For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.
Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B
Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality.
Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.
Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality. PMID:26713007
Retief, F P; Wessels, A
The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis.
Rohrbach, J M
Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.
Coenen, Anton; Fine, Edward; Zayachkivska, Oksana
Adolf Beck, born in 1863 at Cracow (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1880 to work directly under the supervision of the prominent physiology professor, Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started experimental studies on the electrical brain activity of animals, especially in response to sensory stimulation. Beck placed electrodes directly on the surface of brain to localize brain potentials that were evoked by sensory stimuli. He observed spontaneous fluctuations in the electrical brain activity and noted that these oscillations ceased after sensory stimulation. He published these findings concerning the electrical brain activity, such as spontaneous fluctuations, evoked potentials, and desynchronization of brain waves, in 1890 in the German language Centralblatt für Physiologie. Moreover, an intense polemic arose between physiologists of that era on the question of who should claim being the founder of electroencephalography. Ultimately, Richard Caton from Liverpool showed that he had performed similar experiments in monkeys years earlier. Nevertheless, Beck added new elements to the nature of electrical brain activity. In retrospect, next to Richard Caton, Adolf Beck can be regarded, together with Hans Berger who later introduced the method to humans, as one of the founders of electroencephalography. Soon after his success, Beck got a chair at the Department of Physiology of the University at Lemberg, now Lviv National Medical University.
Adolf Hitler had Parkinson symptoms in 1934, at age 45 years. He may have had transient symptoms in 1923, at age 34 years. Young-onset parkinsonism, during the 1920s, favored a diagnosis of post-encephalitic rather than idiopathic parkinsonism. Hitler had oculogyric crises, phenomena only associated with post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In addition, he had dystonic facial spasms, palilalia and a sleep disorder, phenomena more likely to be associated with post-encephalitic than idiopathic parkinsonism. In November 1918, at age 29 years, Hitler may have had von Economo's encephalitis, while he was a patient in a hospital, recovering from poison gas. This paper looks at the possible relationship of von Economo's encephalitis to Hitler's asocial behavior; his obsessions and compulsions, his cruelty and rages. The influence of Hitler's parkinsonism on his conduct during World War II is discussed.
Lees, Andrew J; Tolosa, Eduardo; Olanow, C Warren
Four individuals stand out as pioneers of the early work that led to levodopa becoming a revolutionary new treatment for Parkinson's disease: Arvid Carlsson, Oleh Hornykiewicz, George C. Cotzias, and Melvin D. Yahr. All four were MDs. The first three had extra training in pharmacology, and in fact did their research in pharmacology. The fourth was a clinical neurologist, the only one in this group with those credentials. The story starts with Carlsson, who became interested in studying the mechanism of reserpine's sedative effect, now recognized as a drug-induced parkinsonian state. A key experiment in 1957 showed that levodopa (l-dopa) could alleviate the immobility induced by reserpine in animals. Carlsson then showed that reserpine depleted brain dopamine, and that l-dopa restored it. Carlsson developed a sensitive fluorescent technique to measure dopamine levels, and his laboratory also showed the distribution of dopamine in animal brain to be highest in the striatum. Within a year, Carlsson postulated that dopamine appears to play a role in motor function. His proposal that dopamine serves as a neurotransmitter in brain was met with much skepticism, but he persisted and continued to study brain dopamine, eventually leading to being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2000. Hornykiewicz also went into pharmacology research after graduating from medical school. Fortuitously, his assigned first project was on the blood pressure effects of dopamine, recognized as a precursor of norepinephrine. When he completed his postdoctoral studies, Carlsson's work on the reserpinized animal and on the regional distribution of brain dopamine was published. This inspired Hornykiewicz to determine dopamine levels in patients with Parkinson's disease. He obtained postmortem material, and his 1960 paper showed a marked depletion of dopamine in the striatum in this disorder. He went on in subsequent papers to correlate severity of parkinsonian features with the amount of
Matteson, Eric L
Adolf Kussmaul is well known for his contributions to the science of medicine and the specialty of rheumatology. A much-loved teacher and respected physician and researcher, Kussmaul's desire to understand disease, his careful clinical observations, and his innovative thinking in medical technology mark him as a pioneer in modern rheumatology.
Marchetti, Daniela; Boschi, Ilaria; Polacco, Matteo; Rainio, Juha
The death of Adolf Hitler is one of the unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. Numerous historians and journalists have attempted to piece together the details, but despite the interest in the forensic literature regarding the identification of the body, there has not been much scientific debate about the alleged cause of death--cyanide poisoning, gunshot injury, or both. The available literature concerning Hitler's cause of death is incomplete because the toxicological analysis has not been performed and because the skull bone fragment with a gunshot wound possibly from Hitler's corpse has not been properly examined. This has given basis for various theories, which are reviewed. We believe that mtDNA analysis of the skull fragments and of Hitler's jaw, now filed in Moscow, and samples from maternal relatives of Hitler are crucial linking the skull fragment with the gunshot wound to Hitler.
Ferrell, D R
Fifty years after his death by suicide, Adolf Hitler continues to arouse profound feelings of revulsion and attraction. This paper is an exploration of Hitler's psyche from the perspective of a depth psychology. After examining analyses of Hilter's personality by Richard Rubenstein and Alice Miller, the argument is made that we need C.G. Jung's concept of psychic inflation to understand more fully Hitler's impact upon the world. Hitler is seen as inflated by the compensating energies of the Self in response to his deeply wounded ego, a wound he could not mourn. Consequently, he became identified with the dark and destructive energies of the Self which inflated and then usurped his ego. Hitler's demonic and destructive career resulted from that inflation, which he was not able to neutralize. The paper concludes with reflections on the role of mourning in protecting us from the experience of psychic inflation, especially by the Self in its dark and destructive aspects.
Peters, U H
German psychiatrists do not have an easy access to Adolf Meyer. The reasons include: his influence on American psychiatry was mainly exercised by his personal influence; he did not have the gift of writing his important and influential ideas in a clear language; these ideas, furthermore, were scattered over great number of papers in a variety of periodicals; there is only one unsatisfactory (from the point of view of edition) collection of Meyers papers; no textbook of Meyerian psychiatry exists. There seems to be no German translation of any of Meyers papers. Meyer, who was always in close contact with German psychiatry and psychiatrists, transmitted their ideas to the American scientific public, although in a critical vein. His own psycho-biological or genetico-psychodynamic theory pointed to the importance of the biological and personality structure and its reactions, of how the patient reacts to which live events and which illness in his or her body contrasts to Kraepelins concept of self-sufficiency of the endogenous psychoses. Whereas DSM I und II had been moulded in Meyers spirit, DSM III led far away from it.
Rieppel, Olivier; Williams, David M; Ebach, Malte C
During the early twentieth century, the Swiss Zoologist Adolf Naef (1883-1949) established himself as a leader in German comparative anatomy and higher level systematics. He is generally labeled an 'idealistic morphologist', although he himself called his research program 'systematic morphology'. The idealistic morphology that flourished in German biology during the first half of the twentieth century was a rather heterogeneous movement, within which Adolf Naef worked out a special theoretical system of his own. Following a biographical sketch, we present an English translation of a previously unpublished typescript from Naef's estate, which Naef intended as the introduction to a textbook on Comparative Anatomy for which he was unable to find a publisher before his sudden death in 1949. The typescript contains Naef's mature thoughts with unprecedented conciseness, focus, and clarity. The density of Naef's text warrants a historical and contextual explication of its content.
Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.
Coenen, Anton; Zayachkivska, Oksana
Adolf Beck, born in 1863 in Kraków (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1889, to work directly under the prominent professor in physiology Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started studies on the electrical brain activity of animals. He recorded negative electrical potentials in several brain areas evoked by peripheral sensory impulses. Using this technique, Beck localised various centres in the brain of several animal species. In doing this, he discovered continuous electrical oscillations in the electrical brain activity and noted that these oscillations ceased after sensory stimulation. This was the first description of desynchronization in electrical brain potentials. He published these findings in 1890 in the German Centralblatt für Physiologie. Immediately, an intense discussion arose under physiologists on the question who could claim being the founder of electroencephalography. Ultimately, Richard Caton from Liverpool showed that he had performed similar experiments in monkeys years earlier. Nevertheless, Beck added several new elements to the nature of electrical brain activity, such as evoked potentials and desynchronization. In looking back, Adolf Beck can be regarded, next to Richard Caton and together with Hans Berger (who later introduced the electrical brain recording method to humans), as one of the founders of electroencephalography. PMID:24605179
Guerrero, A L
Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.
Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E
It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities.
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology - his biological theory of mind and mental disorders - and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical-pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body - observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory - he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of 'social adaptation'. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer's conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry.
