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Sample records for aryl-ferrocenylpseudo-biarylic complexes part

  1. Computational complexity of the landscape: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Denef, Frederik . E-mail: frederik.denef@fys.kuleuven.be; Douglas, Michael R. . E-mail: mrd@physics.rutgers.edu

    2007-05-15

    We study the computational complexity of the physical problem of finding vacua of string theory which agree with data, such as the cosmological constant, and show that such problems are typically NP hard. In particular, we prove that in the Bousso-Polchinski model, the problem is NP complete. We discuss the issues this raises and the possibility that, even if we were to find compelling evidence that some vacuum of string theory describes our universe, we might never be able to find that vacuum explicitly. In a companion paper, we apply this point of view to the question of how early cosmology might select a vacuum.

  2. Physical Simulation of Investment Casting of Complex Shape Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Maestro, Laura; De Azua, Aitor Eguidazu Ruiz; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2015-05-01

    Development of investment casting process has been a challenge for manufacturers of complex shape parts. Numerous experimental casting trials are typically carried out to determine the optimum casting parameters for fabrication of high-quality products. In this work, it is demonstrated that physical simulation of investment casting can successfully predict microstructure and hardness in as-cast complex shape parts. The physical simulation tool consists of a thermal model and melting/solidification experiments in thermo-mechanical simulator. The thermal model is employed to predict local cooling rate during solidification at each point of a casting. Melting/solidification experiments are carried out under controlled cooling rates estimated by the thermal model. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of the solidified specimens is performed; the obtained results predict the local microstructure and mechanical properties of the casting. This concept is applied to investment casting of complex shape nozzle guide vanes from Mar-M247 Ni-based superalloy. Experimental casting trials are performed and the outcomes of physical simulation tool are validated against experimental results. It is shown that phase composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing, grain size, γ/ γ' eutectic size and volume fraction, size and shape of carbide particles, and local microhardness can be predicted at each point of the casting via physical simulation.

  3. Complex foamed aluminum parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings

    SciTech Connect

    Simancik, F.; Schoerghuber, F.

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of complex shaped aluminum foam parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings has been investigated. The foamed samples were prepared by injection of the foam into sand molds. It turned out that sound castings can be produced if the foam core is properly preheated and/or surface treated before casting. The effect of the foam core on the performance of the casting was evaluated by in compression testing and by measuring structural damping. The gain in the related properties turned out to be much higher than the weight increase of the casting due to the presence of the core. The weight increase may be partially offset through a reduction of the wall-thickness of the shell.

  4. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  6. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  7. Convective instabilities in complex systems with partly free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, Dietrich

    2007-04-01

    Experiments and observations and some selected theoretical studies of thermocapillary instabilities are reviewed and presented together with new unpublished work. We start with simple idealized model systems of pure thermocapillarity and add to them more complex features like gravity forces, temperature gradients inclined to the free surface, static and dynamic surface deformations, solutocapillary effects and reacting or moving crystal boundaries (like during unidirectional solidification). Many effects and instabilities are demonstrated in video clips which can be downloaded from http://meyweb.physik.uni-giessen.de/1_Forschung/crystalgrowth/video/homepage.html. We try to point out the relationship of thermocapillary instabilities in the more complex systems with those in theoretical studies where the names of these instabilities have been coined.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye...

  9. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Azo dye intermediates/Substituted diazonium...

  14. Technology improvement of chromium on steel parts electrodeposition using complex command and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to provide improved technological process of electrochemical deposition of chromium on steel for decorative parts for corrosion protection but also to improve mechanical properties. The proposed idea is perfectly suited to be grafted onto existing electrodeposition installations, but it can be applied successfully in the development of new such plants. Complex command and control systems are designed to operate in high aggressive environmental conditions specific to these types of installations. The theoretical part completes the experimental results obtained on a laboratory facility.

  15. Numerical modeling of conjugate heat transfer on complex geometries with diagonal Cartesian method. Part 2: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.D.; Lin, W.L.; Chen, C.J. |

    1999-05-01

    Part 1 of this study discusses the diagonal Cartesian method for temperature analysis. The application of this method to the analysis of flow and conjugate heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger is given in Part 2. In addition to a regular (i.e., Cartesian-oriented) fin arrangement, two complex fin arrangements are modeled using the diagonal Cartesian method. The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the different configurations are compared. It is found that enhanced heat transfer and reduced pressure drop can be obtained with the modified fin arrangements for this compact heat exchanger.

  16. Predicting the impact of quenching on mechanical properties of complex-shaped aluminum alloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.D.; Mudawar, I.

    1995-05-01

    The mechanical properties of age-hardenable aluminum alloy extrusions are critically dependent on the rate at which the part is cooled (quenched) after the forming operation. The present study continues the development of an intelligent spray quenching system, which selects the optimal nozzle configuration based on part geometry and composition such that the magnitude and uniformity of hardness (or yield strength) is maximized while residual stresses are minimized. The quenching of a complex-shaped part with multiple, overlapping sprays was successfully modeled using spray heat transfer correlations as boundary conditions within a finite element program. The hardness distribution of the heat-treated part was accurately predicted using the quench factor technique; that is, the metallurgical transformations that occur within the part were linked to the cooling history predicted by the finite element program. This study represents the first successful attempt at systematically predicting the mechanical properties of a quenched metallic part from knowledge of only the spray boundary conditions. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Culicoides dewulfi should not be considered part of the Culicoides obsoletus complex.

    PubMed

    Schwenkenbecher, J M; Mordue, A J; Piertney, S B

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence data has proven invaluable for defining the relationships among taxa, as well as resolving their evolutionary histories. Here, we analyzed DNA sequence variation of one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear regions (ITSI and II) to clarify the phylogenetic position of Culicoides dewulfi, a midge species widely spread in Europe and a suspected vector for bluetongue virus. Various authors have described C. dewulfi either as part of the Culicoides obsoletus sensu lato complex or as a separate taxonomic group. A maximum likelihood phylogeny, based upon an optimal model of sequence evolution, placed C. dewulfi outwith the C. obsoletus s.l. complex. Shimodaira-Hasegawa test highlighted that this topology was significantly more likely than any topology that placed C. dewulfi anywhere else in the phylogeny. As such, C. dewulfi should not be considered part of the C. obsoletus s.l. complex and instead be treated as a separate group, phylogenetically close to the classical Old World vector C. imicola.

  18. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part I: Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and structural dynamics have spurred the adoption of transmissibility functions in academia and industry alike. Due to the inherent randomness of measurement and variability of environmental conditions, uncertainty impacts its applications. This study is focused on statistical inference for raw scalar transmissibility functions modeled as complex ratio random variables. The goal is achieved through companion papers. This paper (Part I) is dedicated to dealing with a formal mathematical proof. New theorems on multivariate circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution are proved on the basis of principle of probabilistic transformation of continuous random vectors. The closed-form distributional formulas for multivariate ratios of correlated circularly-symmetric complex normal random variables are analytically derived. Afterwards, several properties are deduced as corollaries and lemmas to the new theorems. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is utilized to verify the accuracy of some representative cases. This work lays the mathematical groundwork to find probabilistic models for raw scalar transmissibility functions, which are to be expounded in detail in Part II of this study.

  19. Arabidopsis chloroplast lipid transport protein TGD2 disrupts membranes and is part of a large complex.

    PubMed

    Roston, Rebecca; Gao, Jinpeng; Xu, Changcheng; Benning, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    In most plants the assembly of the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane requires lipid precursors synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Thus, the transport of lipids from the ER to the chloroplast is essential for biogenesis of the thylakoids. TGD2 is one of four proteins in Arabidopsis required for lipid import into the chloroplast, and was found to bind phosphatidic acid in vitro. However, the significance of phosphatidic acid binding for the function of TGD2 in vivo and TGD2 interaction with membranes remained unclear. Developing three functional assays probing how TGD2 affects lipid bilayers in vitro, we show that it perturbs membranes to the point of fusion, causes liposome leakage and redistributes lipids in the bilayer. By identifying and characterizing five new mutant alleles, we demonstrate that these functions are impaired in specific mutants with lipid phenotypes in vivo. At the structural level, we show that TGD2 is part of a protein complex larger than 500 kDa, the formation of which is disrupted in two mutant alleles, indicative of the biological relevance of this TGD2-containing complex. Based on the data presented, we propose that TGD2, as part of a larger complex, forms a lipid transport conduit between the inner and outer chloroplast envelope membranes, with its N terminus anchored in the inner membrane and its C terminus binding phosphatidic acid in the outer membrane.

  20. Method of producing complex aluminum alloy parts of high temper, and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Fully annealed aluminum sheet is first stretch formed to the complex, doubly compound shape of a previously prepared forming die, e.g., an ejection seat blowout panel of a shuttlecraft. The part is then marked with a series of grid lines for monitoring later elongation. Thereafter it is solution heat treated and refrigerated to retard hardening. While still soft, it is stretched a second time on the same die to induce a modicum of work hardening, after which it is aged to the desired stress corrosion resistant temper, preferably the T8 level, to provide the desired hardness and stress corrosion resistance.

  1. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  2. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing.

  3. The Salience of Complex Words and Their Parts: Which Comes First?

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i.e., from a syntagmatic view). These two competing views have strongly determined the choice of experimental factors manipulated in studies on morphological processing (mainly different lexical frequencies, word/non-word structure, and morphological family size). Moreover, work on various kinds of more or less segmentable items (from genuinely morphologically complex words like hunter to words exhibiting only a surface morphological structure like corner and irregular forms like thieves) has given rise to two competing hypotheses on the cognitive role of morphology. The first hypothesis claims that morphology organizes whole words into morphological families and series, while the second sets morphology at a pre-lexical level, with morphemes standing as access units to the mental lexicon. The present paper examines more deeply the notion of morphological salience and its implications for theories and models of morphological processing. PMID:27917133

  4. Compartmental models for apical efflux by P-glycoprotein. Part 1. Evaluation of model complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Swati; Tucker, Jalia; Weiskircher, Erica A.; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Korzekwa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of quantifying P-gp transport kinetics, Part 1 of these manuscripts evaluates different compartmental models and Part 2 applies these models to kinetic data. Methods Models were developed to simulate the effect of apical efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations of six drugs. The effect of experimental variability on model predictions was evaluated. Several models were evaluated, and characteristics including membrane configuration, lipid content, and apical surface area (asa) were varied. Results Passive permeabilities from MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence of cyclosporine gave lower model errors than from MDCK control cells. Consistent with the results in Part 2, model configuration had little impact on calculated model errors. The 5-compartment model was the simplest model that reproduced experimental lag times. Lipid content and asa had minimal effect on model errors, predicted lag times, and intracellular concentrations. Including endogenous basolateral uptake activity can decrease model errors. Models with and without explicit membrane barriers differed markedly in their predicted intracellular concentrations for basolateral drug exposure. Single point data resulted in clearances similar to time course data. Conclusions Compartmental models are useful to evaluate the impact of efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations. Whereas a 3-compartment model may be sufficient to predict the impact of transporters that efflux drugs from the cell, a 5-compartment model with explicit membranes may be required to predict intracellular concentrations when efflux occurs from the membrane. More complex models including additional compartments may be unnecessary. PMID:24019023

  5. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  6. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  7. Magmatic complexes of the Urals as suspect parts of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Petrogenetic, geochemical studies and isotope age determinations of flood basalts, dolerites, trachybasalts, picrite-basalts, rapakivi granites, layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions and also alkaline and carbonatite magmatic complexes of the Urals permit to put forward a preliminary list of objects - “candidates” at being attributed to Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) - manifestations of superplume activity. Their petro-geochemical properties distinguish them from spreading and subduction types, and are closer to epicontinental rift zones. They are characterized by wide areas of development and very short periods of activity. In the Southern Urals near the base of the Lower Riphean (Uppermost Paleoproterozoic and Lower Mesoproterozoic) there are volcanic deposits of the Navysh Subformation, represented by trachybasalts. The age of the unit was determined as 1752 ± llMa. Volcanic rocks of the age level of 1750-1780 Ma are developed not only in some other places of Baltica, but also in the Northern Africa, Siberia, Laurentia (parts of Nuna supercontinent). Therefore, they may belong to a LIP. Higher up the section of the Riphean, at the base of the Middle Riphean (Mid-Mesoproterozoic), rhyolites of the basalt-rhyolite Mashak Formation were dated as 1380-1385 Ma. The same ages have also rapakivi granites, layered gabbro, carbonatites and dolerite dykes developed in the Southern Urals and encountered in boreholes of the East European platform; magmatic rocks of the same age are traced to Laurentia and Siberian cratons and date the beginning of Nuna supercontinent break-up. Less confidently we may speak of the younger Neoproterozoic magmatic complexes of the Southern Urals as LIPs, dated as ca. 720 Ma and 680 Ma (Arshinian and Kiryabinka complexes); they need a further study. The next in the succession of magmatic episodes, represented by subalkaline volcanics, is connected with a rift process that started at ca. 490 Ma, that led to oceanic spreading and formation of

  8. Polymetamorphic complexes in the eastern parts of the Balkan Peninsula: 600 Ma of geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorchev, I.

    2007-12-01

    Polymetamorphic amphibolite-facies complexes are exposed in the eastern and central parts of the Balkan Peninsula in different Alpine tectonic zones and under different Cadomian to Alpine collisional and exhumation histories and regimes. All complexes consist mostly of biotite and two-mica gneisses and schists, and amphibolites. Strong Cadomian overprint led to intimate mixing (tectonometamorphic amalgamation) of crustal and mantle (and/or oceanic crust)-derived (serpentinized ultramafics, eclogites) products. The pre-Cadomian complex in Central Sredna-gora Mountains evolved through Cadomian collision with c. 617 Ma granites, Hercynian 340 to 250 Ma granitoids, Late Permian exhumation, and Triassic-Jurassic sedimentation followed by Mid-Cretaceous exhumation. P-T conditions never reached amphibolite facies in post-Cadomian times except for some shear zones. The pre-Cadomian amphibolite-facies complex in Sakar Mt. was intruded by c. 500 Ma old granites, deeply eroded in late Permian time, and covered with depositional contact by Triassic terrestrial and marine sediments. Both basement and Triassic cover suffered folding and amphibolite-facies metamorphism (c. 150 Ma BP) followed by exhumation. Included in the Srednogorie Late Cretaceous volcanic arc as crystalline cores, these complexes have been affected by latest Cretaceous exhumation. Amphibolite-facies polymetamorphic cores (Ograzhdenian complex) within the Serbo-Macedonian massif and other units in SW Bulgaria and the adjacent countries were subjected to intense Cadomian (560 - 520 Ma BP) synmetamorphic collision and granite activity. Some units suffered Cadomian collision under greenschist-facies with a Neoproterozoic to Cambrian diabase-phyllitoid complex or have been exhumed and directly covered by Cambrian (followed by Cambrian limestones) or Tremadocian marine sandstones. After Palaeozoic exhumation, their structure was sealed by Permian, Triassic and Jurassic terrestrial and marine sediments, and after

  9. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-05

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with (2)B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50=0.58μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  10. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  11. The Bemisia tabaci species complex: additions from different parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; Vosman, Ben; Hidayati, Nurul; Jaya Supena, Ence Darmo; Visser, Richard G F; van Heusden, Adriaan Willem

    2013-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most threatening pests in many crops. We sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene from fifty whitefly populations collected in Indonesia, Thailand, India and China. Nineteen unique sequences (haplotypes) of the cytochrome oxidase I were identified in these populations. They were combined with sequences available in databases, resulting in a total of 407 haplotypes and analyzed together with nine outgroup accessions. A phylogenetic tree was calculated using the maximum likelihood method. The tree showed that all groups that were found in previous studies were also present in our study. Additionally, seven new groups were identified based on the new haplotypes. Most B. tabaci haplotypes grouped based on their geographical origin. Two groups were found to have a worldwide distribution. Our results indicate that our knowledge on the species complex around B. tabaci is still far from complete.

  12. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-02-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  13. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  14. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  15. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  16. Localized slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinized dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Renard, François; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Dehydration of partly or completely serpentinized ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure, a process referred to as dehydration embrittlement. However the extents of strain localization and unstable frictional sliding during deserpentinization are still under debate. In the layered ultramafic sections of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of Mg-rich and coarse-grained olivine with abundant magnetite inclusions and δ18O values 1.0- 1.5 ‰ below the host rock. Embrittlement associated with the dehydration caused faulting along highly localized (<10 μm-wide) slip planes near the centers of the original serpentinite veins and pulverization of wall rock olivine. These features along with an earthquake-like size distribution of fault offsets suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. Structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins clearly have first-order controls on strain localization and frictional sliding during dehydration. As most of the oceanic lithosphere is incompletely serpentinized, heterogeneities represented by a non-uniform distribution of serpentinite are common and may increase the likelihood that dehydration embrittlement triggers earthquakes.

  17. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  18. Geology of the Northern Part of the Harcuvar Complex, West-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Bruce; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    In west-central Arizona near the northeast margin of the Basin and Range Province, the Rawhide detachment fault separates Tertiary and older rocks lacking significant effects of Tertiary metamorphism from Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks in the Harcuvar metamorphic core complex below. Much of the northern part of the Harcuvar complex in the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains is layered granitic gneiss, biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and minor pelitic schist that was probably deformed and metamorphosed in Early Proterozoic time. In the eastern Buckskin Mountains, Early and Middle Proterozoic plutons having U-Pb zircon ages of 1,683?6.4 mega-annum (Ma) and 1,388?2.3 Ma, respectively, intruded the layered gneiss. Small plutons of alkaline gabbro and diorite intruded in Late Jurassic time. A sample of mylonitized diorite from this unit has a U-Pb zircon age of 149?2.8 Ma. In the Early Cretaceous, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism was accompanied by partial melting and formation of migmatite. Zircon from a granitic layer in migmatitic gneiss in the eastern Harcuvar Mountains has a U-Pb age of 110?3.7 Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, sills and plutons of the granite of Tank Pass were emplaced in both the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains. In the Buckskin Mountains those intrusions are locally numerous enough to form an injection migmatite. A pluton of this granite crops out over almost half the area of the eastern Harcuvar Mountains. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were caught as slices along south-vergent Cretaceous thrusts related to the Maria fold and thrust belt and were metamorphosed beneath a thick sheet of Proterozoic crustal rocks. Inception of volcanism and basin formation in upper-plate rocks indicates that regional extension started at about 26 Ma, in late Oligocene. The Swansea Plutonic Suite, composed of rocks ranging from gabbro to granite, intruded the lower-plate rocks in the Miocene and Oligocene(?). Granite and a gabbro

  19. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  20. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  1. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  2. Complex-shaped hardened parts fatigue limit prediction according to the witness sample study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surgutanova, Yu N.; Mikushev, N. N.; Surgutanov, N. A.; Kiselev, P. E.; Shlyapnikov, P. A.; Meshcheryakova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of assessment of the effect of preparatory surface plastic deformation by hydraulic shot blasting on the fatigue strength of cylindrical parts of different diameters (10-40 mm) of D16T alloy with circular notches of semicircular section, based on measurements of residual stress (initial deformations) of a witness sample. The residual stresses of smooth parts were used to calculate the residual stresses of parts with stress raisers. These were used to predict the increment of these parts fatigue limit caused by hardening hydraulic shot blasting. It was found that the highest compressive residual stresses in the smooth parts obtained through calculations differ from the observed values not more than by 7%, and in notched parts by 8%. Using the criterion of mean integral residual stresses, we calculate the increments of the fatigue limit of parts due to superficial hardening. The discrepancy between the experimental and calculated increment values of the fatigue limit of hardened parts with raisers does not exceed 17%.

  3. Copper(i) complexes with phosphine derived from sparfloxacin. Part I - structures, spectroscopic properties and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Komarnicka, Urszula K; Starosta, Radosław; Kyzioł, Agnieszka; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-07-28

    In this paper we present new copper(i) iodide or copper(i) thiocyanate complexes with hydroxymethyldiphenylphosphine (PPh2(CH2OH)) or phosphine derivatives of sparfloxacin, a 3(rd) generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent (PPh2(CH2-Sf)) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) auxiliary ligands. The synthesised complexes were fully characterised by NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry. Selected structures were additionally analysed using X-ray and DFT methods. All complexes proved to be stable in solution in the presence of water and atmospheric oxygen for several days. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes was tested against two cancer cell lines (CT26 - mouse colon carcinoma and A549 - human lung adenocarcinoma). Applying two different incubation times, the studies enabled a preliminary estimation of the dependence of the selectivity and the mechanism of action on the type of diimine and phosphine ligands. The results obtained showed that complexes with PPh2(CH2-Sf) are significantly more active than those with PPh2(CH2OH). On the other hand, the relative impact of diimine on cytotoxicity is less pronounced. However, the dmp complexes are characterised by strong inhibitory properties, while the bq ones are rather not. This confirms the interesting and promising biological properties of the investigated group of copper(i) complexes, which undoubtedly are worthy of further biological studies.

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  5. Subpallial origin of part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Legaz, Isabel; García-López, Margarita; Medina, Loreta

    2005-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex originate in the subpallium. To that end, we prepared organotypic cultures of embryonic telencephalic slices, and applied the cell tracker CMTMR to the ventricular/subventricular zone of the lateral or medial ganglionic eminence. Following 48 h of incubation, we observed a number of CMTMR-labeled cells (showing red fluorescence) of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex. To know whether some of these cells of subpallial origin were calbindin-positive, we performed immunofluorescence for calbindin using an Alexa 488-conjugated secondary antiserum (green fluorescence). Our results showed that some of the CMTMR-labeled cells of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex are calbindin-positive (and possibly GABAergic). The subpallial origin of part of these cells was confirmed by observation of double labeled neurons in the claustral complex that expressed both Lhx6 mRNA (a marker of cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence) and calbindin. Future studies will be required to analyze the existence of a subpopulation of non-GABAergic calbindin cells in the claustral complex and piriform cortex, and to know their origin.

  6. Goal Neglect and Spearman's "g": Competing Parts of a Complex Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John; Parr, Alice; Woolgar, Alexandra; Thompson, Russell; Bright, Peter; Cox, Sally; Bishop, Sonia; Nimmo-Smith, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In goal neglect, a person ignores some task requirement though being able to describe it. Goal neglect is closely related to general intelligence or C. Spearman's (1904) "g" (J. Duncan, H. Emslie, P. Williams, R. Johnson, & C. Freer, 1996). The authors tested the role of task complexity in neglect and the hypothesis that different task components…

  7. Verification of correctness of using real part of complex root as Rayleigh-wave phase velocity with synthetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yudi; Xia, Jianghai; Zeng, Chong

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency (≥ 2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave phase velocities have been utilized to determine shear-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. One of the key steps is to calculate theoretical dispersion curves of an earth model. When the earth model contains a low-velocity half-space, however, some roots of the dispersion equation turn out to be complex numbers, which makes phase velocities disappear at some frequencies. When encountering this situation, the common practice is to append an additional high velocity layer as the half-space to the model to make the roots real or use the real parts of complex roots as Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. The correctness of the first method has been verified. The correctness of the second method, however, remains to be unproved. We use synthetic data generated by numerical modeling of the wave equation to verify the correctness of the second method. In this paper, we firstly discuss the reasons that only complex numbers of the dispersion equation exist at some frequencies when an earth model contains a low velocity half-space. Then we discuss how the nearest offset affects a synthetic model and recommend an optimal nearest offset in generating synthetic data that are close to real-world situations. Several synthetic models are used to verify correctness of using real parts of complex roots as Rayleigh-wave phase velocities when an earth model contains a low velocity layer as the half-space.

