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  1. Congratulations to Adolf Lohmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt, Hartmut

    Prof. Dr. Adolf Lohmann celebrates his 75th birthday in April 2001. This date not only marks a very special birthday but also 50 years of his stimulating and motivating work in unconventional optics. Starting his scientific life around 1953 at the Technische Hochschule Braunschweig, he moved to California in 1963 and returned as professor for applied optics to Erlangen/Germany in 1972. After retiring, he has been active as guest scientist in many optics laboratories worldwide. With his amazing style in presenting optical problems he has attracted many students and even today he impresses the audience in his presentations. Many honours have been presented to him including the honorary membership of the German society of applied optics. This issue of OPTIK is therefore dedicated to Prof. Adolf Lohmann with several special papers related to and influenced by his work. Our best wishes are connected with this issue for good health and many more interesting problems in optics.

  2. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear. PMID:15825245

  3. Adolf Hitler's medical care.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2005-02-01

    For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

  4. The 2013 Arvid Wretlind lecture: evolving concepts in parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mette M

    2014-08-01

    Fifty years after the clinical introduction of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) the Arvid Wretlind lecture is an opportunity to critically analyse the evolution and changes that have marked its development and clinical use. The standard crystalline amino acid solutions, while devoid of side effects, remain incomplete regarding their composition (e.g. glutamine). Lipid emulsions have evolved tremendously and are now included in bi- and tri-compartmental feeding bags enabling a true "total" PN provided daily micronutrients are prescribed. The question of exact individual energy, macro- and micro-nutrient requirements is still unsolved. Many complications attributed to TPN are in fact the consequence of under- or over-feeding: the historical hyperalimentation concept is the main cause, along with the use of fixed weight based predictive equations (incorrect in 70% of the critically ill patients). In the late 80's many complications (hyperglycemia, sepsis, fatty liver, exacerbation of inflammation, mortality) were attributed to TPN leading to its near abandon in favour of enteral nutrition (EN). Enteral feeding, although desirable for many reasons, is difficult causing a worldwide recurrence of malnutrition by insufficient feed delivery. TPN indications have evolved towards its use either alone or in combination with EN: several controversial trials published 2011-13 have investigated TPN timing, an issue which is not yet resolved. The initiation time varies according to the country between admission (Australia and Israel), day 4 (Swiss) and day 7 (Belgium, USA). The most important issue may prove to be and individualized and time dependent prescription of feeding route, energy and substrates.

  5. Dr. Arvid Lindau and discovery of von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, Kristin; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R

    2015-10-01

    Arvid Lindau, MD, PhD, consolidated the disparate array of benign and malignant visceral and nervous system lesions into the neoplastic syndrome known as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Based on this pioneering work, Dr. Lindau was awarded both a Rockefeller fellowship to work in Dr. Harvey Cushing's laboratory in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Lennmalm Prize. While working in Dr. Cushing's laboratory, Dr. Lindau continued his study of CNS hemangioblastomas. His work with Dr. Cushing led to their lifelong friendship and scientific collaboration. In this paper the authors describe Arvid Lindau's pioneering work in nervous system tumor pathology, his relationship to Dr. Cushing, and his role in advancing neurological surgery and research in Europe. PMID:25748307

  6. Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.

    2015-01-01

    Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality. PMID:26713007

  7. Did Adolf Hitler have syphilis?

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Wessels, A

    2005-10-01

    The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis. PMID:16341329

  8. Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2015-01-01

    Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality. PMID:26713007

  9. Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2015-01-01

    Research works have suggested almost incontrovertibly, that Adolf Hitler suffered from Parkinsonism. However, the precise nature of his illness had always been controversial and post-encephalitic and idiopathic varieties were the ones which were most commonly thought as the possible etiology. He displayed features like oculogyric crisis, palilalia, and autonomic symptoms which strongly implicate post-encephalitic etiology in the genesis of his illness. Others on the contrary, observed premorbid personality traits like non-flinching mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility, and awesome pedantry; which are often observed in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms like disturbed sleep, proneness to temper tantrums, phases of depression, suspiciousness, and lack of trust on colleagues have also been described by various authors. Additionally, he was prescribed methamphetamine by his personal doctor and that might have led to the development of some of the later traits in his personality.

  10. Did Adolf Hitler have syphilis?

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Wessels, A

    2005-10-01

    The evidence that Adolf Hitler might have suffered from incapacitating syphilis is reviewed. Rumors that he acquired syphilis from a prostitute at the age of 20 years, with possible re-infection during World War I, can no longer be verified. Evidence is that he was sexually rather inactive throughout his life. Suggestions that Hitler's cardiac lesion and complaints such as transitory blindness, tremor of his left arm and leg, recurring abdominal pain and a skin lesion of the leg were of syphilitic aetiology cannot be supported. Hitler's progressive mental and physical deterioration after 1942, his growing paranoia, fits of rage, grandiosity and symptoms of possible dementia would fit in neurosyphilis. There are, however, also other explanations for his terminal syndrome, and evidence that repeated clinical examinations did not show the characteristic signs of dementia paralytica or tabes dorsalis, swings the balance of probability away from tertiary syphilis.

  11. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

  12. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  13. Adolf Hitler had post-encephalitic Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, A

    1996-04-01

    Adolf Hitler had Parkinson symptoms in 1934, at age 45 years. He may have had transient symptoms in 1923, at age 34 years. Young-onset parkinsonism, during the 1920s, favored a diagnosis of post-encephalitic rather than idiopathic parkinsonism. Hitler had oculogyric crises, phenomena only associated with post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In addition, he had dystonic facial spasms, palilalia and a sleep disorder, phenomena more likely to be associated with post-encephalitic than idiopathic parkinsonism. In November 1918, at age 29 years, Hitler may have had von Economo's encephalitis, while he was a patient in a hospital, recovering from poison gas. This paper looks at the possible relationship of von Economo's encephalitis to Hitler's asocial behavior; his obsessions and compulsions, his cruelty and rages. The influence of Hitler's parkinsonism on his conduct during World War II is discussed. PMID:18591024

  14. Adolf Hitler had post-encephalitic Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, A

    1996-04-01

    Adolf Hitler had Parkinson symptoms in 1934, at age 45 years. He may have had transient symptoms in 1923, at age 34 years. Young-onset parkinsonism, during the 1920s, favored a diagnosis of post-encephalitic rather than idiopathic parkinsonism. Hitler had oculogyric crises, phenomena only associated with post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In addition, he had dystonic facial spasms, palilalia and a sleep disorder, phenomena more likely to be associated with post-encephalitic than idiopathic parkinsonism. In November 1918, at age 29 years, Hitler may have had von Economo's encephalitis, while he was a patient in a hospital, recovering from poison gas. This paper looks at the possible relationship of von Economo's encephalitis to Hitler's asocial behavior; his obsessions and compulsions, his cruelty and rages. The influence of Hitler's parkinsonism on his conduct during World War II is discussed.

  15. Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef: revising Haeckel's biogenetic law.

    PubMed

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Ernst Haeckel formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, in 1872. The Russian evolutionist Alexei Sewertzoff, and the Swiss-born zoologist Adolf Naef were among those who revised Haeckel's law, thus changing the course of evolutionary theory and of developmental biology. Although Sewertzoff and Naef approached the problem in a similar way and formulated similar hypotheses at a purely descriptive level, their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the modern synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in "idealistic morphology", which is usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. This paper is an attempt to explain how their fundamentally different theoretical backgrounds influenced their views on the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26013194

  16. Adolf Wallenberg: giant in neurology and refugee from Nazi Europe.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Mohan, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Wallenberg became the "anatomical conscience" to at least one famed neurologist, and was known worldwide by top neurologists. His comprehensive clinical-pathological descriptions of what became known as Wallenberg Syndrome had a large impact on neurology and launched his career. He did not let a skull base injury from an accident, or his service in the German army in World War I, impede his progress. Despite his accomplishments, because he was Jewish he was stripped of his research laboratory and forced to stop working when the Nazis took over his native Danzig. He barely escaped just before World War II began and immigrated to England, then to the United States. Because of his impact on neurology and his unusual strife, his story is one that neuroscientists should not forget.

  17. The unmourned wound: Reflections on the psychology of Adolf Hitler.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, D R

    1995-09-01

    Fifty years after his death by suicide, Adolf Hitler continues to arouse profound feelings of revulsion and attraction. This paper is an exploration of Hitler's psyche from the perspective of a depth psychology. After examining analyses of Hilter's personality by Richard Rubenstein and Alice Miller, the argument is made that we need C.G. Jung's concept of psychic inflation to understand more fully Hitler's impact upon the world. Hitler is seen as inflated by the compensating energies of the Self in response to his deeply wounded ego, a wound he could not mourn. Consequently, he became identified with the dark and destructive energies of the Self which inflated and then usurped his ego. Hitler's demonic and destructive career resulted from that inflation, which he was not able to neutralize. The paper concludes with reflections on the role of mourning in protecting us from the experience of psychic inflation, especially by the Self in its dark and destructive aspects. PMID:24264456

  18. The death of Adolf Hitler--forensic aspects.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniela; Boschi, Ilaria; Polacco, Matteo; Rainio, Juha

    2005-09-01

    The death of Adolf Hitler is one of the unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. Numerous historians and journalists have attempted to piece together the details, but despite the interest in the forensic literature regarding the identification of the body, there has not been much scientific debate about the alleged cause of death--cyanide poisoning, gunshot injury, or both. The available literature concerning Hitler's cause of death is incomplete because the toxicological analysis has not been performed and because the skull bone fragment with a gunshot wound possibly from Hitler's corpse has not been properly examined. This has given basis for various theories, which are reviewed. We believe that mtDNA analysis of the skull fragments and of Hitler's jaw, now filed in Moscow, and samples from maternal relatives of Hitler are crucial linking the skull fragment with the gunshot wound to Hitler. PMID:16225223

  19. The death of Adolf Hitler--forensic aspects.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniela; Boschi, Ilaria; Polacco, Matteo; Rainio, Juha

    2005-09-01

    The death of Adolf Hitler is one of the unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. Numerous historians and journalists have attempted to piece together the details, but despite the interest in the forensic literature regarding the identification of the body, there has not been much scientific debate about the alleged cause of death--cyanide poisoning, gunshot injury, or both. The available literature concerning Hitler's cause of death is incomplete because the toxicological analysis has not been performed and because the skull bone fragment with a gunshot wound possibly from Hitler's corpse has not been properly examined. This has given basis for various theories, which are reviewed. We believe that mtDNA analysis of the skull fragments and of Hitler's jaw, now filed in Moscow, and samples from maternal relatives of Hitler are crucial linking the skull fragment with the gunshot wound to Hitler.

  20. The unmourned wound: Reflections on the psychology of Adolf Hitler.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, D R

    1995-09-01

    Fifty years after his death by suicide, Adolf Hitler continues to arouse profound feelings of revulsion and attraction. This paper is an exploration of Hitler's psyche from the perspective of a depth psychology. After examining analyses of Hilter's personality by Richard Rubenstein and Alice Miller, the argument is made that we need C.G. Jung's concept of psychic inflation to understand more fully Hitler's impact upon the world. Hitler is seen as inflated by the compensating energies of the Self in response to his deeply wounded ego, a wound he could not mourn. Consequently, he became identified with the dark and destructive energies of the Self which inflated and then usurped his ego. Hitler's demonic and destructive career resulted from that inflation, which he was not able to neutralize. The paper concludes with reflections on the role of mourning in protecting us from the experience of psychic inflation, especially by the Self in its dark and destructive aspects.

  1. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. PMID:26093359

  2. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.

  3. Adolf Beck: A pioneer in electroencephalography in between Richard Caton and Hans Berger

    PubMed Central

    Coenen, Anton; Zayachkivska, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Adolf Beck, born in 1863 in Kraków (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1889, to work directly under the prominent professor in physiology Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started studies on the electrical brain activity of animals. He recorded negative electrical potentials in several brain areas evoked by peripheral sensory impulses. Using this technique, Beck localised various centres in the brain of several animal species. In doing this, he discovered continuous electrical oscillations in the electrical brain activity and noted that these oscillations ceased after sensory stimulation. This was the first description of desynchronization in electrical brain potentials. He published these findings in 1890 in the German Centralblatt für Physiologie. Immediately, an intense discussion arose under physiologists on the question who could claim being the founder of electroencephalography. Ultimately, Richard Caton from Liverpool showed that he had performed similar experiments in monkeys years earlier. Nevertheless, Beck added several new elements to the nature of electrical brain activity, such as evoked potentials and desynchronization. In looking back, Adolf Beck can be regarded, next to Richard Caton and together with Hans Berger (who later introduced the electrical brain recording method to humans), as one of the founders of electroencephalography. PMID:24605179

  4. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A L

    2003-03-01

    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war. PMID:12610755

  5. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A L

    2003-03-01

    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.

  6. Sandor Rado and Adolf Meyer: a nodal point in American psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, C

    1996-10-01

    Previously uncited archival material, principally letters between Adolf Meyer and Sandor Rado, is used to document the importance of a relationship between two influential figures in american psychiatry and psychoanalysis at a fateful moment in the evolution of both. Although Meyer and Rado have each fallen into relative neglect, their interaction not only was a crucial part of the schisms in American analysis in the 1930s and 1940s, but represented an important juncture in the history of the relationship between medicine, academic psychiatry and psychoanalysis in North America. Meyer's powerful influence was thus an essential component of Rado's attempts to rewrite psychoanalytic theory and terminology wholesale. Moreover, Rado specifically integrated the results of a radically integrationist agenda he had consolidated in his contact with Meyer into the organisation and educational programme of the psychoanalytic institute he founded at Columbia University in the early 1940s.

  7. Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.

    PubMed

    Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

    1999-03-01

    It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities. PMID:10053222

  8. Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure.

    PubMed

    Gerstenbrand, F; Karamat, E

    1999-03-01

    It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. No indication for postencephalitic parkinsonism was found in the clinical symptoms or the case history. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This special combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. The neuropsychiatric analysis of Hitler's personality could lead to a better explanation of the pathological traits of one of the most conspicuous historical personalities.