This paper looks at the work of two figures who, while marginal to theoretical developments within the history of psychoanalysis, each briefly played an important role in the dissemination of analytical ideas in China, contributing to an early psychoanalytic culture there. Bingham Dai, a native of China, while studying for a PhD in sociology at Chicago, received instruction from Harry Stack Sullivan and a psychoanalytic training under Karen Horney's supervision. However, the neo-Freudian outlook with which this experience imbued him had its roots in an earlier encounter with his experiments in personality education first conducted on students in a Tientsin high school, and later in Shantung under the direction of the conservative Confucian scholar and reformer, Liang Shu Ming. These experiences convinced him that a less orthodox psychoanalytic perspective was what Chinese patients with psychological problems required. He returned in 1935 to teach medical psychology to doctors at Peking Union Medical College, taking a few into analysis and treating some patients. However, the Sino-Japanese war brought these activities to a close and he left in 1939, just a few months after the former Freud publisher and Viennese émigré, Adolf Storfer, arrived. Storfer set about publishing "Gelbe Post," a German language periodical replete with articles on psychoanalysis, linguistics and Chinese culture. But limited finances, severe competition from a rival publisher, plus his own ill health, forced him to abandon this in spite of the support offered him through the many contributors in the international psychoanalytic community whose articles he published. The paper concludes by considering the relative historiographic fate of the men upon whom subsequent scholarship has been very unevenly focused.
Zayachkivska, Oksana; Gzhegotsky, Mechyslav; Coenen, Anton
Adolf Beck (1863-1942) can be regarded as the co-founder of electroencephalography. His studies on the cerebral cortex of animals have facilitated the introduction of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as a main tool for studying the brain. The localization of senses on the cortex with evoked potentials and the description of the desynchronization of the electrical brain activity upon stimulation, are hallmarks of the research of Beck. He performed his groundbreaking studies under supervision of the famous Napoleon Cybulski at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow (Poland) between 1888 and 1895. In that last year Beck was appointed professor at the University of Lemberg (Lviv), where he founded the Department of Physiology and recruited scientists to the Lviv School of Physiology. Beck was the leading authority of the University of Lemberg in the most turbulent period of the town's history. Together with Cybulski he wrote the influential textbook 'Human physiology' in 1915.
The 1939 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry and later President of the Max Planck Society Adolf Butenandt has been increasingly exposed to criticism in recent years. One far-reaching accusation against him is his postulated participation in the human experiments executed by the SS-physician Josef Mengele in the Auschwitz concentration camp. It concerns a project initiated by anthropologist Otmar von Verschuer in 1943. For this, Verschu-ER Obtained blood samples from his assistant Mengele in the Auschwitz concentration camp. When methodological problems occurred in the project Butenandt helped Verschuer. According to the reconstruction of geneticist Benno Müller-Hill the research project included lethal human experiments: Mengele had selectively infected concentration camp detainees with tuberculosis to observe their racially conditioned resistibility against that disease, he claims. This reconstruction, however, contradicts other sources. Therefore an alternative reconstruction is offered here. According to that, the project represented a large-scale attempt of serological race diagnosis in man. Human experiments are not plausible for this project. Yet it is clearly connected to race biological research and implementation.
Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other ‘new’ progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology – his biological theory of mind and mental disorders – and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical–pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body – observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory – he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of ‘social adaptation’. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer’s conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry. PMID:26090738
Historians recognize Adolf Meyer (1866-1950), first psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins Hospital, as one of the principal architects of clinical psychiatry in the United States. This wholesale influence on the fledgling discipline had much to do with the authority he wielded as a Hopkins chief, but an important question remains: why was Meyer the obvious candidate to establish a department of psychiatry at the nation's foremost institution for medical research and teaching? Taking examples from Meyer's employment in three large American asylums before his appointment to Johns Hopkins in 1908, this article explores how he transformed an improvised set of practices into a clinical system for psychiatry that he implemented on a widespread scale, something that garnered him a reputation as a modernizer of outdated asylums and pegged him, in the minds of Hopkins authorities, as a psychiatric exemplar of commitment to pathological research and clinical teaching.
In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.
Leigh, F W
Krebs was born in Hildesheim (North Germany) and graduated (MD) from the University of Munich in 1923. He was assistant to Otto Warburg (1926-30) who taught tissue slicing and manometry which Krebs used to complete his three great works: The Detoxification of Ammonia (Freiburg im Breisgau 1933), The Degradation of Foods to provide Energy for Life (Sheffield 1937) and Gluconeogenesis (Oxford 1963). He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in 1947, Nobel Laureate in 1953 and KBE in 1958.
Petroianu, G A
The history of the synthesis of organophosphate inhibitors of cholinesterase starting with the synthesis of tetraethyl-pyrophosphate by Moschnin(e) and de Clermont and leading to the recognition about half a century later of the toxicity of the phosphor ester by Lange and von Krueger has been told in great detail previously. An almost parallel history -described originally by Bo Holmstedt--exists for organophosphonate inhibitors of cholinesterase starting with the synthesis (1898) in Rostock of diethylamido-ethoxy-phosphoryl-cyanide by the pharmacist Adolph Schall (1870-1957), a graduate student of August Michaelis (1847-1916), the re-examination of the chemical structure of the Schall compound (1903) by Michaelis, recognition (1937) of the toxicity of class by Gerhard Schrader (1903-1990) and confirmation (1951) of the structure by Bo Holmstedt (1919-2002). This short report attempts to shed some light on the life of the pharmacists and chemists involved in the synthesis of the first P-CN organophosphonate inhibitor of cholinesterase, focusing on the two less known pharmacists, the graduate students of Professor Michaelis Adolph Schall and Ernst Ratzlaff (1870-1948).
Logan, Cheryl A
The breeding of albino rats had an enormous impact on experimental psychology in the twentieth century. Rats were, and for many questions still remain, the "standard animal" for laboratory research in neurology, psychology, and physiology. Albert Meyer was one of the figures most responsible for developing the albino rat as an experimental model. Despite Meyer's pioneering work with albino rats, his rat research has received only sparse attention. Little is known about the way in which the animal served Meyer's more famous psychiatric program. In this article, the author discusses the role that albino rats played in Meyer's animal research. He then turn to the contrast between the way in which Meyer viewed the animal's role in research and the way rats were later used as a laboratory "standard" to assure scientific generality. This comparison highlights the changes that occurred in comparative psychology in the twentieth century, and it further clarifies some of the concerns associated with the use of animal models today.
Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil.
Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira
Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the "Caatinga" biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μ g/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.
Emrich, H M; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U
The different aspects of the neurobiology of psychotic disorders are presently discussed under the perspective of Arvid Calssons neurochemical theory of mesolimbic/cortico-thalamic loops. In this regard the question as to whether--neuropsychologically--a "filter-defect" or a disturbance of "internal censorship" is causative for psychoses. This topic is discussed in the present paper.
Gilroy, Thomas P., Ed.
This report is comprised of a series of articles that discuss two areas of dispute settlement -- negotiation impasses and representation and unit determination problems. Arvid Anderson concentrates on the growing utilization of compulsory binding arbitration and reviews its present use. Harold Davey discusses the principles of effective conflict…
Alfred T. Mahan and came to fruition with a fierce U-boat campaign by Adolf Hitler during World War Il. By and large, however, the United States has...with a fierce U-boat campaign by Adolf Hitler during World War II. By and large, however, the United States has ignored the tgion until just recently
Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark
The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.
9. Photocopy of measured drawing (from a copy of the original; copy in accompanying field records, location of original unknown) Adolf Scherrer, architect ca. 1906 'CROSS SECTION' - Maennerchor Building, 102 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN
Weisz, George M
The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.
when Adolf Hitler realized that Yugo- slavia’s weak cohesion as a state would not allow him to keep it in the Tripartite Pact and to protect his...situation worsened Sigfried Uiberreither, Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler , and Otto Dietrich in Maribor, April 26, 1941 (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) 132 Recall...tunity to exploit the Balkan situation to their advantage by convincing Hitler that the Allied push into Europe might come via the central
from discussions with many co-workers and colleagues, including Adolf Lohmann, Stanley Deans, John Walkup, H. Harold Szu, Arthur Gmitro, Gene Gindi...TeAPP oED OPTICS 3823 spoistmedorechteceterfthscrenwente frm s urey ralandthecosne ranfor istheL’..; zero-frquency utput f the Furier ransfor...1983). The authors would like to thank Stanley R. Deans, 21. N. H. Farhat, C. Y. Ho, and L. Szu Chang, "Projection Theorems H. Harold Szu, and Adolf W
Z-time (the Greenwich Mean Time) in NATO. The second explanation is the use of the German terminology for ranks and unit names and other military...SS Sonderkommando Zossen (special commando) and SS Sonderkommando Jüterbog into the Adolf-Hitler- Standarte (Adolf Hitler guards). Hitler, himself...members, including Dietrich, were promoted for “distinguished service” (1991, 13). Butler points out that in 1934 the unit was renamed SS Standarte
Switzerland, April 5 University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell’Uomo, invited lecture: "Circadian Organization in the...rhythmicity from about 24 hours in vild-type animals to near 20 hours in homotygous mutants, affects the SCM itself and how it affects MW the locomotor... animals to near 20 hours in homozygous mutants, affects the SCN itself and how it affects the locomotor behavior which is driven by the SCN
International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Special Libraries Division: Geographical and Map, Science and Technology and Social Science Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).
Sprudzs, Adolf; And Others
This set of eight papers includes papers presented by participants from the United States, France, East Germany, the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the USSR: "Problems with Sources of Information in International Law and Relations: The Case of the World-Wide Treaty Jungle," by Adolf Sprudzs; "French Map Libraries and National and…
Larsen, Kristin M.
