-called 'red edge,' the sharp transition between the strong absorption of chlorophyll pigment in visible wavelengths and the strong scattering in the near-infrared from the cellular structure of leaves. These broadband indices tend to become highly inaccurate as the green canopy cover becomes sparse. The advent of high spectral resolution remote sensing instrument such as the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has allowed the detection of narrow spectral features in vegetation and there are reports of detection of the red edge even for pixels with very low levels of green vegetation cover by Vane et al. and Elvidge et al., and to characterize algal biomass in coastal areas. Spectral mixing approaches similar to those of Smith et al. can be extended into the high spectral resolution domain allowing for the analysis of more endmembers, and potentially, discrimination between material with narrow spectral differences. Vegetation in arid regions tends to be sparse, often with small leaves such as the creosote bush. Many types of arid region vegetation spend much of the year with their leaves in a senescent state, i.e., yellow, with lowered chlorophyll pigmentation. The sparseness of the leaves of many arid region plants has the dual effect of lowering the green leaf area which can be observed and of allowing more of the sub-shrub soil to be visible which further complicates the spectrum of a region covered with arid region vegetation. Elvidge examined the spectral characteristics of dry plant materials showing significant differences in the region of the red edge and the diagnostic ligno

  15. Predicting chlorophyll content of greenhouse tomato with ground-based remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yong-jun; Li, Min-zan; Li, Shu-qiang; An, Deng-kui


    NIR spectroscopy can be used in analysis of plant chlorophyll content on a large scale area. This offers the opportunity to use spectral reflectance as a non-destructive method for analyzing photosynthetic pigment status in plant. This research studied the variation of the chlorophyll content and spectral response at different growth stages of greenhouse tomato. Leaf spectral measurements from each treatment (4 N-levels: 0%, 33.3%, 66.6%, 100%) were taken in the greenhouse using an ASD FieldSpec HH spectrophotometer. Chlorophyll content of tomato leaves were measured by alcoholic-acetone extraction in lab. It was found that chlorophyll content of tomato leaf was increasing continuously to the maximum 50 days after the transplantation, while red edge moved to the NIR bands (long wave), and green peak position moved to the Blue bands (short wave) and green peak amplitude decreased. The chlorophyll content would decrease after fruiting stage, while red edge, green peak position and amplitude moved to the opposite direction. Regarding quantitative analysis the relationship between chlorophyll content and spectral response, red edge parameters (Sred(area of red edge), Dred (amplitude of red edge) and Pred (position of red edge ) ) in the first derivative of reflectance curve were obtained at bands of 680-760 nm. Similarly, blue edge, green peak and red valley parameters were defined to reflect spectral character. Vegetation indices were used extensively to estimate the vegetation growth status. Thus, the following wavelengths were used for developing RVI, NDVI and ARVI indices: λ440nm, λ500nm, λ550nm, λ680nm, λ770nm, Pblue (position of blue edge), Pyellow (position of yellow edge), Pred (position of red edge), Pgreenpeak (position of green peak), Predvalley (position of red valley). Seven optimal spectral parameters were chosen with the method of Karhunen-Loeve from the above-mentioned 68 self-defined property parameters. Stepwise multiple regression (SMLR

  16. Phylogenomic Study of Burkholderia glathei-like Organisms, Proposal of 13 Novel Burkholderia Species and Emended Descriptions of Burkholderia sordidicola, Burkholderia zhejiangensis, and Burkholderia grimmiae

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Charlotte; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Verheyde, Bart; De Brandt, Evie; Cooper, Vaughn S.; Vandamme, Peter