  8. Good-Enough Understanding: Theorising about the Learning of Complex Ideas (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Vicki; Reid, David A.

    2004-01-01

    In part 1 of this article Zack and Reid offered two examples of students operating with good-enough understandings in mathematics, and related their understandings to features of good-enough understanding identified by Mackey (I997) in the context of reading. Mackey contends that the ability to read further, on the basis of a very imperfect…

  9. Numerical modeling of conjugate heat transfer on complex geometries with diagonal Cartesian method. Part 1: Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.L.; Carlson, K.D.; Chen, C.J. |

    1999-05-01

    In this study, a diagonal Cartesian method for thermal analysis is developed for simulation of conjugate heat transfer over complex boundaries. This method uses diagonal line segments in addition to Cartesian coordinates. The velocity fields are also modeled using the diagonal Cartesian method. The transport equations are discretized with the finite analytic (FA) method. The current work is validated by simulating a rotated lid-driven cavity flow with conjugate heat transfer, and accurate results are obtained.

  10. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  11. Immediate Single-Stage Reconstruction of Complex Frontofaciobasal Injuries: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  12. Studying the Laws of the Thermoviscoplastic Deformation of a Solid Under Nonisothermal Complex Loading. Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Yu. N.; Terekhov, R. G.

    2001-06-01

    The studies made at the thermoplasticity department of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics are analyzed. These studies involve experimental validations of the kinematic equation of creep damage and the constitutive equations describing simple thermoviscoelastoplastic loading, with history, of isotropic and transversally isotropic bodies, for elastoviscoplastic deformation of bodies along slightly curved paths, for complex loading along arbitrary paths lying either in a plane arbitrarily oriented in the five-dimensional space of stresses or in one coordinate plane, and for elastoplastic deformation of a body's elements along paths of moderate curvature and small torsion

  13. Manufacturing of a Complex Preform by RTM. Processes Parameters and Quality of the Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulat, D.; Hivet, G.; Agogue, R.; Cordier-Telmar, A.

    2011-05-01

    The shear deformation and the evolution of the fibre volume fraction of carbon braided reinforcement are studied during the performing step of the RTM process. The determination of these quantities is necessary for their influence on the permeability component for the simulation of the resin injection step. During the performing the complex preform is studied at several scale with an analytical model based on fishnet approach. Numerical results in terms of shear angle, position of the reinforcement, fibre volume fraction, are compared to quantities extract from tomographies realized on composite piece after the resin injection. The model can optimize specific parameters of the braid reinforcement used for this application.

  14. Myoclonus dystonia and muscular dystrophy: ɛ‐sarcoglycan is part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in brain

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adrian J.; Carlisle, Francesca A.; Chan, Yiumo Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Myoclonus‐dystonia is a neurogenic movement disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding ɛ‐sarcoglycan. By contrast, mutations in the α‐, β‐, γ‐, and δ‐sarcoglycan genes cause limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The sarcoglycans are part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in muscle that is disrupted in several types of muscular dystrophy. Intriguingly, patients with myoclonus‐dystonia have no muscle pathology; conversely, limb‐girdle muscular dystrophy patients have not been reported to have dystonia‐associated features. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we searched for evidence of a sarcoglycan complex in the brain. Methods Immunoaffinity chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to purify ubiquitous and brain‐specific ɛ‐sarcoglycan directly from tissue. Cell models were used to determine the effect of mutations on the trafficking and assembly of the brain sarcoglycan complex. Results Ubiquitous and brain‐specific ɛ‐sarcoglycan isoforms copurify with β‐, δ‐, and ζ‐sarcoglycan, β‐dystroglycan, and dystrophin Dp71 from brain. Incorporation of a muscular dystrophy‐associated β‐sarcoglycan mutant into the brain sarcoglycan complex impairs the formation of the βδ‐sarcoglycan core but fails to abrogate the association and membrane trafficking of ɛ‐ and ζ‐sarcoglycan. Conclusions ɛ‐Sarcoglycan is part of the dystrophin‐associated protein complex in brain. Partial preservation of ɛ‐ and ζ‐sarcoglycan in brain may explain the absence of myoclonus dystonia‐like features in muscular dystrophy patients. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27535350

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and...

  20. PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART II, MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING AND RELATED FINANCIAL PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDMAN, BURTON DEAN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS THE SECOND PART OF A REPORT, PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART 1, EA 001 170, SUBTITLED "ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS," CONTAINS AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX WITHIN EACH STATE EDUCATION AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT IS A MANUAL PRESENTING THE…

  1. Interlace properties for the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes-Nájera, Alfonso; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Some general properties of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum are studied. The main results are presented in a series of lemmas, corollaries and theorems that are satisfied by the zeros of the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions on the real line. In particular, it is shown that such zeros interlace so that the corresponding probability densities ρ(x) are never null. We find that the profile of the imaginary part VI(x) of a given complex-valued potential determines the number and distribution of the maxima and minima of the related probability densities. Our conjecture is that VI(x) must be continuous in R, and that its integral over all the real line must be equal to zero in order to get control on the distribution of the maxima and minima of ρ(x) . The applicability of these results is shown by solving the eigenvalue equation of different complex potentials, these last being either PT-symmetric or not invariant under the PT-transformation.

  2. [Smoking and digestive tract: a complex relationship. Part 2: Intestinal microblota and cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Begon, Jacques; Juillerat, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-06-10

    The digestive tract is colonized from birth by a bacterial population called the microbiota which influences the development of the immune system. Modifications in its composition are associated with problems such as obesity or inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotics are known to influence the intestinal microbiota but other environmental factors such as cigarette smoking also seem to have an impact on its composition. This influence might partly explain weight gain which is observed after smoking cessation. Indeed there is a modification of the gut microbiota which becomes similar to that of obese people with a microbiotical profile which is more efficient to extract calories from ingested food. These new findings open new fields of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches through the regulation of the microbiota.

  3. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  4. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924

  5. Evolution of the cephalopod head complex by assembly of multiple molluscan body parts: Evidence from Nautilus embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Sasaki, Takenori; Moritaki, Takeya; Kasugai, Takashi; Vecchione, Michael; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2008-01-01

    Cephalopod head parts are among the most complex occurring in all invertebrates. Hypotheses for the evolutionary process require a drastic body-plan transition in relation to the life-style changes from benthos to active nekton. Determining these transitions, however, has been elusive because of scarcity of fossil records of soft tissues and lack of some of the early developmental stages of the basal species. Here we report the first embryological evidence in the nautiloid cephalopod Nautilus pompilius for the morphological development of the head complex by a unique assembly of multiple archetypical molluscan body parts. Using a specialized aquarium system, we successfully obtained a series of developmental stages that enabled us to test previous controversial scenarios. Our results demonstrate that the embryonic organs exhibit body plans that are primarily bilateral and antero-posteriorly elongated at stereotyped positions. The distinct cephalic compartment, foot, brain cords, mantle, and shell resemble the body plans of monoplacophorans and basal gastropods. The numerous digital tentacles of Nautilus develop from simple serial and spatially-patterned bud-like anlagen along the anterior-posterior axis, indicating that origins of digital tentacles or arms of all other cephalopods develop not from the head but from the foot. In middle and late embryos, the primary body plans largely change to those of juveniles or adults, and finally form a "head" complex assembled by anlagen of the foot, cephalic hood, collar, hyponome (funnel), and the foot-derived epidermal covers. We suggest that extensions of the collar-funnel compartment and free epidermal folds derived from multiple topological foot regions may play an important role in forming the head complex, which is thought to be an important feature during the body plan transition.

  6. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  7. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  8. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  9. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part II: Probabilistic model and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    In Part I of this study, some new theorems, corollaries and lemmas on circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution have been mathematically proved. This part II paper is dedicated to providing a rigorous treatment of statistical properties of raw scalar transmissibility functions at an arbitrary frequency line. On the basis of statistics of raw FFT coefficients and circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution, explicit closed-form probabilistic models are established for both multivariate and univariate scalar transmissibility functions. Also, remarks on the independence of transmissibility functions at different frequency lines and the shape of the probability density function (PDF) of univariate case are presented. The statistical structures of probabilistic models are concise, compact and easy-implemented with a low computational effort. They hold for general stationary vector processes, either Gaussian stochastic processes or non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The accuracy of proposed models is verified using numerical example as well as field test data of a high-rise building and a long-span cable-stayed bridge. This study yields new insights into the qualitative analysis of the uncertainty of scalar transmissibility functions, which paves the way for developing new statistical methodologies for modal analysis, model updating or damage detection using responses only without input information.

  10. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  11. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  12. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy.

  13. Gas migration pathways in a complex faulted hangingwall in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, Emil K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2013-04-01

    The studied fault is positioned in the westernmost Danish part of the Norwegian Danish Basin at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin. The dominating fault is the so called D-1 fault, which is part of a fault trend which follows the southern pinch-out line of the Zechstein salt and detach along the top Zechstein evaporites. Just north of the D-1 fault is the only Danish commercial HC producing area outside the Mesozoic Central Graben -the Siri Canyon- located The presence of gas within the Neogene sediments at the hanging-wall of the D-1 fault was reported in the D-1 well and the D-1 fault was analyzed in detail using 2-D seismic data in the early 90-ies. Due to the open seismic grid used then it was not possible to link the presence of possible gas occurrences and the faults as well as linking the small faults associated to the hanging-wall deformation. The area was subject to renewed interest due to the HC discoveries in the Siri Valley and industrial 3-D seismic data was acquired covering the D-1 fault.The 3D seismic data has enabled a very detailed mapping of the entire D-1 fault complex as well as seismic attribute analysis (courtesy OpendTect). The D-1 fault is in map-view characterized by segments approximately 10 km long striking E-W and NE-SW respectively. In the Cretaceous and Cenozoic part is the main fault coherent whereas the antithetic and secondary synthetic faults in the hanging-wall are smaller (both with respect to offset and length). The character of the internal hanging-wall faults varies along strike of the main fault. In areas adjacent to NE-SW striking segments is the number of faults much higher and they strike both parallel to the main fault and at an angle to it; whereas the faults are longer, less numerous and dominantly parallel to the main fault in the E-W striking central parts. Gas occurrences are observed as bright-spots associated to small faults in the hanging-wall next to the NE-SW striking segments, whereas

  14. Forest Fires, Oil Spills, and Fractal Geometry: An Investigation in Two Parts. Part 2: Using Fractal Complexity to Analyze Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, L. Charles

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)

  15. Remobilization and degradation of Muostakh Island (Laptev Sea) as part of the collapsing Arctic coastal ice complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Vonk, J.; Charkin, A.; Kosmach, D.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2010-05-01

    East Siberiańs permafrost is thought to contain about 400 GtC (Giga = 109) [1] in form of the so-called Yedoma or Ice Complex, a huge stock of carbon mainly as frozen loess deposits formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (~40,000 years ago). The Pleistocene Ice Complex has not undergone much alteration by soil microorganisms since deposited, which makes it particularly sensitive to global warming effects on large-scale C dynamics. Accelerated coastal erosion of the Ice Complexes is brought on by a combination of thermal collapse, sea-level rise and enhanced wave fetch from loss of coastal sea-ice cover [2, 3]. Despite coastal erosion is estimated to deliver as much OC to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as all the great Russian-Arctic rivers combined [3], the process is poorly understood, in particular with regard to the fate of the OM derived from coastal erosion. This study aims to alleviate the lack of information on the remobilization of OM from massive coastal erosion in the ESAS. The erosion evolution of a significant example of this destructive geological process (Muostakh Island, SE Laptev Sea), has been observed over the past decade and it has been estimated a retreat rate up to 20 m during the summer months (from 2001 to 2009). In summer 2006, soil samples were collected from Muostakh at 11 different locations along four 'erosion transects', spanning reliefs with ranges of approximately 25 m from the top plateau to the water boundary. On-site CO2measurements were carried out on the surface along five different transects across the island. Quantification of the organic carbon (OC), bulk 14C content and biomarker analysis (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, sterols) were performed to elucidate whether the old carbon forms eroded from Muostakh Island are subject to degradation. Elemental and isotopic analyses showed a vertical trend of younger (~modern) and C-enriched (OC~38%) material toward the plateau of the island, in contrast to the older

  16. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB.

  17. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  18. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 10. The complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its methyl derivatives. An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffoor, Fatima; Ford, Thomas A.

    2008-11-01

    Ab initio calculations, at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms, have been carried out on the donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its mono-, di- and trimethyl derivatives. The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the complexes have been determined. An eclipsed and a staggered conformer have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer was found to be the staggered species in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some similar complexes containing boron trifluoride and a series of oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, methanol, methanethiol, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide) and the effect of successive methyl substitution in all three series has been investigated.

  19. Biological evaluation of mechlorethamine-Pt(II) complex, part II: antimicrobial screening and lox study of the complex and its ligand.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Ivana D; Petrović, Zorica D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Simijonović, Dušica; Petrović, Vladimir P; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with anticancer-alkylating agent mechlorethamine hydrochloride (CH(3)NH(C(2)H(4)Cl)(2) x HCl = HN2×HCl), in the molar ratio 1 : 2, affords the complex [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)]. In vitro antimicrobial and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the complex and its precursor were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity of the HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex was investigated against 29 species of microorganisms. Testing is performed by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. The difference between antimicrobial activity of precursor and corresponding platinum(II) complex is noticed and the activity of the precursor was higher. Tested compounds demonstrated the high and significant antifungal activity and low to moderate antibacterial activity. It was shown that the gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than the gram-negative. UV absorbance-based enzyme assays were performed with HN2×HCl and [H2N2](2)[PtCl(4)] complex, in order to evaluate their in vitro inhibitory activity of soybean lipoxygenase (LOX), also. Assay with LOX showed significantly greater inhibitory activity of the complex, than the precursor.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  1. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  2. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods.

  3. Utility of cyclodextrins in the formulation of genistein part 1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of genistein complexes with native cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, Balázs; Mátyus, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács, Mária; Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szoke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2008-11-04

    Isoflavones are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The molecular encapsulation with CDs results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of isoflavones. Genistein, a key isoflavone constituent of Ononidis spinosae radix was found to form a supramolecular, non-covalent inclusion complex with both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD), while it did not form a stable complex with alpha-CD. The guest genistein was found to spatially located in the less polar cavity of cyclodextrin. The isolated binary genistein/CD complexes appeared novel crystalline lattices. The in vitro dissolution of genistein entrapped into both beta- and gamma-CD, significantly surpassed that of the plain isoflavone.

  4. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 1 - Nickel(II) complexes with the antibacterial drug sparfloxacin: structure and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Psycharis, Vassilis; Terzis, Aris; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2009-12-01

    The mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the third-generation quinolone antibacterial agent sparfloxacin in the absence or presence of nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligands (1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The experimental data suggest that sparfloxacin acts as deprotonated bidentate ligand coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the ketone and carboxylato oxygens. The crystal structure of (1,10-phenanthroline)bis(sparfloxacinato) nickel(II), 2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes recorded in dmso solution and in 1/2 dmso/buffer (containing 150 mM NaCl and 15 mM trisodium citrate at pH 7.0) solution have shown that in the presence of CT DNA they can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA and 2 exhibits the highest binding constant to CT DNA. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested on three different microorganisms and has revealed that the inhibition provided by the complexes is slightly decreased in comparison to free sparfloxacin. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human and bovine serum albumin proteins having relatively high binding constant values.

  5. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    PubMed

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  6. The importance of integration and top-down salience when listening to complex multi-part musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2013-08-15

    In listening to multi-part music, auditory streams can be attended to either selectively or globally. More specifically, musicians rely on prioritized integrative attention which incorporates both stream segregation and integration to assess the relationship between concurrent parts. In this fMRI study, we used a piano duet to investigate which factors of a leader-follower relationship between parts grab the listener's attention and influence the perception of multi-part music. The factors considered included the structural relationship between melody and accompaniment as well as the temporal relationship (asynchronies) between parts. The structural relationship was manipulated by cueing subjects to the part of the duet that had to be prioritized. The temporal relationship was investigated by synthetically shifting the onset times of melody and accompaniment to either a consistent melody or accompaniment lead. The relative importance of these relationship factors for segregation and integration as attentional mechanisms was of interest. Participants were required to listen to the cued part and then globally assess if the prioritized stream was leading or following compared to the second stream. Results show that the melody is judged as more leading when it is globally temporally ahead whereas the accompaniment is not judged as leading when it is ahead. This bias may be a result of the interaction of salience of both leader-follower relationship factors. Interestingly, the corresponding interaction effect in the fMRI-data yields an inverse bias for melody in a fronto-parietal attention network. Corresponding parameter estimates within the dlPFC and right IPS show higher neural activity for attending to melody when listening to a performance without a temporal leader, pointing to an interaction of salience of both factors in listening to music. Both frontal and parietal activation implicate segregation and integration mechanisms and a top-down influence of salience

  7. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  8. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  9. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  10. The sarcolemmal calcium pump, alpha-1 syntrophin, and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase are parts of a macromolecular protein complex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Judith C; Armesilla, Angel L; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Hagarty, Cassandra L; McIntyre, Fiona H; Schomburg, Sybille; Zaki, Aly O; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Buch, Mamta H; Emerson, Michael; Neyses, Ludwig

    2006-08-18

    The main role of the plasma membrane Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA) is in the removal of Ca2+ from the cytosol. Recently, we and others have suggested a new function for PMCA as a modulator of signal transduction pathways. This paper shows the physical interaction between PMCA (isoforms 1 and 4) and alpha-1 syntrophin and proposes a ternary complex of interaction between endogenous PMCA, alpha-1 syntrophin, and NOS-1 in cardiac cells. We have identified that the linker region between the pleckstrin homology 2 (PH2) and the syntrophin unique (SU) domains, corresponding to amino acids 399-447 of alpha-1 syntrophin, is crucial for interaction with PMCA1 and -4. The PH2 and the SU domains alone failed to interact with PMCA. The functionality of the interaction was demonstrated by investigating the inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-1 (NOS-1); PMCA is a negative regulator of NOS-1-dependent NO production, and overexpression of alpha-1 syntrophin and PMCA4 resulted in strongly increased inhibition of NO production. Analysis of the expression levels of alpha-1 syntrophin protein in the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, uterus, kidney, or liver of PMCA4-/- mice, did not reveal any differences when compared with those found in the same tissues of wild-type mice. These results suggest that PMCA4 is tethered to the syntrophin complex as a regulator of NOS-1, but its absence does not cause collapse of the complex, contrary to what has been reported for other proteins within the complex, such as dystrophin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate for the first time the localization of PMCA1b and -4b to the syntrophin.dystrophin complex in the heart and provide a specific molecular mechanism of interaction as well as functionality.

  11. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  12. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  13. On the relationship between the Bushveld Complex and its felsic roof rocks, part 2: the immediate roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Emplacement of large volumes of mafic magma into the crust undoubtedly causes significant thermal perturbation to the overlying crust. Despite the clear importance of the country rock in modulating the thermal evolution the Bushveld Complex, little is known about the nature and extent of its roof zone. This manuscript details the lateral variability of the rocks that make up the immediate roof of the intrusion in the Eastern Limb. In the Northern Segment of the eastern Bushveld, the roof is dominated by thermally metamorphosed metapelites; in the Central Segment, the roof is dominated by highly metamorphosed meta-volcanic rocks and their partially molten equivalents; and in the Southern Segment, the roof is likely composed of modestly thermally metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks. The variability of roof lithology is also reflected in the variability of floor rocks to the intrusion. A new model for the emplacement of the eastern Bushveld Complex is proposed in which the mafic magmas intrude at a deeper level in the north and become shallower to the south.

  14. Complex plane integration in the modelling of electromagnetic fields in layered media: part 1. Application to a very large loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Valdelírio da Silva e.; Régis, Cícero; Howard, Allen Q., Jr.

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyses the details of a procedure for the numerical integration of Hankel transforms in the calculation of the electromagnetic fields generated by a large horizontal loop over a 1D earth. The method performs the integration by deforming the integration path into the complex plane and applying Cauchy's theorem on a modified version of the integrand. The modification is the replacement of the Bessel functions J0 and J1 by the Hankel functions H_0^{(1)} and H_1^{(1)} respectively. The integration in the complex plane takes advantage of the exponentially decaying behaviour of the Hankel functions, allowing calculation on very small segments, instead of the infinite line of the original improper integrals. A crucial point in this problem is the location of the poles. The companion paper shows two methods to estimate the pole locations. We have used this method to calculate the fields of very large loops. Our results show that this method allows the estimation of the integrals with fewer evaluations of the integrand functions than other methods.

  15. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  16. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  17. The grand tour of the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada: Part 1 - Introduction & road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; McGrew, A.J.; Burton, B.R.; Barnes, C.G.; Peters, M.T.; Wright, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this geological excursion is to provide an overview of the multiphase developmental history of the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, northeastern Nevada. Although these mountain ranges are commonly cited as a classic example of a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex developed through large-magnitude, mid-Tertiary crustal extension, a preceding polyphase Mesozoic contractional history is also well preserved in the ranges. An early phase of this history involved Late Jurassic two-mica granitic magmatism, high-temperature but relatively low-pressure metamorphism, and polyphase deformation in the central Ruby Mountains. In the northern Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, a Late Cretaceous history of crustal shortening, metamorphism, and magmatism is manifested by fold-nappes (involving Archean basement rocks in the northern East Humboldt Range), widespread migmatization, injection of monzogranitic and leucogranitic magmas, all coupled with sillimanite-grade metamorphism. Following Late Cretaceous contraction, a protracted extensional deformation partially overprinted these areas during the Cenozoic. This extensional history may have begun as early as the Late Cretaceous or as late as the mid-Eocene. Late Eocene and Oligocene magmatism occurred at various levels in the crust yielding mafic to felsic orthogneisses in the deep crust, a composite granitic pluton in the upper crust, and volcanic rocks at the surface. Movement along a west-rooted, extensional shear zone in the Oligocene and early Miocene led to core-complex exhumation. The shear zone produced mylonitic rocks about 1 km thick at deep crustal levels, and an overprint of brittle detachment faulting at shallower levels as unroofing proceeded. Megabreccias and other synextensional sedimentary deposits are locally preserved in a tilted, upper Eocene through Miocene stratigraphic sequence. Neogene magmatism included the emplacement of basalt dikes and eruption of rhyolitic rocks. Subsequent

  18. Divalent carbon(0) chemistry, part 2: Protonation and complexes with main group and transition metal Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Tonner, Ralf; Frenking, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations with DFT (BP86) and ab initio methods (MP2, SCS-MP2) were carried out for protonated and diprotonated compounds N-H(+) and N-(H(+))(2) and for the complexes N-BH(3), N-(BH(3))(2), N-CO(2), N-(CO(2))(2), N-W(CO)(5), N-Ni(CO)(3) and N-Ni(CO)(2) where N=C(PH(3))(2) (1), C(PMe(3))(2) (2), C(PPh(3))(2) (3), C(PPh(3))(CO) (4), C(CO)(2) (5), C(NHC(H))(2) (6), C(NHC(Me))(2) (7) (Me(2)N)(2)C==C==C(NMe(2))(2) (8) and NHC (9) (NHC(H)=N-heterocyclic carbene, NHC(Me)=N-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene). Compounds 1-4 and 6-9 are very strong electron donors, and this is manifested in calculated protonation energies that reach values of up to 300 kcal mol(-1) for 7 and in very high bond strengths of the donor-acceptor complexes. The electronic structure of the compounds was analyzed with charge- and energy-partitioning methods. The calculations show that the experimentally known compounds 2-5 and 8 chemically behave like molecules L(2)C which have two L-->C donor-acceptor bonds and a carbon atom with two electron lone pairs. The behavior is not directly obvious when the linear structures of carbon suboxide and tetraaminoallenes are considered. They only come to the fore on reaction with strong electron-pair acceptors. The calculations predict that single and double protonation of 5 and 8 take place at the central carbon atom, where the negative charge increases upon subsequent protonation. The hitherto experimentally unknown carbodicarbenes 6 and 7 are predicted to be even stronger Lewis bases than the carbodiphosphoranes 1-3.