In this article, the author explores the richly layered double text of Kushner and Sendak's picturebook, "Brundibar" (2003)--the historical context of "Brundibar" as a Holocaust-era children's operetta by Hans Krasa and Adolf Hoffmeister, and the present day manifestation of "Brundibar" as a children's picturebook. In…
command of German forces that would become the Afrika Korps (Deutsches Afrikakorps). Adolf Hitler personally selected him based of his abilities shown......course of the campaign for the two to become personally acquainted. The high regard and trust that Hitler developed for Rommel would be more valuable
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles * Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia, by Doris Kimbrough, p 48. * The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales, by Gavin Peckham, p 49. * Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance, by Adolf Cortel, p 61. * Toward More Performance Evaluation in Chemistry, by Sharon Rasp, p 64. A Wealth of Useful Information
McRoy, James J.
A content analysis of essays written by students from Great Britain and the United States on the topic "What I have heard about Adolf Hitler" showed that today's youth have only a very superficial knowledge about the events surrounding Hitler and Nazism. (RM)
Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)
Fritz, Stephen G.
Examines the influence of Karl Marx's writings on Adolf Hitler, and asks whether there was a causal nexus between Russian and Nazi atrocities. Uses primary sources as a method for historical comparison. Compares Hitler's writings on antisemitism with those of Marx. (NL)
Gross, Richard E.
Both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. This 50th anniversary issue contains articles analyzing the two men, and the different political, social, moral, and artistic directions taken by the United States and Germany in the 1930's. American youth have much to learn from what occurred. (CS)
McRoy, James J.
The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers…
Aghajanian, Ani Derderian
Adolf Hitler, on August 22, 1939 stated, "I have given orders to my Death Units to exterminate without mercy or pity men, women, and children belonging to the Polish-speaking race. It is only in this manner that we can acquire the vital territory which we need. After all, who remembers today the extermination of the Armenians?"…
Weisz, George M.
The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923
Johns, Robert W.
Focusing upon Franklin D. Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler, these lessons for high school students in U.S. or world history courses deal with what charismatic leadership is, what circumstances and personality factors generate charismatic movements, and the role, results, and dangers of charismatic leadership. (RM)
Aldridge, Ron; Townsend, Kenneth
This curriculum outline, designed for use in U.S. history, world history, or English courses, presents information about Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust. Part 1 provides a rationale for teaching about this subject, while part 2 presents an outline of historical information from 1887 to 1934 concerning Hitler's life and the rise of the Nazi Party.…
Describes structured discovery approach to inquiry teaching which encourages the teacher to select instructional objectives, content, and questions to be answered. The focus is on individual and group activities. A brief outline using this approach to analyze Adolf Hitler is presented. (KC)
Describes a historical empathy lesson that requires high school students to understand, explain, and evaluate why Neville Chamberlain followed the policy of appeasement in his negotiations with Adolf Hitler. Defines historical empathy and includes an appendix with list of key events, student investigation sheet, and resource materials. (CMK)
Hainsworth, Brad E.
Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)
LeWitt, Peter A; Fahn, Stanley
Although levodopa is widely recognized as the most effective therapy for Parkinson disease (PD), its introduction 5 decades ago was preceded by several years of uncertainty and equivocal clinical results. The translation of basic neuroscience research by Arvid Carlsson and Oleh Hornykiewicz provided a logical pathway for treating PD with levodopa. Yet the pioneering clinicians who transformed PD therapeutics with this drug--among them Walther Birkmayer, Isamu Sano, Patrick McGeer, George Cotzias, Melvin Yahr, and others--faced many challenges in determining whether the concept and the method for replenishing deficient striatal dopamine was correct. This article reviews highlights in the early development of levodopa therapy. In addition, it provides an overview of emerging drug delivery strategies that show promise for improving levodopa's pharmacologic limitations.
39 Otto Kumm, Prinz Eugen: The History of the 7. SS-Mountain Division ( Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz... Division . Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, 1995. Kunzmann, Adolf, and Siegfried Milius. Fallschirmjäger der Waffen-SS im Bild. Osnabruck: Munin...seize abandoned Italian supply dumps on the Adriatic coast and were able to equip themselves with more than 10 divisions worth of equipment.5 One of
Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Silva, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha E
This article deals with a little known episode that occurred near the end of the Great War in a military reserve hospital located in the small town of Pasewalk, part of the distant region of Pomerania in northern Poland. The story is centered around the transient visual loss of a 29-year-old Austrian messenger of the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment. His name: Adolf Hitler.
military forces.35 Nowhere was civil aviation more important than Nazi Germany at the outset of WWII. Denied a military air force by the Treaty of...school to develop equipment and training methods.205 In June 1938 Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany directed General Kurt Student to establish...place by the Treaty of Versailles at the conclusion of WWI. In addition, the Nazi leadership was for the most part extremely knowledgeable about the
was replaced as Commander of the French Army by Moreau , who enjoyed a distinguished combat reputation and considerable respect in the Army...too little glory in beating a charlatan; the laurels which we shall steal from Moreau will have brighter blossoms and greener leaves." Moreau’s troops...Emphasizing the importance of studying the history of wars, Na- poleon said: "Read and reread the campaigns of Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustav Adolf
an English spelling of Hitler’s first name instead of the German spelling “Adolf.” ENIGMA The Allies enjoyed great success in the realm of signals...intelligence, arguably much more than in other kinds of intelligence operations. The German armed forces used Enigma cipher machines to create what...they thought were unbreakable messages. The Enigma could offer 150,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible solutions to an enciphered message. Yet Allied code
In 1973 Mr Richard Hughes, who was working on the third novel of his trilogy on the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler, came to see me regarding a document, some 300 pages long, on the medical treatment given by Dr Theodore Morell to Hitler. The document had been obtained at the Nuremberg war trials. My original report to Hughes on the content of this document is reproduced here.
Leadership is a concept that has been discussed since the beginning of history. Even though there have been many theories in the field accepting leadership's role in bringing order, chaotic aspects of leadership are generally neglected. This chapter aims to examine the leadership beyond an orderly interpretation of universe. For this purpose, Third Reich period and leadership during this period will be examined. Ian Kershaw's "Working Towards Führer" concept provides a unique understanding of leadership concept. It goes beyond the dualist depiction of Third Reich, it does not state Adolf Hitler as an all powerful dictator, or a weak one. Rather, he expresses that due to the conditions in the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler was both of this. This complex situation can be understood deeper when it is examined through the lens of chaos theory. This study contributes to the field by being the first in using chaos theory for examining "Working Towards Führer" concept and its development. Seemingly orderly nature of synchronization process and its vortex will be shown. Adolf Hitler's storm spot position in the chaotic system and its dynamics are explained. War's entropic power and its effect on the downfall of the system is crucial in understanding this unique chaotic system. The chaotic pattern of "Working Towards Führer" offers an opportunity to analyze the complexities of the leadership concept.
Willson, Lee Anne M.
On November 15, 1894, Arvid Högbom, geologist, presented a paper at a meeting of the Swedish Chemical Society (“Kemistsamfundet) in Uppsala. His title: “On the probability of secular changes in the atmosphere’s carbonic acid concentration”. The possibility that changes in the carbon dioxide concentration would produce changes in the surface temperature came up in the discussion after the talk. In the audience was Svante Arrhenius. In early 1896, at another meeting of Kemistsamfundet, Arrhenius followed up on this with a paper “The influence of the carbonic acid concentration on the temperature at the surface of the Earth”. Both papers were published in Svensk Kemisk Tidscrift - Vol. 6 and Vol. 7 - as part of the minutes of the corresponding meetings. Arrhenius continued to pursue the idea, presenting and writing about it outside of Sweden. Most histories credit Arrhenius’s work as the first on global warming, although some mention Högbom’s prior report. Högbom’s paper has never been translated from the Swedish, at least not so far as I have been able to discover. I will present a translation and review of Högbom’s elegant paper and Arrhenius's initial response.
Baumeister, Alan A
Two revolutionary drugs were introduced into psychiatry in the early 1950s for the treatment of agitated mental patients - reserpine and chlorpromazine. These drugs initiated the modern era of drug treatment for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Early research revealed that, although the pharmacological profiles of the two drugs overlapped considerably, they had different mechanisms of action. The mechanism of action of reserpine was determined first: it depletes monoamines from the brain and other tissues. By contrast, chlorpromazine has little or no effect on brain monoamine concentrations. The mystery created by two drugs that have similar pharmacological profiles but different mechanisms of action is the chlorpromazine enigma. For about eight years after the mechanism of action of reserpine was determined, researchers followed several false leads about the mechanism of action of chlorpromazine. Then, in 1963, Arvid Carlsson and Margit Lindqvist proposed that chlorpromazine (and haloperidol) work by blocking "monoaminergic" receptors. It was quickly determined that dopamine receptor blockade was the most important action. Although the idea of chemical communication between central neurons had yet to gain wide acceptance, this idea was central to resolving the chlorpromazine enigma.
Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham
The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861
The Department of Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University was founded by Prof. Dr František Hamza. Prof. Dr Adolf Žáček, who worked in the World Health Organization in Geneva in 1961-1963, uses his knowledge and experiences to remarkable increasing quality of education and research at this department. Present situation in health care system in the Czech Republic demonstrates that there are great challenges for education and research in the field of Social Medicine.