  9. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer's Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-07-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology - his biological theory of mind and mental disorders - and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical-pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body - observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory - he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of 'social adaptation'. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer's conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry.

  10. An investigation of sea ice motion and fluxes within the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canada, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlleben, T.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Komarov, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the sea ice flux events that occurred through the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea flux gate into the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) over the 2010 season are investigated in detail. In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, multi-year ice (MYI) exports and in situ summer melt are primarily balanced by MYI influx events into QEI during the brief period each year when ice exchanges freely between the Arctic Ocean and the QEI reservoir. Here, data from two Canadian Ice Service satellite tracking beacons that drifted through the Gustaf flux gate in 2010, along with atmospheric sea level pressure and wind data, are compared to ice drift velocities derived from RADARSAT imagery using a new sea ice tracking system. It is demonstrated in this study that the annual average ice drifts implied by the fluxes reported in previous works underestimate the basic current-driven flow of sea ice across the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea gate (as determined from Radarsat imagery during periods of no wind). It is further established that ice drifts (and hence ice fluxes) through the Gustaf flux gate vary spatially, with velocities on the eastern side in 2010 being consistently greater than those on the western side by a factor of ~2. These results reveal the potential of using Radarsat-derived ice motion to expand upon and improve the limited data on ocean currents within the Queen Elizabeth Islands, as well as to refine estimates of ice flux magnitudes and spatial patterns in this area.

  11. Inpatient diagnoses during Adolf Meyer's tenure as director of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, 1913-1940.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J H; Ota, K Y; More, W W; Shaffer, J W; Covi, L

    1986-12-01

    Between 1936 and 1950, detailed abstracts were prepared on all patients admitted to The Phipps Psychiatric Clinic from its opening in 1913 through 1950. Of these abstracts, 74% contained follow-up reports. Except for four papers on schizophrenia and affective disorders published between 1939 and 1943, none of this material has ever been analyzed. The present paper, the first of a series, examines the 8172 first admissions from 1913 through 1940, the period of Adolf Meyer's tenure as Clinic Director. Based on discharge diagnoses, we have sorted the patients into eight diagnostic groups with the following frequencies; schizophrenia, 17%; paranoid state, 3%; manic-depressive, 7%; depression, 27%; organic, 20%; neuroses, 15%; substance abuse, 6%; psychopath, 5%. Our manic-depressive group contains cases discharged primarily as hyperthymergasia, mania, or manic depressive insanity (MDI). Of the 349 cases diagnosed MDI at discharge, 10 had neither a history of nor present symptoms of mania, and these were put in the depression group. Frequencies for most of the diagnoses remained remarkably stable over the 28-year period. Only 9% were discharged recovered, whereas 43% were rated unimproved. Mean length of hospitalization was 76 days, with 10% of the patients readmitted. The mean length of follow-up was 9 years. Correlations of diagnoses, year of admission, length of stay, condition at discharge, age, sex, readmissions, change of diagnoses, somatic treatment, length of follow-up, and deaths in the clinic are presented. Meyer's influence on diagnostic practice is discussed.

  12. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer’s Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other ‘new’ progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology – his biological theory of mind and mental disorders – and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical–pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body – observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory – he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of ‘social adaptation’. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer’s conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry. PMID:26090738

  13. The 2014 ESPEN Arvid Wretlind Lecture: Metabolism & nutrition: Shifting paradigms in COPD management.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-12-01

    COPD is a chronic disease of the lungs, but heterogeneous with respect to clinical manifestations and disease progression. This has consequences for health risk assessment, stratification and management. Heterogeneity can be driven by pulmonary events but also by systemic consequences (e.g. cachexia and muscle weakness) and co-morbidity (e.g. osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease). This paper shows how a metabolic perspective on COPD has contributed significantly to understanding clinical heterogeneity and the need for a paradigm shift from reactive medicine towards predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. These insights have also lead to a paradigm shift in nutritional therapy for COPD from initial ignorance or focusing on putative adverse effects of carbohydrate overload on the ventilatory system to beneficial effects of nutritional intervention on body composition and physical functioning as integral part of disease management. The wider implications beyond COPD as disease have been as clinical model for translational cachexia research. PMID:26474814

  14. Armand Imbert, Adolf Fick, and their tonometry law

    PubMed Central

    Mark, H H

    2012-01-01

    ‘The basis of tonometry by applanation, even of tonometry as a whole, is Fick's law, or Imbert-Fick's law, which actually is a much more accurate name'. It is affirmatively cited solely in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, and in patent applications for new tonometers, but as a law of physics underlying clinical practice, it has been challenged both on theoretical grounds and on empirical, evidence-based, data. As the diagnosis and treatment success of glaucoma are primarily determined by tonometry, it seemed profitable to explore in historical context the genesis of this ‘law' that was said to be the basis of the method. PMID:22020170

  15. Armand Imbert, Adolf Fick, and their tonometry law.

    PubMed

    Mark, H H

    2012-01-01

    'The basis of tonometry by applanation, even of tonometry as a whole, is Fick's law, or Imbert-Fick's law, which actually is a much more accurate name'. It is affirmatively cited solely in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, and in patent applications for new tonometers, but as a law of physics underlying clinical practice, it has been challenged both on theoretical grounds and on empirical, evidence-based, data. As the diagnosis and treatment success of glaucoma are primarily determined by tonometry, it seemed profitable to explore in historical context the genesis of this 'law' that was said to be the basis of the method.

  16. [Doctor's degree thesis of Tomasz Adolf Wołkowiński "Carditidis rheumaticae historia"].

    PubMed

    Stembrowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.

  17. Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-81), pioneer of modern medicine, architect of intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Leigh, F W

    2009-08-01

    Krebs was born in Hildesheim (North Germany) and graduated (MD) from the University of Munich in 1923. He was assistant to Otto Warburg (1926-30) who taught tissue slicing and manometry which Krebs used to complete his three great works: The Detoxification of Ammonia (Freiburg im Breisgau 1933), The Degradation of Foods to provide Energy for Life (Sheffield 1937) and Gluconeogenesis (Oxford 1963). He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in 1947, Nobel Laureate in 1953 and KBE in 1958.

  18. Scaling and Exponent Equalities in Island Nucleation: Novel Results and Application to Organic Films Alberto Pimpinelli, Levent Tumbek, and Adolf Winkler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimpinelli, Alberto; Tumbek, Levent; Winkler, Adolf

    2015-03-01

    As discussed in the first talk, the scaling of the island density with the flux F and/or the capture zone distribution (CZD) can be used to determine the size of the critical nucleus i, but so far an analytic function for CZD exists only for diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). For CZD the scaling function is Pβ (s) =aβsβ exp (-bβs2) , with β = i + 2 . We have extended the analytic description of the CZD in terms of Pβ also to attachment-limited aggregation (ALA); in this case we obtain β = (i + 3) / 2 . Furthermore, we could demonstrate that the general relationship αβ = i holds, independent of the aggregation mechanism. This important exponent equality should help to better characterize nucleation and growth of thin films. Work at Graz supported by Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Project No. P 23530.

  19. Systems-theory of psychosis--the relevance of "internal censorship".

    PubMed

    Emrich, H M; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U

    2006-02-01

    The different aspects of the neurobiology of psychotic disorders are presently discussed under the perspective of Arvid Calssons neurochemical theory of mesolimbic/cortico-thalamic loops. In this regard the question as to whether--neuropsychologically--a "filter-defect" or a disturbance of "internal censorship" is causative for psychoses. This topic is discussed in the present paper.

  20. Systems-theory of psychosis--the relevance of "internal censorship".

    PubMed

    Emrich, H M; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U

    2006-02-01

    The different aspects of the neurobiology of psychotic disorders are presently discussed under the perspective of Arvid Calssons neurochemical theory of mesolimbic/cortico-thalamic loops. In this regard the question as to whether--neuropsychologically--a "filter-defect" or a disturbance of "internal censorship" is causative for psychoses. This topic is discussed in the present paper. PMID:16508897

  1. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. PMID:23710241

  2. New medical technology: to what does it lead?

    PubMed

    Enerstvedt, R T

    1999-07-01

    In this paper I first discuss the concept of medical technology. (I thank Knut Arnesen, Arvid Fennefoss, and Aslaug Høye for many informative and educational conversations about problems pertaining to technology). Then, I review some different meanings of the term, and then discuss the relationship between ethics and the scientific method. Finally, the understanding that emerges from this account is applied to a special problem: the relationship between technology and deafness.

  3. Radar and Atmospheric Sounding observations around 23 TGFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Priftis, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study employs 23 Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGF) detected with NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and collocated with the World Wide Lightning Location Network and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network with 9 WSR-88D (NEXRAD) located in Brownsville and Corpus Christy (Texas), Lake Charles (Louisiana), Key West, Miami, Tampa and Eglin Air Force Base (Florida), San Juan (Puerto Rico) and Andersen Air Force Base (Guam). The NEXRAD Enhanced Echo Tops (EET) and Vertical Integrated Liquid Density (VILD) are traditional proxies to storm height and severity. To retrieve the storm characteristics we construct probability histograms of respective EET and VILD values around each TGF.Here we show that although high-topped storms are consistently present in the vicinity of TGFs, the VILD values indicate storms of disparate convective strengths. In particular, the majority of our TGF sample is encompassed by storms of high EET (>10-11 km) values and in their majority overall VILD < ~2.0 gr m-3.These EET and VILD values are common in summertime oceanic/coastal low-latitude thunderstorms where the main convective core is limited in the first few kilometres and the updrafts are weak and narrow. Qualitative observations from the temporal evolution of the volumetric radar reflectivity shows that in a few cases the TGF emission signals the dissipation stage of the main convective core, although this suggestion is tentative and requires more sophisticated and currently ongoing storm tracking techniques. The atmospheric soundings (where available in spatial and temporal proximity with the respective TGF) indicate that TGF producing storms can exhibit a significant variation in their respective thermodynamic environment and type (e.g. regular to high CAPE, pulse vs. high shear etc). The authors acknowledge the valuable contributions of the GBM Team, Bob Holtzworth (WWLLN) and Stan Heckman (ENTLN).

  4. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  5. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  6. [Denaturalized psychoanalysts].

    PubMed

    Peglau, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents hitherto unknown material from the German Foreign Office referring to the denaturalization of Therese Benedek, Bruno Bettelheim, Adolf Storfer and Wilhelm Reich by Nazi Germany. It corroborates the finding that nobody was persecuted by the Nazis solely on the basis of psychoanalytic activities or membership in a psychoanalytic organization.

  7. From ink bottles to e-beams: a historical perspective on diffractive optic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mait, Joseph N.

    2001-07-01

    The history of diffractive optic technology is traced from the first hand-drawn computer-generated holograms created by Adolf Lohmann and Byron Brown to elements fabricated using electron beams that are smaller than a human hair. The influence of Adolf Lohmann on the field is recounted, as are the major developments in fabrication and computation. In particular we highlight the influence of technology on design techniques showing how the availability of computer plotters in the 1960s lead to early encoding techniques. The transition in the 1970s to photolithographic fabrication changed the nature of diffractive design from cell-oriented to point-oriented encoding. At the same time optimization routines were developed that incorporated these new fabrication constraints. The introduction of electron beam writing in the fabrication of diffractive optics in the 1980s brought diffractive design in the 1990s full circle to techniques that are again cell-oriented. Shrinking-features have also changed the applications for diffractive elements. First used primarily as filters for optical correlators, diffractive elements will play a critical role in telecommunications systems that are nearing deployment. However, the most visible impact of Adolf Lohmann's contributions are pattern generators sold with laser pointers. This history is dedicated to Adolf Lohmann on the occassion of his seventy-fifth birthday.

  8. Reflections on Antecedents of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Stephen G.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the influence of Karl Marx's writings on Adolf Hitler, and asks whether there was a causal nexus between Russian and Nazi atrocities. Uses primary sources as a method for historical comparison. Compares Hitler's writings on antisemitism with those of Marx. (NL)

  9. Some Perspectives on the Politics and Organization of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berle, Adolf A.

    Adolf A. Berle, a statesman and law professor, discusses the powers and responsibilities of the educational administrator. Emphasized is the belief that education must not be sacrificed to race relations militants, anti-war groups, or teachers' demands. Police force should be used when needed to prevent schools from becoming battlegrounds.…

  10. Navigating Worlds of "Trouble and Woe and Worse" in Children's Literature: An Exploration into the Double Text of Tony Kushner and Maurice Sendak's "Brundibar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Kristin M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the richly layered double text of Kushner and Sendak's picturebook, "Brundibar" (2003)--the historical context of "Brundibar" as a Holocaust-era children's operetta by Hans Krasa and Adolf Hoffmeister, and the present day manifestation of "Brundibar" as a children's picturebook. In order to contextualize the…

  11. Why Study about F.D.R. and Hitler?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    Both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. This 50th anniversary issue contains articles analyzing the two men, and the different political, social, moral, and artistic directions taken by the United States and Germany in the 1930's. American youth have much to learn from what occurred. (CS)

  12. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.

    2014-01-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  13. Roots and Routes: Road from Home to America, Middle East and Diaspora, about Being Armenian Genocide Female Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghajanian, Ani Derderian

    2011-01-01

    Adolf Hitler, on August 22, 1939 stated, "I have given orders to my Death Units to exterminate without mercy or pity men, women, and children belonging to the Polish-speaking race. It is only in this manner that we can acquire the vital territory which we need. After all, who remembers today the extermination of the Armenians?"…

  14. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  15. Hitler and the Holocaust. Senior High School U.S. History, World History, English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Ron; Townsend, Kenneth

    This curriculum outline, designed for use in U.S. history, world history, or English courses, presents information about Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust. Part 1 provides a rationale for teaching about this subject, while part 2 presents an outline of historical information from 1887 to 1934 concerning Hitler's life and the rise of the Nazi Party.…

  16. Charismatic Leaders: A Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing upon Franklin D. Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler, these lessons for high school students in U.S. or world history courses deal with what charismatic leadership is, what circumstances and personality factors generate charismatic movements, and the role, results, and dangers of charismatic leadership. (RM)

  17. "Structured Discovery": A Modified Inquiry Approach to Teaching Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordon, John

    1981-01-01

    Describes structured discovery approach to inquiry teaching which encourages the teacher to select instructional objectives, content, and questions to be answered. The focus is on individual and group activities. A brief outline using this approach to analyze Adolf Hitler is presented. (KC)

  18. Using Historical Empathy to Excite Students about the Study of History: Can You Empathize with Neville Chamberlain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Describes a historical empathy lesson that requires high school students to understand, explain, and evaluate why Neville Chamberlain followed the policy of appeasement in his negotiations with Adolf Hitler. Defines historical empathy and includes an appendix with list of key events, student investigation sheet, and resource materials. (CMK)

  19. Youth Reflect on Hitler: A Cross-National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, James J.

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of essays written by students from Great Britain and the United States on the topic "What I have heard about Adolf Hitler" showed that today's youth have only a very superficial knowledge about the events surrounding Hitler and Nazism. (RM)

  20. Content Analysis of Essays from a Cross-National Survey: Implications for Teaching Strategies in Holocaust Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, James J.