  19. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.; ...

    2012-01-01

    A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012), 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs). We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertaintymore » quantification results for a 3D PDE application.« less

  20. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-01-31

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method

  1. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  2. Heat and fluid flow in complex joints during gas metal arc welding—Part I: Numerical model of fillet welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Kim, C.-H.; DebRoy, T.

    2004-05-01

    Gas metal arc (GMA) fillet welding is one of the most important processes for metal joining because of its high productivity and amiability to automation. This welding process is characterized by the complicated V-shaped joint geometry, a deformable weld pool surface, and the additions of hot metal droplets. In the present work, a three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to examine the temperature profiles, velocity fields, weld pool shape and size, and the nature of the solidified weld bead geometry during GMA fillet welding. The model solved the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy using a boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate system. Apart from the direct transport of heat from the welding arc, additional heat from the metal droplets was modeled considering a volumetric heat source. The deformation of the weld pool surface was calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. Part I of this article is focused on the details of the numerical model such as coordinate transformation and calculation of volumetric heat source and free surface profile. An application of the model to GMA fillet welding of mild steel is described in an accompanying article (W. Zhang, C.-H. Kim and T. DebRoy, J. Appl Phys. 95, 5220 (2004)).

  3. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  4. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  5. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  6. Delta III reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: 6 to 42 months of follow up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing tendency for complex proximal humerus fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic patients to be treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). It has been proposed that RSA has more benefits than other treatment options. The aim of our study was to investigate preoperative characteristics as well as clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with complex 3- or 4-part PHF who had undergone primary RSA. Methods Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months who had undergone a primary RSA after 3- or 4-part PHF in the period between 2008 and 2011 were eligible for the study. Clinical records, X-rays and CT-scans were investigated and a clinical examination was performed. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Constant-Murley score (CMS) were calculated. Sixteen patients were examined as part of the study. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 6-42 months). According to Codman-Hertel classification we encountered 15 Hertel “12” and 1 Hertel “8” type fractures. Results Thirty-two patients (27 female – 84.4%) with a mean age of 72 years underwent operations to treat complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Sixteen patients were reexamined. In 14 cases the dominant upper extremity was on the right, in 2 cases it was on the left, in 6 cases the right side was affected and in 10 cases the left side was affected. The mean CMS was 54.8 (range 18-95) and the mean DASH was 37.5 (range 2.9-81). A trend was established between the CMS and dominance of the affected shoulder. The CMS was better if the affected shoulder was on the non-dominant side (p-value 0.051). No statistical difference was noted between age and clinical outcome. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up shows satisfying results in terms of the treatment of severe displaced fractures in elderly patients with RSA. RSA can provide immediate relief and good shoulder function in elderly patients. Nevertheless, the question of longevity of these

  7. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  8. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration using experimental design approach. part 1: optimization of complexation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Corneliu; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Jaworska, Agnieszka

    2009-09-30

    The polymer assisted ultrafiltration process combines the selectivity of the chelating agent with the filtration ability of the membrane acting in synergy. Such hybrid process (complexation-ultrafiltration) is influenced by several factors and therefore the application of experimental design for process optimization using a reduced number of experiments is of great importance. The present work deals with the investigation and optimization of cobalt ions removal from aqueous solutions by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration using experimental design and response surface methodological approach. Polyethyleneimine has been used as chelating agent for cobalt complexation and the ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in dead-end operating mode using a flat-sheet membrane made from regenerated cellulose. The aim of this part of experiments was to find optimal conditions for cobalt complexation, i.e. the influence of initial concentration of cobalt in feed solution, polymer/metal ratio and pH of feed solution, on the rejection efficiency and binding capacity of the polymer. In this respect, the central compositional design has been used for planning the experiments and for construction of second-order response surface models applicable for predictions. The analysis of variance has been employed for statistical validation of regression models. The optimum conditions for maximum rejection efficiency of 96.65% has been figured out experimentally by gradient method and was found to be as follows: [Co(2+)](0)=65 mg/L, polymer/metal ratio=5.88 and pH 6.84.

  9. The patterns of fracture and the conditioning tectonics in the region of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and part of the Migmatitic-Gnanulitic Complex in Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeirodossantos, Athos; Schorscher, Hans D.

    1989-07-01

    The structural evolution of the SE portion of Minas Gerais State, including the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and adjacent parts of the Migmatitic-Granulitic Complex are described. The area of complex policiclic evolution is composed of pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, arquean to upper proterozoic in age. In phanerozoic times basaltic magmatism and related tectonism took place principally in the Mesozoic Era, and restricted lacustric sedimentary basins developed in the tertiary and quaternary periods. This study is based on the interpretation of remote sensing products (MSS, RBV, TM and SLAR images) and geological data form literature and field work. An integrated geological map (1:250.000) and a statistical analysis of the patterns of fracturing show the importance of NNE-SSW and E-W directed events of ruptile and ruptile-ductile tectonics in the Archean and in the conditioning of the younger fracture-generations. Further evidences regarding the structural evolution of the Minas Supergroup in the Quadrilaterio Ferrifero revealed different fracture patterns in the Minas - cover in respect to its underlying basement.

  10. SAR versus S(inc): What is the appropriate RF exposure metric in the range 1-10 GHz? Part II: Using complex human body models.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Anderson, Vitas

    2010-09-01

    This is the second of the two articles that present modeling data and reasoned arguments for specifying the appropriate crossover frequency at which incident power flux density (S(inc)) replaces the peak 10 g averaged value of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) as the designated basic restriction for protecting against radiofrequency electromagnetic heating effects in the 1-10 GHz range. In our first study, we compared the degree of correlation between these basic restrictions and the peak-induced tissue temperature rise (DeltaT) for a representative range of population/exposure scenarios using simple multi-planar models exposed to plane wave conditions. In this complementary study, complex heterogeneous head models for an adult and 12-year-old child were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 GHz for a variety of exposure conditions. The complex models indicate that peak DeltaT is better correlated with peak 10 g SAR than S(inc) at 1 and 3 GHz and with S(inc) at 6-10 GHz, in contrast to the results from Part I. Considering the planar and complex body modeling results together, and given the equivocal indications of the two metrics in the 6-10 GHz range, we recommend that the breakpoint be set at 6 GHz. This choice is also based on other considerations such as ease of assessment. We also recommend that the limit level of S(inc) should be adjusted to provide a better match with 10 g SAR in the induced tissue temperature rise.

  11. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part A--radiomics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground-breaking developments in Omics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and proteins interact in the frame of complex networks to preserve genome integrity has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Nuclear architecture and nuclear processes, including DNA damage responses, are precisely organized in space and time. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone, but requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. Based on the results obtained from studying the relationship between higher-order chromatin structure, DNA double-strand break induction and repair, and the formation of chromosomal translocations, we show the development of Omics solutions especially for radiation research (radiomics) (discussed in this article) and how confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place the Omics data in the context of space and time (discussed in our other article in this issue, "Determining Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part B--Structuromics"). Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting and speculate future perspectives, which may combine nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to observe structure-function correlations in living cells in real time. Thus, the Omics networks obtained from function analyses may be enriched by real-time visualization of Structuromics.

  12. Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of the Velay complex (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Marignac, Christian; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Velay complex is a large migmatite dome extending over the central-eastern part of the French Massif Central. Two stages of migmatization were recognized in the southern edge of the complex : (1) "Pre-Velay" anatexis under biotite stable and water saturated conditions. (2) "Velay" water-absent melting synchronous with emplacement of the peraluminous S-type Velay granite cutting across the Early Carboniferous nappe stack. Field study of the southern part of the dome shows that Mg-K-rich micaceous diorites of mantle origin, locally called vaugnerites, outcrop as intrusive bodies in three main settings : (1) Meter-sized stocks are intimately associated with several granite plutons, the comagmatic ascent and crystallization of mafic and felsic melts being evidenced by lobate contacts and intricate shapes. (2) Decameter-sized medium to coarse-grained massifs and sills emplaced in unmolten to metatexitic paragneisses. (3) Fine-grained decimeter-sized concordant lenses are found as clusters in metatexitic to diatexitic orthogneisses. Seven vaugnerites were dated either directly or indirectly through their co-magmatic host granite. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) zircon and monazite U-Pb ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties, spanning from 303.7 ± 3.1 to 307.4 ± 1.8 Ma except for one slightly younger (294.4 ± 3.9 Ma) sample . Granites and vaugnerites of the study area emplaced mainly during a short period of time at ca. 305 Ma. Assuming vaugnerite intrusions are coeval implies that their varied shapes are a consequence of contrasting behavior of the mafic magma depending on the host. Granites from the southern Velay are exactly of the same age, ca. 305 Ma, although several generations can be clearly identified based on field relationships. They display complex zircon inheritance patterns involving Proterozoic to Cambro-Ordovician components; in details, the inheritance pattern varies between (or even within) plutons, pointing to the

  13. The modulation by xanthines of the DNA-damaging effect of polycyclic aromatic agents. Part II. The stacking complexes of caffeine with doxorubicin and mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Piosik, Jacek; Zdunek, Malgorzata; Kapuscinski, Jan

    2002-02-15

    CAF molecules (DeltaE=-29.9kcal/mol). These results indicate that the attenuating effect of caffeine on cytotoxic or mutagenic effects of some polycyclic aromatic mutagens cannot be the result of metabolic activation in the cells, but simply is the physicochemical process of the sequestering of aromatic molecules (e.g. carcinogens or mutagens) by formation of the stacking complexes. The caffeine may then act as the "interceptor" of potential carcinogens (especially in the upper part of digesting track) where its concentration can reach the mM level). There is, however, no indication, both, in the literature or from our experiments, that the xanthines can reverse the damage to nucleic acids at the point when the damage to DNA has already occurred.

  14. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  15. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  16. Atomic modelling of crystal/complex fluid/crystal contacts—Part I. The genetic iterative multi-species (GIMS) approach and case of kaolinite/brine/kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanna, P.; Pèpe, G.; Dweik, J.; Gouze, P.

    2010-11-01

    Predicting the impact of underground engineering on the environment requires the knowledge of natural media at different scales. In particular, understanding basic phenomena controlling the properties of rocks in the presence of complex fluids necessitates a detailed atomic description of the solid/fluid/solid contacts, the subject of Part I of the present study. First, building the solid interspace between two different crystals in a non-periodic situation is achieved using the ab initio and molecular mechanics code GenMol TM. A description of the fluid confined within the interspace is then derived from the original genetic iterative multi-species (GIMS) algorithm implemented in the same code. This approach consists of equilibrating chemical potentials, cycle after cycle and species after species, between the confined fluid and the free natural fluid. An elementary iteration for a species k consists of different steps incrementing the number Nk of particles k, with other numbers Nk' remaining constant. At each step, an optimum fluid composition is obtained by a genetic process distributing the fluid particles on a grid by stochastic shots, followed in fine by a refining process. The effectiveness of the GIMS approach is demonstrated in the case study of a fluid confined between two (0 0 1) kaolinite faces, with apertures h varying between 4 and 10 Å, connected to a 9-species external solution [H 2O, Cl -, N a+, CO 2(aq), NaCl (aq), Ca 2+, Mg 2+, HCO3-, H 3O +] where concentrations are ranging from 55 to 10 -4 mol/L. The results show a drastic variation in the solute/solvent and cations/ions ratios in the confined fluid when aperture h is lowered to less than 1 nm. These results obtained with a very rapid convergence of the iterative algorithm combined with a very competitive genetic optimizer are validated with high precision on a free solution. This description of contacts between crystals is original and unattainable by standard crystal interface approaches

  17. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  18. The Sun, Its Extended Corona, the Interplanetary Space, the Earth's Magnetosphere, Ionosphere, Middle and Low Atmosphere, are All Parts of a Complex System - the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Various manifestations of solar activity cause disturbances known as space weather effects in the interplanetary space, near-Earth environment, and all the Earth's "spheres. Longterm variations in the frequency, intensity and relative importance of the manifestations of solar activity are due to the slow changes in the output of the solar dynamo, and they define space climate. Space climate governs long-term variations in geomagnetic activity and is the primary natural driver of terrestrial climate. To understand how the variable solar activity affects the Earth's environment, geomagnetic activity and climate on both short and long time scales, we need to understand the origins of solar activity itself and its different manifestations, as well as the sequence of coupling processes linking various parts of the system. This session provides a forum to discuss the chain of processes and relations from the Sun to the Earth's surface: the origin and long-term and short-term evolution of solar activity, initiation and temporal variations in solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, the solar wind and its interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere, the ionosphere and its connection to the neutral dominated regions below and the plasma dominated regions above, the stratosphere, its variations due to the changing solar activity and its interactions with the underlying troposphere, and the mechanisms of solar influences on the lower atmosphere on different time-scales. Particularly welcome are papers highlighting the coupling processes between the different domains in this complex system.

  19. Preliminary structural studies of the hydrophobic ribosomal P0 protein from Trypanosoma cruzi, a part of the P0/P1/P2 complex.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Maximiliano Juri; Barroso, Juan A; Levin, Mariano J; Aguilar, Carlos F

    2005-08-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P0 protein (TcP0) is part of the ribosomal stalk, which is an elongated lateral protuberance of the large ribosomal subunit involved in the translocation step of protein synthesis. The TcP0 C-terminal peptide is highly antigenic and a major target of the antibody response in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and patients suffering chronic heart disease produced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The structural properties of TcP0 have been explored by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and limited proteolysis experiments. These studies were complemented by secondary structure consensus prediction analysis. The results suggest that the tertiary structure of TcP0 could be described as a compact, stable, trypsin-resistant, 200 residues long N-terminal domain belonging to the alpha/beta class and a more flexible, degradable, helical, 123 residues long C-terminal domain which could be involved in the formation of an unusual hydrophobic zipper with the ribosomal P1/P2 proteins to form the P0/P1/P2 complex.

  20. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  1. The Urumieh Plutonic Complex (NW Iran): Record of the geodynamic evolution of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone during Cretaceous times - Part II: Magnetic fabrics and plate tectonic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Bouchez, J. L.; Vosoughi-Abedini, M.; Nédélec, A.

    2009-10-01

    The Urumieh complex, to the north of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (NW Iran), belongs to a plutonic arc that took place above the northeastward dipping subduction of Arabia under Iran during Late Cretaceous times. Seven granitoid bodies occupying an area of ˜300 km 2 can be sorted into three suites. According to the isotope chronology study of Ghalamghash et al. [Ghalamghash, J., Nédélec, A., Bellon, H., Vousoughi-Abedini, M., Bouchez, J.L., in press. The Urumieh Plutonic Complex: a magmatic record of the geodynamic evolution of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (NW Iran) during Cretaceous times - Part II: petrogenesis and 40K/40Ar dating. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences], the two first suites were emplaced during the same event at ˜100 Ma, and the third one was emplaced ˜20 Ma later: (1) the diorites form the largest bodies and comprise the Ghamishlu and Dourbeh stocks; (2) the biotite-granites are composed by the Sehkani, Nari and Doustak bodies, and (3) the younger bodies are represented by the Bardkish syenite and the Dourbeh granite. These bodies were subjected to systematic microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric measurements that yield information about their emplacement kinematics. The magnetic lineations of the diorites and biotite-granites (the early suites) call for a dominant NW-trending stretching during their intrusion, attributed to the transpressive deformation of the overriding Sanandaj-Sirjan microplate during the north-to northeastward motion of the subducting western branch of the Neo-Tethys. Oblique plate motion with ˜20% of strain partitioning along a NNW-trending plate boundary accounts for the observed magmatic structures. Intrusion of the younger bodies took place after consumption of this western oceanic domain at about 80 Ma. The NW-trending lineations of the syenite suggest that the transpressive regime was continuing, while the steep lineations and the peculiar microstructures of the Dourbeh granite call for a forceful intrusion. Our

  2. In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the global complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Irigül-Sönmez, Öykü; Köroğlu, Türkan E; Öztürk, Büşra; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten

    2014-02-01

    The lutR gene, encoding a product resembling a GntR-family transcriptional regulator, has previously been identified as a gene required for the production of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis. To understand the broader regulatory roles of LutR in B. subtilis, we studied the genome-wide effects of a lutR null mutation by combining transcriptional profiling studies using DNA microarrays, reverse transcription quantitative PCR, lacZ fusion analyses and gel mobility shift assays. We report that 65 transcriptional units corresponding to 23 mono-cistronic units and 42 operons show altered expression levels in lutR mutant cells, as compared with lutR(+) wild-type cells in early stationary phase. Among these, 11 single genes and 25 operons are likely to be under direct control of LutR. The products of these genes are involved in a variety of physiological processes associated with the onset of stationary phase in B. subtilis, including degradative enzyme production, antibiotic production and resistance, carbohydrate utilization and transport, nitrogen metabolism, phosphate uptake, fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, protein synthesis and translocation, cell-wall metabolism, energy production, transfer of mobile genetic elements, induction of phage-related genes, sporulation, delay of sporulation and cannibalism, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed in the presence of both SinR and LutR revealed a close overlap between the LutR and SinR targets. Our data also revealed a significant overlap with the AbrB regulon. Together, these findings reveal that LutR is part of the global complex, interconnected regulatory systems governing adaptation of bacteria to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.

  3. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clos, Frediano; Gilio, Mattia; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2014-04-01

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP is an orogenic peridotite containing a well developed penetrative compositional layering, defined by highly depleted dunite with olivine Mg# (100 × Mg/Mg + Fe) of 92.0-93.5 and harzburgite with lower Mg# (91.0-92.5). Dunite is characterized by three contrasting olivine microstructures formed in response to different tectonometamorphic events: Coarse-grained, highly strained olivine porphyroclasts (M1) up to 20 cm long are surrounded by dynamically recrystallized olivine grains (M2) defining a characteristic olivine "foam" microstructure (grain size: 200-2000 μm). An olivine "mortar" (M3) microstructure (10-50 μm) forms a penetrative fabric element only in strongly localized, cm-to-m sized shear zones that crosscut earlier structures/foliations. Olivine fabric analysis in synergy, with mineralogical and chemical analyses, reveals that the KSP body represents old, possibly Archean, sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was crustally emplaced into the Caledonian tectonic edifice from the hanging wall mantle during exhumation of the subducted Seve Nappe Complex (Jämtlandian orogeny ~ 454 Ma). Olivine porphyroclasts (M1) grew at high temperature during dominant isobaric cooling after extensive polybaric melt extraction (> 40%) and subsequent refertilization. The onset of the early Caledonian deformation is interpreted to be related to the crustal emplacement of the KSP during eduction of the SNC. This phase is characterized by the development of the olivine M2 foam microstructure, formed at 650-830 °C/1-2 GPa by dislocation creep processes producing an E-type CPO's by the operation of the [100](001) and subordinate [001](100) slip systems with operating flow stress

  4. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XIX. Synthesis, characterization, circular dichroism and antimicrobial activity of oxalato and malonato-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-(3-methyl)butanoato-chromate(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Dragoslav; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radojević, Ivana D.; Vasić, Sava M.; Stefanović, Olgica D.; Čomić, Ljiljana R.; Vasojević, Miorad M.; Jelić, Miodrag Ž.; Koval'chuk, Tatyana V.; Loginova, Natalia V.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2013-10-01

    The s-cis-[Cr(S,S-eddv)L]-complexes (1,2) (S,S-eddv = (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-(3-methyl)butanoato ion; L = oxalate or malonate ion) were prepared. The complexes were purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The geometry of the complexes has been supposed on the basis of the infrared and electronic absorption spectra, and the absolute configurations of the isolated s-cis-[Cr(S,S-eddv)L]-complexes have been predicted on the basis of their circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Also, the results of thermal decomposition have been discussed. Antimicrobial activity of the prepared complexes (1-4) was investigated against 28 species of microorganisms. Testing was performed by microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. Complexes demonstrated in generally low antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  5. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of

  6. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculation and biological activity of square-planar Ni(II) complexes with tridentate PNO ligands and monodentate pseudohalides. Part II.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Milica; Pevec, Andrej; Turel, Iztok; Vujčić, Miroslava; Milenković, Marina; Jovanović, Katarina; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Radulović, Siniša; Swart, Marcel; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Adaila, Kawther; Cobeljić, Božidar; Anđelković, Katarina

    2014-11-24

    Three square-planar complexes of Ni(II) with condensation derivative of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and 4-phenylsemicarbazide and monodentate pseudohalides have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of the results of X-ray, NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Investigated complexes exhibited moderate antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. The most pronounced cytotoxic activity (in the range of cisplatin) to HeLa cell line was observed for ligand and all the complexes. Azido complex and ligand induced concentration dependent cell cycle arrest in the S phase, as well as decrease of percentage of cells in G1 phase, without significant increase of apoptotic fraction of cells. The interaction of the azido complex and ligand with CT-DNA results in changes in UV-Vis spectra typical for non-covalent bonding. The observed intrinsic binding constant of azido complex-CT-DNA and ligand-CT-DNA were 3.22 × 10(5) M(-1) and 2.79 × 10(5) M(-1). The results of DNA cleavage experiments showed that azido complex nicked supercoiled plasmid DNA.

  7. "Quasi flexible" automatic docking processing for studying stereoselective recognition mechanisms, part 2: Prediction of DeltaDeltaG of complexation and 1H-NMR NOE correlation.

    PubMed

    Alcaro, S; Gasparrini, F; Incani, O; Caglioti, L; Pierini, M; Villani, C

    2007-04-30

    The purpose of this work is to apply the global molecular interaction evaluation ("Glob-MolInE") computational protocol to the study of two molecular complexes characterized by a chiral selector and a couple of enantiomeric selectands experimentally known to give large difference in the free energy of complexation much higher than the experimental error normally associated to the molecular mechanic calculations. We have considered the well known diastereomeric complexes between the selector (S)-N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-leucine-n-propylamide (S)-1 and the selectands (R) or (S)-N-(2-naphthyl)-alanine methyl ester 2, widely studied by enantioselective HPLC, NMR and X-ray. The experimental difference of free energy of complexation between [(S)-1*(R)-2] and [(S)-1*(S)-2] (-1.34 kcal/mol) was reproduced by the new computational protocol with an excellent confidence error. Detailed results about the conformational search, the "quasi-flexible" docking and the thermodynamic estimation are presented in this work. A remarkable correlation between the theoretical results and experimental data (NOE measurements, X-ray crystallographic structure of the [(S)-1*(S)-2] complex and the free energy of complexation) supports the validity of the computational approach and underline the importance of the conformational multiplicity in the definition of the macroscopic properties of the complex in solution.