After World War II, Hermann Druckrey and Karl Küpfmüller spent many months in allied internment camps in Germany. In camp Hammelburg, the scholars formed a research collaboration which resulted in two very important publications. Druckrey informed Adolf Butenandt about the co-operation in personal letters which have recently become accessible. Through this new source, the origins of the Druckrey-Küpfmüller papers of 1948-1949 have been confirmed and some further details have been added.
Martindale, C; Hasenfus, N; Hines, D
It is hypothesized that Adolf Hitler suffered from a constitutional left-side weakness that allowed his cerebral hemisphere to exert a strong influence on his thought and behavior. Physical characteristics such as trembling of the left extremities, lack of a left testicle, and tendency to exhibit leftward eye movements are interpreted as supportive of the hypothesis. Right hemisphere dominance is consistent with a number of Hitler's personal traits such as praise of the irrational, automatic speech, auditory hallucinations, hypochondriasis, uncontrolled rages, and spatial and musical interests. Right hemisphere dominated thought may also have formed a basis for his two basic political policies: Lebensraum and anti-Semitism.
Some old antihistamines were selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the SSRI effect was discovered by Nobel Laureate Professor Arvid Carlsson as early as 1969. Chlorpheniramine was the most active of the tested drugs, and it compares favourably with amitriptyline and imipramine with respect to actions on both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Chlorpheniramine can be called a SSRI, since the blocking of 5HT is stronger than the effect on noradrenaline neurons; however it might also be called a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) and be compared with new drugs, such as venlafaxine. Carlsson suggested the potential value of clinical studies of the antidepressant properties of this and related antihistamine drugs. But, in the event, no such trials were ever performed at the time. However, later clinical observations of the benefits of dex-chlorpheniramine treatment in panic disorder have been published. Clinical experience suggests that patients using chlorpheniramine, and having also a concomitant depression or panic disorder, may experience a return of symptoms when their old drug is changed to a new antihistamine lacking SSRI effects. Yet this phenomenon is not known to many doctors, and even less known to the large number of patients buying chlorpheniramine under various trade names over-the-counter (OTC) at a low price for self-treatment of hay fewer or as a cold remedy. Chlorpheniramine was introduced in USA under the name Chlor-Trimeton as long ago as July 1950, and is still on the market. Therefore, this SSRI is now over 50 years old. If chlorpheniramine had been tested in depression in the nineteen seventies, it is probable that a safe, inexpensive SSRI drug could have been used some 15 years earlier than fluoxetine - which became available in 1987. Chlorpheniramine might have been the first safe, non-cardiotoxic and well-tolerated antidepressant. Billions of dollars in the development and marketing costs would
Kandel, Eric R
Eric R. Kandel shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard in 2000 for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Eric Kandel was rewarded for his discoveries of molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. He is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Senior Investigator at Columbia Universities Center for Neurobiology and Behavior. In this interview given at Hertie Foundation's Neuroforum 2008 on April 18, 2008 in Frankfurt, Germany, Nobel Prize Laureate Eric R. Kandel takes us on an enlighting journey ranging from memory, free will, the problem with Freud , to scientific challenges and the rise of European science. Starting with short- and long-term memory basics, underlying molecular mechanisms, and events affecting the formation of long-term memory, Eric Kandel then shares his thoughts on the issue of free will and makes a strong case for its existence. In addition to his outstanding scientific career, Eric Kandel developed an interest in business and today serves as scientific advisor at Memory Pharmaceuticals. Eric Kandel then talks about the use and abuse of drugs in children and the merging of scientific disciplines. In one of the most intriguing parts of the interview, Kandel shares his thoughts on Freud, Freud's mistakes, and the unique situation that the generations following Freud did not develop Freud's work further. The interview then turns to more scientific aspects and Eric Kandel talks about his confidence and courage during the initial phases of his scientific career, studying learning and memory, and employing a strictly reductionistic approach, best characterized by his simple model organism Aplysia. Eric Kandel then describes one of the most challenging phases in his scientific career when adult neurogenesis was discovered in the hippocampus, a structure so integral to Kandel's work. The final parts of the interview cover today's absence of epic battles and
Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter
The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.
Puckett, Dan J
The press in Alabama covered major events taking place in Germany from the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 through the Nuremberg Trials in 1946. Journalists in the state provided extensive coverage, and editors did not hesitate to opine on the persecution of the Jews in Europe. Yet, Alabama’s white-run press failed in the end to explain the events as a singularly Jewish tragedy. The state’s black-run press, for its part, used the news of the mass killings of the Jews to warn against the dangers of conceptions of racial superiority—a primary concern for black southerners living in the Jim Crow South.
This article researches in an interdisciplinary way the relationship of sound technology and political culture at the beginning of the twentieth century. It sketches the different strategies that politicians--Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill, and Dutch prime minister Hendrikus Colijn--found for the challenges that sound amplification and radio created for their rhetoric and presentation. Taking their different political styles into account, the article demonstrates that the interconnected technologies of sound amplification and radio forced a transition from a spellbinding style based on atmosphere and pathos in a virtual environment to "political crooning" that created artificial intimacy in despatialized simultaneity. Roosevelt and Colijn created the best examples of this political crooning, while Churchill and Hitler encountered problems in this respect. Churchill's radio successes profited from the special circumstances during the first period of World War II. Hitler's speeches were integrated into a radio regime trying to shape, with dictatorial powers, a national socialistic community of listeners.
In pre-war years, the main stream of Japanese psychiatry belonged to the German School, and many eminent psychiatrists studied in Germany. As far as I could confirm, eleven Japanese psychiatrists studied in the United States in pre-war years. The first one was Saburo Matsubara (1877-1936), who studied under Adolf Meyer during the years 1903-1908. Nine psychiatrists studied in the United States during the years of World War I or just after it. Five of them studied under Meyer, and four others at the Wistar Institute of Biology and Anatomy. The last one, Tsuneo Muramatsu (1900-1981), studied at Harvard University during the years 1933-1935. In pre-war years, the seeds sown by them opened into very small flowers. But in post-war years, the seeds bore good fruit in the form of the introduction of dynamic concepts into Japanese psychiatry.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem was the centre of scientific racism in Nazi Germany. Its bad history culminated in a research project to analyse the molecular basis of racial differences in the susceptibility to various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Josef Mengele, a former postdoc of the director of the institute, Otmar von Verschuer, collected blood samples and other material in Auschwitz from families and twins of Jews and Gypsies. The blood samples were analysed by Günther Hillmann in the Berlin laboratory of Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt. Butenandt had just moved to Tübingen. The project was paid for by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Butenandt, Hillmann and von Verschuer made scientific careers in the Federal Republic. To the present day this past has not been acknowledged by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as part of its history.
The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.
The uranium ore chemical processing plant in Jáchymov (St. Joachimstal) started the industrial production of uranium yellow (sodium diuranate) in 1853. This technology was developed by a talented metallurgical chemist Adolf Patera. The insoluble residue from uranium leaching was enriched by radium226Ra. During more than forty years before discovery of radioactivity, a worthless waste was accumulated in this uranium plant. This waste as radium preconcentrate was present in a suitable chemical form for the subsequent separation of radium. The occurence of this material significantly facilitated the separation and isolation of the first pure weighable amount of radium, necessary to prove the existence of a new chemical element, discovered in 1898 by M. and P. Curie and G. Bémont.
González De Posada, Francisco
From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.
Weber, M M
In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism.
The field of personality and culture was given a significant impetus during the 1930s with the establishment of the Advisory Committee on Personality and Culture (1930-1934) by the Social Science Research Council. This committee provided an early formulation of personality and culture that emphasized the interdisciplinary focus on the processes of personality formation within small-scale social settings. The committee's formulation also coupled personality and culture with a liberal social engineering approach geared toward cultural reconstruction. Major social scientists and clinicians were involved in the activities of the committee, including Edward Sapir, W. I. Thomas, E. W. Burgess, E. A. Bott, Robert S. Woodworth, Harry Stack Sullivan, C. M. Hincks, and Adolf Meyer.
The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.
Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H
In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response.
Klavora, Vlasta Meden
The article deals with the question of artistic creativity in psychotic patients, focussing particularly on why it occurs and how interest in it developed. One of the main motivations for carrying out this study was to explore the idea of the connection between genius and insanity, which was accepted by one of the most important pre-Freud psychiatrists of the 19th century, Cesare Lombroso. The article describes the history of the first exhibitions and collections of artistic creations of psychotic patients, of which the most important is the collection of Hans Prinzhorn. It also conveys the influence of Adolf Wölfli, psychotic patient, who was one of the most notable creators and influenced the concept of art brut at the beginning of the 20th century.
Wilhelm Schultze, Professor of Surgery of the Tokyo Medical Academy, wrote "Vortraege der Allgemeine Chirurgie" for the benefit of his students in about 1880. The author examined this book and concluded that it was based upon "Lehrbuch der Chirurgie und Operationslehre" by Prof. Adolf Bardeleben, his teacher at the Charité in Berlin. Schultze's textbook was translated into Japanese and published by G. Yamazaki and U. Ishiguro, his students at the Tokyo Medical Academy, in 1884. This version was widely used as a textbook in many medical schools at that time, as well as S. Sato's translation of "Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie" written by Prof. Theodor Billroth. The author found and introduced two different Japanese versions of Schultze's textbook printed without permission.
Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S; Hoßfeld, Uwe
150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level. But their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the Modern Synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in 'idealistic morphology', usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. We end our review with a brief look at the present situation in which molecular data are used to test the "hour-glass model", which can be seen as a modern version of the biogenetic law.