    The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers that were…

  1. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  2. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia, by Doris Kimbrough, p 48. * The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales, by Gavin Peckham, p 49. * Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance, by Adolf Cortel, p 61. * Toward More Performance Evaluation in Chemistry, by Sharon Rasp, p 64. A Wealth of Useful Information

  4. Levodopa therapy for Parkinson disease: A look backward and forward.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, Peter A; Fahn, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Although levodopa is widely recognized as the most effective therapy for Parkinson disease (PD), its introduction 5 decades ago was preceded by several years of uncertainty and equivocal clinical results. The translation of basic neuroscience research by Arvid Carlsson and Oleh Hornykiewicz provided a logical pathway for treating PD with levodopa. Yet the pioneering clinicians who transformed PD therapeutics with this drug--among them Walther Birkmayer, Isamu Sano, Patrick McGeer, George Cotzias, Melvin Yahr, and others--faced many challenges in determining whether the concept and the method for replenishing deficient striatal dopamine was correct. This article reviews highlights in the early development of levodopa therapy. In addition, it provides an overview of emerging drug delivery strategies that show promise for improving levodopa's pharmacologic limitations.

  5. The World's Most Famous Meteor Shower Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1995-01-01

    The world's most famous meteor shower picture (Fig. 1) is of the storm that took place in the early morning of Wednesday, 13 November 1833. The picture was, however, produce 54 years after the event, being first published in April 1888. It had a biblical origin and was only taken over by the astronomers in the mid 1920s. The artist was the Swiss painter Karl Jauslin and the engraver was Adolf Völlmy.

  6. The study of allergy by Japanese researchers: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2009-12-01

    It has been over a hundred years since Shibasaburo Kitasato and Emil Adolf von Boehring's finding of a serum component that neutralizes bacterial toxins and the subsequent development of antiserum therapy. Over that time, many Japanese researchers have greatly contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for allergic and inflammatory diseases. This article is aimed at introducing such individual work and how these areas have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions.

  7. The treatment of a dictator.

    PubMed

    Wade, Owen

    2003-05-01

    In 1973 Mr Richard Hughes, who was working on the third novel of his trilogy on the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler, came to see me regarding a document, some 300 pages long, on the medical treatment given by Dr Theodore Morell to Hitler. The document had been obtained at the Nuremberg war trials. My original report to Hughes on the content of this document is reproduced here. PMID:12717543

  8. Hitler's hysterical blindness: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Silva, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha E

    2010-10-01

    This article deals with a little known episode that occurred near the end of the Great War in a military reserve hospital located in the small town of Pasewalk, part of the distant region of Pomerania in northern Poland. The story is centered around the transient visual loss of a 29-year-old Austrian messenger of the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment. His name: Adolf Hitler. PMID:21049205

  9. The treatment of a dictator.

    PubMed

    Wade, Owen

    2003-05-01

    In 1973 Mr Richard Hughes, who was working on the third novel of his trilogy on the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler, came to see me regarding a document, some 300 pages long, on the medical treatment given by Dr Theodore Morell to Hitler. The document had been obtained at the Nuremberg war trials. My original report to Hughes on the content of this document is reproduced here.

  10. Hitler's hysterical blindness: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Silva, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha E

    2010-10-01

    This article deals with a little known episode that occurred near the end of the Great War in a military reserve hospital located in the small town of Pasewalk, part of the distant region of Pomerania in northern Poland. The story is centered around the transient visual loss of a 29-year-old Austrian messenger of the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment. His name: Adolf Hitler.

  11. Working Towards Führer: A Chaotic View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakar, Ulas

    Leadership is a concept that has been discussed since the beginning of history. Even though there have been many theories in the field accepting leadership's role in bringing order, chaotic aspects of leadership are generally neglected. This chapter aims to examine the leadership beyond an orderly interpretation of universe. For this purpose, Third Reich period and leadership during this period will be examined. Ian Kershaw's "Working Towards Führer" concept provides a unique understanding of leadership concept. It goes beyond the dualist depiction of Third Reich, it does not state Adolf Hitler as an all powerful dictator, or a weak one. Rather, he expresses that due to the conditions in the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler was both of this. This complex situation can be understood deeper when it is examined through the lens of chaos theory. This study contributes to the field by being the first in using chaos theory for examining "Working Towards Führer" concept and its development. Seemingly orderly nature of synchronization process and its vortex will be shown. Adolf Hitler's storm spot position in the chaotic system and its dynamics are explained. War's entropic power and its effect on the downfall of the system is crucial in understanding this unique chaotic system. The chaotic pattern of "Working Towards Führer" offers an opportunity to analyze the complexities of the leadership concept.

  12. The Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Earth’s atmosphere and Its Possible Influence on the Temperature at the Surface - as discussed in Sweden in 1894-96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    On November 15, 1894, Arvid Högbom, geologist, presented a paper at a meeting of the Swedish Chemical Society (“Kemistsamfundet) in Uppsala. His title: “On the probability of secular changes in the atmosphere’s carbonic acid concentration”. The possibility that changes in the carbon dioxide concentration would produce changes in the surface temperature came up in the discussion after the talk. In the audience was Svante Arrhenius. In early 1896, at another meeting of Kemistsamfundet, Arrhenius followed up on this with a paper “The influence of the carbonic acid concentration on the temperature at the surface of the Earth”. Both papers were published in Svensk Kemisk Tidscrift - Vol. 6 and Vol. 7 - as part of the minutes of the corresponding meetings. Arrhenius continued to pursue the idea, presenting and writing about it outside of Sweden. Most histories credit Arrhenius’s work as the first on global warming, although some mention Högbom’s prior report. Högbom’s paper has never been translated from the Swedish, at least not so far as I have been able to discover. I will present a translation and review of Högbom’s elegant paper and Arrhenius's initial response.

  13. The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet; Standing L to R - aircraft mechanic John Goleno and SCA Team Leader Pete Seidl; Kneeling L to R - aircraft mechanics Todd Weston and Arvid Knutson, and avionics technician Jim Bedard NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights.

  14. [Nobel Prize winning laureates in physiology or medicine for the year 2000--a few comments on discoveries related to signal transduction].

    PubMed

    Klenerová, V; Hynie, S

    2001-05-01

    The Nobel Assembly awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2000 jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. On the examples of their predecessors we attempted to demonstrate how results of basic research serve as building blocks for new discoveries and for the application of research results into the praxis. We presented not only the basic discoveries of laureates of Nobel Prize for year 2000 (biological role of dopamine, regulation of cell functions by phosphorylation of proteins, changes in transduction of signals during processes of memory), but we also mentioned previous discoveries that helped in the research of the last laureates. These discoveries concerned not only the storage and metabolism of transmitters, formulation of the concept of cyclic AMP as a second messenger of hormonal action, the role of G-proteins in transduction processes in receptor-effector complexes, processes of phosphorylation of proteins as regulators of cell functions, but we also mentioned the discovery of other second messengers and substances functioning as local hormones (prostaglandins and related compounds). Most of the described discoveries have not only the value as stones that can help to fill still incomplete mosaic of our present knowledge, but they also represent the immediate basis for the development and use of very important remedies, such as are antiparkinsonics, antidepressive drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, etc.

  15. Disruption of frontocerebellar circuitry and function in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Edith V; Harding, Antony J; Pentney, Roberta; Dlugos, Cynthia; Martin, Peter R; Parks, Mitchell H; Desmond, John E; Chen, S H Annabel; Pryor, Michelle R; De Rosa, Eve; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2003-02-01

    This article represents a symposium of the 2002 joint meeting of RSA and ISBRA held in San Francisco. Presentations were Neuropathology of alcohol-related cerebellar damage in humans, by Antony J. Harding; Neuropathological evidence of cerebellar damage in an animal model of alcoholism, by Roberta Pentney and Cynthia Dlugos; Understanding cortical-cerebellar circuits through neuroimaging study of chronic alcoholics, by Peter R. Martin and Mitchell H. Parks; and Functional reorganization of the brain in alcoholism: neuroimaging evidence, by John E. Desmond, S.H. Annabel Chen, Michelle R. Pryor, Eve De Rosa, Adolf Pfefferbaum, and Edith V. Sullivan.

  16. Hitler: a neurohistorical formulation.

    PubMed

    Martindale, C; Hasenfus, N; Hines, D

    1976-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Adolf Hitler suffered from a constitutional left-side weakness that allowed his cerebral hemisphere to exert a strong influence on his thought and behavior. Physical characteristics such as trembling of the left extremities, lack of a left testicle, and tendency to exhibit leftward eye movements are interpreted as supportive of the hypothesis. Right hemisphere dominance is consistent with a number of Hitler's personal traits such as praise of the irrational, automatic speech, auditory hallucinations, hypochondriasis, uncontrolled rages, and spatial and musical interests. Right hemisphere dominated thought may also have formed a basis for his two basic political policies: Lebensraum and anti-Semitism. PMID:798651

  17. Hitler: a neurohistorical formulation.

    PubMed

    Martindale, C; Hasenfus, N; Hines, D

    1976-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Adolf Hitler suffered from a constitutional left-side weakness that allowed his cerebral hemisphere to exert a strong influence on his thought and behavior. Physical characteristics such as trembling of the left extremities, lack of a left testicle, and tendency to exhibit leftward eye movements are interpreted as supportive of the hypothesis. Right hemisphere dominance is consistent with a number of Hitler's personal traits such as praise of the irrational, automatic speech, auditory hallucinations, hypochondriasis, uncontrolled rages, and spatial and musical interests. Right hemisphere dominated thought may also have formed a basis for his two basic political policies: Lebensraum and anti-Semitism.

  18. Catalytic functionalization of indoles in a new dimension.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Marco; Eichholzer, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    140 years ago Adolf von Baeyer proposed the structure of a heteroaromatic compound which revolutionized organic and medical chemistry: indole. After more than a century, indole itself and the complexity of naturally occurring indole derivatives continue to inspire and influence developments in synthetic chemistry. In particular, the ubiquitous presence of indole rings in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and functional materials are testament to the ever increasing interest in the design of mild and efficient synthetic routes to functionalized indole derivatives. This Review emphasizes the achievements in the selective catalytic functionalization of indoles (C-C bond-forming processes) over the last four years.

  19. The Limit of a strong Lobby: Why did August Bier and Ferdinand Sauerbruch never receive the Nobel Prize?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schagen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    August Bier (1861-1949) and Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951) have remained two of the most influential figures during the first half of the 20th century in German and even in international surgery. They were jointly awarded Adolf Hitler's German Science Prize in 1937, but never the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, although no other German surgeons were nominated as often as Bier and Sauerbruch for the prestigeful award from 1901 to 1950. This contribution gives an overview of the reasons why and by whom Bier and Sauerbruch were nominated, and discusses the reasons of the Nobel Prize Committee for not awarding them. PMID:25094023

  20. The Limit of a strong Lobby: Why did August Bier and Ferdinand Sauerbruch never receive the Nobel Prize?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schagen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    August Bier (1861-1949) and Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951) have remained two of the most influential figures during the first half of the 20th century in German and even in international surgery. They were jointly awarded Adolf Hitler's German Science Prize in 1937, but never the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, although no other German surgeons were nominated as often as Bier and Sauerbruch for the prestigeful award from 1901 to 1950. This contribution gives an overview of the reasons why and by whom Bier and Sauerbruch were nominated, and discusses the reasons of the Nobel Prize Committee for not awarding them.

  1. The Burgholzli Hospital: Its history and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861

  2. Chlorpheniramine, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hellbom, Einar

    2006-01-01

    Some old antihistamines were selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the SSRI effect was discovered by Nobel Laureate Professor Arvid Carlsson as early as 1969. Chlorpheniramine was the most active of the tested drugs, and it compares favourably with amitriptyline and imipramine with respect to actions on both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Chlorpheniramine can be called a SSRI, since the blocking of 5HT is stronger than the effect on noradrenaline neurons; however it might also be called a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) and be compared with new drugs, such as venlafaxine. Carlsson suggested the potential value of clinical studies of the antidepressant properties of this and related antihistamine drugs. But, in the event, no such trials were ever performed at the time. However, later clinical observations of the benefits of dex-chlorpheniramine treatment in panic disorder have been published. Clinical experience suggests that patients using chlorpheniramine, and having also a concomitant depression or panic disorder, may experience a return of symptoms when their old drug is changed to a new antihistamine lacking SSRI effects. Yet this phenomenon is not known to many doctors, and even less known to the large number of patients buying chlorpheniramine under various trade names over-the-counter (OTC) at a low price for self-treatment of hay fewer or as a cold remedy. Chlorpheniramine was introduced in USA under the name Chlor-Trimeton as long ago as July 1950, and is still on the market. Therefore, this SSRI is now over 50 years old. If chlorpheniramine had been tested in depression in the nineteen seventies, it is probable that a safe, inexpensive SSRI drug could have been used some 15 years earlier than fluoxetine - which became available in 1987. Chlorpheniramine might have been the first safe, non-cardiotoxic and well-tolerated antidepressant. Billions of dollars in the development and marketing costs would

  3. [Nobel prize in physiology of medicine for year 2000 for research of signal transduction in the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Gispen, W H

    2000-11-11

    The three Nobel laureates Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel have made pioneering discoveries concerning slow synaptic transmission between neurons. As common theme, for which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2000 is given, the Nobel Assembly chose 'signal transduction in the nervous system'. The work of Carlsson led to the discovery of dopamine as transmitter in the brain and opened the way for the development of the levodopa therapy of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. His later work concentrated on the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and the rationale for the mechanism of action of antipsychotics. Greengard pioneered the field of receptor-mediated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of brain proteins. He was the first to describe the cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase in the brain and the activation of this kinase following dopamine receptor activation. A substrate enriched in cells that bear dopamine receptors is 'dopamine- and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein' (DARPP-32). Phosphorylation by the cyclic-AMP-dependent kinase influences its protein phosphatase inhibiting capacity and, as such, DARPP-32 is an important 'feed-forward activator' in the dopamine signal transduction cascade. Kandel received the prize for his contributions to our understanding of the neural substrate of learning and memory. Most of his work was carried out in the sea slug Aplysia in which he was able to relate three psychologically defined forms of learning--habituation, sensitisation, and classical conditioning--to subcellular processes and intercellular signalling. Kandel is known all over the world for his eminent textbook Principles of Neural Science which inspired generations of young neuroscientists. It seems that it is not so much the signal transduction that joins these laureates but their outstanding conceptual approach to, in fact, three different themes of the neurosciences during the second part of the last century.