  8. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 5-Biological evaluation of nickel(II) complexes with first-, second- and third-generation quinolones.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Perdih, Franc; Papadopoulos, Athanasios N; Turel, Iztok; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2011-10-01

    The nickel(II) complexes with the quinolone antibacterial agents oxolinic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin and sparfloxacin in the presence of the N,N'-donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridylamine have been synthesized and characterized. The quinolones act as bidentate ligands coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The crystal structure of [(2,2'-bipyridylamine)bis(sparfloxacinato)nickel(II)] has been determined by X-ray crystallography. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that they bind to CT DNA with [(2,2'-bipyridylamine)bis(flumequinato)nickel(II)] exhibiting the highest binding constant to CT DNA. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes have shown that in the presence of CT DNA the complexes can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode which has also been verified by DNA solution viscosity measurements. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human or bovine serum albumin protein having relatively high binding constant values. The biological properties of the [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(2,2'-bipyridylamine)] complexes have been evaluated in comparison to the previously reported Ni(II) quinolone complexes [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(2,2'-bipyridine)] and [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(1,10-phenanthroline)]. The quinolones and their Ni(II) complexes have been tested for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. They have been also tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against soybean lipoxygenase.

  9. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part II. Cases of complex fatal poisonings: interactions of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The study represents an attempt at employing segmental hair analysis in complex poisonings with xenobiotic mixtures of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines in the context of the cause of death as a consequence of complex interaction mechanisms which occurred prior to death. Two cases of complex poisonings: heroine - cocaine and heroine - cocaine - amphetamines were analyzed and documented with macro- and microscopic examinations and complex toxicological examinations, including the analysis of classic biological material, i.e. samples of selective blood, and alternative material, i.e. hair samples. Determinations of opioids, cocaine and its metabolite and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). Segmental hair analysis of the investigated cases indicated a prolonged intake of similar psychoactive substances and a developed adaptation of the addicted to interaction mechanisms, which, however, led gradually to multiorgan anatomopathological changes, and in consequence to death.

  10. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  11. Charge transfer complex of some nervous and brain drugs - Part 1: Synthesis, spectroscopic, analytical and biological studies on the reaction between haloperidol antipsychotic drugs with π-acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-02-01

    Donor-acceptor interactions between the electron donor haloperidol (HPL) and π-acceptors like 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and picric acid (PA) have been studied spectrophotometrically in CH3OH solvent. The donor-acceptor (charge transfer complexes) were discussed in terms of formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT), standard free energy (ΔGo), oscillator strength (ƒ), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID). The stoichiometry of these complexes was found to be 1:1 M ratio and having the formulas [(HPL)(TCNQ)] and [(HPL)(PA)], respectively. The charge transfer interaction was successfully applied to determine of HPL drug using mentioned common π-acceptors also, the results obtained herein are satisfactory for estimation of HPL compound in the pharmaceutical form. The formed solid charge-transfer complexes were also isolated and characterized using elemental analysis, conductivity, (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The experimental data of elemental analyses are in agreement with calculated data. The infrared spectra of both HPL complexes are confirming the participation of sbnd OH of 4-hydroxy-1-piperidyl moiety in the donor-acceptor chelation. The morphological surface of the resulted charge transfer complexes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were performed to give knowledge about the thermal stability behavior of the synthesized charge transfer complexes. Thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal decomposition data. These complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against six different microorganisms, and the results were compared with the parent drug.

  12. CD-sensitive Zn-porphyrin tweezer host-guest complexes, part 1: MC/OPLS-2005 computational approach for predicting preferred interporphyrin helicity.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Ana G; Chen, Yihui; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Berova, Nina; Proni, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a computational study on dimeric zinc porphyrin tweezer complexes with primary/secondary amines and secondary alcohols that validates the use of Optimized Potential for Liquid Simulations (OPLS-2005) as the lead computational choice for assisting the tweezer methodology in the absolute configurational assignment of organic compounds. A supramolecular, microscale approach known as the tweezer method has been widely applied in the past decade for determining the absolute configuration of chiral substrates that are difficult to study by other readily available methods. The method relies on a host/guest complexation mechanism between a porphyrin tweezer moiety and a substrate, after its conversion into a bidentate conjugate. The formation of 1:1 complexes is a stereodifferentiating process: upon complexation, the originally achiral tweezer adopts a preferential interporphyrin helicity, dictated by the absolute configuration of the chiral substrate. By correctly predicting the sign of the interporphyrin helicity in the complex, OPLS-2005 provides a correlation between the observed circular dichroism (CD) signal and the absolute configuration of the substrate. It also offers a great degree of insight into the structural factors responsible for chiral recognition and the amplitude of exciton couplets. Moreover, the preferential binding sites between the Zn-tweezer and secondary amine conjugates were revealed by using the new computational approach.

  13. The guanidinium group as a key part of water-soluble polymer carriers for siRNA complexation and protection against degradation.

    PubMed

    Tabujew, Ilja; Freidel, Christoph; Krieg, Bettina; Helm, Mark; Koynov, Kaloian; Müllen, Klaus; Peneva, Kalina

    2014-07-01

    Here, the preparation of a novel block copolymer consisting of a statistical copolymer N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-s-N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide and a short terminal 3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide block is reported. This polymer structure forms neutral but water-soluble nanosized complexes with siRNA. The siRNA block copolymer complexes are first analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and their size is determined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The protective properties of the polymer against RNA degradation are investigated by treating the siRNA block copolymer complexes with RNase V1. Heparin competition assays confirm the efficient release of the cargo in vitro. In addition, the utilization of microscale thermophoresis is demonstrated for the determination of the binding strength between a fluorescently labeled polyanion and a polymer molecule.

  14. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 9. Ab initio studies of the complexes of boron trifluoride with methanol, methanethiol and some related bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas A.

    2007-05-01

    The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the electron donor-acceptor complexes formed between boron trifluoride, as Lewis acid, and methanol and methanethiol, as Lewis bases, have been determined by means of ab initio calculations at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms. Two conformers, an eclipsed and a staggered species, have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer identified in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some related complexes containing boron trifluoride and other oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide).

  15. School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. School of Public Health.

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and…

  16. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 2. Key to the Phytoplankton Phyla and Genera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helrich, Jane

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. This document is the second of a series of guides designed to help students and teachers gather data concerning the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex and to organize these data to make a contribution to the literature of…

  17. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 2: Characterization of complexed powders and determination of crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Jack, Kevin S; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize CO2-α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) inclusion complexes produced from amorphous α-CD powder at moisture contents (MC) close to or higher than the critical level of crystallization (e.g. 13, 15 and 17% MC on wet basis, w.b.) at 0.4 and 1.6MPa pressure for 72h. The results of (13)C NMR, SEM, DSC and X-ray analyses showed that these MC levels were high enough to induce crystallization of CO2-α-CD complexed powders during encapsulation, by which amount of CO2 encapsulated by amorphous α-CD powder was significantly increased. The formation of inclusion complexes were well confirmed by results of FTIR and (13)C NMR analyses through an appearance of a peak associated with CO2 on the FTIR (2334cm(-1)) and NMR (125.3ppm) spectra. Determination of crystal packing patterns of CO2-α-CD complexed powders showed that during crystallization, α-CD molecules were arranged in cage-type structure in which CO2 molecules were entrapped in isolated cavities.

  18. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 4. Key to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the fourth of a series which was produced to help students and teachers gather…

  19. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 3. Key to the Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettler, James

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the third of a series produced to help students and teachers gather data…

  20. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 6. Key to the Common Fishes of San Francisco Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Bob

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the sixth of a series produced to help students and teachers gather data…

  1. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 5. Keys to the Freshwater and Anadromous Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, J. B.; Fisk, Leonard O.

    1960-01-01

    This key to freshwater and anadromous fishes of California is included as the fifth of a series of guides being produced by Project MER (Marine Ecology Research). This project is part of the effort to improve environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools by gathering and organizing data on the ecological character of the San…

  2. Mutations in UNC80, Encoding Part of the UNC79-UNC80-NALCN Channel Complex, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Severe Infantile Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shamseldin, Hanan E.; Faqeih, Eissa; Alasmari, Ali; Zaki, Maha S.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2016-01-01

    Brain channelopathies represent a growing class of brain disorders that usually result in paroxysmal disorders, although their role in other neurological phenotypes, including the recently described NALCN-related infantile encephalopathy, is increasingly recognized. In three Saudi Arabian families and one Egyptian family all affected by a remarkably similar phenotype (infantile encephalopathy and largely normal brain MRI) to that of NALCN-related infantile encephalopathy, we identified a locus on 2q34 in which whole-exome sequencing revealed three, including two apparently loss-of-function, recessive mutations in UNC80. UNC80 encodes a large protein that is necessary for the stability and function of NALCN and for bridging NALCN to UNC79 to form a functional complex. Our results expand the clinical relevance of the UNC79-UNC80-NALCN channel complex. PMID:26708753

  3. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 91. Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides as Potential Pharmacological Agents in the Treatment of Gastric Acid Secretion Imbalances

    PubMed Central

    Ilies, Marc A.; Scozzafava, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Zinc, magnesium, aluminum and copper complexes of several potent, clinically used carbonic anhydrase (CA) sulfonamide inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide and benzolamide were tested for their possible applications as antacids, in experimental animals. Gastric acid secretion parameters 3 days after treatment with these CA inhibitors (2 × 500 mg, twice a day), in dogs with chronic gastric fistulas, led to the observation that the gastric acid parameters BAO (the basal acid output), and MAO (the maximal acid output after stimulation with histamine) were drastically reduced, as compared to the same parameters in animals that did not receive these enzyme inhibitors. These are promising results for the possible use of metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides as treatment alternatives (alone or in combination with other drugs) for gastric acid secretion imbalances. PMID:18475926

  4. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  5. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) and the Network Integration Evaluations (NIEs), Part 2: A Deeper Dive into Mission Command Complexity and Cognitive Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    perspective will not resolve the growing cognitive load problem. The previous paragraph addresses the long - term development of an objective CP- as... TERMS   NIE, mission command, complexity, cognitive load, human-systems integration 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT  UU...discussion to follow is this third level of HSI support. A Command Post (CP) is an example of a system-of-systems as that term is used above. The CP

  6. Improving ozone modeling in complex terrain at a fine grid resolution: Part I - examination of analysis nudging and all PBL schemes associated with LSMs in meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Fu, Joshua S.; Miller, Terry L.

    2010-02-01

    Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, wind directions, and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have critical implications for air quality simulations. Sensitivity simulations with five different PBL schemes associated with three different Land Surface Models (LSMs) were conducted to examine the impact of meteorological variables on the predicted ozone concentrations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.5 with local perspective. Additionally, the nudging analysis for winds was adopted with three different coefficients to improve the wind fields in the complex terrain at 4-km grid resolution. The simulations focus on complex terrain having valley and mountain areas at 4-km grid resolution. The ETA M-Y (Mellor-Yamada) and G-S (Gayno-Seaman) PBL schemes are identified as favorite options and promote O 3 formation causing the higher temperature, slower winds, and lower mixing height among sensitivity simulations in the area of study. It is found that PX (Pleim-Xiu) simulation does not always give optimal meteorological model performance. We also note that the PBL scheme plays a more important role in predicting daily maximum 8-h O 3 than land surface models. The results of nudging analysis for winds with three different increased coefficients' values (2.5, 4.5, and 6.0 × 10 -4 s -1) over seven sensitivity simulations show that the meteorological model performance was enhanced due to improved wind fields, indicating the FDDA nudging analysis can improve model performance considerably at 4-km grid resolution. Specifically, the sensitivity simulations with the coefficient value (6.0 × 10 -4) yielded more substantial improvements than with the other values (2.5 and 4.5 × 10 -4). Hence, choosing the nudging coefficient of 6.0 × 10 -4 s -1 for winds in MM5 may be the best choice to improve wind fields as an input, as well as, better model performance of CMAQ in the complex terrain area. As a result, a finer grid resolution is

  7. Mineral resource potential of the Stillwater Complex and adjacent rocks in the northern part of the Mount Wood and Mount Douglas quadrangles, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1973-01-01

    The Stillwater Complex contains the largest potential chromite and platinum metal resources and second largest nickel resources in the United States. The Ultramafic zone has produced about 900,000 long tons of chromite concentrate and contains unmined reserves equivalent to 2,520,000 long tons of Cr2O3. Nickel and copper sulfide minerals that occur in the Basal zone and adjacent hornfelsed metasedimentary rocks represent one of the largest nickel potentials in the United States---a known reserve of 150 million tons of 0.25 percent nickel and 0.25 percent copper. The complex has been estimated to contain the largest potential source of platinum metals in the United States---possibly over 150 million troy ounces in the lower chromite zones and the Basal zone. In addition, the anorthosites in the Banded and Upper zones are reported to represent a potential alumina resource of almost 2 billion tons. An iron-formation also is present in the adjacent Precambrian metasedimentary rocks, and a coal bed is present in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone nearby. The eventual utilization of these resources depends on the availability of large quantities of energy, and thus they may not be recovered unless new sources of energy or new recovery techniques are developed.

  8. Motion of the shoulder complex in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis and associated with rotator cuff dysfunction: part 2 - muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira; Michener, Lori Ann; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Reiff, Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Salvini, Tania Fátima

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare muscle activity in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis (ACO), ACO associated with rotator cuff disease (ACO+RCD), and controls. Seventy-four participants (23 isolated ACO, 25 ACO+RCD, 26 controls) took part in this study. Disability was assessed with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Muscle activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and anterior deltoid (AD) was collected during arm elevation in the sagittal and scapular planes. Pain during motion was assessed with the numerical pain rating scale. Analysis of the DASH, pain and kinematics were reported in part 1 of this study. For each muscle, separate 2-way linear mixed-model ANOVAs were performed to compare groups. ACO+RCD group had more UT and AD activity than the the isolated ACO and control other groups, more AD activity than the isolated ACO group during the ascending phase, and more AD activity than the ACO and control groups during the descending phase in both planes. Isolated ACO group had less SA activity than the control group only in the sagittal plane. Alterations in shoulder muscle activity are present in individuals with isolated ACO and with ACO+RCD and should be considered in rehabilitation.

  9. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 551 Metal Complexes of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Sulfonamide Derivatives: In Vitro Inhibition Studies With Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio; Ilies, Marc A.; Jitianu, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    Coordination compounds of 5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (Hcaz) with V(IV), Cr(lll), Fe(ll), Co(ll), Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) have been prepared and characterized by standard procedures (spectroscopic, magnetic, EPR, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). Some of these compounds showed very good in vitro inhibitory properties against three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA)isozymes, i.e., CA I, II, and IV. The differences between these isozymes in susceptibility to inhibition by these metal complexes is discussed in relationship to the characteristic features of their active sites, and is rationalized in terms useful for developing isozyme-specific CA inhibitors. PMID:18475829

  10. DsrJ, an essential part of the DsrMKJOP transmembrane complex in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, is an unusual triheme cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Grein, Fabian; Venceslau, Sofia S; Schneider, Lilian; Hildebrandt, Peter; Todorovic, Smilja; Pereira, Inês A C; Dahl, Christiane

    2010-09-28

    The DsrMKJOP transmembrane complex has a most important function in dissimilatory sulfur metabolism, not only in many sulfur-oxidizing organisms but also in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Here, we focused on an individual component of this complex, the triheme cytochrome c DsrJ from the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. In A. vinosum, the signal peptide of DsrJ is not cleaved off but serves as a membrane anchor. Sequence analysis suggested the presence of three heme c species with bis-His, His/Met, and possibly a very unusual His/Cys ligation. A. vinosum DsrJ produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli indeed contained three hemes, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy provided evidence of possible, but only partial, His/Cys heme ligation in one of the hemes. This heme shows heterogeneous coordination, with Met being another candidate ligand. Cysteine 46 was replaced with serine using site-directed mutagenesis, with the mutant protein showing a small decrease in the magnitude of the EPR signal attributed to His/Cys coordination, but identical UV-vis and RR spectra. The redox potentials of the hemes in the wild-type protein were determined to be -20, -200, and -220 mV and were found to be virtually identical in the mutant protein. However, in vivo the same ligand exchange led to a dramatically altered phenotype, highlighting the importance of Cys46. Our results suggest that Cys46 may be involved in catalytic sulfur chemistry rather than electron transfer. Additional in vivo experiments showed that DsrJ can be functionally replaced in A. vinosum by the homologous protein from the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

  11. Macroporous hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Part 6: 3D hydrogels with positive and negative surface charges and polyelectrolyte complexes in spinal cord injury repair.

    PubMed

    Hejcl, A; Lesný, P; Prádný, M; Sedý, J; Zámecník, J; Jendelová, P; Michálek, J; Syková, E

    2009-07-01

    Macroporous hydrogels are artificial biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering, including central nervous system (CNS) repair. Their physical properties may be modified to improve their adhesion properties and promote tissue regeneration. We implanted four types of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with different surface charges inside a spinal cord hemisection cavity at the Th8 level in rats. The spinal cords were processed 1 and 6 months after implantation and histologically evaluated. Connective tissue deposition was most abundant in the hydrogels with positively-charged functional groups. Axonal regeneration was promoted in hydrogels carrying charged functional groups; hydrogels with positively charged functional groups showed increased axonal ingrowth into the central parts of the implant. Few astrocytes grew into the hydrogels. Our study shows that HEMA-based hydrogels carrying charged functional groups improve axonal ingrowth inside the implants compared to implants without any charge. Further, positively charged functional groups promote connective tissue infiltration and extended axonal regeneration inside a hydrogel bridge.

  12. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxo complexes in solution, inorganic analogues to crown-ethers. Part 2. Complex formation in the tetramethyl ammonium-, Li(+)-, Na(+)- and K(+)-uranyl(VI)-peroxide-carbonate systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Szabó, Zoltán; Vallet, Valerie; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-10-07

    The constitution and equilibrium constants of ternary uranyl(vi) peroxide carbonate complexes [(UO2)p(O2)q(CO3)r](2(p-q-r)) have been determined at 0 °C in 0.50 M MNO3, M = Li, K, and TMA (tetramethyl ammonium), ionic media using potentiometric and spectrophotometric data; (17)O NMR data were used to determine the number of complexes present. The formation of cyclic oligomers, "[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]n", n = 4, 5, 6, with different stoichiometries depending on the ionic medium used, suggests that Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and TMA ions act as templates for the formation of uranyl peroxide rings where the uranyl-units are linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) bridged peroxide-ions. The templating effect is due to the coordination of the M(+)-ions to the uranyl oxygen atoms, where the coordination of Li(+) results in the formation of Li[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]4(7-), Na(+) and K(+) in the formation of Na/K[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) complexes, while the large tetramethyl ammonium ion promotes the formation of two oligomers, TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-). The NMR spectra demonstrate that the coordination of Na(+) in the five- and six-membered oligomers is significantly stronger than that of TMA(+); these observations suggest that the templating effect is similar to the one observed in the synthesis of crown-ethers. The NMR experiments also demonstrate that the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is slow on the (17)O chemical shift time-scale, while the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) and Na[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is fast. There was no indication of the presence of large clusters of the type identified by Burns and Nyman (M. Nyman and P. C. Burns, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 7314-7367) and possible reasons for this and the implications for the synthesis of large clusters are briefly discussed.

  13. A fractal model of HIV transmission on complex socio-geographic networks. Part 2: spread from a ghettoized 'core group' into a 'general population'.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R

    1994-01-01

    "Study of the initial stages of HIV transmission along a 'sociogeographic network'--a large, complex, spatially focused social network with possibly fractal geometry--is extended to include interaction between a low-dimensional ghettoized 'core group' within which the disease spreads very rapidly and a higher dimensional, more loosely structured 'general population' in which spread is relatively slow. A mathematical modeling exercise suggests that contextually modulated interaction between them can be highly nonlinear and may greatly increase the initial rate of disease transmission within the general population. This work contributes to a growing body of literature which suggests that programs to control HIV infection within the majority heterosexual population of the United States will fail spectacularly without particular focus on the coupled physical and social stabilization and rehabilitation of the urban ghettoes of marginalized populations which are the present, and rapidly expanding, disease epicenters. Evidence suggests their continued disintegration can both increase disease rates within the epicenters and increase the coupling between core groups and general populations by creating large numbers of spatially or economically displaced refugees."

  14. 2D dry granular free-surface transient flow over complex topography with obstacles. Part II: Numerical predictions of fluid structures and benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, C.; Caviedes-Voullième, D.; Murillo, J.; García-Navarro, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense granular flows are present in geophysics and in several industrial processes, which has lead to an increasing interest for the knowledge and understanding of the physics which govern their propagation. For this reason, a wide range of laboratory experiments on gravity-driven flows have been carried out during the last two decades. The present work is focused on geomorphological processes and, following previous work, a series of laboratory studies which constitute a further step in mimicking natural phenomena are described and simulated. Three situations are considered with some common properties: a two-dimensional configuration, variable slope of the topography and the presence of obstacles. The setup and measurement technique employed during the development of these experiments are deeply explained in the companion work. The first experiment is based on a single obstacle, the second one is performed against multiple obstacles and the third one studies the influence of a dike on which overtopping occurs. Due to the impact of the flow against the obstacles, fast moving shocks appear, and a variety of secondary waves emerge. In order to delve into the physics of these types of phenomena, a shock-capturing numerical scheme is used to simulate the cases. The suitability of the mathematical models employed in this work has been previously validated. Comparisons between computed and experimental data are presented for the three cases. The computed results show that the numerical tool is able to predict faithfully the overall behavior of this type of complex dense granular flow.

  15. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 1: Encapsulation capacity and stability of inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the effects of water-induced crystallization of amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) powder on CO2 encapsulation at 0.4-1.6 MPa pressure for 1-72 h through the addition of water (to reach to 13, 15 and 17% wet basis, w.b.) into amorphous α-CD powder prior to the encapsulation. The results showed that the α-CD encapsulation capacity was over 1 mol CO2/mol α-CD after pressurizing for longer than 48 h. The encapsulated CO2 concentration by the addition of water was considerably higher (p<0.05) than that of amorphous α-CD powder (5.51% MC, w.b.) without an addition of water and that of crystalline α-CD powders under the same MC and encapsulation conditions. A comparison of CO2 release properties (75% relative humidity, 25 °C) from complexed powders prepared from amorphous and crystalline α-CD powders under the same conditions is also presented.

  16. Motion of the shoulder complex in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis and associated with rotator cuff dysfunction: part 1 - Three-dimensional shoulder kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Reiff, Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes; Michener, Lori Ann; Salvini, Tania Fátima

    2014-08-01

    This study described the three-dimensional shoulder motion during the arm elevation in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis (ACO) and ACO associated with rotator cuff disease (RCD), as compared to controls. Seventy-four participants (ACO=23, ACO+RCD=25, Controls=26) took part of this study. Disability was assessed with the DASH, three-dimensional kinematics were collected during arm elevation in the sagittal and scapular planes, and pain was assessed with the 11-point numeric pain rating scale. For each kinematic variable and demographic variables, separate linear mixed-model 2-way ANOVAs were performed to compare groups. Both ACO groups had higher DASH and pain scores. At the scapulothoracic joint, the isolated ACO group had greater internal rotation than control, and the ACO+RCD group had greater upward rotation than both other groups. At the sternoclavicular joint, both groups with ACO had less retraction, and the isolated ACO group had less elevation and posterior rotation. At the acromioclavicular joint, the isolated ACO group had greater upward rotation, and both ACO groups had greater posterior tilting. Patients with ACO had altered shoulder kinematics, which may represent compensatory responses to reduce pain and facilitate arm motion during arm elevation and lowering.