In the fall and winter of 1910, Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) performed his famous experiments on perceived motion, published in 1912. Besides slider experiments he mainly used a wheel tachistoscope developed by Friedrich Schumann (1863-1940) at the end of the 19th century. The Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology has several wheel tachistoscopes in its collection of instruments. Their provenance can be traced back to the Institute of Psychology of the University of Frankfurt and the University of Zurich. It is very plausible that Wertheimer, who performed his experiments at the Frankfurt Institute, used one of them. But the wheel tachistoscope alone is not sufficient to reconstruct Wertheimer's original experiments. As always, the devil is in the details. Wertheimer's descriptions of the necessary accessories, a prism, a viewing device, and an electric motor to move the wheel, are rather sparse. This article describes the results of a search for traces in the literature, in archives, and in literary depositories to shed some light on Wertheimer's experimental equipment. As a result, it was possible to reconstruct the entire apparatus and to obtain the same optical impressions with the reconstructed devices as Wertheimer's observers reported. In addition, one of his results was replicated with new participants exactly 100 years after its first publication.
Henderson, Victor W
Studies of alexia and agraphia have played important roles in understanding how complex cognitive functions are related to brain structure and activity. Modern interests in brain-behavior relations began during the second half of the 19th century as an outgrowth of flawed correlative studies by neuroanatomist Franz Gall and subsequent clinical-pathological analyses by Jean-Baptiste Boulliaud on speech and the frontal lobes. In 1856, Louis Victor Marcé drew attention to writing disorders and postulated a cerebral faculty for writing. Following Paul Broca's epochal reports on aphemia, many European physicians investigated reading and writing impairments after brain injury. Albert Pitres published the first detailed description of isolated agraphia, and Adolf Kussmaul identified alexia as an isolated symptom of brain disease. Jules Dejerine in 1892 provided the first clinical-pathological descriptions of pure alexia, and he suggested a key role for the left parietal lobe in reading and writing. In the 20th century, varieties of agraphia or alexia were linked to apraxia (Hugo Liepmann), impaired body image (Josef Gerstmann), spatial misperception, and interhemispheric disconnection. Other analyses focused on error types that defined new clinical syndromes (e.g. deep dyslexia) and provided evidence for cognitive modularity.
The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.
Adolf, Daniela; Weston, Snezhana; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes; Kropf, Siegfried
A recent paper by Eklund et al. (2012) showed that up to 70% false positive results may occur when analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, which may mainly be caused by insufficient compensation for the temporal correlation between successive scans. Here, we show that a blockwise permutation method can be an effective alternative to the standard correction method for the correlated residuals in the general linear model, assuming an AR(1)-model as used in SPM for analyzing fMRI data. The blockwise permutation approach including a random shift developed by our group (Adolf et al., 2011) accounts for the temporal correlation structure of the data without having to provide a specific definition of the underlying autocorrelation model. 1465 publicly accessible resting-state data sets were re-analyzed, and the results were compared with those of Eklund et al. (2012). It was found that with the new permutation method the nominal familywise error rate for the detection of activated voxels could be maintained approximately under even the most critical conditions in which Eklund et al. found the largest deviations from the nominal error level. Thus, the method presented here can serve as a tool to ameliorate the quality and reliability of fMRI data analyses.
Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg
The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.
At the Geneva Nomenclature Congress of 1892, some of the foremost organic chemists of the late nineteenth century crafted a novel relationship between chemical substances, chemical diagrams, and chemical names that has shaped practices of chemical representation ever since. During the 1880s, the French chemist Charles Friedel organised the nomenclature reform effort that culminated in the Geneva Congress; in the disorderly nomenclature of German synthetic chemistry, Friedel saw an opportunity to advance French national interests and his own pedagogical goals. Friedel and a group of close colleagues reconceived nomenclature as a unified field, in which all chemical names ought to relate clearly to one another and to the structure of the compounds they represented. The German chemist Adolf von Baeyer went a step farther, arguing for names that precisely and uniquely corresponded to the structural formula of each compound, tailored for use in chemical dictionaries and handbooks. Baeyer's vision prevailed at the Geneva Congress, which consequently codified rules for rigorously mapping structural formulas into names, resulting in names that faithfully represented the features of these diagrams but not always the chemical behaviour of the compounds themselves. This approach ultimately limited both the number of chemical compounds that the Geneva rules were able to encompass and the breadth of their application. However, the relationship between diagram and name established at the Geneva Congress became the foundation not only of subsequent systems of chemical nomenclature but of methods of organising information that have supported the modern chemical sciences.
Zimmer, H G
The basic instruments for measuring functional cardiovascular parameters and the most important discoveries made by Carl Ludwig and his disciples in cardiovascular physiology are described and put into perspective in regard to the further development of his methods and ideas. The most important apparatus was the kymograph, which, for the first time, made recording and documenting of functional parameters possible. This instrument was also used for the functional evaluation of the isolated perfused frog heart that was developed by Elias Cyon in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. In the isolated frog heart, important phenomena were discovered such as the staircase ('Treppe'), the absolute refractory period and the all-or-none law of the heart. The isolated dog heart was used to determine the origin of the first heart sound, which was characterized as a muscle tone. To measure regional blood flow and eventually cardiac output, a flowmeter ('Stromuhr') was designed. Precise measurements of cardiac output became possible only when Adolf Fick had developed his principle, which served as the basis for the modern indicator methods. Cyon and Ludwig also discoverd the depressor nerve, which constitutes the basis of the baroreceptor reflex. Finally, the precise localization of the vasomotor centre in the ventrolateral medulla was achieved in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. This was confirmed more than 100 years later with modern neuroanatomical methods making use of retrograde axonal transport. Thus, Ludwig and his scholars made major substantial contributions to cardiovascular knowledge that can be considered to constitute the basis of modern cardiology.
In this paper the author outlines and discusses the origins and the decline of castration and circumcision as a cure for the nervous and psychic disturbances in women and little girls between 1875 and 1905. The author argues that the opposition to this medical practice affected the conception of hysteria, promoting a distinction between sexuality and the genital organs, and the emergence of an enlarged notion of sexuality, during the period from Freud's medical education to the publication of the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. The hypothesis is put forward that Freud came directly in contact with the genital theory of the neurosis at the time of his training on the nervous disturbances in children with the paediatrician, Adolf Baginsky, in Berlin, in March 1886. It is hypothesized that this experience provoked in Freud an abhorrence of circumcision 'as a cure or punishment for masturbation', prompting an inner confrontation which resulted in a radical reorganization of the way of thinking about sexuality. It is also suggested that this contributed to Freud developing a capacity to stay with contradictions, something which would become a central quality of the psychoanalytic attitude.
Ahmed, Omar J.; Cash, Sydney S.
Neocortical gamma (30–80 Hz) rhythms correlate with attention, movement and perception and are often disrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gamma primarily occurs during alert brain states characterized by the so-called “desynchronized” EEG. Is this because gamma rhythms are devoid of synchrony? In this review we take a historical approach to answering this question. Richard Caton and Adolf Beck were the first to report the rhythmic voltage fluctuations in the animal brain. They were limited by the poor amplification of their early galvanometers. Thus when they presented light or other stimuli, they observed a disappearance of the large resting oscillations. Several groups have since shown that visual stimuli lead to low amplitude gamma rhythms and that groups of neurons in the visual cortices fire together during individual gamma cycles. This synchronous firing can more strongly drive downstream neurons. We discuss how gamma-band synchrony can support ongoing communication between brain regions, and highlight an important fact: there is at least local neuronal synchrony during gamma rhythms. Thus, it is best to refer to the low amplitude, high frequency EEG as an “activated”, not “desynchronized”, EEG. PMID:23964210
Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer.
The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).
Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.
Duck, Francis A
The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'.
Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon
Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.
When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet.
This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than 1 billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. Back then the sky would have looked markedly different from the sea of quiescent galaxies around us today. The sky is ablaze with primeval starburst galaxies; giant elliptical and spiral galaxies have yet to form. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under a torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of Hubble Space Telescope deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Painting Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI
Bruley, Duane F
The founding of ISOTT was based upon the blending of Medical and Engineering sciences. This occurrence is portrayed by the Shamattawa, the joining of the Chippewa and Flambeau rivers. Beginning with Carl Scheele's discovery of oxygen, the medical sciences advanced the knowledge of its importance to physiological phenomena. Meanwhile, engineering science was evolving as a mathematical discipline used to define systems quantitatively from basic principles. In particular, Adolf Fick's employment of a gradient led to the formalization of transport phenomena. These two rivers of knowledge were blended to found ISOTT at Clemson/Charleston, South Carolina, USA, in 1973.The establishment of our society with a mission to support the collaborative work of medical scientists, clinicians and all disciplines of engineering was a supporting step in the evolution of bioengineering. Traditional engineers typically worked in areas not requiring knowledge of biology or the life sciences. By encouraging collaboration between medical science and traditional engineering, our society became one of the forerunners in establishing bioengineering as the fifth traditional discipline of engineering.