  4. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.

  5. Van Gogh and the life chart.

    PubMed

    Rahe, R H

    1992-01-01

    Adolf Meyer originally devised the life chart in order to chronologically document a person's major life events and significant illness experiences over his or her life span. It is the purpose of this report to update Meyer's life chart through the presentation of the life events and illnesses of the famous artist Vincent Van Gogh. Van Gogh's life illustrates significant early (predisposing) life stresses, as well as clusterings of stressful (precipitating) life events occurring proximal to the occurrence of his several illnesses. Through the use of a life chart an understanding of why an individual becomes ill at a particular time in their life is enlarged. In addition, a systematic basis for formulating prognosis becomes available.

  6. The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hill, B

    1999-01-01

    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem was the centre of scientific racism in Nazi Germany. Its bad history culminated in a research project to analyse the molecular basis of racial differences in the susceptibility to various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Josef Mengele, a former postdoc of the director of the institute, Otmar von Verschuer, collected blood samples and other material in Auschwitz from families and twins of Jews and Gypsies. The blood samples were analysed by Günther Hillmann in the Berlin laboratory of Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt. Butenandt had just moved to Tübingen. The project was paid for by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Butenandt, Hillmann and von Verschuer made scientific careers in the Federal Republic. To the present day this past has not been acknowledged by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as part of its history.

  7. The politics of choice: roles of the medical profession under Nazi rule.

    PubMed

    Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H

    1989-06-01

    In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response.

  8. Reporting on the Holocaust: the view from Jim Crow Alabama.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    The press in Alabama covered major events taking place in Germany from the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 through the Nuremberg Trials in 1946. Journalists in the state provided extensive coverage, and editors did not hesitate to opine on the persecution of the Jews in Europe. Yet, Alabama’s white-run press failed in the end to explain the events as a singularly Jewish tragedy. The state’s black-run press, for its part, used the news of the mass killings of the Jews to warn against the dangers of conceptions of racial superiority—a primary concern for black southerners living in the Jim Crow South.

  9. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism.

  10. The history of artistic creativity in psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Klavora, Vlasta Meden

    2008-06-01

    The article deals with the question of artistic creativity in psychotic patients, focussing particularly on why it occurs and how interest in it developed. One of the main motivations for carrying out this study was to explore the idea of the connection between genius and insanity, which was accepted by one of the most important pre-Freud psychiatrists of the 19th century, Cesare Lombroso. The article describes the history of the first exhibitions and collections of artistic creations of psychotic patients, of which the most important is the collection of Hans Prinzhorn. It also conveys the influence of Adolf Wölfli, psychotic patient, who was one of the most notable creators and influenced the concept of art brut at the beginning of the 20th century.

  11. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  12. Turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sabshin, M

    1990-10-01

    The author examines four major turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry, emphasizing the movement during the post-World War II period toward a psychotherapeutic/psychoanalytic approach and the emergence of biological psychiatry, neuroscience, and logical positivism during the 1970s and 1980s. He discusses the impact of Adolf Meyer during the mid-twentieth century and his ongoing influence. The final turning point involves a prediction of a late twentieth-century change, including new directions in nosology, emphasis on combined pharmacotherapeutic/psychotherapeutic treatments, efforts to create alternatives to full inpatient care, better outcome data for psychiatric treatments, and beginning resolution of major boundary problems of current practice. PMID:2205113

  13. [Japanese psychiatrists who studied in the United States in pre-war years].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y

    1994-12-01

    In pre-war years, the main stream of Japanese psychiatry belonged to the German School, and many eminent psychiatrists studied in Germany. As far as I could confirm, eleven Japanese psychiatrists studied in the United States in pre-war years. The first one was Saburo Matsubara (1877-1936), who studied under Adolf Meyer during the years 1903-1908. Nine psychiatrists studied in the United States during the years of World War I or just after it. Five of them studied under Meyer, and four others at the Wistar Institute of Biology and Anatomy. The last one, Tsuneo Muramatsu (1900-1981), studied at Harvard University during the years 1933-1935. In pre-war years, the seeds sown by them opened into very small flowers. But in post-war years, the seeds bore good fruit in the form of the introduction of dynamic concepts into Japanese psychiatry.

  14. The politics of choice: roles of the medical profession under Nazi rule.

    PubMed

    Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H

    1989-06-01

    In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response. PMID:2660316

  15. Spellbinding and crooning: sound amplification, radio, and political rhetoric in international comparative perspective, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Wijfjes, Huub

    2014-01-01

    This article researches in an interdisciplinary way the relationship of sound technology and political culture at the beginning of the twentieth century. It sketches the different strategies that politicians--Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill, and Dutch prime minister Hendrikus Colijn--found for the challenges that sound amplification and radio created for their rhetoric and presentation. Taking their different political styles into account, the article demonstrates that the interconnected technologies of sound amplification and radio forced a transition from a spellbinding style based on atmosphere and pathos in a virtual environment to "political crooning" that created artificial intimacy in despatialized simultaneity. Roosevelt and Colijn created the best examples of this political crooning, while Churchill and Hitler encountered problems in this respect. Churchill's radio successes profited from the special circumstances during the first period of World War II. Hitler's speeches were integrated into a radio regime trying to shape, with dictatorial powers, a national socialistic community of listeners. PMID:24988797

  16. Reporting on the Holocaust: the view from Jim Crow Alabama.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    The press in Alabama covered major events taking place in Germany from the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933 through the Nuremberg Trials in 1946. Journalists in the state provided extensive coverage, and editors did not hesitate to opine on the persecution of the Jews in Europe. Yet, Alabama’s white-run press failed in the end to explain the events as a singularly Jewish tragedy. The state’s black-run press, for its part, used the news of the mass killings of the Jews to warn against the dangers of conceptions of racial superiority—a primary concern for black southerners living in the Jim Crow South. PMID:22073444

  17. Spellbinding and crooning: sound amplification, radio, and political rhetoric in international comparative perspective, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Wijfjes, Huub

    2014-01-01

    This article researches in an interdisciplinary way the relationship of sound technology and political culture at the beginning of the twentieth century. It sketches the different strategies that politicians--Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill, and Dutch prime minister Hendrikus Colijn--found for the challenges that sound amplification and radio created for their rhetoric and presentation. Taking their different political styles into account, the article demonstrates that the interconnected technologies of sound amplification and radio forced a transition from a spellbinding style based on atmosphere and pathos in a virtual environment to "political crooning" that created artificial intimacy in despatialized simultaneity. Roosevelt and Colijn created the best examples of this political crooning, while Churchill and Hitler encountered problems in this respect. Churchill's radio successes profited from the special circumstances during the first period of World War II. Hitler's speeches were integrated into a radio regime trying to shape, with dictatorial powers, a national socialistic community of listeners.

  18. Brain collections at the National Museum of Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fobbs, Archibald J; Johnson, John I

    2011-05-01

    Owing in large part to the foresight and efforts of Wally Welker, the National Museum of Health and Medicine has become a major repository for collections of brain specimens vital to the study of neurobehavioral evolution. From its origins in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, with the collection of largely pathological specimens assembled by Paul Yakovlev, the museum has added to its resources four additional extensive collections, largely consisting of specimens acquired specifically for comparative and evolutionary studies: Welker's collection from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, John I. Johnson's collection from Michigan State University, the Adolf Meyer Collection from the Johns Hopkins University, and the Elizabeth Crosby collections from the University of Michigan. We describe here the history and contents of each of these five collections, to inform the scientific field of the extent and details of these remarkable resources.

  19. Neuroimaging in alcoholism: ethanol and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Mann, K; Agartz, I; Harper, C; Shoaf, S; Rawlings, R R; Momenan, R; Hommer, D W; Pfefferbaum, A; Sullivan, E V; Anton, R F; Drobes, D J; George, M S; Bares, R; Machulla, H J; Mundle, G; Reimold, M; Heinz, A

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The co-chairs were Karl Mann and Ingrid Agartz. The presentations were (1) Neuropathological changes in alcohol-related brain damage, by Clive Harper; (2) Regional brain volumes including the hippocampus and monoamine metabolites in alcohol dependence, by Ingrid Agartz, Susan Shoaf, Robert R, Rawlings, Reza Momenan, and Daniel W Hommer; (3) Diffusion tensor abnormalities in imaging of white matter alcoholism, by Adolf Pfefferbaum and Edith V. Sullivan; (4) Use of functional MRI to evaluate brain activity during alcohol cue exposure in alcoholics: Relationship to craving, by Raymond F. Anton, David J. Drobes, and Mark S. George; and (5) mu-Opiate receptor availability in alcoholism: First results from a positron emission tomography study, by Karl Mann, Roland Bares, Hans-Juergen Machulla, Goetz Mundle, Matthias Reimold, and Andreas Heinz.

  20. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature. PMID:25490079

  1. [The influence of German speaking psychiatrists and neurologists in Northamerica and England (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kalinowsky, L B

    1978-11-01

    The influence of German speaking psychiatrists has been quite remarkable in many countries. The German-Swiss Adolf Meyer placed the emphasis of his "psychobiological" school on psychodynamics a fact which opened the way for psychoanalysis. Those who had been invited to the Cnited States prior to 1933 like Franz Alexander and Sandor Rado, were followed by a great number of immigrants mostly from Vienna and Berlin. Representatives of nonanalytical psychiatry were the genetic psychiatrist Franz Kallmann and pioneers of somatic treatments like Sakel and Meduna. Prominent among neurologists coming from Germany to the United States were Kurt Goldstein, Hauptmann, Hans Strauss and Wartenberg. In England Mayer-Gross and Erich Guttmann exerted great influence. It seems that especially in Psychiatry the effort of so many representatives of our specialty in other countries has helped to promote international exchanges which formerly were missing.

  2. Structure and Tectonics of the Cheb Basin (NW-Bohemia) from a shallow reflection seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpaap, Felix; Paschke, Marco; Bleibinhaus, Florian

    2015-04-01

    In the seismically active region of Northwest Bohemia, we imaged structural characteristics of the Cenozoic Cheb Basin with a shallow 3.5 km reflection seismic survey to find proof of faulting along the Počatky-Plesná shear zone (PPZ). Previously, the shear zone's existence has been inferred from earthquakes that occur in swarms and concentrate in the focal zone of Nový Kostel, below the Cheb Basin, along a plane striking at 170°. The difference in strike between the planar focal zone and the 145° oriented, crustal-scale eastern border fault of the Cheb Basin, which forms the northern termination of the geomorphologically dominant Mariánské Lazně fault, was interpreted to hint to the existence of a second major crustal fault zone. With additional interpretations of river drainage patterns, a distinct 25 m terrain escarpment and the distribution of Quaternary sediments around the Plesná river, the surface outcrop of the PPZ was thought to be found. A P-velocity model which we obtained from tomographic inversion of the first arrivals revealed an uppermost layer of very slow seismic velocities (about 1 km/s) that varies strongly in thickness. We interpret this layer as unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, which impacted the quality of our recorded shot gathers negatively with increasing thickness of the layer. The result of our standard reflection seismic processing, challenged by strong ground roll, is an image of the eastern Cheb Basin's layers and several tectonic features along a cross-strike profile with varying resolution. Our seismic image shows undisturbed younger sediments of the upper neogene Vildštejn and Cypris Formation, overlying the early miocene Main Coal Seam Formation and a structured basement. The imaged maximum basin depth of 300 m and unconformities below and above the Vildštejn Formation correspond well with litostratigraphic borehole data and previous sedimentological and tectonic models. We observe reverse faults in the lower

  3. The brain on itself: Nobel laureates and the history of fundamental nervous system function.

    PubMed

    Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-11-01

    terminated by reuptake. This review does not include 21st century laureates, although the prize has already been given to neuroscientists twice this century; Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel received the award in 2000 for their discoveries related to signal transduction, and Richard Axel and Linda Buck received the award in 2004 for their work in the field of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.

  4. The brain on itself: Nobel laureates and the history of fundamental nervous system function.

    PubMed

    Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-11-01

    terminated by reuptake. This review does not include 21st century laureates, although the prize has already been given to neuroscientists twice this century; Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel received the award in 2000 for their discoveries related to signal transduction, and Richard Axel and Linda Buck received the award in 2004 for their work in the field of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system. PMID:18091266

  5. STELLAR 'FIREWORKS FINALE' CAME FIRST IN EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than 1 billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. Back then the sky would have looked markedly different from the sea of quiescent galaxies around us today. The sky is ablaze with primeval starburst galaxies; giant elliptical and spiral galaxies have yet to form. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under a torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of Hubble Space Telescope deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Painting Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI

  6. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. PMID:25684286

  7. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  8. [The landmarks of the measurement of cerebral blood flow].