  17. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  18. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-04-27

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further elucidate the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [68]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [29] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF{sub 6} shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and on the spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing.

  19. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis reveals the presence of complex and partly unknown bacterial communities in Tito Bustillo cave, Spain, and on its Palaeolithic paintings.

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    Tito Bustillo cave (Ribadesella, Spain) contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings, which date back 15 000-20 000 years. Since 1969, the cave has been open to the public. Rock wall surfaces, spelaeothems and soils are covered by apparent biofilms of phototrophic microorganisms, which develop under artificial lighting. In addition, rock surfaces present conspicuous bacterial growth in the form of round colonies of different colours and about 1-2 mm in diameter. Even the famous Paintings Panel shows some evident microbial growth. In the present study, bacterial communities on the paintings and on the rock surfaces near the paintings were analysed by culture-independent techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA), phylogenetic sequence analyses and genetic community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE fingerprints showed complex bacterial community patterns. Forty-one clones matching DGGE bands of the community fingerprints were sequenced, representing about 39% of DNA fragments in the DGGE patterns. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed a high number of phylogenetically novel 16S rDNA sequence types and a high diversity of putatively chemotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Sequences were phylogenetically most closely related to the Proteobacteria (20 clones), green non-sulphur bacteria (three clones), Planctomycetales order (one clone), Cytophaga-Flexibacter- Bacteroides division (one clone) and the Actinobacteria (four clones). Furthermore, we report the presence of members of the Acidobacterium division (12 clones) in a karstic hypogean environment. Members of this phylum have not so far been detected in these particular environments.

  20. Reverse engineering of complex biological body parts by squared distance enabled non-uniform rational B-spline technique and layered manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pandithevan, Ponnusamy

    2015-02-01

    In tissue engineering, the successful modeling of scaffold for the replacement of damaged body parts depends mainly on external geometry and internal architecture in order to avoid the adverse effects such as pain and lack of ability to transfer the load to the surrounding bone. Due to flexibility in controlling the parameters, layered manufacturing processes are widely used for the fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffold with the given computer-aided design model. This article presents a squared distance minimization approach for weight optimization of non-uniform rational B-spline curve and surface to modify the geometry that exactly fits into the defect region automatically and thus to fabricate the scaffold specific to subject and site. The study showed that though the errors associated in the B-spline curve and surface were minimized by squared distance method than point distance method and tangent distance method, the errors could be minimized further in the rational B-spline curve and surface as the optimal weight could change the shape that desired for the defect site. In order to measure the efficacy of the present approach, the results were compared with point distance method and tangent distance method in optimizing the non-rational and rational B-spline curve and surface fitting for the defect site. The optimized geometry then allowed to construct the scaffold in fused deposition modeling system as an example. The result revealed that the squared distance-based weight optimization of the rational curve and surface in making the defect specific geometry best fits into the defect region than the other methods used.

  1. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-10-06

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further understand the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [57]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [23] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF6 shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross-section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing. First, analytical, semi-analytical, and

  2. Computerized parts list system coordinates engineering releases, parts control, and manufacturing planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.; Kinsey, M.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized parts list system compiles and summarize all pertinent and available information on complex new systems. The parts list system consists of three computer subroutines - list of parts, parts numerical sequence list, and specifications list.

  3. Acute intravenous synaptamine complex variant KB220™ "normalizes" neurological dysregulation in patients during protracted abstinence from alcohol and opiates as observed using quantitative electroencephalographic and genetic analysis for reward polymorphisms: part 1, pilot study with 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Miller, David K; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Manka, Matthew; Miller, Merlene; Stokes, Stanley; Manka, Debra; Allen, Cameron; Gant, Charles; Downs, B William; Smolen, Andrew; Stevens, Emily; Yeldandi, Swetha; Blum, Kenneth

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals, there is dopamine resistance due to an association with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Evidence is emerging whereby the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may find its place in recovery from reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) in patients addicted to psychoactive chemicals. Utilizing quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as an imaging tool, we show the impact of Synaptamine Complex Variant KB220™ as a putative activator of the mesolimbic system. We demonstrate for the first time that its intravenous administration reduces or "normalizes" aberrant electrophysiological parameters of the reward circuitry site. For this pilot study, we report that the qEEGs of an alcoholic and a heroin abuser with existing abnormalities (ie, widespread theta and widespread alpha activity, respectively) during protracted abstinence are significantly normalized by the administration of 1 intravenous dose of Synaptamine Complex Variant KB220™. Both patients were genotyped for a number of neurotransmitter reward genes to determine to what extent they carry putative dopaminergic risk alleles that may predispose them for alcohol or heroin dependence, respectively. The genes tested included the dopamine transporter (DAT1, locus symbol SLC6A3), dopamine D4 receptor exon 3 VNTR (DRD4), DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497), COMT val158 met SNP (rs4680), monoamine oxidase A upstream VNTR (MAOA-uVNTR), and serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR, locus symbol SLC6A4). We emphasize that these are case studies, and it would be unlikely for all individuals to carry all putative risk alleles. Based on previous research and our qEEG studies (parts 1 and 2 of this study), we cautiously suggest that long-term activation of dopaminergic receptors (ie, DRD2 receptors) will result in their proliferation and lead to enhanced "dopamine sensitivity" and an increased sense of happiness

  4. Parts Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; Fuqua, Debbie

    Designed to address the skills that an auto parts specialist must master in order to be effective in the market place, this manual consists of 13 units of instruction. Covered in the units are orientation; human relations; communications; safety; parts and systems identification; stocking, shipping, and receiving; inventory control; cataloging and…

  5. Prediction of a Flash Flood in Complex Terrain. Part I: A Comparison of Rainfall Estimates from Radar, and Very Short Range Rainfall Simulations from a Dynamic Model and an Automated Algorithmic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Brandes, Edward A.; Sun, Juanzhen; Yates, David N.; Mueller, Cynthia K.

    2000-06-01

    Operational prediction of flash floods caused by convective rainfall in mountainous areas requires accurate estimates or predictions of the rainfall distribution in space and time. The details of the spatial distribution are especially critical in complex terrain because the watersheds generally are small in size, and position errors in the placement of the rainfall can distribute the rain over the wrong watershed. In addition to the need for good rainfall estimates, accurate flood prediction requires a surface-hydrologic model that is capable of predicting stream or river discharge based on the rainfall-rate input data. In part 1 of this study, different techniques for the estimation and prediction of convective rainfall are applied to the Buffalo Creek, Colorado, flash flood of July 1996, during which over 75 mm of rain from a thunderstorm fell on the watershed in less than 1 h. The hydrologic impact of the rainfall was exacerbated by the fact that a considerable fraction of the watershed experienced a wildfire approximately two months prior to the rain event.Precipitation estimates from the National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler and the National Center for Atmospheric Research S-band, dual-polarization radar, collocated east of Denver, Colorado, were compared. Very short range simulations from a convection-resolving dynamic model that was initialized variationally using the radar reflectivity and Doppler winds were compared with simulations from an automated algorithmic forecast system that also employs the radar data. The radar estimates of rain rate and the two forecasting systems that employ the radar data have degraded accuracy by virtue of the fact that they are applied in complex terrain. Nevertheless, the dynamic model and automated algorithms both produce simulations that could be useful operationally for input to surface-hydrologic models employed for flood warning. Part 2 of this study, reported in a companion paper, describes

  6. Improving ozone modeling in complex terrain at a fine grid resolution - Part II: Influence of schemes in MM5 on daily maximum 8-h ozone concentrations and RRFs (Relative Reduction Factors) for SIPs in the non-attainment areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Fu, Joshua S.; Miller, Terry L.

    2010-06-01

    Part II presents a comprehensive evaluation of CMAQ for August of 2002 on twenty-one sensitivity simulations (detailed in Part I) in MM5 to investigate the model performance for O 3 SIPs (State Implementation Plans) in the complex terrain. CMAQ performance was quite consistent with the results of MM5, meaning that accurate meteorological fields predicted in MM5 as an input resulted in good model performance of CMAQ. In this study, PBL scheme plays a more important role than its land surface models (LSMs) for the model performance of CMAQ. Our results have shown that the outputs of CMAQ on eighteen sensitivity simulations using two different nudging coefficients for winds (2.5 and 4.5 × 10 -4 s -1, respectively) tend to under predict daily maximum 8-h ozone concentrations at valley areas except the TKE PBL sensitivity simulations (ETA M-Y PBL scheme with Noah LSMs and 5-layer soil model and Gayno-Seaman PBL) using 6.0 × 10 -4 s -1 with positive MB (Mean Bias). At mountain areas, none of the sensitivity simulations has presented over predictions for 8-h O 3, due to relatively poor meteorological model performance. When comparing 12-km and 4-km grid resolutions for the PX simulation in CMAQ statistics analysis, the CMAQ results at 12-km grid resolution consistently show under predictions of 8-h O 3 at both of valley and mountain areas and particularly, it shows relatively poor model performance with a 15.1% of NMB (Normalized Mean Bias). Based on our sensitivity simulations, the TKE PBL sensitivity simulations using a maximum value (6 × 10 -4) among other sensitivity simulations yielded better model performance of CMAQ at all areas in the complex terrain. As a result, the sensitivity of RRFs to the PBL scheme may be considerably significant with about 1-3 ppb in difference in determining whether the attainment test is passed or failed. Furthermore, we found that the result of CMAQ model performance depending on meteorological variations is affected on estimating

  7. Histone H3K4 trimethylation by MLL3 as part of ASCOM complex is critical for NR activation of bile acid transporter genes and is downregulated in cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfeng; Surapureddi, S.; Balasubramaniyan, N.; Ahn, Jaeyong; Goldstein, J. A.; Suchy, Frederick J.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor Farnesoid x receptor (FXR) is a critical regulator of multiple genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. The coactivators attracted to promoters of FXR target genes and epigenetic modifications that occur after ligand binding to FXR have not been completely defined, and it is unknown whether these processes are disrupted during cholestasis. Using a microarray, we identified decreased expression of mixed lineage leukemia 3 (MLL3), a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) lysine methyl transferase at 1 and 3 days of post-common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis (ChIP) analysis revealed that H3K4me3 of transporter promoters by MLL3 as part of activating signal cointegrator-2 -containing complex (ASCOM) is essential for activation of bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2), and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) genes by FXR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Knockdown of nuclear receptor coactivator 6 (NCOA6) or MLL3/MLL4 mRNAs by small interfering RNA treatment led to a decrease in BSEP and NTCP mRNA levels in hepatoma cells. Human BSEP promoter transactivation by FXR/RXR was enhanced in a dose-dependent fashion by NCOA6 cDNA coexpression and decreased by AdsiNCOA6 infection in HepG2 cells. GST-pull down assays showed that domain 3 and 5 of NCOA6 (LXXLL motifs) interacted with FXR and that the interaction with domain 5 was enhanced by chenodeoxycholic acid. In vivo ChIP assays in HepG2 cells revealed ligand-dependent recruitment of ASCOM complex to FXR element in BSEP and GR element in NTCP promoters, respectively. ChIP analysis demonstrated significantly diminished recruitment of ASCOM complex components and H3K4me3 to Bsep and Mrp2 promoter FXR elements in mouse livers after CBDL. Taken together, these data show that the “H3K4me3” epigenetic mark is essential to activation of BSEP, NTCP, and MRP2 genes by nuclear receptors and is downregulated in cholestasis

  8. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  9. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  10. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  11. Body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  12. Complex virial theorem and complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, B.R.

    1983-06-01

    We present the simple generalization to complex energies of the normal global real scaling used for bound-state calculations to produce a variational energy which satisfies the virial theorem. We show that in two limiting cases, one or the other of which is almost always p satisfied in all calculations, the virially stabilized complex energy is sensitive to only the real part or the imaginary part of the complex virial expression. We then compute the virial expression for a number of wave functions for the 1s2s/sup 2/ /sup 2/S He/sup -/, 1s2s2p /sup 2/P/sup o/ He/sup -/, and 1s/sup 2/2s/sup 2/kp /sup 2/P/sup o/ Be/sup -/ resonances and the corresponding virially stabilized resonance energies. In all calculations one of the limiting cases was applicable.

  13. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  14. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  15. Low-dimensional compounds containing bioactive ligands. Part VI: Synthesis, structures, in vitro DNA binding, antimicrobial and anticancer properties of first row transition metal complexes with 5-chloro-quinolin-8-ol.

    PubMed

    Potočňák, Ivan; Vranec, Peter; Farkasová, Veronika; Sabolová, Danica; Vataščinová, Michaela; Kudláčová, Júlia; Radojević, Ivana D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Volarevic, Vladislav; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Trifunović, Srećko R

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 3d metal complexes with 5-chloro-quinolin-8-ol (ClQ), [Mn(ClQ)2] (1), [Fe(ClQ)3] (2), [Co(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (3), [Ni(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (4), [Cu(ClQ)2] (5), [Zn(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (6), [Mn(ClQ)3]·DMF (7) and [Co(ClQ)3]·DMF·(EtOH)0.35 (8) (DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA thermal analysis. X-ray structure analysis of 7 and 8 revealed that these molecular complexes contain three chelate ClQ molecules coordinated to the central atoms in a deformed octahedral geometry and free space between the complex units is filled by solvated DMF and ethanol molecules. Antimicrobial activity of 1-6 was tested by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration against 12 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. The intensity of antimicrobial action varies depending on the group of microorganism and can be sorted: 1>ClQ>6>3/4>2>5. Complexes 1-6 exhibit high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB, HCT-116 and A549 cancer cell lines. Among them, complex 2 is significantly more cytotoxic against MDA-MB cells than cisplatin at all tested concentrations and is not cytotoxic against control mesenchymal stem cells indicating that this complex seems to be a good candidate for future pharmacological evaluation. Interaction of 1-6 with DNA was investigated using UV-VIS spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. The binding studies indicate that 1-6 can interact with CT-DNA through intercalation; complex 2 has the highest binding affinity. Moreover, complexes 1-6 inhibit the catalytic activity of topoisomerase I.

  16. Transition-metal complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] and [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] with naked group 14 atoms (E=C-Sn) as ligands; part 1: parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Pattiyil; Frenking, Gernot

    2009-09-07

    The equilibrium geometries and bond dissociation energies of 16-valence-electron(VE) complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] and 18-VE complexes [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] with M=Fe, Ru, Os and E=C, Si, Ge, Sn were calculated by using density functional theory at the BP86/TZ2P level. The nature of the M--E bond was analyzed with the NBO charge decomposition analysis and the EDA energy-decomposition analysis. The theoretical results predict that the heavier Group 14 complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] and [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] with E=Si, Ge, Sn have C(2v) equilibrium geometries in which the PMe(3) ligands are in the axial positions. The complexes have strong M--E bonds which are slightly stronger in the 16-VE species 1ME than in the 18-VE complexes 2ME. The calculated bond dissociation energies show that the M--E bonds become weaker in both series in the order C>Si>Ge>Sn; the bond strength increases in the order Fecomplexes 1ME have two electron-sharing bonds with sigma and pi symmetry and one donor-acceptor pi bond like the carbon complex. Thus, the bonding situation is intermediate between a typical Fischer complex and a Schrock complex. In contrast, the 18-VE complexes 2ME have donor-acceptor bonds, as suggested by the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, with one M<--E sigma donor bond and two M-->E pi-acceptor bonds, which are not degenerate. The shape of the frontier orbitals reveals that the HOMO-2 sigma MO and the LUMO and LUMO+1 pi* MOs of 1ME are very similar to the frontier orbitals of CO.

  17. U1-RNP and TLR receptors in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue diseasePart I. The U1-RNP complex and its biological significance in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune syndrome, signified by complex interactions between disease-related phenomena, including inflammation, proliferative vascular arteriopathy, thrombotic events and humoral autoimmune processes. It is still controversial whether MCTD is a distinct clinical entity among systemic connective tissue diseases, although several authors consider that it is distinct and underline characteristic, distinct clinical, serological and immunogenetic features. The putative target of autoimmunity in MCTD is U1-RNP, which is a complex of U1-RNA and small nuclear RNP. Both the U1-RNA component and the specific proteins, particularly U1-70K, engage immune cells and their receptors in a complex network of interactions that ultimately lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, and tissue injury. U1-RNA is capable of inducing manifestations consistent with TLR activation. Stimulation of innate immunity by native RNA molecules with a double-stranded secondary structure may help explain the high prevalence of autoimmunity to RNA binding proteins.

  18. Low-dimensional compounds containing bioactive ligands. Part VIII: DNA interaction, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of ionic 5,7-dihalo-8-quinolinolato palladium(II) complexes with K(+) and Cs(+) cations.

    PubMed

    Farkasová, Veronika; Drweesh, Sayed Ali; Lüköová, Andrea; Sabolová, Danica; Radojević, Ivana D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Vasić, Sava M; Paulíková, Helena; Fečko, Stanislav; Balašková, Tatiana; Vilková, Mária; Imrich, Ján; Potočňák, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Starting from well-defined NH2(CH3)2[PdCl2(XQ)] complexes, coordination compounds of general formula Cat[PdCl2(XQ)] have been prepared by cationic exchange of NH2(CH3)2(+) and Cat cations, where XQ are biologically active halogen derivatives of quinolin-8-ol (5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-ol (CQ), 5,7-dibromo-quinolin-8-ol (dBrQ) and 5,7-dichloro-quinolin-8-ol (dClQ)) and Cat is K(+) or Cs(+). The cation exchange of all prepared complexes, K[PdCl2(CQ)] (1), K[PdCl2(dClQ)] (2), K[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (3), Cs[PdCl2(CQ)] (4), Cs[PdCl2(dClQ)] (5) and Cs[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (6) was approved using IR spectroscopy, their structures in DMSO solution were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, whereas their stability in solution was verified by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Interaction of complexes to ctDNA was investigated using UV-VIS and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum microbicidal concentration values were detected against 15 bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains to examine the antimicrobial activity for the complexes. The in vitro antitumor properties of the complexes were studied by testing the complexes on leukemic cell line L1210, ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and non-cancerous cell line HEK293. The majority of the prepared compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial and very high cytotoxic activity.

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  20. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  1. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with (211)At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different (211)At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of (211)At(-) and *I(-) (*I = (131)I or (125)I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I(-) anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with (211)At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0-4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1-1.5 h at 75-80 degrees C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol](131)I and Ir[16aneS4-diol](131)I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to

  2. Chaos and Complexity in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regev, Oded

    2006-03-01

    Part I. Dynamical Systems - General: 1. Introduction to Part I; 2. Astrophysical examples; 3. Mathematical properties of dynamical systems; 4. Properties of chaotic dynamics; 5. Analysis of time series; 6. Regular and irregular motion in Hamiltonian systems; 7. Extended systems - instabilities and patterns; Part II. Astrophysical Applications: 8. Introduction to Part II; 9. Planetary, stellar and galactic dynamics; 10. Irregularly variable astronomical point sources; 11. Complex spatial patterns in astrophysics; 12. Topics in astrophysical fluid dynamics; References; Index.

  3. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 1. Monitoring Techniques for the Measurement of Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the first of a series produced to help the students and teachers gather data…

  4. Web life: ComplexityBlog.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    The site's homepage calls it "a repository of ideas and perspectives regarding the science, engineering and philosophy of complexity", and it pretty much does what it says on the tin. Part blog, part links archive, part library of modelling tips and tricks, the site is chock full of information that comes under the general heading of "complexity".

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  6. Cocrystals of Kemp’s triacid. Part III: Structure of hydrogen-bonded complex of Kemp’s triacid with 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine studied by X-ray and FT-IR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huczyński, Adam; Ratajczak-Sitarz, Małgorzata; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Brzezinski, Bogumil

    2008-12-01

    The 2:2 hydrogen-bonded complex between Kemp's triacid (KTA) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) has been synthesised and studied by X-ray diffraction and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Cocrystals of KTA-TMG belong to the monoclinic system and crystallize in the space group is P21 with a = 10.5017(3) Å, b = 7.9504(3) Å, c = 11.8910(4) Å, β = 104.004(4)° and Z = 2. The ring of the KTA monoanion molecule exhibits a chair conformation with all three carboxylic groups in the axial positions and all three methyl groups in the equatorial positions. In the crystal of the complex, cooperative systems involving inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are formed. In the solid state two protonated TMG molecules and two deprotonated KTA molecules form a dimer in which three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks are found.

  7. Mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds bearing tert-butyl groups for capillary electrochromatography synthesized via complexation of N-tert-butylacrylamide with a water-soluble cyclodextrin. Part I: Retention properties.

    PubMed

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2016-12-16

    With the aim to improve the understanding of morphology and efficiency properties, we investigate in this series the impact of the complex formation constant of the hydrophobic monomer with respect to statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) on the electrochromatographic properties of highly crosslinked amphiphilic mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases. Based on our previous work on amphiphilic mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide (Ad-AAm) as hydrophobic monomer that forms an extremely strong water-soluble inclusion complex with Me-β-CD, we now selected N-tert-butylacrylamide (NTBA) as hydrophobic monomer forming an inclusion complex with Me-β-CD with a much lower value of the formation constant. Mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases are synthesized by in-situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-tert-butylacrylamide, a water soluble crosslinker (piperazinediacrylamide), a hydrophilic neutral monomer (methacrylamide), and a negatively charged monomer (vinylsulfonic acid) in aqueous medium in bind silane pre-treated fused silica capillaries. The synthesized monolithic stationary phases have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties and can be employed in the reversed-phase mode, in the normal-phase mode, in a mixed-mode or in the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode (depending on the composition of the mobile phase and on the properties of the solute). Morphology and retention properties of this new type of stationary phase are compared to those reported in our previous series. With a homologues series of alkylphenones it is confirmed that the hydrophobicity (methylene selectivity αmeth) of the stationary phase is strongly dependent on the type of hydrophobic monomer employed. The studies reveal a significant influence of the formation constant of the involved host-guest inclusion complex on the morphology (i

  8. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxide complexes in solution. Part 1: the Li⁺, Na⁺ and K⁺--peroxide-hydroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Vallet, Valerie; Szabó, Zoltán; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-01-28

    The alkali metal ions Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) have a profound influence on the stoichiometry of the complexes formed in uranyl(VI)-peroxide-hydroxide systems, presumably as a result of a templating effect, resulting in the formation of two complexes, M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) where the uranyl units are linked by one peroxide bridge, μ-η(2)-η(2), with the second peroxide coordinated "end-on", η(2), to one of the uranyl groups, and M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-), with a four-membered ring of uranyl ions linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) peroxide bridges. The stoichiometry and equilibrium constants for the reactions: M(+) + 2UO2(2+) + 2HO2(-) + 2H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) + 4H(+) (1) and M(+) + 4UO2(2+) + 4HO2(-) + 4H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-) + 8H(+) (2) have been measured at 25 °C in 0.10 M (tetramethyl ammonium/M(+))NO3 ionic media using reaction calorimetry. Both reactions are strongly enthalpy driven with large negative entropies of reaction; the observation that ΔH(2) ≈ 2ΔH(1) suggests that the enthalpy of reaction is approximately the same when peroxide is added in bridging and "end-on" positions. The thermodynamic driving force in the reactions is the formation of strong peroxide bridges and the role of M(+) cations is to provide a pathway with a low activation barrier between the reactants and in this way "guide" them to form peroxide bridged complexes; they play a similar role as in the synthesis of crown-ethers. Quantum chemical (QC) methods were used to determine the structure of the complexes, and to demonstrate how the size of the M(+)-ions affects their coordination geometry. There are several isomers of Na[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) and QC energy calculations show that the ones with a peroxide bridge are substantially more stable than the ones with hydroxide bridges. There are isomers with different coordination sites for Na(+) and the one with coordination to the peroxide bridge and two uranyl oxygen atoms is the most stable one.