Ruiz, Gabriel; Sánchez, Natividad
William Horsley Gantt is well known as one to the principal proponents of Pavlovian methodology in the U.S. After a long stay at Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's laboratory in Leningrad from 1925 to 1929, Gantt was invited by Adolf Meyer to join the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, where he founded and directed the Pavlovian Laboratory from 1930 to 1964. Soon after his arrival at Phipps Clinic in 1931, Gantt began a Pavlovian research program that included the investigation of nervous disturbances in dogs and clinical researches with psychiatric patients. In these studies, Gantt combined a physiological method (the conditional reflexes approach), with a psychiatric problem (nervous disorders) in the context of Meyer's psychobiology that established the person or individual as unit of analysis. This fact, concentrating upon a single individual, made Gantt studies with dogs recognizable and interesting to physicians, psychologists, and psychiatrists who also worked on individuals. In this paper, we use archival materials -including correspondence, notebooks, and unpublished autobiographical material- to present a case study, that of William Horsley Gantt and his dog Nick. We will explore the reasons why Gantt' studies on nervous disturbances with this dog captured the interest of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists.
Goh, Khean Lee
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has evolved tremendously from the early days when candlelight was used to illuminate scopes to the extent that it has now become an integral part of the practice of modern gastroenterology. The first gastroscope was a rigid scope first introduced by Adolf Kussmaul in 1868. However this scope suffered from the 2 drawbacks of poor illumination and high risk of instrumental perforation. Rudolf Schindler improved on this by inventing the semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. But it was Basil Hirschowitz, using the principle of light conduction in fibreoptics, who allowed us to "see well" for the first time when he invented the flexible gastroscopy in 1958. With amazing speed and innovation, instrument companies, chiefly Japanese, had improved on the Hirschowitz gastroscope and invented a flexible colonoscope. Walter McCune introduced the technique of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 1968 which has now evolved into a sophisticated procedure. The advent of the digital age in the 1980s saw the invention of the videoendoscope. Videoendoscopes have allowed us to start seeing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) "better" with high magnification and resolution and optical/digital enhancements. Fusing confocal and light microscopy with endoscopy has allowed us to perform an "optical biopsy" of the GI mucosa. Development of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed us to see "beyond" the GIT lumen. Seeing better has allowed us to do better. Endoscopists have ventured into newer procedures such as the resection of mucosal and submucosal tumours and the field of therapeutic GI endoscopy sees no end in sight.
Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg
The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466
Motoc, A; Motoc, Marilena; Bolintineanu, S; Muşuroi, Corina; Munteanu, M
The human body building represented a complex research topic for the scientist in the most diverse domains. Although their interests and reasons were different, the goal was always the same: establishing a relation to verify the ratio between the dimensions of the constituent segments It appears that the mystery was solved out in the XIX-th century by Adolf Zeising, a German, who, using the statistic calculus, defined the division of a segment by the gold section. This purely mathematic logic confirms the human body's integration in proportion to the finest segments, thus providing the technical instrument of building a fully harmonious human body. The present study aims to compare the ideal, the calculated perfection to the reality, namely the theoretically obtained values to the average values of an 18-year-old male. It appears that the differences refer especially to the limbs; both the superior ones and the inferior ones being longer comparing to the ideal pattern while the bust is shorter and broader.
Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R
The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty.
Hasiotis, Stephen T.
Today, the study of trace fossils—ichnology—is an important subdiscipline of geology at the interface of paleontology and sedimentology, mostly because of the efforts of Adolf Seilacher. His ability to synthesize various aspects of ichnology and produce a hierarchy of marine ichna and sedimentary facies has made ichnology useful worldwide in interpreting paleodiversity, rates of sedimentation, oxygenation of bottom water and sediment pore water, and depositional energy. Seilacher's book Trace Fossil Analysis provides a glimpse into the mind, methodology, and insights of the father of modern ichnology, generated from his course notes as a professor and a guest lecturer. The title sounds misleading—readers looking for up-to-date principles and approaches to trace fossil analysis in marine and continental strata will be disappointed. In his preface, however, Seilacher clearly gives direction for the use of his text: “This is a course book—meaning that it is intended to confer not knowledge, but skill.” Thus, it is not meant as a total compilation of all trace fossils, ichnotaxonomy, ichnological interpretations, applications, or the most relevant and up-to-date references. Rather, it takes the reader on a personal journey, explaining how trace fossils are understood in the context of their three-dimensional (3-D) morphology and sedimentary facies.
Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S
This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.
Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B
This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.
Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne
We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism.
Behrens, Peter J
The career of Joseph Jastrow (1863-1944) spanned more than 50 years in service to psychology. For 40 years he represented academic psychology at the University of Wisconsin as chair of the psychology department (1886 to 1927), but also was never far from popularizing psychology through books, articles, public lectures, newspaper columns, and finally radio lectures (e.g., Jastrow, 1900, 1935b). Providing a scientific and progressive psychology for the general public was always a strong penchant for Jastrow on several subjects, such as spiritualism (Jastrow, 1911) and effective living (Jastrow, 1935b). About 1939, while he was well into his 70s, his efforts focused on exposing the menace that Adolf Hitler and Nazism posed, so he undertook to enlist prominent editors to publish his work, Hitler: Mask and Myth, as articles or a book. He was not successful in gaining support for the project. His failing can be understood from the perspectives of the American market for Hitler material, the shortcomings of the manuscript, and how he represented psychology to the American public.
Legaki, Aglaia; Dimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Avramidou, Evangelia; Bailly, Nicolas
Abstract Background The benthic macrofaunal biodiversity of the southeastern Mediterranean is considerably understudied compared to other Mediterranean regions. Monitoring biodiversity in this area is crucial as this region is particularly susceptible to biological invasions and temperature alteration. Historical biodiversity data could provide a useful baseline for monitoring potential changes and provide informarion to support a better understanding of the possible effects of anthropogenic activities on marine benthic communities. New information In this study, performed under the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure, we present historical benthic occurrence data obtained from the sampling expedition carried out in 1933 by Adolf Steuer in the coastal area around Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean. The occurrences were geo-referenced to more than 170 stations, mostly located in the area of Alexandria, and the nearby coasts and lakes. All records were digitized and species names were cross-checked and taxonomically updated using the World Register of Marine Species. The outcome clearly shows that such initiatives can reveal an unexpected amount of highly valuable biodiversity information for “data-poor” regions. PMID:27932921
It took exactly 150 years since James Parkinson's description in 1817 of the illness bearing his name until the development of effective therapy for this disorder, namely, the introduction of high-dosage levodopa by George Cotzias in 1967. During the first 50 years, no effective therapy was available, but neurologists reported using different agents, including metals. Then, around 1867, Charcot found solanaceous alkaloids to be somewhat helpful, and these became the accepted and popular therapy for the next 75 years. When basic scientists discovered that these alkaloids had central antimuscarinic activity, pharmaceutical chemists developed synthetic chemical agents that were equally effective, with possibly less adverse effects, and around 1950 these synthetic drugs became the standard medical therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The link between dopamine and PD did not take place until 1957, 140 years after Parkinson's Essay. The clue came from research on reserpine, a drug derived from the Rauwolfia plant that caused a sedative effect, now recognized as a drug-induced parkinsonian state. Initial investigations revealed that reserpine caused the release and depletion of serotonin stores in the brain. With that knowledge, Arvid Carlsson, a young pharmacologist in Sweden, decided to explore the possibility that reserpine might also affect brain catecholamines. In his now famous, elegant, and simple experiment, he showed that injecting l-dopa, the precursor of catecholamines, alleviated the reserpine-induced parkinsonian state in animals, whereas the precursor of serotonin failed to do so. Carlsson then developed a highly sensitive assay to measure dopamine, and his lab found that dopamine is selectively present in high concentrations in the striatum and that administered l-dopa could restore the dopamine depleted by reserpine. Carlsson postulated that all these findings implicate dopamine in motor disorders. Oleh Hornykiewicz, a young pharmacologist in Vienna, on
Kemp, S E; Carr, D J; Kieser, J; Niven, B E; Taylor, M C
Stab injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, particularly in those where access to firearms is restricted [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. Analysis of damaged apparel may provide important information about the cause of death and the events leading up to and after the victim's final moments [M.T. Pailthorpe, N.A.G. Johnson, The private forensic scientist and the criminal justice system, in: D. Biles, J. Vernon (Eds.), Private Sector and Community Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Conference Proceedings, vol. 23, Australian Institute of Criminology, Wellington, 1994, 231-240]. A high proportion of stab wounds occur in the chest and as this area is generally clothed many sharp force cases involve damage to fabrics [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. The structural stabilisation and degradation of fabric due to laundering significantly alters fabric properties [S.E. Gore, R.M. Laing, C.A. Wilson, D.J. Carr, B.E. Niven, Standardizing a pre-treatment cleaning procedure and effects of application on apparel fabrics, Text. Res. J. 76 (2006) 455-464], yet the effect of such on severance morphology does not appear to have been investigated. In this work the effect of blade type (hunting knife, kitchen knife, screwdriver) on new and laundered
Buckwalter, Joseph A
Strong traditions of basic research, clinical innovation, teaching and integrating science and evaluation of outcomes into clinical practice have characterized University of Iowa orthopaedics for ninety years. These traditions were brought to Iowa City from Vienna when Iowa City was a town of fewer than 10,000 people in a sparsely populated rural state. In the last third of the 19th century, surgeons at the University of Vienna, led by Theodore Billroth (1829-1894), helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centers for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals who followed Billroth, Eduard Albert (1841-1900) and Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. Their successes in the study and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders led one of their students, Arthur Steindler (1878-1959), a 1902 graduate of the Vienna Medical School, to pursue a career in orthopaedics. Following medical school, he worked in Lorenz's orthopaedic clinic until 1907 when he joined John Ridlon (1852-1936) at the Chicago Home for Crippled Children. In 1910, Steindler became Professor of Orthopaedics at the Drake Medical School in Des Moines, Iowa, and, in 1913, John G. Bowman, the President of the University of Iowa, recruited him to establish an orthopaedic clinical and academic program in Iowa City. For the next third of a century he guided the development of the University of Iowa Orthopaedics Department, helped establish the fields of orthopaedic biomechanics and kinesiology and tirelessly stressed the importance of physiology, pathology and assessment of the outcomes of operations. From the legacy of Billroth, Albert and
As soon as Adolf Hitler came to into power in 1933, four laws on racial segregation and race protection were edicted between 1934 and 1935. Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychoses, epilepsy and alcoholism were regarded as hereditary mental illnesses. These laws were responsible for the sterilisation of 350,000 individuals who were thought to be at the source of the propagation of hereditary illnesses which might endanger the health and the future of the Aryan Germans. On September 1, 1939, Action T4 was launched: it required that all the mentally ill be exterminated. This action, which was run by the highest level of the Reich's chancellery with the help of psychiatrists coming from all backgrounds including university professors, was supposed to grant a serene death to all the mentally ill considered as untreatable. The death sentences were carried out by the medical staff in psychiatric hospitals specially equipped with gas chambers. Following protests, Action T4 was officially stopped on August 24, 1941, but, in reality, continued until the end of the war. The death sentences were carried out using either lethal doses of medication or food deprivation. One hundred and fifty thousand individuals fell victim to that therapeutic extermination which played an economic role as important as the one deemed to social protection. Many German academics, researchers, psychiatrists, geneticians and anthropologists played and active part in these murders which were carried out in the name of Nazi ideology based upon the supremacy of the Northern Germanic race and the necessity to protect it from miscegenation, especially from Jews. In the final part of this paper, the author gives an explanation of the perversion of ethics carried out by German psychiatrists.