    PubMed

    István, Nyáry

    2008-01-30

    History of the measurement of local cerebral blood flow may cover a period of one and a half centuries. Parallel forthcoming of both theoretical and technical development were the key elements of ensuing progress resulting in the present state, when by the aid of in vivo blood flow and metabolic maps, we can visualize locales of brain functioning and their interconnections. Two theoretical landmarks should be mentioned in this historic process. First, the work of Adolf Fick, as the starter of quantitative measurements in this field, and Seymour Kety's model of a single, homogenously perfused tissue element. The solution of this model, in the form of Kety's equation is still fundamental to present day blood flow mapping techniques. Among the numerous investigators over the past years, two Hungarian scientist can be named as major contributors. Kálmán Sántha made substantial studies with continuous registration of local cerebral blood flow by the aid of thermocouples, while Emil P6sztor invented the hydrogen clearance method for the measurement of local cerebral blood flow both in human and in animal studies.

  9. Increasing the reliability of data analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging by applying a new blockwise permutation method

    PubMed Central

    Adolf, Daniela; Weston, Snezhana; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes; Kropf, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper by Eklund et al. (2012) showed that up to 70% false positive results may occur when analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, which may mainly be caused by insufficient compensation for the temporal correlation between successive scans. Here, we show that a blockwise permutation method can be an effective alternative to the standard correction method for the correlated residuals in the general linear model, assuming an AR(1)-model as used in SPM for analyzing fMRI data. The blockwise permutation approach including a random shift developed by our group (Adolf et al., 2011) accounts for the temporal correlation structure of the data without having to provide a specific definition of the underlying autocorrelation model. 1465 publicly accessible resting-state data sets were re-analyzed, and the results were compared with those of Eklund et al. (2012). It was found that with the new permutation method the nominal familywise error rate for the detection of activated voxels could be maintained approximately under even the most critical conditions in which Eklund et al. found the largest deviations from the nominal error level. Thus, the method presented here can serve as a tool to ameliorate the quality and reliability of fMRI data analyses. PMID:25165444

  10. Theodor Waitz on psychic unity.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Gustav

    2014-06-01

    The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.

  11. The origins of medical physics.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis A

    2014-06-01

    The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'.

  12. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses several still unsettled and not systematically investigated questions concerning the situation of Jewish scientists, among them mathematicians, in the Republic of Weimar. Contemporary statements by the well-known leftist and liberal journalists Carl von Ossietzky (1932) and Rudolf Olden (1934) are used to describe the general political situation. A wide-spread feeling of a social and political crisis and changes and perturbations in international scientific communication provide explanatory background for the conditions within academia in the 1920s. A comparison of appointments of Jewish mathematicians to full professorships before and after World War I does not give significant differences. Attitudes of Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Bernstein, Richard Courant, Emil Julius Gumbel, Edmund Landau, Richard von Mises, Johann von Neumann and Adolf A. Fraenkel, but also of non-Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Klein, Walther von Dyck and Theodor Vahlen will be discussed, providing some unpublished material. One statement by Felix Klein (1920), which shows his undecided stance with respect to the problem of anti-Semitism, and an excerpt from Richard von Mises' diary (1933), where he reflects on his status as a Jewish mathematician and as a refugee, are particularly valuable as points of reference for necessary further research. PMID:18693641

  13. ["In Stockholm they apparently had some kind of countermovement" - Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951) and the Nobel prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schagen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, is a remarkable repository that contains reports and dossiers of the Nobel Prize nominations of senior and junior physicians from around the world. Although this archive has begun to be used more by scholars, it has been insufficiently examined by historians of surgery. No other German surgeon was nominated as often as Ferdinand Sauerbruch for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in the first half of the 20th century. This contribution reconstructs why and by whom Sauerbruch was nominated, and discusses the Nobel committee evaluations of his work. Political factors did not play an obvious role in the Nobel committee discussions, in spite of the fact that Adolf Hitler in 1937 had prohibited all German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. The main reasons why Sauerbruch ultimately was not considered prize- worthy were that Sauerbruch's achievements were marked by scientific priority disputes, and that his work was not seen as original enough.

  14. Managers can drive their subordinates mad.

    PubMed

    Kets de Vries, M F

    1979-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "folie à deux"--an aberrant relationship between manager and subordinates that is characterized by shared delusions. Though most visible among public figures like Adolf Hitler, J. Edgar Hoover and Jim Jones, the problem also surfaces among private managers and their associates with dangerous implications for the firm. In folie à deux, the unusual behavior patterns of a manager in an isolated setting become mirrored by dependent subordinates, and the organization loses touch with its original goals and strategies. The author describes the dynamics of this phenomenon and details steps to remedy the situation. Once recognized, he suggests that the manager establish a trusting relationship with the instigator as a prelude to altering the behavior patterns, then transfer the subordinates and reorient the work climate so that independence and responsibility are encouraged. If the instigator is a powerful executive, the author suggests enlisting the support of a countervailing force, such as the government or a union, to guide the organization away from possible self-destructive adventures.

  15. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 2--the exodus of Jewish dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-09-01

    The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty.

  16. The National Socialist Sisterhood: an instrument of National Socialist health policy.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet.

  17. "And teach agony to sing": an afternoon with Eleanor Clarke Slagle.

    PubMed

    Bing, R K

    1997-03-01

    Using published works, archival correspondence, interviews with contemporaries, and historical commentary, an imagined conversation is presented between Eleanor Clarke Slagle (1871-1942) and three of her actual contemporaries. As a founder of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (later to become the American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA] and a past-president and executive secretary of AOTA for 21 years, Slagle came in contact with a host of therapists as well as men and women who influenced her and the occupational therapy profession, most particularly Julia Lathrop, Adolf Meyer, William Rush Dunton, Jr., and Ida Sands. Emphasis is placed on some of her early life experiences; Hull House; and the evolution of the occupational therapy belief system, including occupations, curative work, and spiritual rehabilitation (i.e., self-respect, interests, ambition, happiness, economic usefulness, success). Special attention was taken to reflect Slagle's typical use of language and the vernacular of the mid-1930s. Extensive study was undertaken, through reading Slagle's published works, to remain true to her use of language.

  18. Schumann's wheel tachistoscope: its reconstruction and its operation.

    PubMed

    Stock, Armin

    2014-05-01

    In the fall and winter of 1910, Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) performed his famous experiments on perceived motion, published in 1912. Besides slider experiments he mainly used a wheel tachistoscope developed by Friedrich Schumann (1863-1940) at the end of the 19th century. The Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology has several wheel tachistoscopes in its collection of instruments. Their provenance can be traced back to the Institute of Psychology of the University of Frankfurt and the University of Zurich. It is very plausible that Wertheimer, who performed his experiments at the Frankfurt Institute, used one of them. But the wheel tachistoscope alone is not sufficient to reconstruct Wertheimer's original experiments. As always, the devil is in the details. Wertheimer's descriptions of the necessary accessories, a prism, a viewing device, and an electric motor to move the wheel, are rather sparse. This article describes the results of a search for traces in the literature, in archives, and in literary depositories to shed some light on Wertheimer's experimental equipment. As a result, it was possible to reconstruct the entire apparatus and to obtain the same optical impressions with the reconstructed devices as Wertheimer's observers reported. In addition, one of his results was replicated with new participants exactly 100 years after its first publication. PMID:24818744

  19. Finding synchrony in the desynchronized EEG: the history and interpretation of gamma rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2013-01-01

    Neocortical gamma (30–80 Hz) rhythms correlate with attention, movement and perception and are often disrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gamma primarily occurs during alert brain states characterized by the so-called “desynchronized” EEG. Is this because gamma rhythms are devoid of synchrony? In this review we take a historical approach to answering this question. Richard Caton and Adolf Beck were the first to report the rhythmic voltage fluctuations in the animal brain. They were limited by the poor amplification of their early galvanometers. Thus when they presented light or other stimuli, they observed a disappearance of the large resting oscillations. Several groups have since shown that visual stimuli lead to low amplitude gamma rhythms and that groups of neurons in the visual cortices fire together during individual gamma cycles. This synchronous firing can more strongly drive downstream neurons. We discuss how gamma-band synchrony can support ongoing communication between brain regions, and highlight an important fact: there is at least local neuronal synchrony during gamma rhythms. Thus, it is best to refer to the low amplitude, high frequency EEG as an “activated”, not “desynchronized”, EEG. PMID:23964210

  20. [Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the twentieth century and the Art Brut].

    PubMed

    Plesznivy, Edit

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).

  1. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  2. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  3. War, sanity, and the Nazi mind: the last passion of Joseph Jastrow.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    The career of Joseph Jastrow (1863-1944) spanned more than 50 years in service to psychology. For 40 years he represented academic psychology at the University of Wisconsin as chair of the psychology department (1886 to 1927), but also was never far from popularizing psychology through books, articles, public lectures, newspaper columns, and finally radio lectures (e.g., Jastrow, 1900, 1935b). Providing a scientific and progressive psychology for the general public was always a strong penchant for Jastrow on several subjects, such as spiritualism (Jastrow, 1911) and effective living (Jastrow, 1935b). About 1939, while he was well into his 70s, his efforts focused on exposing the menace that Adolf Hitler and Nazism posed, so he undertook to enlist prominent editors to publish his work, Hitler: Mask and Myth, as articles or a book. He was not successful in gaining support for the project. His failing can be understood from the perspectives of the American market for Hitler material, the shortcomings of the manuscript, and how he represented psychology to the American public. PMID:20509353

  4. ["In Stockholm they apparently had some kind of countermovement" - Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951) and the Nobel prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schagen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, is a remarkable repository that contains reports and dossiers of the Nobel Prize nominations of senior and junior physicians from around the world. Although this archive has begun to be used more by scholars, it has been insufficiently examined by historians of surgery. No other German surgeon was nominated as often as Ferdinand Sauerbruch for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in the first half of the 20th century. This contribution reconstructs why and by whom Sauerbruch was nominated, and discusses the Nobel committee evaluations of his work. Political factors did not play an obvious role in the Nobel committee discussions, in spite of the fact that Adolf Hitler in 1937 had prohibited all German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. The main reasons why Sauerbruch ultimately was not considered prize- worthy were that Sauerbruch's achievements were marked by scientific priority disputes, and that his work was not seen as original enough. PMID:25205399

  5. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  6. Managers can drive their subordinates mad.

    PubMed

    Kets de Vries, M F

    1979-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "folie à deux"--an aberrant relationship between manager and subordinates that is characterized by shared delusions. Though most visible among public figures like Adolf Hitler, J. Edgar Hoover and Jim Jones, the problem also surfaces among private managers and their associates with dangerous implications for the firm. In folie à deux, the unusual behavior patterns of a manager in an isolated setting become mirrored by dependent subordinates, and the organization loses touch with its original goals and strategies. The author describes the dynamics of this phenomenon and details steps to remedy the situation. Once recognized, he suggests that the manager establish a trusting relationship with the instigator as a prelude to altering the behavior patterns, then transfer the subordinates and reorient the work climate so that independence and responsibility are encouraged. If the instigator is a powerful executive, the author suggests enlisting the support of a countervailing force, such as the government or a union, to guide the organization away from possible self-destructive adventures. PMID:10244911

  7. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 2--the exodus of Jewish dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-09-01

    The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty. PMID:23986294

  8. The National Socialist Sisterhood: an instrument of National Socialist health policy.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet. PMID:19453355

  9. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses several still unsettled and not systematically investigated questions concerning the situation of Jewish scientists, among them mathematicians, in the Republic of Weimar. Contemporary statements by the well-known leftist and liberal journalists Carl von Ossietzky (1932) and Rudolf Olden (1934) are used to describe the general political situation. A wide-spread feeling of a social and political crisis and changes and perturbations in international scientific communication provide explanatory background for the conditions within academia in the 1920s. A comparison of appointments of Jewish mathematicians to full professorships before and after World War I does not give significant differences. Attitudes of Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Bernstein, Richard Courant, Emil Julius Gumbel, Edmund Landau, Richard von Mises, Johann von Neumann and Adolf A. Fraenkel, but also of non-Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Klein, Walther von Dyck and Theodor Vahlen will be discussed, providing some unpublished material. One statement by Felix Klein (1920), which shows his undecided stance with respect to the problem of anti-Semitism, and an excerpt from Richard von Mises' diary (1933), where he reflects on his status as a Jewish mathematician and as a refugee, are particularly valuable as points of reference for necessary further research.

  10. War, sanity, and the Nazi mind: the last passion of Joseph Jastrow.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    The career of Joseph Jastrow (1863-1944) spanned more than 50 years in service to psychology. For 40 years he represented academic psychology at the University of Wisconsin as chair of the psychology department (1886 to 1927), but also was never far from popularizing psychology through books, articles, public lectures, newspaper columns, and finally radio lectures (e.g., Jastrow, 1900, 1935b). Providing a scientific and progressive psychology for the general public was always a strong penchant for Jastrow on several subjects, such as spiritualism (Jastrow, 1911) and effective living (Jastrow, 1935b). About 1939, while he was well into his 70s, his efforts focused on exposing the menace that Adolf Hitler and Nazism posed, so he undertook to enlist prominent editors to publish his work, Hitler: Mask and Myth, as articles or a book. He was not successful in gaining support for the project. His failing can be understood from the perspectives of the American market for Hitler material, the shortcomings of the manuscript, and how he represented psychology to the American public.

  11. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism.

  12. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  13. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  14. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  15. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.

  16. "Just as the Structural Formula Does": Names, Diagrams, and the Structure of Organic Chemistry at the 1892 Geneva Nomenclature Congress.