  9. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  10. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  11. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  12. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part 3, Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 33 absorbers from four variations of a 3:1 dilution of Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) simulant: Part 4, The effects of varying dilution ratios on the distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 12 absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at USDOE facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. Objective of this study was to measure effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on sorption of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu and Am onto 33 absorbers that in the absence of these organic compounds offer high sorption of these elements. The elements were in a generic simulant for Hanford complexant concentrate supernate that initially contained six organic complexants: EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, citrate, gluconate, and iminodiacetate. This simulant was tested as prepared and after gamma-irradiation to approximately 34 Mrads. Two other variations consisted of the unirradiated and irradiated simulants after treatment at 450C and 15,000 psi in a hydrothermal organic-destruction process. These experiments were conducted with a 3:1 water-to-simulant dilution of each of the four simulant variations. To determine effects of varying dilution ratios on the sorption of these five elements from the unirradiated and gamma-irradiated simulants that were not treated with the hydrothermal process, we measured their distribution from a 1:1 dilution, using 1 M NaOH as the diluent, onto the 12 best-performing absorbers. We then measured the sorption of these five elements from solutions having diluent-simulant ratios of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 onto the three absorbers that performed best for sorbing Sr, Pu and Am from the 1:1 dilution. For each of 900 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about absorber stability and sorption kinetics. The 5400 measured Kd values indicate that the sorption of Sr, Pu, and Am is significantly decreased by the organic complexants in these simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of Cs and Tc is much less affected.

  13. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part II: Two-dimensional characterization and boundary kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    A companion paper presented the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients were a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation through the source term of the conservation law and of kinetics through an interfacial velocity field. This model overcomes an important shortcoming of existing phase-field models, namely that the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. In this paper, we present a number of numerical calculations - in one and two dimensions - that characterize our formulation. These calculations illustrate (i) highly-sensitive rate-dependent nucleation; (ii) independent prescription of the forward and backward nucleation stresses without changing the energy landscape; (iii) stick-slip interface kinetics; (iii) the competition between nucleation and kinetics in determining the final microstructural state; (iv) the effect of anisotropic kinetics; and (v) the effect of non-monotone kinetics. These calculations demonstrate the ability of this formulation to precisely prescribe complex nucleation and kinetics in a simple and transparent manner. We also extend our conservation statement to describe the kinetics of the junction lines between microstructural interfaces and boundaries. This enables us to prescribe an additional kinetic relation for the boundary, and we examine the interplay between the bulk kinetics and the junction kinetics.

  14. Transition-metal complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] and [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] with naked group 14 atoms (E=C-Sn) as ligands; part 2: complexation with W(CO)(5).

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Pattiyil; Frenking, Gernot

    2009-09-07

    Density functional calculations at the BP86/TZ2P level were carried out to understand the ligand properties of the 16-valence-electron(VE) Group 14 complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] (1ME) and the 18-VE Group 14 complexes [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] (2ME; M=Fe, Ru, Os; E=C, Si, Ge, Sn) in complexation with W(CO)(5). Calculations were also carried out for the complexes (CO)(5)W-EO. The complexes [(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)M(E)] and [(PMe(3))(2)(CO)(2)M(E)] bind strongly to W(CO)(5) yielding the adducts 1ME-W(CO)(5) and 2ME-W(CO)(5), which have C(2v) equilibrium geometries. The bond strengths of the heavier Group 14 ligands 1ME (E=Si-Sn) are uniformly larger, by about 6-7 kcal mol(-1), than those of the respective EO ligand in (CO)(5)W-EO, while the carbon complexes 1MC-W(CO)(5) have comparable bond dissociation energies (BDE) to CO. The heavier 18-VE ligands 2ME (E=Si-Sn) are about 23-25 kcal mol(-1) more strongly bonded than the associated EO ligand, while the BDE of 2MC is about 17-21 kcal mol(-1) larger than that of CO. Analysis of the bonding with an energy-decomposition scheme reveals that 1ME is isolobal with EO and that the nature of the bonding in 1ME-W(CO)(5) is very similar to that in (CO)(5)W-EO. The ligands 1ME are slightly weaker pi acceptors than EO while the pi-acceptor strength of 2ME is even lower.

  15. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  16. In situ chemical and Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions of apatite from the Tongshi intrusive complex in the southern part of the North China Craton: Implications for petrogenesis and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Gang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Hu, Fang-Fang; Santosh, M.; Yang, Kui-Feng; Lan, Ting-Guang

    2015-06-01

    The Tongshi intrusive complex from the southeastern margin of the North China Craton is composed of syenite and monzonite, and was emplaced at ca. 180 Ma. Apatite from the syenite and monzonite were analyzed to better understand the petrogenesis of the complex and its mineralization potential. The cathodoluminescence images of some apatites from the monzonite exhibit core-rim texture, whereas the apatites from the syenite display uniform inner texture. The core and rim domains of the apatites exhibit distinct Sr isotopes and major-trace element compositions, whereas only little variation is displayed by the oxygen isotopes. The core portions of the apatites were inferred to be inherited from the protolith of the monzonite during remelting process. The calculated δ18O values of the syenite range from 3.5‰ to 4.1‰ with an average of 3.8‰ (SE = 0.21), which is significantly lower than that of the monzonite sample (with a range of 6.4-6.9‰, and mean at 6.7‰). In conjunction with the heterogeneity of Nd isotopic compositions (with normalized 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying from 0.51151 to 0.51236, and εNd (t = 180 Ma) values from -20.3 to -4.8) of the apatites from the syenite, it is proposed that the syenite melts may have been contaminated by crustal components which were earlier hydrothermally altered at high temperature. Based on element diffusion theory, we calculate the temperature of this crustal contamination to be higher than 637 °C, the closure temperature of Sm-Nd isotopic diffusion in apatite, and estimate that the duration of this process is probably shorter than 0.13 Ma. The oxygen fugacity of the syenite and monzonite calculated by apatite Mn content indicate that high oxidization state of the syenite magma can enhance the metallic mineralization potential. In contrast, the lower oxygen fugacity of the monzonite melt was unfavorable for metal enrichment, thus leading to insignificant mineralization. Our study recommends more focus for gold

  17. Crystallization of macromolecular complexes: combinatorial complex crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Graille, Marc; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-11-01

    The usefulness of antibody complexation, as a way of increasing the chances of crystallization needs to be re-evaluated after many antibody complexes have been crystallized and their structure determined. It is somewhat striking that among these, only a small number is a complex with a large protein antigen. The problem is that the effort of raising, cleaving and purifying an Fab is rewarded only by an extra chance of getting crystals; depending on the relative likelihood of crystallization of the complexed and uncomplexed protein. The example of the complex between HIV gp120, CD4 and an Fab fragment from a neutralizing antibody suggests that further complexation of an antigen-antibody complex with a third protein could, by increasing the number of possible combinations, improve the likelihood of crystallization. We propose the use of Ig-binding proteins as a way of extending the method from HIV gp120 to all proteins for which there are monoclonal antibodies. We discuss this technique, combinatorial complex crystallization (CCC), as part of a multi-component system for the enhancement of crystallization of macromolecular complexes. The method makes use of single Ig-binding domains from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA), Peptostreptococcus magnus protein L (PpL) and the streptococcal protein G (SpG). The generality of the method depends on the ability of these domains to interact with a large repertoire of antibodies without affecting antigen binding. There is strong evidence to suggest that these Ig-binding domains bind outside the antigen-combining site of the antibody without perturbing antigen binding. It is clear from the crystal structure of the single SpG domain complexed with an Fab that the interaction involves mainly the immunoglobulin CH1 domain, a region not involved in antigen recognition. We have recently determined the structure of the complex between a human Fab and the domain D from SpA and found that steric hindrance is unlikely even for large

  18. β-Lactam antibiotics. Spectroscopy and molecular orbital (MO) calculations . Part I: IR studies of complexation in penicillin-transition metal ion systems and semi-empirical PM3 calculations on simple model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald

    1997-12-01

    IR studies were preformed to determine possible transition metal ion binding sites of penicillin. the observed changes in spectral position and shape of characteristic IR bands of cloxacillin in the presence of transition metal ions (both in solutions and in the solid state) indicate formation of M-L complexes with engagement of -COO - and/or -CONH- functional groups. The small shift of νCO towards higher frequencies rules out direct M-L interaction via β-lactam carbonyl. PM3 calculations on simple model compounds (substituted formamide, cyclic ketones, lactams and substituted monocyclic β-lactams) have been performed. All structures were fully optimized and the calculated bond lengths, angles, heats of formation and CO stretching frequencies were discussed to determine the β-lactam binding sites and to explain its susceptibility towards nucleophilic attack (hydrolysis in vitro) and biological activity. The relative changes of calculated values were critically compared with available experimental data and same correlation between structural parameters and in vivo activity was shown.

  19. A simple thermodynamic model for quantitatively addressing cooperativity in multicomponent self-assembly processes--part 1: Theoretical concepts and application to monometallic coordination complexes and bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hamacek, Josef; Borkovec, Michal; Piguet, Claude

    2005-09-05

    A thermodynamic model has been developed for quantitatively estimating cooperativity in supramolecular polymetallic [M(m)L(n)] assemblies, as the combination of two simple indexes measuring intermetallic (I(c)MM) and interligand (I(c)LL) interactions. The usual microscopic intermolecular metal-ligand affinities (f(i)(M,L)) and intermetallic interaction parameters (uMM), adapted to the description of successive intermolecular binding of metal ions to a preorganized receptor, are completed with interligand interactions (uLL) and effective concentrations (c(eff)), accounting for the explicit free energy associated with the aggregation of the ligands forming the receptor. Application to standard monometallic pseudo-octahedral complexes [M(L)(n)(H2O)(6 - n)] (M = Co, Ni, Hf, L = ammonia, fluoride, imidazole, n = 1-6) systematically shows negative cooperativity (uLL < 1), which can be modulated by the electronic structures, charges, and sizes of the entering ligands and of the metal ions. Extension to the self-assembly of more sophisticated bimetallic helicates possessing identical binding sites is discussed, together with the origin of the positively cooperative formation of [Eu2(L3)3].

  20. Consequences of prolonged inhalation of ozone on f344/n rats: Collaborative studies. Part 3. Effects on complex carbohydrates of lung connective tissue. Research report, April 1991-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.

    1994-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are constituents of proteoglycans, which are integral components of lung connective tissue. Changes in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans have been noted in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The authors studied quantitative and qualitative changes of glycosaminoglycans in the lungs of rats exposed to a range of ozone levels (0, 0.12, 0.5, or 1.0 parts per million) for 20 months. Although wide variations in total glycosaminoglycans concentrations exist among individual animals within each exposure group, regression analyses of data indicated a monotonic and statistically significant decrease of total glycosaminoglycans after ozone exposure. Among individual glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin 6-sulfate levels decreased significantly in animals exposed to ozone when compared with control animals. Heparan sulfate concentration exhibited a significant trend toward increase with increasing doses of ozone, but the difference in heparan sulfate concentration animals exposed to ozone and control animals was not significant. Gel filtration studies of glycosaminoglycans in pooled sampled indicated that the molecular size of hyaluronan in animals exposed to ozone was lower than it was in control animals. The authors noted differences in heparan sulfate`s chemical properties and its affinity to antithrombin III between animals exposed to ozone and control animals. These observations indicate that inhalation of ozone for 20 months affects normal cellular metabolism of proteoglycans, which may contribute to the functional impairment of the lung.

  1. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  2. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  3. Prediction of a Flash Flood in Complex Terrain. Part II: A Comparison of Flood Discharge Simulations Using Rainfall Input from Radar, a Dynamic Model, and an Automated Algorithmic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, David N.; Warner, Thomas T.; Leavesley, George H.

    2000-06-01

    Three techniques were employed for the estimation and prediction of precipitation from a thunderstorm that produced a flash flood in the Buffalo Creek watershed located in the mountainous Front Range near Denver, Colorado, on 12 July 1996. The techniques included 1) quantitative precipitation estimation using the National Weather Service's Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler and the National Center for Atmospheric Research's S-band, dual-polarization radars, 2) quantitative precipitation forecasting utilizing a dynamic model, and 3) quantitative precipitation forecasting using an automated algorithmic system for tracking thunderstorms. Rainfall data provided by these various techniques at short timescales (6 min) and at fine spatial resolutions (150 m to 2 km) served as input to a distributed-parameter hydrologic model for analysis of the flash flood. The quantitative precipitation estimates from the weather radar demonstrated their ability to aid in simulating a watershed's response to precipitation forcing from small-scale, convective weather in complex terrain. That is, with the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates employed as input, the simulated peak discharge was similar to that estimated. The dynamic model showed the most promise in providing a significant forecast lead time for this flash-flood event. The algorithmic system did not show as much skill in comparison with the dynamic model in providing precipitation forcing to the hydrologic model. The discharge forecasts based on the dynamic-model and algorithmic-system inputs point to the need to improve the ability to forecast convective storms, especially if models such as these eventually are to be used in operational flood forecasting.

  4. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part I: Formulation and one-dimensional characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    The motion of microstructural interfaces is important in modeling twinning and structural phase transformations. Continuum models fall into two classes: sharp-interface models, where interfaces are singular surfaces; and regularized-interface models, such as phase-field models, where interfaces are smeared out. The former are challenging for numerical solutions because the interfaces need to be explicitly tracked, but have the advantage that the kinetics of existing interfaces and the nucleation of new interfaces can be transparently and precisely prescribed. In contrast, phase-field models do not require explicit tracking of interfaces, thereby enabling relatively simple numerical calculations, but the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. This prevents straightforward calibration of phase-field models to experiment and/or molecular simulations, and breaks the multiscale hierarchy of passing information from atomic to continuum. Consequently, phase-field models cannot be confidently used in dynamic settings. This shortcoming of existing phase-field models motivates our work. We present the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients are a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation - through the source term of the conservation law - and kinetics - through a distinct interfacial velocity field. A formal limit of the kinetic driving force recovers the classical continuum sharp-interface driving force, providing confidence in both the re-parametrized energy and the evolution statement. We present some 1D calculations characterizing the formulation; in a

  5. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    but lies essentially at the door of the Westerner’s perceived need for order, theory and lack of belief in the concept of fate.25 Finally, complexity...elsewhere and the entire system exhibits properties and behaviors different from the parts.61 The two main types of system are open and closed systems...62 Open systems take on board excess energy to replace that which is lost in order to continue operating and remain alive. Closed systems seek

  6. Automated cockpits special report, part 1.

    PubMed

    1995-01-30

    Part one of this report includes the following articles: Accidents Direct Focus on Cockpit Automation; Modern Cockpit Complexity Challenges Pilot Interfaces; Airbus Seeks to Keep Pilot, New Technology in harmony; NTSB: Mode Confusion Poses Safety Threat; and, Certification Officials grapple with Flight Deck Complexity.

  7. X-ray crystal structure and vibrational spectra of hydrazides and their metal complexes. Part I. Catena-poly[di-μ-aqua-(μ-maleic hydrazidato- O)sodium] hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzyk-Ociepa, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    The catena-poly[di-μ-aqua-(μ-maleic hydrazidato- O)sodium] hydrate, [Na(MH) (H 2O) 2] n·H 2O is examined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, space group C2/c, with a = 14.321(4), b = 16.114(5), c = 6.547(1) Å, β = 104.11(2) and Z = 4. In title complex, each sodium ion is coordinated by two oxygen atoms of two water molecules, one oxygen atom of the maleic hydrazidato, two oxygen atoms of two water molecules from an adjacent [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] unit and one oxygen atom of the maleic hydrazidato from an adjacent [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] unit too. It is interesting that the sodium ion is not bonded by O-deprotonated oxygen atom but by carbonyl oxygen atom of maleic hydrazidato. The infrared and Raman spectra for maleic hydrazide (MH), its deuterated derivative (MD) and [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] n·H 2O are reported. The theoretical wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities have been calculated using density functional (B3LYP) method with the 6-311++G(d,p) for MH and MD and 6-311++G(d,p)/LanL2DZ for [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] n·H 2O basis sets. The calculated potential energy distribution has proved to be of great help in assigning the infrared and Raman spectra maleic hydrazide, its deuterated derivative and [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] n·H 2O. The isotope replacements were very helpful in correlation of observed bands and of the theoretically calculated normal vibrations. The results from natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses for keto-hydroxy, diketo and dihydroxy forms of MH as well as for the theoretical model of [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] n·H 2O are compared.

  8. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part II: Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, and Am onto 32 absorbers from four variations of Hanford tank 101-SY simulant solution

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. In this second part of our three-part investigation of the effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products, we measured the sorption of strontium, cesium, technetium, and americium onto 32 absorbers that offer high sorption of these elements in the absence of organic complexants. The four solutions tested were (1) a simulant for a 3:1 dilution of Hanford Tank 101-SY contents that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) this simulant after gamma-irradiation to 34 Mrads, (3) the unirradiated simulant after treatment with a hydrothermal organic-destruction process, and (4) the irradiated simulant after hydrothermal processing. For each of 512 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kds) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of our 3,072 measured Kd values, the sorption of strontium and americium is significantly decreased by the organic components of the simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of cesium and technetium appears unaffected by the organic components of the simulant solutions.

  9. Laser marking of component parts

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent identification of components and subassemblies for traceability and historical purposes is essential for assemblies subject to long term storage. Marketing requirements run the gamut from simple functional alphanumerics for terminal or wire numbers to complex component identification involving program nomenclature, part number, manufacturer's code, serial number, data code, and lot or batch number. The wide range of opaque materials marked includes both ferrous and nonferrous materials, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

  10. Partial turbo detection with reduced complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouardi, Aissa; Djebbari, A.; Bouazza, B. S.

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we propose a novel method for reducing the complexity of the turbo detector MAP (maximum a posteriori). The basic idea consists in turbo detecting a part of intersymbol interference (ISI) after decomposing the channel in two parts. We show that we can reduce the trellis complexity in the turbo process at a certain cost, i.e. performance loss.

  11. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  12. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  13. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds. The right-hand panel ...

  14. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  15. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  16. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  17. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  18. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  19. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  20. Electrocardiography series. Narrow QRS-complex tachycardia: part 2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devinder; Teo, Swee-Guan; Omar, Abdul Razakjr Bin; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-09-01

    We discuss two cases of incessant atrial tachycardia (AT), including the presentation and clinical course. It is important to differentiate AT from other causes of supraventricular tachycardia, such as atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), as it would have implications on clinical management. Electrocardiographic features of AT, especially the presence of an AV Wenckebach phenomenon with 'grouped beating', are critical for differentiating AT from AVRT and AVNRT. It is also vital to identify the P waves and their relations to QRS on electrocardiography, as this would aid in the differentiation of various supraventricular tachycardias.

  1. Ternary complexes in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Babko, A K

    1968-08-01

    Reactions between a complex AB and a third component C do not always proceed by a displacement mechanism governed by the energy difference of the chemical bonds A-B and A-C. The third component often becomes part of the complex, forming a mixed co-ordination sphere or ternary complex. The properties of this ternary complex ABC are not additive functions of the properties of AB and AC. Such reactions are important in many methods in analytical chemistry, particularly in photometric analysis, extractive separation, masking, etc. The general properties of the four basic types of ternary complex are reviewed and examples given. The four types comprise the systems (a) metal ion, electronegative ligand, organic base, (b) one metal ion, two different electronegative ligands, (c) ternary heteropoly acids, and (d) two different metal ions, one ligand.

  2. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  3. Complex I function in mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Tioli, Gaia; Falasca, Anna Ida; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the functional properties of mitochondrial Complex I originating from its presence in an assembled form as a supercomplex comprising Complex III and Complex IV in stoichiometric ratios. In particular several lines of evidence are presented favouring the concept that electron transfer from Complex I to Complex III is operated by channelling of electrons through Coenzyme Q molecules bound to the supercomplex, in contrast with the hypothesis that the transfer of reducing equivalents from Complex I to Complex III occurs via random diffusion of the Coenzyme Q molecules in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, another property provided by the supercomplex assembly is the control of generation of reactive oxygen species by Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  4. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  5. PART is part of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Duyckaerts, Charles; Braak, Heiko; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Buée, Luc; Del Tredici, Kelly; Goedert, Michel; Halliday, Glenda; Neumann, Manuela; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Tolnay, Markus; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2015-05-01

    It has been proposed that tau aggregation confined to entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, with no or only minimal Aβ deposition, should be considered as a 'primary age-related tauopathy' (PART) that is not integral to the continuum of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we examine the evidence that PART has a pathogenic mechanism and a prognosis which differ from those of AD. We contend that no specific property of the entorhinal-hippocampal tau pathology makes it possible to predict either a limited progression or the development of AD, and that biochemical differences await an evidence base. On the other hand, entorhinal-hippocampal tau pathology is an invariant feature of AD and is always associated with its development. Rather than creating a separate disease entity, we recommend the continued use of an analytical approach based on NFT stages and Aβ phases with no inference about hypothetical disease processes.

  6. Preparing images for publication: part 2.

    PubMed

    Bengel, Wolfgang; Devigus, Alessandro

    2006-08-01

    The transition from conventional to digital photography presents many advantages for authors and photographers in the field of dentistry, but also many complexities and potential problems. No uniform procedures for authors and publishers exist at present for producing high-quality dental photographs. This two-part article aims to provide guidelines for preparing images for publication and improving communication between these two parties. Part 1 provided information about basic color principles, factors that can affect color perception, and digital color management. Part 2 describes the camera setup, discusses how to take a photograph suitable for publication, and outlines steps for the image editing process.

  7. Controlled parts management

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, C. M.; Hidalgo, S. P.; Martinez, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R&D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  8. Unitarity and Complex Mass Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollini, C. G.; Oxman, L. E.

    We consider a field obeying a simple higher order equation with a real mass and two complex conjugate mass parameters. The evaluation of vacuum expectation values leads to the propagators, which are (resp.) a Feynman causal function and two complex conjugate Wheeler-Green functions (half retarded plus half advanced). By means of the computation of convolutions, we are able to show that the total self-energy has an absorptive part which is only due to the real mass. In this way it is shown that this diagram is compatible with unitarity and the elimination of free complex-mass asymptotic states from the set of external legs of the S-matrix. It is also shown that the complex masses act as regulators of ultraviolet divergences.

  9. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  10. Part-Time Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Suzanne B.