Zimmer, H G
Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) was the driving force in the foundation and development of scientifically based and experimentally oriented physiology against natural philosophy and vitalism that prevailed during the first quarter of the 19th century in Germany. He was the representative of a small group of young, highly talented and dynamic physiologists aiming at implementing the laws of physics and chemistry as the only active forces in physiologic processes. These "organic physicists" included Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896), Ernst Brücke (1819-1892), and Hermann Helmholz (1821-1894). Carl Ludwig wrote the program of this group in the form of a textbook of physiology that was considered revolutionary, provocative and premature. His academic life, his inventions and discoveries, his scientific achievements, his influence and his personality are reviewed. Since every person can be viewed only in the context of his time, the political background, the economic and social situation, the conditions for science and research as well as the cultural climate that were characteristic for the decisive years of Carl Ludwig are described to some extent. It is shown that Carl Ludwig and his contemporary organic physicists lived and grew into a science- and research-oriented period which had been prepared and paved by men like Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Johannes Müller (1801-1858) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). They benefited from this enormous scientific development and contributed to it to a large and significant extent so that it ultimately turned out to be the most productive and influential period in the history of German physiology. Some of the numerous scholars who had studied with Carl Ludwig carried his approach to physiology into the 20th century: Adolf Fick (1829-1901), Otto Frank (1865-1944), Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849-1936) and Henry Pickering Browditch (1840-1911).
As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.
March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M
Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA.
Aumüller, G; Grundmann, K
A complete documentation of German anatomical science and its representatives during the period of national socialism has not been published as yet--contrary to the situation in other medical disciplines. Instead of German anatomists, American anatomists have occasionally addressed this issue during their meetings and have reported on special aspects, such as the use of Nazi symbols in anatomical textbooks and atlases (Pernkopf 1952) and the use of corpses of justice victims for anatomical research and student education. Also, the genesis of the atrocious collection of "racial" skulls, initiated along with the SS-institution of the "Ahnenerbe" by the anatomist August Hirt of Strasbourg (who ordered more than 90 inmates from concentration camps to be murdered in the gas chamber built in the concentration camp of Natzweiler-Struthof close to Strasbourg, Alsace) has been described by Frederic Kasten and others. A broader view of the patterns of behaviour and political actions and fates of contemporary scientists, ranging from dismissal to clandestine opportunism, affirmative cooperation and fanatic activism can be obtained by the analysis of the activities in research, medical education and academic positions of the following members of the Institute of Anatomy at the Philipp-University in Marburg: Ernst Göppert, Eduard Jacobshagen, Ernst-Theodor Nauck, Adolf Dabelow, Helmut Becher and Alfred Benninghoff, whose activities and fates differ in several respects and allow more general deductions. Also, the individual fates of a number of prosecuted Jewish anatomists (Wassermann, München; Poll, Hamburg), of devoted and active members of the Nazi party (Clara, Leipzig; Blotevogel, Breslau) and of criminal fanatics (Hirt, Strasbourg; Kremer, Münster) are briefly discussed. The present contribution is an attempt to initiate a more detailed study of all German departments of anatomy during the Hitler regime and to generate a public discussion among the younger generation of
The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British
We live in rapidly advancing world. Our homes and offices are conquered by new technological achievements. School is a part of the society and many students use smartphones and tablet pc`s every day. Also they are very skillful with smartphones. It is very important that school and teachers give them advice how to manage in such miracle world and how to use this kind of equipment in studies. In the other hand teachers complain about their hand-operation, concentration and self-expression skills. So it is very important to use exercises for developing these skills. Also, when you do something practically, then you should do it actively and then it will be fixed better. I have made a lesson plan for learning animal and plant cell structures. First students need to read about cell structures and make animal and plant cell models using rope, noodles and different buttons. Then they used their smartphones and made a video where they explain meaning of the rope, noodles and buttons and what are the common share and differences between animal and plant cell. Example of the student videos you can see here: http://youtu.be/SH5oCpDRJPg https://docs.google.com/a/gag.ee/file/d/0Bz4muZaQGXADVlNrYTNkc2VxbE0/edit In feedback they said that it was very interesting and educational practical task. It was only one example how to use BYOD. In Gustav Adolf Grammar School we use BYOD a lot in different subjects. In today's school it's really important to link modern technology, surrounding environment and learning.
Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel
The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France.
Seeman, Mary V.; Seeman, Philip
Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) did not see schizophrenia as a discrete disorder with a specific etiology but, rather, as a reaction to a wide variety of biopsychosocial factors. He may have been right. Today, we have evidence that gene mutations, brain injury, drug use (cocaine, amphetamine, marijuana, phencyclidine, and steroids), prenatal infection and malnutrition, social isolation and marginalization, can all result in the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. This clinical picture is generally associated with supersensitivity to dopamine, and activates dopamine neurotransmission that is usually alleviated or blocked by drugs that block dopamine D2 receptors. While the dopamine neural pathway may be a final common route to many of the clinical symptoms, the components of this pathway, such as dopamine release and number of D2 receptors, are approximately normal in schizophrenia patients who are in remission. Postmortem findings, however, reveal more dimers of D1D2 and D2D2 receptors in both human schizophrenia brains and in animal models of schizophrenia. Another finding in animal models is an elevation of high-affinity state D2High receptors, but no radioactive ligand is yet available to selectively label D2High receptors in humans. It is suggested that synaptic dopamine supersensitivity in schizophrenia is an attempt at compensation for the original damage by heightening dopamine neurotransmission pathways (preparing the organism for fight or fiight). The dopamine overactivity is experienced subjectively as overstimulation, which accounts for some of the clinical symptoms, with attempts at dampening down the stimulation leading to still other symptoms. Reaction and counter-reaction may explain the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:24128684
March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M
Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047
It is almost sixty years since Emil Fischer was describing on a platform such as this one some of the work which led to the basic knowledge of the structure of glucose and its relatives. Today we will be concerned with a description of the experiments which have led to a knowledge of the principal reactions by which those carbohydrate structures are created by photosynthetic organisms from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of light. The speculations on the way in which carbohydrate was built from carbon dioxide began not long after the recognition of the basic reaction and were carried forward first by Justus von Liebig and then by Adolf von Baeyer and, finally, by Richard Wilstatter and Arthur Stoll into this century. Actually, the route by which animal organisms performed the reverse reaction, that is, the combustion of carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and water with the utilization of the energy resulting from this combination, turned out to be the first one to be successfully mapped, primarily by Otto Meyerhoi and Hans Krebs. Our own interest in the basic process of solar energy conversion by green plants began some time in the years between 1935 and 1937, during my postdoctoral studies with Professor Michael Polanyi at Manchester. It was there I first became conscious of the remarkable properties of coordinated metal compounds, particularly metalloporphyins as represented by heme and chlorophyll. A study was begun at that time, which is still continuing, on the electronic behavior of such metalloporphyrins. It was extended and generalized by the stimulus of Professor Gilbert N. Lewis upon my arrival in Berkeley. I hope these continuing studies may one day contribute to the understanding of the precise way in which chlorophyll and its relatives accomplish the primary quantum conversion into chemical potential which is used to drive the carbohydrate synthesis reaction.