    PubMed

    Hepler-Smith, Evan

    2015-02-01

    At the Geneva Nomenclature Congress of 1892, some of the foremost organic chemists of the late nineteenth century crafted a novel relationship between chemical substances, chemical diagrams, and chemical names that has shaped practices of chemical representation ever since. During the 1880s, the French chemist Charles Friedel organised the nomenclature reform effort that culminated in the Geneva Congress; in the disorderly nomenclature of German synthetic chemistry, Friedel saw an opportunity to advance French national interests and his own pedagogical goals. Friedel and a group of close colleagues reconceived nomenclature as a unified field, in which all chemical names ought to relate clearly to one another and to the structure of the compounds they represented. The German chemist Adolf von Baeyer went a step farther, arguing for names that precisely and uniquely corresponded to the structural formula of each compound, tailored for use in chemical dictionaries and handbooks. Baeyer's vision prevailed at the Geneva Congress, which consequently codified rules for rigorously mapping structural formulas into names, resulting in names that faithfully represented the features of these diagrams but not always the chemical behaviour of the compounds themselves. This approach ultimately limited both the number of chemical compounds that the Geneva rules were able to encompass and the breadth of their application. However, the relationship between diagram and name established at the Geneva Congress became the foundation not only of subsequent systems of chemical nomenclature but of methods of organising information that have supported the modern chemical sciences.

  17. Chapter 42: neurology and the neurological sciences in the German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer. PMID:19892145

  18. Photosynthesis: 1900-1930.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century Julius von Sachs established the main principles of the photosynthetic production of sugars. From then, a growing number of biochemists and physiologists attended to the process, that appeared like a "black box", in order to detect what came in and what went out of it. The English group of Frederick Blackman gave a remarkable contribution in individuating the close connection between temperature, light and CO2 concentration. Later, the great importance of light was stressed by Otto Warburg, who evaluated the radiant energy necessary to the process in terms of quantum theory. The biochemical mechanism of photosynthesis was interpreted by the main European schools on the basis of Adolf Baeyer's suggestion which posed formaldehyde as the core of the process. Formaldehyde's theory hold engaged the biochemists for about fifty years although some voices rose up against it. However, nobody could put forward more coherent theories until the 1940s, when Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen individuated the cyclic pattern of the process. Ultimately, the first thirty years of the 20th century must be seen as a preliminary stage studded with light and shade even if, in spite of controversial trends, several findings of remarkable interest became to disclose that "black box" as we know today chlorophyll photosynthesis. PMID:18278741

  19. Schumann's wheel tachistoscope: its reconstruction and its operation.

    PubMed

    Stock, Armin

    2014-05-01

    In the fall and winter of 1910, Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) performed his famous experiments on perceived motion, published in 1912. Besides slider experiments he mainly used a wheel tachistoscope developed by Friedrich Schumann (1863-1940) at the end of the 19th century. The Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology has several wheel tachistoscopes in its collection of instruments. Their provenance can be traced back to the Institute of Psychology of the University of Frankfurt and the University of Zurich. It is very plausible that Wertheimer, who performed his experiments at the Frankfurt Institute, used one of them. But the wheel tachistoscope alone is not sufficient to reconstruct Wertheimer's original experiments. As always, the devil is in the details. Wertheimer's descriptions of the necessary accessories, a prism, a viewing device, and an electric motor to move the wheel, are rather sparse. This article describes the results of a search for traces in the literature, in archives, and in literary depositories to shed some light on Wertheimer's experimental equipment. As a result, it was possible to reconstruct the entire apparatus and to obtain the same optical impressions with the reconstructed devices as Wertheimer's observers reported. In addition, one of his results was replicated with new participants exactly 100 years after its first publication.

  20. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  1. The medical treatment of Parkinson disease from James Parkinson to George Cotzias.

    PubMed

    Fahn, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    It took exactly 150 years since James Parkinson's description in 1817 of the illness bearing his name until the development of effective therapy for this disorder, namely, the introduction of high-dosage levodopa by George Cotzias in 1967. During the first 50 years, no effective therapy was available, but neurologists reported using different agents, including metals. Then, around 1867, Charcot found solanaceous alkaloids to be somewhat helpful, and these became the accepted and popular therapy for the next 75 years. When basic scientists discovered that these alkaloids had central antimuscarinic activity, pharmaceutical chemists developed synthetic chemical agents that were equally effective, with possibly less adverse effects, and around 1950 these synthetic drugs became the standard medical therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The link between dopamine and PD did not take place until 1957, 140 years after Parkinson's Essay. The clue came from research on reserpine, a drug derived from the Rauwolfia plant that caused a sedative effect, now recognized as a drug-induced parkinsonian state. Initial investigations revealed that reserpine caused the release and depletion of serotonin stores in the brain. With that knowledge, Arvid Carlsson, a young pharmacologist in Sweden, decided to explore the possibility that reserpine might also affect brain catecholamines. In his now famous, elegant, and simple experiment, he showed that injecting l-dopa, the precursor of catecholamines, alleviated the reserpine-induced parkinsonian state in animals, whereas the precursor of serotonin failed to do so. Carlsson then developed a highly sensitive assay to measure dopamine, and his lab found that dopamine is selectively present in high concentrations in the striatum and that administered l-dopa could restore the dopamine depleted by reserpine. Carlsson postulated that all these findings implicate dopamine in motor disorders. Oleh Hornykiewicz, a young pharmacologist in Vienna, on

  2. Forensic evidence in apparel fabrics due to stab events.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S E; Carr, D J; Kieser, J; Niven, B E; Taylor, M C

    2009-10-30

    Stab injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, particularly in those where access to firearms is restricted [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. Analysis of damaged apparel may provide important information about the cause of death and the events leading up to and after the victim's final moments [M.T. Pailthorpe, N.A.G. Johnson, The private forensic scientist and the criminal justice system, in: D. Biles, J. Vernon (Eds.), Private Sector and Community Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Conference Proceedings, vol. 23, Australian Institute of Criminology, Wellington, 1994, 231-240]. A high proportion of stab wounds occur in the chest and as this area is generally clothed many sharp force cases involve damage to fabrics [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. The structural stabilisation and degradation of fabric due to laundering significantly alters fabric properties [S.E. Gore, R.M. Laing, C.A. Wilson, D.J. Carr, B.E. Niven, Standardizing a pre-treatment cleaning procedure and effects of application on apparel fabrics, Text. Res. J. 76 (2006) 455-464], yet the effect of such on severance morphology does not appear to have been investigated. In this work the effect of blade type (hunting knife, kitchen knife, screwdriver) on new and laundered

  3. Carl Ludwig: the man, his time, his influence.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) was the driving force in the foundation and development of scientifically based and experimentally oriented physiology against natural philosophy and vitalism that prevailed during the first quarter of the 19th century in Germany. He was the representative of a small group of young, highly talented and dynamic physiologists aiming at implementing the laws of physics and chemistry as the only active forces in physiologic processes. These "organic physicists" included Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896), Ernst Brücke (1819-1892), and Hermann Helmholz (1821-1894). Carl Ludwig wrote the program of this group in the form of a textbook of physiology that was considered revolutionary, provocative and premature. His academic life, his inventions and discoveries, his scientific achievements, his influence and his personality are reviewed. Since every person can be viewed only in the context of his time, the political background, the economic and social situation, the conditions for science and research as well as the cultural climate that were characteristic for the decisive years of Carl Ludwig are described to some extent. It is shown that Carl Ludwig and his contemporary organic physicists lived and grew into a science- and research-oriented period which had been prepared and paved by men like Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Johannes Müller (1801-1858) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). They benefited from this enormous scientific development and contributed to it to a large and significant extent so that it ultimately turned out to be the most productive and influential period in the history of German physiology. Some of the numerous scholars who had studied with Carl Ludwig carried his approach to physiology into the 20th century: Adolf Fick (1829-1901), Otto Frank (1865-1944), Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849-1936) and Henry Pickering Browditch (1840-1911).

  4. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  5. Book reviews.

    PubMed

    Dein, S; Dein, S; Littlewood, R; Oloyede, Y; Krause, I B; Argenti, N

    1998-04-01

    Millennialism and violence Michael Barkun (Ed.) London, Frank Cass, 1996, 177 pp. Evil and suffering in Jewish philosophy Oliver Leaman Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 157 pp. Religion and the clinical practice of psychology Edward P. Shafranski (ed.) Washington DC, American Psychological Association, 1996, 619 pp., index, bibliographies, figures. Beyond reason: art and psychosis: works from the Prinzhorn Collection London, Hayward Gallery, 1997, £12.95, 195 pp., index, bibliography Madness and art: the life and works of Adolf Wölfli Walter Morgenthaler Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1992, $35.00, xviii, 127 pp., index, bibliography. The encyclopaedia of cultural anthropology David Levinson & Melvin Ember (Eds) New York, Holt/London, Macmillan, 1996, £299, 1486 pp., index, figures, 4 volumes Encyclopaedia of social and cultural anthropology Alan Barnard & Jonathan Spencer (Eds) London, Routledge, 1996, £25, 658 pp., index, figures Hystories: hysterical epidemics and modern culture Elaine Showalter London, Picador, 1997, £16.99 x + 244 pp., index, notes. Charred lullabies: chapters in an anthropology of violence E. Valentine Daniel Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1997, £17.95 (pbk), £35.00 (hbk), xii + 252 pp., maps, notes, bibliog., index Women in pain: gender and morbidity in Mexico Kaja Finkler University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, xvii + 238 pp., index, bibliog. Reason and necessity in the specification of the multiple self Roland Littlewood. Occasional Paper No. 43. London, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1996 £10.00 (pbk), 75 pp., notes index, bibliog. Mental illness and bodily cures: psychiatric treatment in the first half of the twentieth century Joel Braslow Berkeley, California University Press, 1997, £30.00 xiv + 240pp., ind., notes, tables Mimesis: culture, art, society. Gunter Gebauer & Christoph Wulf Translated from German by Don Reneau Berkeley, University of California Press, 1995.

  6. The Vienna Heritage of Iowa Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Strong traditions of basic research, clinical innovation, teaching and integrating science and evaluation of outcomes into clinical practice have characterized University of Iowa orthopaedics for ninety years. These traditions were brought to Iowa City from Vienna when Iowa City was a town of fewer than 10,000 people in a sparsely populated rural state. In the last third of the 19th century, surgeons at the University of Vienna, led by Theodore Billroth (1829-1894), helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centers for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals who followed Billroth, Eduard Albert (1841-1900) and Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. Their successes in the study and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders led one of their students, Arthur Steindler (1878-1959), a 1902 graduate of the Vienna Medical School, to pursue a career in orthopaedics. Following medical school, he worked in Lorenz's orthopaedic clinic until 1907 when he joined John Ridlon (1852-1936) at the Chicago Home for Crippled Children. In 1910, Steindler became Professor of Orthopaedics at the Drake Medical School in Des Moines, Iowa, and, in 1913, John G. Bowman, the President of the University of Iowa, recruited him to establish an orthopaedic clinical and academic program in Iowa City. For the next third of a century he guided the development of the University of Iowa Orthopaedics Department, helped establish the fields of orthopaedic biomechanics and kinesiology and tirelessly stressed the importance of physiology, pathology and assessment of the outcomes of operations. From the legacy of Billroth, Albert and

  7. Artist's Concept of Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than one billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. The deepest views of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) yield clues that the very first stars may have burst into the universe as brilliantly and spectacularly as a firework finale. Except in this case, the finale came first, long before Earth, the Sun ,and the Milky Way Galaxy formed. Studies of HST's deepest views of the heavens lead to the preliminary conclusion that the universe made a significant portion of its stars in a torrential firestorm of star birth, which abruptly lit up the pitch-dark heavens just a few hundred million years after the 'big bang,' the tremendous explosion that created the cosmos. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of HST deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Science Credit: NASA and K. Lanzetta (SUNY). Artwork Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI.

  8. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  9. Anatomy during the Third Reich--the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Marburg, as an example.

    PubMed

    Aumüller, G; Grundmann, K

    2002-05-01

    A complete documentation of German anatomical science and its representatives during the period of national socialism has not been published as yet--contrary to the situation in other medical disciplines. Instead of German anatomists, American anatomists have occasionally addressed this issue during their meetings and have reported on special aspects, such as the use of Nazi symbols in anatomical textbooks and atlases (Pernkopf 1952) and the use of corpses of justice victims for anatomical research and student education. Also, the genesis of the atrocious collection of "racial" skulls, initiated along with the SS-institution of the "Ahnenerbe" by the anatomist August Hirt of Strasbourg (who ordered more than 90 inmates from concentration camps to be murdered in the gas chamber built in the concentration camp of Natzweiler-Struthof close to Strasbourg, Alsace) has been described by Frederic Kasten and others. A broader view of the patterns of behaviour and political actions and fates of contemporary scientists, ranging from dismissal to clandestine opportunism, affirmative cooperation and fanatic activism can be obtained by the analysis of the activities in research, medical education and academic positions of the following members of the Institute of Anatomy at the Philipp-University in Marburg: Ernst Göppert, Eduard Jacobshagen, Ernst-Theodor Nauck, Adolf Dabelow, Helmut Becher and Alfred Benninghoff, whose activities and fates differ in several respects and allow more general deductions. Also, the individual fates of a number of prosecuted Jewish anatomists (Wassermann, München; Poll, Hamburg), of devoted and active members of the Nazi party (Clara, Leipzig; Blotevogel, Breslau) and of criminal fanatics (Hirt, Strasbourg; Kremer, Münster) are briefly discussed. The present contribution is an attempt to initiate a more detailed study of all German departments of anatomy during the Hitler regime and to generate a public discussion among the younger generation of

  10. Ideology and ethics. The perversion of German psychiatrists' ethics by the ideology of national socialism.

    PubMed

    Singer, L

    1998-01-01

    As soon as Adolf Hitler came to into power in 1933, four laws on racial segregation and race protection were edicted between 1934 and 1935. Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychoses, epilepsy and alcoholism were regarded as hereditary mental illnesses. These laws were responsible for the sterilisation of 350,000 individuals who were thought to be at the source of the propagation of hereditary illnesses which might endanger the health and the future of the Aryan Germans. On September 1, 1939, Action T4 was launched: it required that all the mentally ill be exterminated. This action, which was run by the highest level of the Reich's chancellery with the help of psychiatrists coming from all backgrounds including university professors, was supposed to grant a serene death to all the mentally ill considered as untreatable. The death sentences were carried out by the medical staff in psychiatric hospitals specially equipped with gas chambers. Following protests, Action T4 was officially stopped on August 24, 1941, but, in reality, continued until the end of the war. The death sentences were carried out using either lethal doses of medication or food deprivation. One hundred and fifty thousand individuals fell victim to that therapeutic extermination which played an economic role as important as the one deemed to social protection. Many German academics, researchers, psychiatrists, geneticians and anthropologists played and active part in these murders which were carried out in the name of Nazi ideology based upon the supremacy of the Northern Germanic race and the necessity to protect it from miscegenation, especially from Jews. In the final part of this paper, the author gives an explanation of the perversion of ethics carried out by German psychiatrists.