    2001-01-01

    This study relates information regarding the role part-time faculty members fill in colleges and universities. Data are from the U.S. Department of Education's National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, 1999. In that year, 2 of every 5 faculty members taught on a part-time basis, and they taught nearly 40% of all classes and students that were…

  11. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  12. Complex and liquid hydrides for energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Callini, Elsa; Atakli, Zuleyha Özlem Kocabas; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jensen, Craig; Dornheim, Martin; Grant, David; Cho, Young Whan; Chen, Ping; Hjörvarsson, Bjørgvin; de Jongh, Petra; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Baricco, Marcello; Paskevicius, Mark; Jensen, Torben R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Autrey, Thomas S.; Züttel, Andreas

    2016-03-10

    The research on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage was imitated by the discovery of Ti as a hydrogen sorption catalyst in NaAlH4 by Boris Bogdanovic in 1996. A large number of new complex hydride materials in various forms and combinations have been synthesized and characterized and the knowledge on the properties of complex hydrides and the synthesis methods has grown enormously since then. A significant part of the research groups active in the field of complex hydrides are collaborators in the IEA task 32. This paper reports about the important issues in the field of the complex hydride research, i.e. the synthesis of borohydrides, the thermodynamics of complex hydrides and their thermodynamic properties, the effects of size and confinement, the hydrogen sorption mechanism and the complex hydride composites as well as the properties of liquid complex hydrides. This paper is the result of the collaboration of several groups and excellent summary of the recent achievements.

  13. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  14. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-15

    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  15. Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163262.html Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo One goal of this stem cell research is ... have successfully used human stem cells to create embryos that are part-human, part-pig. Scientists said ...

  16. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-26

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure.

  17. Fluoropolymers: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, F. J.

    1989-01-01

    Gives a brief account of fluoropolymers as an important part of polymer chemistry and attempts to make the topic relevant to the secondary school audience. Provides general characteristics and applications for fluoropolymers. (MVL)

  18. Psychiatric liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-07-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health setting. Part 1 discusses lawsuits common to this setting.

  19. Restructuring liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-05-01

    With recent cutbacks in staffing, clarifying orders, establish priorities, understanding accepted standards and providing experienced personnel is even more critical. "Restructuring Liability: Part 1" discusses cases that focus on basic nursing skills--assessment, monitoring and communication.

  20. Psychiatric liability: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-08-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health care setting. Part 2 continues discussion begun in the July issue of lawsuits common to this setting.

  1. The Stigma Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  2. Complexity in scalable computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-12-01

    The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra

  3. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2011-12-01

    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum hat{q} and hat{p} being replaced with non-hermitian operators hat{q}_{new} and hat{p}_{new}, and their eigenstates | q >_{new} and | p >_{new} with complex eigenvalues q and p. Introducing a philosophy of keeping the analyticity in path integration variables, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras, and explicitly construct hat{q}_{new}, hat{p}_{new}, |q >_{new} and |p >_{new} by formally squeezing coherent states. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions on the phase space and the corresponding operators. Only in our formalism can we describe a complex action theory or a real action theory with complex saddle points in the tunneling effect etc. in terms of bras and kets in the functional integral. Furthermore, in a system with a non-hermitian diagonalizable bounded Hamiltonian, we show that the mechanism to obtain a hermitian Hamiltonian after a long time development proposed in our paper [Prog. Theor. Phys. 125 (2011), 633] works also in the complex coordinate formalism. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local form, a conserved probability current density can be constructed with two kinds of wave functions.

  4. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  5. Fixtureless nonrigid part inspection using depth cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2016-10-01

    In automobile industry, flexible thin shell parts are used to cover car body. Such parts could have a different shape in a free state than the design model due to dimensional variation, gravity loads and residual strains. Special inspection fixtures are generally indispensable for geometric inspection. Recently, some researchers have proposed fixtureless nonridged inspect methods using intrinsic geometry or virtual spring-mass system, based on some assumptions about deformation between Free State shape and nominal CAD shape. In this paper, we propose a new fixtureless method to inspect flexible parts with a depth camera, which is efficient and low computational complexity. Unlike traditional method, we gather two point cloud set of the manufactured part in two different states, and make correspondences between them and one of them to the CAD model. The manufacturing defects can be derived from the correspondences. Finite element method (FEM) disappears in our method. Experimental evaluation of the proposed method is presented.

  6. Challenges in complex systems science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Miguel, M.; Johnson, J. H.; Kertesz, J.; Kaski, K.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; MacKay, R. S.; Loreto, V.; Érdi, P.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    FuturICT foundations are social science, complex systems science, and ICT. The main concerns and challenges in the science of complex systems in the context of FuturICT are laid out in this paper with special emphasis on the Complex Systems route to Social Sciences. This include complex systems having: many heterogeneous interacting parts; multiple scales; complicated transition laws; unexpected or unpredicted emergence; sensitive dependence on initial conditions; path-dependent dynamics; networked hierarchical connectivities; interaction of autonomous agents; self-organisation; non-equilibrium dynamics; combinatorial explosion; adaptivity to changing environments; co-evolving subsystems; ill-defined boundaries; and multilevel dynamics. In this context, science is seen as the process of abstracting the dynamics of systems from data. This presents many challenges including: data gathering by large-scale experiment, participatory sensing and social computation, managing huge distributed dynamic and heterogeneous databases; moving from data to dynamical models, going beyond correlations to cause-effect relationships, understanding the relationship between simple and comprehensive models with appropriate choices of variables, ensemble modeling and data assimilation, modeling systems of systems of systems with many levels between micro and macro; and formulating new approaches to prediction, forecasting, and risk, especially in systems that can reflect on and change their behaviour in response to predictions, and systems whose apparently predictable behaviour is disrupted by apparently unpredictable rare or extreme events. These challenges are part of the FuturICT agenda.

  7. Image registration by parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalermwat, Prachya; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    In spite of the large number of different image registration techniques, most of these techniques use the correlation operation to match spatial image characteristics. Correlation is known to be one of the most computationally intensive operations and its computational needs grow rapidly with the increase in the image sizes. In this article, we show that, in many cases, it might be sufficient to determine image transformations by considering only one or several parts of the image rather than the entire image, which could result in substantial computational savings. This paper introduces the concept of registration by parts and investigates its viability. It describes alternative techniques for such image registration by parts and presents early empirical results that address the underlying trade-offs.

  8. Glenohumeral instability associated with Buford complex.

    PubMed

    del Rey, Fernando Canillas; Vázquez, Diego García-Germán; López, Daniel Nieto

    2009-12-01

    Buford complex is described as a normal anatomical variant of the anterosuperior part of the glenoid consisting of the absence of the anterosuperior labrum with the presence of a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament. Traditionally, reattachment to the glenoid has been discouraged. We present a case of a Buford complex associated with glenohumeral instability. The patient was operated for recurrent instability without a preoperative diagnosis of Buford complex. The diagnosis was made during shoulder arthroscopy and reattachment to the glenoid was performed with a satisfactory outcome. Here, we discuss the relationship of the Buford complex with intraarticular pathology and the surgical treatment in cases when this variant is associated with instability.

  9. Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargittai, M.

    1980-01-01

    The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

  10. AUTO PARTS MAN, WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOVER, BUEL H.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN THE RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION PHASE OF THE AUTO PARTS MAN APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS PLANNED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADE. THE UNITS ARE (1) SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITY, (2) AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY,…

  11. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  12. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  13. Meatcutting Testbook, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strazicich, Mirko, Ed.

    This document contains objective tests for each lesson in the Meatcutting Workbook, Part I (see note), which is designed for apprenticeship programs in meatcutting in California. Each of the 36 tests contains from 10 to 45 multiple-choice items. The tests are grouped according to the eight units of the workbook: the apprentice meatcutter; applied…

  14. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  15. Professor Points: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karacalik, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For years this author has been a keen advocate of co-operative talk as a way of learning and has felt confident that her pupils are learning from each other. She creates opportunities for her Year two class to talk and work in pairs and groups across the curriculum, with many such interactions occurring each day. As part of an action research…

  16. Pieces and Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Deborah A.; Ellis, Edith B.

    2006-01-01

    Although critical to understanding human sexuality and reproductive physiology, the male and female reproductive anatomy is often minimally covered by teachers. For teachers and students alike, it is often an embarrassing topic to discuss. This activity allows students and teachers to identify the parts of both reproductive systems with little…

  17. Understanding Math - Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the second remedial workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students at the secondary level. It covers fractions, geometry formulas, decimals and percents, and time. For the first workbook, see SE 015 827, and for the teacher's guide, see SE 015 829. (DT)

  18. Understanding Math - Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the first workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students. It is remedial in nature, aimed at the secondary level, and covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. The use of the number 10 in explaining the concepts presented is stressed throughout. For the second workbook, see SE 015 828, and…

  19. Auto Parts Testbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    This testbook contains objective (multiple choice) tests covering each topic in the companion Auto Parts Workbook (see note). The book is arranged so that each section can be detached and given to the student as the test subjects are covered in class. (Answers are not included.) There are an average of ten questions for each of six units. Unit A,…

  20. Magnetic Properties of Tcnq Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Saleem

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This work can be divided up into three complementary steps. The first part of the work involved synthesis of a large number of TCNQ complexes, in particular complex salts, which are known to have promising electrical properties due to reduction in the on-site Coloumbic repulsion between the electrons. The cations used for the complexes are C12BPE (dodecyl bi pyridyl ethelenium), C10BPE, C8BPE, C6BPE, GTPP (geronyl triphenyl phosphonium), BI (butyl imidazolium), DMI (dimethyl imidazolium) and TB (toluidine blue). The second part of the project was to characterize these materials using different techniques to try to build up a knowledge of the materials. Particular interest was involved in the study of magnetic behaviour and in the later parts of the work some electrical measurements were made to try to determine the band gap, mobility and temperature dependence of conductivity. Considering the quasi-one-dimensional nature of the TCNQ salts, a theoretical model was devised based on the solution of one dimensional Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian. A computer program was developed that allowed for a numerical solution of a chain of spins in which number of spins could be varied. The Hamiltonian could be solved for up to 12 spins, the maximum allowable by the ICL 2900 computer at Crips computer centre of the University of Nottingham. The program allowed the user to input the coupling energy and alternation parameter between adjacent spins. The results from this program were used to explain magnetic behaviour of the TCNQ complexes prepared during this work.

  1. JPL Counterfeit Parts Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risse, Lori

    2012-01-01

    SPACE ARCHITECTURE / ENGINEERING: It brings an extreme test bed for both technologies/concepts as well as procedures/processes. Design and construction (engineering) always go together, especially with complex systems. Requirements (objectives) are crucial. More important than the answers are the questions/Requirements/Tools-Techniques/Processes. Different environments force architects and engineering to think out of the box. For instance there might not be gravity forces. Architectural complex problems have common roots: in Space and on Earth. Let us bring Space down on Earth so we can keep sending Mankind to the stars from a better world. Have fun being architects and engineers...!!! This time is amazing and historical. We are changing the way we inhabit the solar systems!

  2. Natural complexity, computational complexity and depth.

    PubMed

    Machta, J

    2011-09-01

    Depth is a complexity measure for natural systems of the kind studied in statistical physics and is defined in terms of computational complexity. Depth quantifies the length of the shortest parallel computation required to construct a typical system state or history starting from simple initial conditions. The properties of depth are discussed and it is compared with other complexity measures. Depth can only be large for systems with embedded computation.

  3. Commercial Parts Radiation Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSE/Keith Avery 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0172 TR-2014-0172 COMMERCIAL PARTS RADIATION TESTING Craig J. Kief COSMIAC at UNM 2350 Alamo Avenue SE Suite 300...Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE

  4. Evolving Parts Standardization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 2 • Supports nearly...RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 5 • Limited at DLA – Legacy systems with MIL- STD -965 requirements – Few parts review for MIL- STD -3018 • Standardization...Standardization by natural selection – Performance characteristics – MIL- STD -3018 – Availability, usage on other systems, environmental

  5. Just Perfect, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In "Just Perfect: Part 1," the author defined a perfect number N to be one for which the sum of the divisors d (1 less than or equal to d less than N) is N. He gave the first few perfect numbers, starting with those known by the early Greeks. In this article, the author provides an extended list of perfect numbers, with some comments about their…

  6. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  7. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  8. Mycotoxins revisited: Part I.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition; however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, but foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I, presented in this issue of the Journal, reviews the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II, to be published in the next issue of the Journal, will be focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  9. The ADA Complex Is a Distinct Histone Acetyltransferase Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Eberharter, Anton; Sterner, David E.; Schieltz, David; Hassan, Ahmed; Yates, John R.; Berger, Shelley L.; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    We have identified two Gcn5-dependent histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the 0.8-MDa ADA complex and the 1.8-MDa SAGA complex. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex contains several subunits which also function as part of other protein complexes, including a subset of TATA box binding protein-associated factors (TAFIIs) and Tra1. These observations raise the question of whether the 0.8-MDa ADA complex is a subcomplex of SAGA or whether it is a distinct HAT complex that also shares subunits with SAGA. To address this issue, we sought to determine if the ADA complex contained subunits that are not present in the SAGA complex. In this study, we report the purification of the ADA complex over 10 chromatographic steps. By a combination of mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting, we demonstrate that the adapter proteins Ada2, Ada3, and Gcn5 are indeed integral components of ADA. Furthermore, we identify the product of the S. cerevisiae gene YOR023C as a novel subunit of the ADA complex and name it Ahc1 for ADA HAT complex component 1. Biochemical functions of YOR023C have not been reported. However, AHC1 in high copy numbers suppresses the cold sensitivity caused by particular mutations in HTA1 (I. Pinto and F. Winston, personal communication), which encodes histone H2A (J. N. Hirschhorn et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:1999–2009, 1995). Deletion of AHC1 disrupted the integrity of the ADA complex but did not affect SAGA or give rise to classic Ada− phenotypes. These results indicate that Gcn5, Ada2, and Ada3 function as part of a unique HAT complex (ADA) and represent shared subunits between this complex and SAGA. PMID:10490601

  10. Dynamical Baryogenesis in Complex Hybrid Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2008-07-02

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vev of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  11. A novel complex valued cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Zheng, Hongqing

    2013-01-01

    To expand the information of nest individuals, the idea of complex-valued encoding is used in cuckoo search (PCS); the gene of individuals is denoted by plurality, so a diploid swarm is structured by a sequence plurality. The value of independent variables for objective function is determined by modules, and a sign of them is determined by angles. The position of nest is divided into two parts, namely, real part gene and imaginary gene. The updating relation of complex-valued swarm is presented. Six typical functions are tested. The results are compared with cuckoo search based on real-valued encoding; the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  17. Endocrine system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  18. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Aluisio, Sandra M.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-12-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in the quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus pointing to the usefulness of considering wider contexts around the concepts. Though the accuracy rate in the distinction was not as high as in methods using deep linguistic knowledge, the complex network approach is still useful for a rapid screening of texts whenever assessing complexity is essential to guarantee accessibility to readers with limited reading ability.

  19. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  20. Evolution of biological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural “Maxwell Demon,” within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase. PMID:10781045

  1. Quantum physics and complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    There is a widely used and successful theory of ``chemical reaction networks,'' which provides a framework describing systems governed by mass action kinetics. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: ``stochastic Petri nets.'' But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other well-known ideas--yet in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. I will explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics which we've produced several results on recently, including the recent analytical results uniting quantum physics and complex networks. Our general idea is about merging concepts from quantum physics and complex network theory to provide a bidirectional bridge between both disciplines. Support is acknowledged from the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation.

  2. Surface inspection system for carriage parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkena, Berend; Acker, Wolfram

    2006-04-01

    Quality standards are very high in carriage manufacturing, due to the fact, that the visual quality impression is highly relevant for the purchase decision for the customer. In carriage parts even very small dents can be visible on the varnished and polished surface by observing reflections. The industrial demands are to detect these form errors on the unvarnished part. In order to meet the requirements, a stripe projection system for automatic recognition of waviness and form errors is introduced1. It bases on a modified stripe projection method using a high resolution line scan camera. Particular emphasis is put on achieving a short measuring time and a high resolution in depth, aiming at a reliable automatic recognition of dents and waviness of 10 μm on large curved surfaces of approximately 1 m width. The resulting point cloud needs to be filtered in order to detect dents. Therefore a spatial filtering technique is used. This works well on smoothly curved surfaces, if frequency parameters are well defined. On more complex parts like mudguards the method is restricted by the fact that frequencies near the define dent frequencies occur within the surface as well. To allow analysis of complex parts, the system is currently extended by including 3D CAD models into the process of inspection. For smoothly curved surfaces, the measuring speed of the prototype is mainly limited by the amount of light produced by the stripe projector. For complex surfaces the measuring speed is limited by the time consuming matching process. Currently, the development focuses on the improvement of the measuring speed.

  3. Complex Geologic History of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Part of the complex geologic history of icy Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is shown in this Voyager 2 photo, which has a resolution of 900 meters (2,700 feet) per picture element. The photo was received as part of a Triton-mapping sequence between 3:30 and 5:30 a.m. (PDT). This view is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across. It encompasses two depressions, possibly old impact basins, that have been extensively modified by flooding, melting, faulting, and collapse. Several episodes of filling and partial removal of material appear to have occurred. The rough area in the middle of the bottom depression probably marks the most recent eruption of material. Only a few impact craters dot the area, which shows the dominance of internally driven geologic processes on Triton.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  4. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  5. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  6. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  8. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  9. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  10. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    COMM1ANDEZR4% JORI1 P. RUSIS" Ac~ttng ChiiK!i Plans COEiee If your address has changed or if you wtiah to bek reuov$d f ret theRAC mailing list, or If...equipment: Space, Flight; Missile, Launch; Military 25 I ......- ,-,- MII-STD-1547: Parts, Materials and Processes for Space and Launch Vehicles, Technical...3 1.4 UN1 5 25 12 21 2•544 1 49 25 11 31 F .5 I5 . ,Ui 2- Iiiii TIN&M FW VI i T I BWIRWEIMT MMI 0 W• 1 AIT AIT AIF F B 1. ML W WS 1t .3 .1 1 .75 .75

  11. Pondering placentophagy. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2015-11-01

    A recent systematic review, which looked at whether there are any benefits to placentophagy--the consumption of one's placenta after birth--has concluded that there is no evidence of benefit or risk and that these require further investigation. In the first part of this article, I reflected on this practice and noted some of the difficulties in evaluating such a practice. In this second article, I ask whether the claim that this is an age-old or natural practice is useful, consider why this might be important for women and explore some of the issues that we might want to consider in relation to this and other practices for which we have no evidence.

  12. LGBTQ Youth Part 1.

    PubMed

    Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya

    2017-03-01

    In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group. This article is Part 1 of a two-article series designed to increase school nurses' abilities to advocate and care for LGBTQ youth in school settings. This first article provides information regarding proper terminology and current percentages of youth who identify as LGBTQ and concludes with implications for school nurses, including resources for nurses, school staff, and families.

  13. LGBTQ Part 2.

    PubMed

    Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya

    2017-03-01

    In addition to dealing with the normal challenges of being a teenager, many times LGBTQ youth have to deal with harassment, intimidation, and bullying on a daily basis as they disproportionately experience verbal and physical harassment while in school as a result of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. This violence adversely affects these students' health and well-being as reflected in the depression and suicide rate among LGBTQ youth. As Part 2 of a series in articles on caring for LGBTQ youth in a school setting, this article reviews specific health risks in this group of students. School nurses can help reduce disparities in health for LGBTQ youth by understanding risk for psychological consequences of bullying and advocating for a just and responsive social school culture. Implications for school nurses include educating school staff and families as well as providing prompt and appropriate referrals for necessary psychological care.

  14. Structure of nucleosome-HMG complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    This dissertation concentrates on the structure of HMG-nucleosome complexes, and how they differ from nucleosomes alone. The first chapter provides an introduction to chromatin and an overview of the field. The second and third chapters describe what kinds of nucleosome-HMG protein complexes form in solution, and where the HMG proteins may bind on the nucleosome. A model is proposed that locates the HMG binding sites on the nucleosome core particle. The fourth chapter describes the biophysical characterization of the complex. The methods include thermal denaturation, circular dichroism and sedimentation velocity, all done under variety of solvent conditions. These methods reveal a great deal of information on the stability and interactions of the complex. The fifth chapter describes conformational probes of the complex. These results reveal the structural transitions that occur when HMG protein binds to the nucleosome as well as the parts of the nucleosome essential for the binding reaction.

  15. Molecular simulation and modeling of complex I.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Gerhard; Wikström, Mårten

    2016-07-01

    Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations play an important role in the functional characterization of complex I. With its large size and complicated function, linking quinone reduction to proton pumping across a membrane, complex I poses unique modeling challenges. Nonetheless, simulations have already helped in the identification of possible proton transfer pathways. Simulations have also shed light on the coupling between electron and proton transfer, thus pointing the way in the search for the mechanistic principles underlying the proton pump. In addition to reviewing what has already been achieved in complex I modeling, we aim here to identify pressing issues and to provide guidance for future research to harness the power of modeling in the functional characterization of complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  16. Carney complex (CNC)

    PubMed Central

    Bertherat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD

  17. Complex Correspondence Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-02-12

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  18. Vitiligo - Part 1*

    PubMed Central

    Tarlé, Roberto Gomes; do Nascimento, Liliane Machado; Mira, Marcelo Távora; de Castro, Caio Cesar Silva

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic stigmatizing disease, already known for millennia, which mainly affects melanocytes from epidermis basal layer, leading to the development of hypochromic and achromic patches. Its estimated prevalence is 0.5% worldwide. The involvement of genetic factors controlling susceptibility to vitiligo has been studied over the last decades, and results of previous studies present vitiligo as a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease. In this context, a few genes, including DDR1, XBP1 and NLRP1 have been consistently and functionally associated with the disease. Notwithstanding, environmental factors that precipitate or maintain the disease are yet to be described. The pathogenesis of vitiligo has not been totally clarified until now and many theories have been proposed. Of these, the autoimmune hypothesis is now the most cited and studied among experts. Dysfunction in metabolic pathways, which could lead to production of toxic metabolites causing damage to melanocytes, has also been investigated. Melanocytes adhesion deficit in patients with vitiligo is mainly speculated by the appearance of Köebner phenomenon, recently, new genes and proteins involved in this deficit have been found. PMID:24937821

  19. 19. UPPER PART OF WEST SIDE, AND WESTERNMOST PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. UPPER PART OF WEST SIDE, AND WESTERNMOST PART OF SOUTH SIDE, FROM A BOOM LIFT. (PANORAMA 1/2) - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  2. Mean Flow and Turbulence in Complex Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    basin in the Geysers geothermal area in Cali- fornia. That study was part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program and involved...Terrain at Geysers , CAL.," Boundary-Layer Meteorology, V. 21, pp. 207-213, 1981. 3. Scientific Report 7 (ISSN 0112-2398), Measurements on a Thirty Metre

  3. 10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 5 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING 334° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 4 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN FOREGROUND AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CENTER. LOOKING 316° NW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Semiotics of constructed complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The scope of this paper is limited to software and other constructed complex systems mediated or integrated by software. Our research program studies foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. There have really been only two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems: mathematics and linguistics. We show how semiotics can also play a role, whether we think of it as part of these other theories or as subsuming one or both of them. We describe our notion of {open_quotes}computational semiotics{close_quotes}, which we define to be the study of computational methods of dealing with symbols, show how such a theory might be formed, and describe what we might get from it in terms of more interesting use of symbols by computing systems. This research was supported in part by the Federal Highway Administration`s Office of Advanced Research and by the Advanced Research Projects Agency`s Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office.

  6. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  7. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    PubMed

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  8. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity.