This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than one billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. The deepest views of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) yield clues that the very first stars may have burst into the universe as brilliantly and spectacularly as a firework finale. Except in this case, the finale came first, long before Earth, the Sun ,and the Milky Way Galaxy formed. Studies of HST's deepest views of the heavens lead to the preliminary conclusion that the universe made a significant portion of its stars in a torrential firestorm of star birth, which abruptly lit up the pitch-dark heavens just a few hundred million years after the 'big bang,' the tremendous explosion that created the cosmos. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of HST deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Science Credit: NASA and K. Lanzetta (SUNY). Artwork Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI.
Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan
The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del
Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan
The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del
Rohrbach, J M
Sixty-one years after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, the history of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) has still hardly been investigated. According to different sources, especially the reports of the DOG congresses 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940, the following picture can be drawn: 1. The seizure of power ("Machtergreifung") of Adolf Hitler was appreciated by most of the DOG members. 2. After a change of the constitution the DOG came under the control of the "Reichsinnenministerium". However, it escaped the egalitarianism ("Gleichschaltung") and remained relatively independent. 3. Approximately 40 % of the heads of the German university eye clinics who were the most influential DOG representatives were members of the national socialistic German working party (NSDAP). Almost all of these joined the party in 1933 or later. 4. Up to the last congress in Dresden, 1940, the DOG activities were quite extensive. After that time the activities strongly declined. 5. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offspring" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from January 1st 1934 was intensely discussed by the DOG. Some prominent ophthalmologists and DOG members were at least in part responsible for the sterilisations because of "congenital blindness". However, as far as it is known, the DOG itself did not intervene directly concerning the practice of sterilisation. 6. Between 1932 and 1940, the DOG lost approximately 12 % of its members. Many of these stemmed from foreign countries, and many were German Jews. The latter left the DOG, as Walther Löhlein stated after the end of the war, "voluntarily". However, a main reason for leaving the DOG was very likely the feeling of being unwanted. The national socialism had several disastrous effects on ophthalmology. Although single DOG members participated in the excesses, the DOG as an organization was not directly involved. However, taking into consideration that more than 10 % of the members of the
Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas
One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly
Gymnastics as a way of healing and of preserving health spread in Hungary--almost exclusively among higher classes--only in the first half of the 19th century. The movement was inspired by naturopathic theories of the time, first of all by Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland's macrobiotics, by Vinzenz Priessnitz's hydrotherapy and by his healing gymnastics. Gymnastics has been utilized from the 30ies by a new bough of medicine, orthopaedy. The so called Swedish Gymnastics invented by Per Henrik Ling and by his son Hjalmar Ling or the method of the German gymnast Adolf Spiess were well known in Hungary as well. The pediatrist Agost Schöp-Merei founded the first Institute for Gymnastics in Pest in 1835. As orthopaedy developed, gymnastics was more and more utilized in curing locomotor disorders. Gymnastics however stood in close connection with hydropathy as well. Several institutes for hydropathy and gymnastics were founded in the 50ies and 60ies throughout the country. The most popular of them were those of Károly Siklósy and Sámuel Batizfalvy. Preventive gymnastics gained popularity only in the second half of the 19th century, as 1830 the French gymnast Ignatius Clair moved to Pest and founded the "Pester gymnastische Schule" (Gymnastics School of Pest). This private school flourished till 1863. The Gymnastic Federation of Pest (later National Gymnastics Federation), the first Hungarian sport club was founded in 1866. Tivadar Bakody played an important role in its creation. Gymnastics and sport at the beginning were closely connected with fire-service, so gymnastics clubs often functioned also as fire-guard-bodies. In the 70ies and 80ies the social basis of sport movement was slowly broadened out. The end of the century saw already 44 gymnastics-clubs in Hungary united in a single union, the National Federation of Gymnasts, which organized the education of the profession as well. The trend of development didn't cease up to the Great War. This time the movement was
An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties
This study examines experiences of individual patients and psychiatrists in the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917. The dynamics of these patient-psychiatrist interactions elucidate the well-known conceptual shift in explanations of mental illness during the twentieth century, from somatic models rooted in the logic of "neurasthenia" and damaged nerves to psychodynamic models based on the notion of "subconscious conflict." A qualitative analysis of 336 cases categorized as functional disorders (a catchall term in this period for illnesses that could not be confirmed as organic diseases), shows that patients explained their symptoms and suffering in terms of bodily malfunctions, and, particularly, as a "breakdown" of their nervous apparatus. Psychiatrists at the Phipps Clinic, on the other hand, working under the direction of its prominent director, Adolf Meyer, did not focus their examinations and therapies on the body's nervous system, as patients expected. They theorized that the characteristic symptoms of functional disorders-chronic exhaustion, indigestion, headaches and pain, as well as strange obsessive and compulsive behaviors-resulted from a distinct pathological mechanism: a subconscious conflict between powerful primal and social impulses. Phipps patients were often perplexed when told their physical symptoms were byproducts of an inner psychological struggle; some rejected the notion, while others integrated it with older explanations to reconceptualize their experiences of illness. The new concept also had the potential to alter psychiatrists' perceptions of disorders commonly diagnosed as hysteria, neurasthenia, or psychoneuroses. The Phipps records contain examples of Meyer and his staff transcending the frustration experienced by many doctors who had observed troubling but common behaviors in such cases: morbid introspection, hypochondria, emotionalism, pity-seeking, or malingering. Subconscious conflict recast
their work in Google Earth where they did a tour of their journey. In the feedback students said that it was a very interesting and an educational practical task. A new opportunity in M-learning is to use QR codes. This means that you don't have to print out worksheets with questions. You can hide question in the code and students can read them with their own devices on site. From the Master's thesis I also developed a tutorial material named "M-learning in a geography lesson" (in Estonian: M-õpe geograafiatunnis), you can see it in the webpage firstname.lastname@example.org. The tutorial received a second place on the Estonian study material contest in 2013. This is only one example on how to use M-learning. In Gustav Adolf Grammar School we use M-learning in lots of different subjects because it's really important in modern school to link new technologies, surrounding environment and learning for the purpose of better obtainment of knowledge.
Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf
his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.
Baker, Neal Kenton
-tracking camera to support the Air Force's early satellite tracking and space surveillance networks. Because of his foresight, cameras were in place to track the Sputnik Satellite in October 1957. These cameras allowed the precise orbital determination of all orbiting spacecraft for over three decades until the tracking cameras were retired from service. He continued to advise top Government officials in the evolution of reconnaissance systems during the 1960s and 1970s. He received a Space Pioneer Award from the US Air Force. He received the Pioneers of National Reconnaissance Medal (2000) with the citation, "As a young Harvard astronomer, Dr. James G. Baker designed most of the lenses and many of the cameras used in aerial over flights of 'denied territory' enabling the success of the U.S. peacetime strategic reconnaissance policy." Around 1968, he undertook a consulting contract with Polaroid Corporation after Dr. Edwin Land persuaded him that only he could design the optical system for his new SX-70 Land. He was also responsible for the design of the Quintic focusing system for the Polaroid Spectra Camera system that employed a revolutionary combination of non-rotational aspherics to achieve focusing function. In 1958 he became a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA). In 1960 he was elected President of the Society for one year and helped establish the Applied Optics Journal. He was the recipient of numerous OSA awards, spanning the breadth of the field, and has been honored with the Adolf Lomb Award, Ives Medal, Fraunhofer Award, and Richardson Award. He was made an honorary member of OSA in 1993. He also was the recipient of the 1978 Gold Medal, the highest award of the International Society of Optical Engineers (SPIE). Furthermore, he was the Recipient of the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute for his many innovations in astronomical tools. Dr. Baker was elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1965), the American Philosophical Society
Augensen, Harry John; Geyer, Edward Heinrich
Wulff Dieter Heintz, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Swarthmore College, passed away at his home on 10 June 2006, following a two-year battle with lung cancer. He had turned seventy-six just one week earlier. Wulff was a leading authority on visual double stars and also a chess master. A prominent educator, researcher, and scholar, Wulff was noted for being both succinct and meticulous in everything he did. Wulff Heintz was born on 3 June 1930 in Würzburg (Bavaria), Germany. Naturally left-handed, his elementary school teachers forced him to learn to write "correctly" using his right hand, and so he became ambidextrous. During the 1930s, Wulff's family saw the rise of Adolf Hitler and lived under the repressive Nazi regime. As a teenager during World War II, Wulff listened to his family radio for any news from the outside world. He used to say that he loved the blackouts during the bombing runs because it made it much easier to see the stars. On the night of 16 March 1945, Wulff's home town of Würzburg was heavily bombed, resulting in the destruction of eighty-five percent of the city and the deaths of several thousand civilians. One incendiary bomb landed on the roof of his family home, but Wulff climbed up to the roof and extinguished it before the flames could spread. The next morning, he discovered (with some delight) that his high school had burned to the ground. As Germany continued to suffer massive losses, teenage boys as young as fifteen were inducted into the military and sent off to replenish the troops. To avoid an uncertain fate, Wulff hid out in a farmhouse in the countryside outside of Munich. When the allied troops invaded Germany in 1945, Wulff volunteered to be a translator between the American and British soldiers and the local villagers. In return for his valuable service, the soldiers taught Wulff how to smoke cigarettes, a habit that he continued until his final days even after having been diagnosed with lung cancer. Shortly after the war