  11. Using BYOD (bring your own device) in lesson.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naissoo, Tiina

    2015-04-01

    We live in rapidly advancing world. Our homes and offices are conquered by new technological achievements. School is a part of the society and many students use smartphones and tablet pc`s every day. Also they are very skillful with smartphones. It is very important that school and teachers give them advice how to manage in such miracle world and how to use this kind of equipment in studies. In the other hand teachers complain about their hand-operation, concentration and self-expression skills. So it is very important to use exercises for developing these skills. Also, when you do something practically, then you should do it actively and then it will be fixed better. I have made a lesson plan for learning animal and plant cell structures. First students need to read about cell structures and make animal and plant cell models using rope, noodles and different buttons. Then they used their smartphones and made a video where they explain meaning of the rope, noodles and buttons and what are the common share and differences between animal and plant cell. Example of the student videos you can see here: http://youtu.be/SH5oCpDRJPg https://docs.google.com/a/gag.ee/file/d/0Bz4muZaQGXADVlNrYTNkc2VxbE0/edit In feedback they said that it was very interesting and educational practical task. It was only one example how to use BYOD. In Gustav Adolf Grammar School we use BYOD a lot in different subjects. In today's school it's really important to link modern technology, surrounding environment and learning.

  12. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  13. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  14. 24th Seah Cheng Siang Lecture: Seeing better, doing better--evolution and application of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Khean Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has evolved tremendously from the early days when candlelight was used to illuminate scopes to the extent that it has now become an integral part of the practice of modern gastroenterology. The first gastroscope was a rigid scope first introduced by Adolf Kussmaul in 1868. However this scope suffered from the 2 drawbacks of poor illumination and high risk of instrumental perforation. Rudolf Schindler improved on this by inventing the semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. But it was Basil Hirschowitz, using the principle of light conduction in fibreoptics, who allowed us to "see well" for the first time when he invented the flexible gastroscopy in 1958. With amazing speed and innovation, instrument companies, chiefly Japanese, had improved on the Hirschowitz gastroscope and invented a flexible colonoscope. Walter McCune introduced the technique of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 1968 which has now evolved into a sophisticated procedure. The advent of the digital age in the 1980s saw the invention of the videoendoscope. Videoendoscopes have allowed us to start seeing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) "better" with high magnification and resolution and optical/digital enhancements. Fusing confocal and light microscopy with endoscopy has allowed us to perform an "optical biopsy" of the GI mucosa. Development of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed us to see "beyond" the GIT lumen. Seeing better has allowed us to do better. Endoscopists have ventured into newer procedures such as the resection of mucosal and submucosal tumours and the field of therapeutic GI endoscopy sees no end in sight. PMID:25703498

  15. Neurology outside Paris following Charcot.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France.

  16. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy. PMID:26126405

  17. Anatomy during the Third Reich--the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Marburg, as an example.

    PubMed

    Aumüller, G; Grundmann, K

    2002-05-01

    A complete documentation of German anatomical science and its representatives during the period of national socialism has not been published as yet--contrary to the situation in other medical disciplines. Instead of German anatomists, American anatomists have occasionally addressed this issue during their meetings and have reported on special aspects, such as the use of Nazi symbols in anatomical textbooks and atlases (Pernkopf 1952) and the use of corpses of justice victims for anatomical research and student education. Also, the genesis of the atrocious collection of "racial" skulls, initiated along with the SS-institution of the "Ahnenerbe" by the anatomist August Hirt of Strasbourg (who ordered more than 90 inmates from concentration camps to be murdered in the gas chamber built in the concentration camp of Natzweiler-Struthof close to Strasbourg, Alsace) has been described by Frederic Kasten and others. A broader view of the patterns of behaviour and political actions and fates of contemporary scientists, ranging from dismissal to clandestine opportunism, affirmative cooperation and fanatic activism can be obtained by the analysis of the activities in research, medical education and academic positions of the following members of the Institute of Anatomy at the Philipp-University in Marburg: Ernst Göppert, Eduard Jacobshagen, Ernst-Theodor Nauck, Adolf Dabelow, Helmut Becher and Alfred Benninghoff, whose activities and fates differ in several respects and allow more general deductions. Also, the individual fates of a number of prosecuted Jewish anatomists (Wassermann, München; Poll, Hamburg), of devoted and active members of the Nazi party (Clara, Leipzig; Blotevogel, Breslau) and of criminal fanatics (Hirt, Strasbourg; Kremer, Münster) are briefly discussed. The present contribution is an attempt to initiate a more detailed study of all German departments of anatomy during the Hitler regime and to generate a public discussion among the younger generation of

  18. Ideology and ethics. The perversion of German psychiatrists' ethics by the ideology of national socialism.

    PubMed

    Singer, L

    1998-01-01

    As soon as Adolf Hitler came to into power in 1933, four laws on racial segregation and race protection were edicted between 1934 and 1935. Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychoses, epilepsy and alcoholism were regarded as hereditary mental illnesses. These laws were responsible for the sterilisation of 350,000 individuals who were thought to be at the source of the propagation of hereditary illnesses which might endanger the health and the future of the Aryan Germans. On September 1, 1939, Action T4 was launched: it required that all the mentally ill be exterminated. This action, which was run by the highest level of the Reich's chancellery with the help of psychiatrists coming from all backgrounds including university professors, was supposed to grant a serene death to all the mentally ill considered as untreatable. The death sentences were carried out by the medical staff in psychiatric hospitals specially equipped with gas chambers. Following protests, Action T4 was officially stopped on August 24, 1941, but, in reality, continued until the end of the war. The death sentences were carried out using either lethal doses of medication or food deprivation. One hundred and fifty thousand individuals fell victim to that therapeutic extermination which played an economic role as important as the one deemed to social protection. Many German academics, researchers, psychiatrists, geneticians and anthropologists played and active part in these murders which were carried out in the name of Nazi ideology based upon the supremacy of the Northern Germanic race and the necessity to protect it from miscegenation, especially from Jews. In the final part of this paper, the author gives an explanation of the perversion of ethics carried out by German psychiatrists. PMID:19698678

  19. [On the history of barbiturates].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  20. Pharmacist Theodor Salzer (1833-1900) and the discovery of bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, G A

    2011-10-01

    Herbert Fleisch, the father of the therapeutic use of bisphosphonates in modern medicine, repeatedly stated in his numerous reviews that bisphosphonates were first synthesized 1865 in Germany by the Russian chemist Menschutkin. He was wrong on two counts. Had Menschutkin synthesized bisphosphonates, as he was a student of Wurtz at the time of the "synthesis", the birthplace of the substances would have been France and not Germany; but he did not. By reacting phosphorous acid with acetyl-chloride he obtained derivatives of pyro-phosphorous and pyro-phosphoric acids (P-O-P backbone) and not bisphosphonates (P-C-P backbone). The discovery of the first bisphosphonate occurred indeed in Germany but some thirty years later and not without some drama. First 1894 the pharmacist Theodor Salzer (1833-1900) described an impurity contained in commercially available phosphoric acid but failed to identify it as acetodiphosphoric acid, a bisphosphonate. 1896, an undergraduate student, Hans von Baeyer working in Munich at the Royal Academy of Sciences in the chemical laboratory of his father Adolf (the 1905 Nobel Prize laureate and discoverer of the barbiturates) synthesized an unknown substance which his famous father summarily rejected as some "Dreck" or impurity. Only due to the tenacity of young Hans work on the matter was continued and the paper describing the synthesis published a year later. The correctness of the chemical structure of the compound as assumed by von Baeyer (and his Ph.D. supervisor Hofmann) was confirmed 1901 by Heidepriem, a Ph.D. student of Hofmann. This short report attempts to shed some light on the life of the lesser known pharmacists and chemists involved in the synthesis of the first bisphosphonate, focusing on Salzer, Heidepriem and von Baeyer.

  1. [On the history of barbiturates].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis [Nobel Prize Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, Melvin

    1961-12-11

    It is almost sixty years since Emil Fischer was describing on a platform such as this one some of the work which led to the basic knowledge of the structure of glucose and its relatives. Today we will be concerned with a description of the experiments which have led to a knowledge of the principal reactions by which those carbohydrate structures are created by photosynthetic organisms from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of light. The speculations on the way in which carbohydrate was built from carbon dioxide began not long after the recognition of the basic reaction and were carried forward first by Justus von Liebig and then by Adolf von Baeyer and, finally, by Richard Wilstatter and Arthur Stoll into this century. Actually, the route by which animal organisms performed the reverse reaction, that is, the combustion of carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and water with the utilization of the energy resulting from this combination, turned out to be the first one to be successfully mapped, primarily by Otto Meyerhoi and Hans Krebs. Our own interest in the basic process of solar energy conversion by green plants began some time in the years between 1935 and 1937, during my postdoctoral studies with Professor Michael Polanyi at Manchester. It was there I first became conscious of the remarkable properties of coordinated metal compounds, particularly metalloporphyins as represented by heme and chlorophyll. A study was begun at that time, which is still continuing, on the electronic behavior of such metalloporphyrins. It was extended and generalized by the stimulus of Professor Gilbert N. Lewis upon my arrival in Berkeley. I hope these continuing studies may one day contribute to the understanding of the precise way in which chlorophyll and its relatives accomplish the primary quantum conversion into chemical potential which is used to drive the carbohydrate synthesis reaction.

  3. Devic's disease before Devic: Bilateral optic neuritis and simultaneous myelitis in a young woman (1874).

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-11-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's disease) is an often severely disabling disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) which mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO was long considered a clinical subform of multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2004, however, Lennon and colleagues described a novel autoantibody in NMO which targets aquaporin-4, the most abundant water channel in the CNS, and which was later shown to be directly pathogenic. This has led to the recognition of NMO as a distinct disease entity in its own right. While the history of 'classical' MS has been extensively studied, only little is known about the early history of NMO. The term neuromyelitis optica was coined in 1894 by Eugène Devic (1858-1930) and Fernand Gault (1873-1936), who were the first to provide a systematic description of that disorder. Here we re-present a very early description of a case of NMO by a Polish physician, Adolf Wurst, which appeared in 1876 in Przegląd Lekarski, one of the oldest Polish medical journals. This report predates Devic and Gault's seminal work on NMO by more than two decades. The patient, a 30-year-old woman, subacutely developed simultaneous bilateral optic neuritis with papilloedema and bilateral blindness and transverse myelitis with severe paraparesis, anaesthesia, and bladder and bowel dysfunction. At last follow-up, one year after onset, she had recovered except for a residual spastic gait and some visual deficit on the right side. Of note, this is the first known case of NMO in a Caucasian patient ever reported outside Western Europe. PMID:26303625

  4. Carl Ludwig: the man, his time, his influence.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) was the driving force in the foundation and development of scientifically based and experimentally oriented physiology against natural philosophy and vitalism that prevailed during the first quarter of the 19th century in Germany. He was the representative of a small group of young, highly talented and dynamic physiologists aiming at implementing the laws of physics and chemistry as the only active forces in physiologic processes. These "organic physicists" included Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896), Ernst Brücke (1819-1892), and Hermann Helmholz (1821-1894). Carl Ludwig wrote the program of this group in the form of a textbook of physiology that was considered revolutionary, provocative and premature. His academic life, his inventions and discoveries, his scientific achievements, his influence and his personality are reviewed. Since every person can be viewed only in the context of his time, the political background, the economic and social situation, the conditions for science and research as well as the cultural climate that were characteristic for the decisive years of Carl Ludwig are described to some extent. It is shown that Carl Ludwig and his contemporary organic physicists lived and grew into a science- and research-oriented period which had been prepared and paved by men like Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Johannes Müller (1801-1858) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). They benefited from this enormous scientific development and contributed to it to a large and significant extent so that it ultimately turned out to be the most productive and influential period in the history of German physiology. Some of the numerous scholars who had studied with Carl Ludwig carried his approach to physiology into the 20th century: Adolf Fick (1829-1901), Otto Frank (1865-1944), Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849-1936) and Henry Pickering Browditch (1840-1911). PMID

  5. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  6. [The German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) during the Period of National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2006-11-01

    Sixty-one years after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, the history of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) has still hardly been investigated. According to different sources, especially the reports of the DOG congresses 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940, the following picture can be drawn: 1. The seizure of power ("Machtergreifung") of Adolf Hitler was appreciated by most of the DOG members. 2. After a change of the constitution the DOG came under the control of the "Reichsinnenministerium". However, it escaped the egalitarianism ("Gleichschaltung") and remained relatively independent. 3. Approximately 40 % of the heads of the German university eye clinics who were the most influential DOG representatives were members of the national socialistic German working party (NSDAP). Almost all of these joined the party in 1933 or later. 4. Up to the last congress in Dresden, 1940, the DOG activities were quite extensive. After that time the activities strongly declined. 5. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offspring" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from January 1st 1934 was intensely discussed by the DOG. Some prominent ophthalmologists and DOG members were at least in part responsible for the sterilisations because of "congenital blindness". However, as far as it is known, the DOG itself did not intervene directly concerning the practice of sterilisation. 6. Between 1932 and 1940, the DOG lost approximately 12 % of its members. Many of these stemmed from foreign countries, and many were German Jews. The latter left the DOG, as Walther Löhlein stated after the end of the war, "voluntarily". However, a main reason for leaving the DOG was very likely the feeling of being unwanted. The national socialism had several disastrous effects on ophthalmology. Although single DOG members participated in the excesses, the DOG as an organization was not directly involved. However, taking into consideration that more than 10 % of the members of the

  7. [The theoretical analysis of Fick's equation. On the centennial of the use of Fick's principle in physiology].