    Partial gyrB gene sequence analysis of 17 isolates from human and environmental sources revealed 13 clusters of strains and identified them as Burkholderia glathei clade (BGC) bacteria. The taxonomic status of these clusters was examined by whole-genome sequence analysis, determination of the G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid analysis and biochemical characterization. The whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny was assessed using the Genome Blast Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) method and an extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach. The results demonstrated that these 17 BGC isolates represented 13 novel Burkholderia species that could be distinguished by both genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. BGC strains exhibited a broad metabolic versatility and developed beneficial, symbiotic, and pathogenic interactions with different hosts. Our data also confirmed that there is no phylogenetic subdivision in the genus Burkholderia that distinguishes beneficial from pathogenic strains. We therefore propose to formally classify the 13 novel BGC Burkholderia species as Burkholderia arvi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29317T = CCUG 68412T), Burkholderia hypogeia sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29322T = CCUG 68407T), Burkholderia ptereochthonis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29326T = CCUG 68403T), Burkholderia glebae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29325T = CCUG 68404T), Burkholderia pedi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29323T = CCUG 68406T), Burkholderia arationis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29324T = CCUG 68405T), Burkholderia fortuita sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29320T = CCUG 68409T), Burkholderia temeraria sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29319T = CCUG 68410T), Burkholderia calidae sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29321T = CCUG 68408T), Burkholderia concitans sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29315T = CCUG 68414T), Burkholderia turbans sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29316T = CCUG 68413T), Burkholderia catudaia sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29318T = CCUG 68411T) and Burkholderia peredens sp. nov. (type strain LMG 29314T = CCUG

  17. Interplay of critical Casimir and dispersion forces.


    Dantchev, Daniel; Schlesener, Frank; Dietrich, S


    Using general scaling arguments combined with mean-field theory we investigate the critical (T approximately Tc) and off-critical (T not equal Tc) behavior of the Casimir forces in fluid films of thickness L governed by dispersion forces and exposed to long-ranged substrate potentials which are taken to be equal on both sides of the film. We study the resulting effective force acting on the confining substrates as a function of T and of the chemical potential mu. We find that the total force is attractive both below and above Tc. If, however, the direct substrate-substrate contribution is subtracted, the force is repulsive everywhere except near the bulk critical point (Tc, mu(c)), where critical density fluctuations arise, or except at low temperatures and (L/a)(beta(Delta)(mu))=O(1), with Delta(mu)=mu-mu(c)<0 and a the characteristic distance between the molecules of the fluid, i.e., in the capillary condensation regime. While near the critical point the maximal amplitude of the attractive force if of order of L(-d) in the capillary condensation regime the force is much stronger with maximal amplitude decaying as L(-1). In the latter regime we observe that the long-ranged tails of the fluid-fluid and the substrate-fluid interactions further increase that amplitude in comparison with systems with short-range interactions only. Although in the critical region the system under consideration asymptotically belongs to the Ising universality class with short-ranged forces, we find deviations from the standard finite-size scaling for xi(ln)(xi/xi0(+/-)) >L even for xi, L>xi0(+/-), where xi[t=(T-Tc)/Tc-->+/-0,Delta(mu)=0]=xi0(+/-)/t/-nu, is the bulk correlation length. In this regime the dominant finite-size contributions to the free energy and to the force stem from the long-ranged algebraically decaying tails of the interactions; they are not exponentially small in L, as it is the case there in systems governed by purely short-ranged interactions, but exhibit a power

  18. Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), Part I: Indo-Malayan and Palearctic fauna

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.; Austin, Andrew D.


    Abstract The Indo-Malayan and Palearctic species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 90 species are recognized as valid, 19 of which are redescribed - Oxyscelio acutiventris (Kieffer), Oxyscelio brevinervis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio carinatus (Kieffer), Oxyscelio ceylonensis (Dodd), Oxyscelio consobrinus (Kieffer), Oxyscelio crassicornis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio cupularis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio dorsalis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio excavatus (Kieffer), Oxyscelio flavipennis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio florus Kononova, Oxyscelio foveatus Kieffer, Oxyscelio kiefferi Dodd, Oxyscelio magnus (Kieffer), Oxyscelio marginalis (Kieffer), Oxyscelio naraws Kozlov & Lê, Oxyscelio perpensus Kononova, Oxyscelio rugosus (Kieffer) and Oxyscelio spinosiceps (Kieffer), and 71 which are described as new - Oxyscelio aclavae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio amrichae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio anguli Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio angustifrons Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio angustinubbin Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio arcus Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio arvi Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio asperi Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio aureamediocritas Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio bipunctuum Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio brevidentis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio caesitas Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio capilli Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio capitis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio cavinetrion Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio chimaerae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio codae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio convergens Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio cordis Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio crateris Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio crebritas Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio crustum Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio cuculli Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio cyrtomesos Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio dasymesos Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio dasynoton Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio dermatoglyphes Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio doumao Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio fistulae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio flabellae Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio flaviventris Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio fodiens Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio fossarum Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio fossularum Burks, sp. n., Oxyscelio