    PubMed

    Karpman, V L

    1975-09-01

    In the first section Adolf Fick's outstanding scientific performances are pointed out in their historical sequence, particularly the derivation of the laws of diffusion (1855) and the basic equation for determining the heart-minute-volume (Fm) by O2-absorption per time (V02) and arteriovenous O2-difference (AVD), known as Fick's Principle. The latter was derived theoretically in 1870 by Fick, but it found it practical employment by other investigators, in dog not before 1886 and in man not earlier than 1930. In the following two sections the universality of Fick's Principle is shown by explaining its internal relation 1. to Fick's first law of diffusion and 2. to the general law of solution. This is done by mathematical transformation of the relations (formulas)of the physical resp. the physiological standards (parameters). By analyzing the diffusion of a substance into a streaming fluid according to the first diffusion law, perfectly isomorphic equations to Fick's Principle (No. 7 and No. 9) are obtained by what Fick's formula as a determinant of the heart-minute-volume is just proved to be derivable from Fick's first diffusion law. Furthermore by transforming the trivial formula for the determination of substance concentration in a fluid provement is given, that Fick's Principle may be considered a variant of the solution theory. By this the internal relation of the so-called dilution respectively indicating methods depending on the Stewart-Hamilton-Principle to the original Fick's Principle is made visible. In the last section an attempt is made to produce a relation to 1. the so-called physical methods determining the minute volume which primarily are known as a measurement for stroke volume and frequency, and, besides that, 2. to Vierordt's equation, by which the heart-minute-volume is determinable from circulating blood volume and circulation time. This trial is made by equating the value of the minute volume given by Fick's Principle (VO2/AVD) with the

  8. "MY RESISTING GETTING WELL": NEURASTHENIA AND SUBCONSCIOUS CONFLICT IN PATIENT-PSYCHIATRIST INTERACTIONS IN PREWAR AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines experiences of individual patients and psychiatrists in the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917. The dynamics of these patient-psychiatrist interactions elucidate the well-known conceptual shift in explanations of mental illness during the twentieth century, from somatic models rooted in the logic of "neurasthenia" and damaged nerves to psychodynamic models based on the notion of "subconscious conflict." A qualitative analysis of 336 cases categorized as functional disorders (a catchall term in this period for illnesses that could not be confirmed as organic diseases), shows that patients explained their symptoms and suffering in terms of bodily malfunctions, and, particularly, as a "breakdown" of their nervous apparatus. Psychiatrists at the Phipps Clinic, on the other hand, working under the direction of its prominent director, Adolf Meyer, did not focus their examinations and therapies on the body's nervous system, as patients expected. They theorized that the characteristic symptoms of functional disorders-chronic exhaustion, indigestion, headaches and pain, as well as strange obsessive and compulsive behaviors-resulted from a distinct pathological mechanism: a subconscious conflict between powerful primal and social impulses. Phipps patients were often perplexed when told their physical symptoms were byproducts of an inner psychological struggle; some rejected the notion, while others integrated it with older explanations to reconceptualize their experiences of illness. The new concept also had the potential to alter psychiatrists' perceptions of disorders commonly diagnosed as hysteria, neurasthenia, or psychoneuroses. The Phipps records contain examples of Meyer and his staff transcending the frustration experienced by many doctors who had observed troubling but common behaviors in such cases: morbid introspection, hypochondria, emotionalism, pity-seeking, or malingering. Subconscious conflict recast

  9. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  10. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  11. [The German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) during the Period of National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2006-11-01

    Sixty-one years after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, the history of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) has still hardly been investigated. According to different sources, especially the reports of the DOG congresses 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940, the following picture can be drawn: 1. The seizure of power ("Machtergreifung") of Adolf Hitler was appreciated by most of the DOG members. 2. After a change of the constitution the DOG came under the control of the "Reichsinnenministerium". However, it escaped the egalitarianism ("Gleichschaltung") and remained relatively independent. 3. Approximately 40 % of the heads of the German university eye clinics who were the most influential DOG representatives were members of the national socialistic German working party (NSDAP). Almost all of these joined the party in 1933 or later. 4. Up to the last congress in Dresden, 1940, the DOG activities were quite extensive. After that time the activities strongly declined. 5. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offspring" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from January 1st 1934 was intensely discussed by the DOG. Some prominent ophthalmologists and DOG members were at least in part responsible for the sterilisations because of "congenital blindness". However, as far as it is known, the DOG itself did not intervene directly concerning the practice of sterilisation. 6. Between 1932 and 1940, the DOG lost approximately 12 % of its members. Many of these stemmed from foreign countries, and many were German Jews. The latter left the DOG, as Walther Löhlein stated after the end of the war, "voluntarily". However, a main reason for leaving the DOG was very likely the feeling of being unwanted. The national socialism had several disastrous effects on ophthalmology. Although single DOG members participated in the excesses, the DOG as an organization was not directly involved. However, taking into consideration that more than 10 % of the members of the

  12. The metamict state: 1993 — the centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1994-06-01

    In 1893, a Norwegian mineralogist, W.C. Brøgger, defined "metamikte" as a third class of naturally occurring, amorphous materials. Metamict minerals were determined to be amorphous based on conchoidal fracture and isotropic optical properties; however, well developed crystal forms evidenced the prior crystalline state. In 1914, A. Hamberg, based on the observation of pleochroic haloes, first suggested that metamictization is a radiation-induced, periodic-to-aperiodic transition caused by α-particles which originate from decay of constituent U and Th. Within a few years, F. Rinne and L. Vegard confirmed by X-ray diffraction that metamict minerals were either amorphous or finely crystalline. By 1940, M. v. Stackelberg and E. Rottenback had established that the decrease in density, refractive indices and birefringence correlated with the breakdown of the structure with increasing α-decay event dose. They tested this hypothesis by bombarding a thin slab of zircon, tetragonal ZrSiO2, with α-particles. The result was inconclusive, but this must have been one of the first experiments in which an "ion-beam" was used to "modify" a ceramic material. Metamict minerals remained a curiosity and a daunting challenge, as compositions were exceedingly complex (lanthanides were abundant) and no structure remained, except that which was restored on heating. In 1952, Adolf Pabst, in his presidential address to the Mineralogical Society of America, carefully tabulated the changes in properties (e.g., release of stored energy and decreased resistance to leaching) which resulted from the radiation damage. Pabst specifically noted that some structures are "resistant" to damage accumulation (e.g., monoclinic ThSiO2) while other polymorphs are often found in the metamict state (e.g., tetragonal ThSiO2). The use of zircon (isostructural with thorite) in U/Pb dating, however, focused substantive studies on the process of radiation damage. Holland and Gottfried (1955) investigated damage

  13. Strengthening the ties between university and school - Bilingual geography is the future for our multifarious subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnikel, F.

    2003-04-01

    An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties

  14. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  15. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.

  16. Impression on observing psychic surgery and healing in Brazil which appear to incorporate (+) qi gong energy & the use of acupuncture points.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1997-01-01

    In December, 1995, the author had the opportunity to observe an elderly psychic healer of East European origin in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This man specialized in cancer treatment by pointing with the fingers of his right hand at his patients, without actually touching them, spending an average of 30 to 40 minutes with each one. The author considered this to be Qi Gong treatment. In March, 1997 the author also observed 2 leading psychic healers in Brazil. One of them, named Rubens Farias, Jr. is a 43 year-old former engineer and computer programmer if European descent, who is commonly known as "Dr. Fritz III" because he is believed to be the spirit of Dr. Adolf Fritz, a German physician who died during World War I, operates through him. The other is "Dr." Hirota, a 53 year old former farmer of Japanese decent who lives near Campinas. About 120 kilometers outside of Sao Paulo and treats large numbers of people daily using indirect and/or hand-on healing techniques. On March 6, 1997, when the author visited "Dr. Fritz III"'s clinic in Sao Paulo with a group of Brazilian physicians, he was informed the about 1,400 patients had come that day. "Dr Fritz III" examined and treated the majority of the patients in less than one minute each, often asking very quick questions and then immediately beginning treatment. Most patients received injections of a dark-brown solution, which, some of the visiting doctors speculated, may be an iodine solution mixed with either alcohol or a local anesthetic. In many patients, he injected this solution near the pathological area or at an acupuncture point near the pathological area. When the needle of the syringe was in the acupuncture pint, he twirled it with his fingers several times and the withdrew it. Minor surgery was performed in about 1/5th of the patients with whom the author observed. Most of the surgical incisions were made on the midline of the tissue over the spine near the pathological area. The clamping of the blood vessels and

  17. M-learning in a geography lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirski, Katri

    2014-05-01

    their work in Google Earth where they did a tour of their journey. In the feedback students said that it was a very interesting and an educational practical task. A new opportunity in M-learning is to use QR codes. This means that you don't have to print out worksheets with questions. You can hide question in the code and students can read them with their own devices on site. From the Master's thesis I also developed a tutorial material named "M-learning in a geography lesson" (in Estonian: M-õpe geograafiatunnis), you can see it in the webpage katrimope@wordpress.com. The tutorial received a second place on the Estonian study material contest in 2013. This is only one example on how to use M-learning. In Gustav Adolf Grammar School we use M-learning in lots of different subjects because it's really important in modern school to link new technologies, surrounding environment and learning for the purpose of better obtainment of knowledge.

  18. Obituary: Wulff-Dieter Heintz, 1930-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augensen, Harry John; Geyer, Edward Heinrich

    2006-12-01

    Wulff Dieter Heintz, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Swarthmore College, passed away at his home on 10 June 2006, following a two-year battle with lung cancer. He had turned seventy-six just one week earlier. Wulff was a leading authority on visual double stars and also a chess master. A prominent educator, researcher, and scholar, Wulff was noted for being both succinct and meticulous in everything he did. Wulff Heintz was born on 3 June 1930 in Würzburg (Bavaria), Germany. Naturally left-handed, his elementary school teachers forced him to learn to write "correctly" using his right hand, and so he became ambidextrous. During the 1930s, Wulff's family saw the rise of Adolf Hitler and lived under the repressive Nazi regime. As a teenager during World War II, Wulff listened to his family radio for any news from the outside world. He used to say that he loved the blackouts during the bombing runs because it made it much easier to see the stars. On the night of 16 March 1945, Wulff's home town of Würzburg was heavily bombed, resulting in the destruction of eighty-five percent of the city and the deaths of several thousand civilians. One incendiary bomb landed on the roof of his family home, but Wulff climbed up to the roof and extinguished it before the flames could spread. The next morning, he discovered (with some delight) that his high school had burned to the ground. As Germany continued to suffer massive losses, teenage boys as young as fifteen were inducted into the military and sent off to replenish the troops. To avoid an uncertain fate, Wulff hid out in a farmhouse in the countryside outside of Munich. When the allied troops invaded Germany in 1945, Wulff volunteered to be a translator between the American and British soldiers and the local villagers. In return for his valuable service, the soldiers taught Wulff how to smoke cigarettes, a habit that he continued until his final days even after having been diagnosed with lung cancer. Shortly after the war

  19. Obituary: Wulff-Dieter Heintz, 1930-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augensen, Harry John; Geyer, Edward Heinrich

    2006-12-01

    Wulff Dieter Heintz, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Swarthmore College, passed away at his home on 10 June 2006, following a two-year battle with lung cancer. He had turned seventy-six just one week earlier. Wulff was a leading authority on visual double stars and also a chess master. A prominent educator, researcher, and scholar, Wulff was noted for being both succinct and meticulous in everything he did. Wulff Heintz was born on 3 June 1930 in Würzburg (Bavaria), Germany. Naturally left-handed, his elementary school teachers forced him to learn to write "correctly" using his right hand, and so he became ambidextrous. During the 1930s, Wulff's family saw the rise of Adolf Hitler and lived under the repressive Nazi regime. As a teenager during World War II, Wulff listened to his family radio for any news from the outside world. He used to say that he loved the blackouts during the bombing runs because it made it much easier to see the stars. On the night of 16 March 1945, Wulff's home town of Würzburg was heavily bombed, resulting in the destruction of eighty-five percent of the city and the deaths of several thousand civilians. One incendiary bomb landed on the roof of his family home, but Wulff climbed up to the roof and extinguished it before the flames could spread. The next morning, he discovered (with some delight) that his high school had burned to the ground. As Germany continued to suffer massive losses, teenage boys as young as fifteen were inducted into the military and sent off to replenish the troops. To avoid an uncertain fate, Wulff hid out in a farmhouse in the countryside outside of Munich. When the allied troops invaded Germany in 1945, Wulff volunteered to be a translator between the American and British soldiers and the local villagers. In return for his valuable service, the soldiers taught Wulff how to smoke cigarettes, a habit that he continued until his final days even after having been diagnosed with lung cancer. Shortly after the war

  20. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    -tracking camera to support the Air Force's early satellite tracking and space surveillance networks. Because of his foresight, cameras were in place to track the Sputnik Satellite in October 1957. These cameras allowed the precise orbital determination of all orbiting spacecraft for over three decades until the tracking cameras were retired from service. He continued to advise top Government officials in the evolution of reconnaissance systems during the 1960s and 1970s. He received a Space Pioneer Award from the US Air Force. He received the Pioneers of National Reconnaissance Medal (2000) with the citation, "As a young Harvard astronomer, Dr. James G. Baker designed most of the lenses and many of the cameras used in aerial over flights of 'denied territory' enabling the success of the U.S. peacetime strategic reconnaissance policy." Around 1968, he undertook a consulting contract with Polaroid Corporation after Dr. Edwin Land persuaded him that only he could design the optical system for his new SX-70 Land. He was also responsible for the design of the Quintic focusing system for the Polaroid Spectra Camera system that employed a revolutionary combination of non-rotational aspherics to achieve focusing function. In 1958 he became a Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA). In 1960 he was elected President of the Society for one year and helped establish the Applied Optics Journal. He was the recipient of numerous OSA awards, spanning the breadth of the field, and has been honored with the Adolf Lomb Award, Ives Medal, Fraunhofer Award, and Richardson Award. He was made an honorary member of OSA in 1993. He also was the recipient of the 1978 Gold Medal, the highest award of the International Society of Optical Engineers (SPIE). Furthermore, he was the Recipient of the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute for his many innovations in astronomical tools. Dr. Baker was elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1965), the American Philosophical Society