  9. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  10. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  11. Collective complexes--total perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alho, Päivi Marjaana

    2006-11-01

    A much greater part of our identity than we generally believe is collectively determined. Awareness of the causal link between identity, its connected values and the influence exerted by these values on perception is therefore crucial. In the implicit personality model of Peabody and Goldberg (1989), the apparent wide variety of human characteristics is broken down into three broad dimensions: general evaluation, impulse control and assertiveness. My hypothesis is that the regulation of impulses can be equated with the Jungian concept of the mother and father complexes, and assertiveness with the relation between individualism and collectivism. I have utilized Montgomery's perspective theory and Jung's concepts of the union of opposites, the complex and the shadow in order to provide an alternative interpretation of the implicit personality model. According to my interpretation, the traditional values of any culture can be read against these three dimensions. These values can be seen as the greatest treasure of a culture but, at the same time, they can also be devastating if they become complex-like.

  12. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  13. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  14. Density functional theory of complex transition densities.

    PubMed

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2006-09-28

    We present an extension of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham density functional theory to the domain of complex local potentials and complex electron densities. The approach is applicable to resonance (Siegert) [Phys. Rev. 56, 750 (1939)] states and other scattering and transport problems that can be described by a normalized state of a Hamiltonian containing a complex local potential. Such Hamiltonians are non-Hermitian and their eigenvalues are in general complex, the imaginary part being inversely proportional to the lifetime of the system. The one-to-one correspondence between complex local potentials nu and complex electron densities rho is established provided that the complex variables are sufficiently close to real local potentials and densities of nondegenerate ground states. We show that the exchange-correlation functionals, contributing to the complex energy, are determined through analytic continuation of their ground-state-theory counterparts. This implies that the exchange-correlation effects on the lifetime of a resonance are, under appropriate conditions, already determined by the functionals of the ground-state theory.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders and bruxism. Part I.

    PubMed

    Kevilj, R; Mehulic, K; Dundjer, A

    2007-01-01

    Correct functioning of the entire stomatognathic system is achieved by a compatible relationship of all its parts. Four determinants, by their mutual harmonious activity, dictate the function of the entire system: the teeth, periodontium with supporting structure, muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and CNS. In such a complex system a disorder of any integrative part causes disturbances also in other parts of the system. Changed functions can arise through organic disorder, and also iatrogenically by inadequate conservative, prosthetic, surgical or orthodontic therapy. For this reason it is often difficult to recognise the primary cause. The first responses of the system to the disorder are adaptive mechanisms which occur within one or more integrative parts, and depending on their intensity and duration symptoms grow more prominent. Tissue response can be ortho- or parafunctional. Attempts are made to exclude psychoemotional influences and the obstacle eliminated by either abrasion, clenching or grinding of the teeth. If the obstacle is not eliminated by abrasion, the cause of such functional disorder becomes the trigger for parafunctional activity. From a review of the relevant literature it can be concluded that parafunctional activity is caused by changed occlusion, with determined psychological habits of the patient and specific tissue response of the stomatognathic system. Therefore, therapy of these disorders is made more difficult and includes a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Complexation of Optoelectronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Il‧in, M. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mikhailenko, A. S.; Morozov, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Problems of increasing the efficiency and the functionality of complex optoelectronic systems for monitoring real atmospheric conditions and of their use are discussed. It is shown by the example of a meteorological complex comprising an infrared wind-sensing lidar and an X-range Doppler radar that the complexation of probing systems working in different electromagnetic-radiation ranges opens up new opportunities for determining the meteorological parameters of a turbulent atmosphere and investigating the interaction of radiation with it.

  17. Topology optimization of a gas-turbine engine part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faskhutdinov, R. N.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauzer, K. A.; Maksimov, P. V.; Trufanov, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key goals of aerospace industry is a reduction of the gas turbine engine weight. The solution of this task consists in the design of gas turbine engine components with reduced weight retaining their functional capabilities. Topology optimization of the part geometry leads to an efficient weight reduction. A complex geometry can be achieved in a single operation with the Selective Laser Melting technology. It should be noted that the complexity of structural features design does not affect the product cost in this case. Let us consider a step-by-step procedure of topology optimization by an example of a gas turbine engine part.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  19. Complexity and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Alberto; Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; López-Ibor, Juan José

    2013-08-01

    Complexity estimators have been broadly utilized in schizophrenia investigation. Early studies reported increased complexity in schizophrenia patients, associated with a higher variability or "irregularity" of their brain signals. However, further investigations showed reduced complexities, thus introducing a clear divergence. Nowadays, both increased and reduced complexity values are reported. The explanation of such divergence is a critical issue to understand the role of complexity measures in schizophrenia research. Considering previous arguments a complementary hypothesis is advanced: if the increased irregularity of schizophrenia patients' neurophysiological activity is assumed, a "natural" tendency to increased complexity in EEG and MEG scans should be expected, probably reflecting an abnormal neuronal firing pattern in some critical regions such as the frontal lobes. This "natural" tendency to increased complexity might be modulated by the interaction of three main factors: medication effects, symptomatology, and age effects. Therefore, young, medication-naïve, and highly symptomatic (positive symptoms) patients are expected to exhibit increased complexities. More importantly, the investigation of these interacting factors by means of complexity estimators might help to elucidate some of the neuropathological processes involved in schizophrenia.

  20. Visual complexity: a review.

    PubMed

    Donderi, Don C

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from research on single forms, form and texture arrays and visual displays. Form complexity and form probability are shown to be linked through their reciprocal relationship in complexity theory, which is in turn shown to be consistent with recent developments in perceptual learning and neural circuit theory. Directions for further research are suggested.

  1. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, the Six-Phase Soil Heating site that is involved in a groundwater cleanup project can be seen. The project involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six-Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. In the background is the block house for the complex. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  2. Evolutionary complexity for protection of critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a one-year LDRD project, 'Evolutionary Complexity for Protection of Critical Assets.' A brief introduction is given to the topics of genetic algorithms and genetic programming, followed by a discussion of relevant results obtained during the project's research, and finally the conclusions drawn from those results. The focus is on using genetic programming to evolve solutions for relatively simple algebraic equations as a prototype application for evolving complexity in computer codes. The results were obtained using the lil-gp genetic program, a C code for evolving solutions to user-defined problems and functions. These results suggest that genetic programs are not well-suited to evolving complexity for critical asset protection because they cannot efficiently evolve solutions to complex problems, and introduce unacceptable performance penalties into solutions for simple ones.

  3. Luminescent aryl-group eleven metal complexes.

    PubMed

    López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena

    2017-02-14

    Among the coinage metal complexes displaying luminescent properties, those bearing C-donor aryl ligands have an increasing part in the chemistry of these metals. These types of ligands confer a high kinetic and thermodynamic stability on the complexes, but they can also be involved in the photoluminescent behaviour of the complexes. The development of new aryl-containing complexes of group eleven metals, the study of their photoluminescent properties and their related properties and applications are discussed in this perspective. Among these, luminescent gold(i) and gold(iii) compounds are being intensively used for the development of new properties with potential applications such as, for instance, electroluminescence, triboluminescence, mechanochromism, aggregated induced emissions, quenching, luminescent liquid crystals, low molecular weight gelators and photocatalysts, among others.

  4. 7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 2 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT LEFT REAR AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; INTERSTATE 1-5 AT REAR CENTER; AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT RIGHT CENTER. LOOKING 260° W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule, DME face-to-face encounters, elimination of the requirement for termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review and other revisions to Part B for CY 2013. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-11-16

    This major final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule, payments for Part B drugs, and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. It also implements provisions of the Affordable Care Act by establishing a face-to-face encounter as a condition of payment for certain durable medical equipment (DME) items. In addition, it implements statutory changes regarding the termination of non-random prepayment review. This final rule with comment period also includes a discussion in the Supplementary Information regarding various programs . (See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in this final rule with comment period.)

  6. Adaptive Leadership: Fighting Complexity with Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    It appears that, as Jorge Luis Borges put it, “Everything touches everything.”39 Army ants and the World Wide Web are exemplars of complex systems...Star Trek: USS Enterprise: Haynes Manual (San Jose , CA: Simon and Schuster, 2010). 66 Spillane, Distributed Leadership. 24... Jose , CA: Simon and Schuster, 2010. Smythe, Elizabeth, and Andrew Norton. “Thinking as Leadership/Leadership As Thinking.” Leadership 3, no. 1 (2007

  7. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  8. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  9. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  10. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  11. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  12. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  13. Complexity and emergent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T; Frey, Urs

    2011-04-01

    Complex biological systems operate under non-equilibrium conditions and exhibit emergent properties associated with correlated spatial and temporal structures. These properties may be individually unpredictable, but tend to be governed by power-law probability distributions and/or correlation. This article reviews the concepts that are invoked in the treatment of complex systems through a wide range of respiratory-related examples. Following a brief historical overview, some of the tools to characterize structural variabilities and temporal fluctuations associated with complex systems are introduced. By invoking the concept of percolation, the notion of multiscale behavior and related modeling issues are discussed. Spatial complexity is then examined in the airway and parenchymal structures with implications for gas exchange followed by a short glimpse of complexity at the cellular and subcellular network levels. Variability and complexity in the time domain are then reviewed in relation to temporal fluctuations in airway function. Next, an attempt is given to link spatial and temporal complexities through examples of airway opening and lung tissue viscoelasticity. Specific examples of possible and more direct clinical implications are also offered through examples of optimal future treatment of fibrosis, exacerbation risk prediction in asthma, and a novel method in mechanical ventilation. Finally, the potential role of the science of complexity in the future of physiology, biology, and medicine is discussed.

  14. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  15. Visual Complexity: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  16. Complexity: against systems.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    This article assumes a specific intuitive notion of complexity as a difficulty to generate and/or assess the plausibility of models. Based on this intuitive understanding of complexity, it identifies two main causes of complexity, namely, radical openness and contextuality. The former is the idea that there are no natural systems. The modeler always needs to draw artificial boundaries around phenomena to generate feasible models. Contextuality is intimately connected to the requirement to simplify models and to leave out most aspects. Complexity occurs when contextuality and radical openness cannot be contained that is when it is not clear where the boundaries of the system are and which abstractions are the correct ones. This concept of complexity is illustrated using a number of example from evolution.

  17. Avoid the Pitfalls: Benefits of Formal Part C Data System Governance. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauzy, Denise; Bull, Bruce; Gould, Tate

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial authorizing legislation for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1986, the scope and complexity of data collected by Part C programs have significantly increased. Formal governance establishes responsibility for Part C data and enables program staff to improve the effectiveness of data processes and…

  18. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  19. 9 CFR 381.82 - Diseases of the leukosis complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diseases of the leukosis complex. 381.82 Section 381.82 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.82 Diseases of the leukosis complex. Carcasses of poultry affected with any one...

  20. 9 CFR 381.82 - Diseases of the leukosis complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diseases of the leukosis complex. 381.82 Section 381.82 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.82 Diseases of the leukosis complex. Carcasses of poultry affected with any one...

  1. 9 CFR 381.82 - Diseases of the leukosis complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diseases of the leukosis complex. 381.82 Section 381.82 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.82 Diseases of the leukosis complex. Carcasses of poultry affected with any one...

  2. 9 CFR 381.82 - Diseases of the leukosis complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diseases of the leukosis complex. 381.82 Section 381.82 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.82 Diseases of the leukosis complex. Carcasses of poultry affected with any one...

  3. 9 CFR 381.82 - Diseases of the leukosis complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diseases of the leukosis complex. 381.82 Section 381.82 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.82 Diseases of the leukosis complex. Carcasses of poultry affected with any one...

  4. Potential Flows From Three-Dimensional Complex Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. Dale; Kelly, Patrick H.; Panton, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of several functions of three-dimensional complex variable, with emphasis on potential-flow fields computed from these functions. Part of continuing research on generalization of well-established two-dimensional complex analysis to three and more dimensions.

  5. Division in a Binary Representation for Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blest, David C.; Jamil, Tariq

    2003-01-01

    Computer operations involving complex numbers, essential in such applications as Fourier transforms or image processing, are normally performed in a "divide-and-conquer" approach dealing separately with real and imaginary parts. A number of proposals have treated complex numbers as a single unit but all have foundered on the problem of the…

  6. Sibling Curves and Complex Roots 1: Looking Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2007-01-01

    This paper, the first of a two-part article, follows the trail in history of the development of a graphical representation of the complex roots of a function. Root calculation and root representation are traced through millennia, including the development of the notion of complex numbers and subsequent graphical representation thereof. The…

  7. Teaching Literature in an Age of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsup, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The recently released Common Core State Standards increase classroom emphasis on informational texts in high school and recommend a three-part measurement for text complexity when selecting texts for classroom use. In this commentary I argue that fictional narratives can not only meet these stated criteria for complex texts and result in critical…

  8. Robustness and structure of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my PhD research on statistical physics and complex networks: i) modeling a new type of attack -- localized attack, and investigating robustness of complex networks under this type of attack; ii) discovering the clustering structure in complex networks and its influence on the robustness of coupled networks. Complex networks appear in every aspect of our daily life and are widely studied in Physics, Mathematics, Biology, and Computer Science. One important property of complex networks is their robustness under attacks, which depends crucially on the nature of attacks and the structure of the networks themselves. Previous studies have focused on two types of attack: random attack and targeted attack, which, however, are insufficient to describe many real-world damages. Here we propose a new type of attack -- localized attack, and study the robustness of complex networks under this type of attack, both analytically and via simulation. On the other hand, we also study the clustering structure in the network, and its influence on the robustness of a complex network system. In the first part, we propose a theoretical framework to study the robustness of complex networks under localized attack based on percolation theory and generating function method. We investigate the percolation properties, including the critical threshold of the phase transition pc and the size of the giant component Pinfinity. We compare localized attack with random attack and find that while random regular (RR) networks are more robust against localized attack, Erdoḧs-Renyi (ER) networks are equally robust under both types of attacks. As for scale-free (SF) networks, their robustness depends crucially on the degree exponent lambda. The simulation results show perfect agreement with theoretical predictions. We also test our model on two real-world networks: a peer-to-peer computer network and an airline network, and find that the real-world networks

  9. Mitochondrial complex I-linked disease.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most frequently encountered single mitochondrial single enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial disorder. Although specific genotype-phenotype correlations are very difficult to identify, the majority of patients present with symptoms caused by leukodystrophy. The poor genotype-phenotype correlations can make establishing a diagnosis a challenge. The classical way to establish a complex I deficiency in patients is by performing spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme in a muscle biopsy or other patient-derived material (liver or heart biopsy, cultured skin fibroblasts). Complex I is encoded by both the mtDNA and nuclear DNA and pathogenic mutations have been identified in the majority of the 44 genes encoding the structural subunits of complex I. In recent years, the increasing possibilities for diagnostic molecular genetic tests of large gene panels, exomes, and even entire genomes has led to the identification of many novel genetic defects causing complex I deficiency. Complex I mutations not only result in a reduced enzyme activity but also induce secondary effects at the cellular level, such as elevated reactive oxygen species production, altered membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology. At this moment there is no cure for complex I deficiency and the treatment options for complex I patients are restricted to symptomatic treatment. Recent developments, amongst others based on the treatment of the secondary effects of complex I deficiency, have shown to be promising as new therapeutic strategies in vitro and have entered clinical trials. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  10. Virtual Parts Engineering Research Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-20

    a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. a... reliability of these units is mostly dependent on proper maintenance and periodic replacement of worn and damaged parts. Obviously, the supply of spare parts...process dedicated to undertaking the reverse engineering process and producing technical data for parts production more reliably , rapidly, cost

  11. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  12. 8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. LOOKING 290° WNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Designing the User Interface: Considering the Concept of Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    user, or, more fundamentally, what makes an interface complex. 2. The Issue of Complexity The subject of complexity was examined by Kieras and Polson...selection rules. In the previously mentioned work by Kieras and Polson, an explanation was given as they applied to the GOMS model a model called the...behave in response to actions on his part. He knows something of the internal structure or functionality of the interface ( Kieras and Poison, 1985: p

  14. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, Carter James

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  15. On computational complexity of Clifford algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2009-05-01

    After a brief discussion of the computational complexity of Clifford algebras, we present a new basis for even Clifford algebra Cl(2m) that simplifies greatly the actual calculations and, without resorting to the conventional matrix isomorphism formulation, obtains the same complexity. In the last part we apply these results to the Clifford algebra formulation of the NP-complete problem of the maximum clique of a graph introduced by Budinich and Budinich ["A spinorial formulation of the maximum clique problem of a graph," J. Math. Phys. 47, 043502 (2006)].

  16. The Electronic Structure of Heavy Element Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bursten, Bruce E.

    2000-07-25

    The area of study is the bonding in heavy element complexes, and the application of more sophisticated electronic structure theories. Progress is recounted in several areas: (a) technological advances and current methodologies - Relativistic effects are extremely important in gaining an understanding of the electronic structure of compounds of the actinides, transactinides, and other heavy elements. Therefore, a major part of the continual benchmarking was the proper inclusion of the appropriate relativistic effects for the properties under study. (b) specific applications - These include organoactinide sandwich complexes, CO activation by actinide atoms, and theoretical studies of molecules of the transactinide elements. Finally, specific directions in proposed research are described.

  17. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  18. Complexity and robustness

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J. M.; Doyle, John

    2002-01-01

    Highly optimized tolerance (HOT) was recently introduced as a conceptual framework to study fundamental aspects of complexity. HOT is motivated primarily by systems from biology and engineering and emphasizes, (i) highly structured, nongeneric, self-dissimilar internal configurations, and (ii) robust yet fragile external behavior. HOT claims these are the most important features of complexity and not accidents of evolution or artifices of engineering design but are inevitably intertwined and mutually reinforcing. In the spirit of this collection, our paper contrasts HOT with alternative perspectives on complexity, drawing on real-world examples and also model systems, particularly those from self-organized criticality. PMID:11875207

  19. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  20. New non-invasive safe, quick, economical method of detecting various cancers was found using QRS complex or rising part of T-wave of recorded ECGs. Cancers can be screened along with their biochemical parameters & therapeutic effects of any cancer treatments can be evaluated using recorded ECGs of the same individual.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    There are many methods of detecting cancers including detection of cancer markers by blood test, (which is invasive, time consuming and relatively expensive), detection of cancers by non-invasive methods such as X-Ray, CT scan, and MRI & PET Scan (which are non-invasive and quick but very expensive). Our research was performed to develop new non-invasive, safe, quick economical method of detecting cancers and the 1st author already developed for clinically important non-invasive new methods including early stage of present method using his method of localizing accurate organ representation areas of face, eyebrows, upper lip, lower lip, surface and dorsal part of the tongue, surface backs, and palm side of the hands. This accurate localization of the organ representation area of the different parts of the body was performed using electromagnetic field resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules or tissues based on our US patented non-invasive method in 1993. Since year 2000, we developed the following non-invasive diagnostic methods that can be quickly identified by the patented simple non-invasive method without using expensive or bulky instrument at any office or field where there is no electricity or instrument available. The following are examples of non-invasive quick method of diagnosis and treatment of cancers using different approaches: 1) Soft red laser beam scanning of different parts of body; 2) By speaking voice; 3) Visible and invisible characteristic abnormalities on different organ representation areas of the different parts of the body, and 4) Mouth, Hand, and Foot Writings of both right and left side of the body. As a consequence of our latest research, we were able to develop a simple method of detecting cancer from existing recorded electrocardiograms. In this article, we are going to describe the method and result of clinical applications on many different cancers of different organs including lung, esophagus, breast, stomach, colon

  1. GSFC preferred parts lists PPL-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldini, B. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A listing of preferred parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space systems and ground support equipment is contained.

  2. Technological Support of Critical Parts for Railway Transport Working Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabets, A. V.; Gabets, D. A.; Markov, A. M.; Radchenko, M. V.; Leonov, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The materials of complex research of operational properties of a new brand cast iron CHMN-35M. Optimal chemical composition was determined. The obtained results allow to conclude about possibility of its use for the manufacture of critical parts of rolling stock of railway transport, in particular of a side bearing cap

  3. 43. TOP PART OF UMBILICAL MAST, NORTH AND WEST SIDES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. TOP PART OF UMBILICAL MAST, NORTH AND WEST SIDES. AIR CONDITIONING DUCTING IS VISIBLE ON INTERIOR OF MAST. RAIL IS VISIBLE LEFT OF THE MAST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Part One--The Shift toward Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Charlene A.; Davis, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first in a series of three papers about online pedagogy and educational practice as part of the JISE "Online Education Forum." This paper deals with the question: "Why is the shift toward online education happening?" This is a complex issue that involves questions of educational access, paradigms for teaching and…

  5. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  6. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  8. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  9. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  10. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  11. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  12. Detecting Earthquakes--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Basic concepts associated with seismic wave propagation through the earth and the location of seismic events were explained in part 1 (appeared in January 1983 issue). This part focuses on the construction of a student seismometer for detecting earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions anywhere on the earth's surface. (Author/JN)

  13. Inside the complexity labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    Although the world we live in is complex, complexity as a science does not have a long history. For generations, most physicists tried to understand everything in terms of interactions between pairs of idealized "test particles". Then, about a 100 years ago, Henri Poincaré pointed out that a fully interacting three-body system was not just the sum of its three component pairs. The famous "three-body problem" was born.

  14. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  15. An erupted complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  16. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  17. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation.more » In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.« less

  18. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O׳Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radiopurity required for this rare decay search.

  19. 6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-7 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL (APPROXIMATELY 34° 5' BY 118° 12'30" ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). PART 1 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT RIGHT REAR (LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS NOS. 265-1 TO CA-265-5) AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 234° SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Crystallization of macromolecular complexes:. stoichiometric variation screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Graille, Marc; Taussig, Michael J.; Sutton, Brian; Gore, Michael G.; Silverman, Gregg J.; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-11-01

    Theoretically a crystal may contain both complexed and uncomplexed molecules simultaneously in the same lattice. Since we seldom screen for such possibilities, such occurrences are only rarely reported. Here we propose that stoichiometry should be one of the parameters to be screened in the crystallization of macromolecular complexes. By allowing for non-biologically significant stoichiometries, we may increase the chances of crystallizing a macromolecular complex and of selecting arrangements which crystallize better or yield more ordered crystals. Although biological forces tend to be stronger than lattice-building interactions, in the crystal the latter will dominate numerically. By allowing for a varied stoichiometry we permit a wider selection of lattice-building contacts and increase the probability of crystallization. From these theoretical considerations we have developed methodology compatible with classical solubility screening and other well-established crystallization principles. We discuss this technique, stoichiometric variation screening (SVS), as part of a multicomponent system for the enhancement of crystallization of macromolecular complexes. We present this technique as an extension of reverse screening and illustrate the complementarity in the methodology. We present two examples of the use of SVS: the complexes between an immunoglobulin Fab fragment and two bacterial proteins, namely the D domain of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) and a single domain of protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus (PpL). In the first example there are 3 Fab molecules and only 2 SpA D domains (domD) (2 complexed and 1 unliganded Fab), in the second 2 Fabs and only 1 PpL domain (1 complexed and 1 unliganded Fab). SVS has the added and unique advantage that in the same crystal we have information on both the unliganded and complexed states under precisely identical conditions: one structure, two answers. Together with a combinatorial method for complex

  1. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  2. Resource Letter CS-1: Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2011-08-01

    A complex system is a system composed of many interacting parts, often called agents, which displays collective behavior that does not follow trivially from the behaviors of the individual parts. Examples include condensed-matter systems, ecosystems, stock markets and economies, biological evolution, and indeed the whole of human society. Substantial progress has been made in the quantitative understanding of complex systems, particularly since the 1980s, using a combination of basic theory, much of it derived from physics, and computer simulation. The subject is a broad one, drawing on techniques and ideas from a wide range of areas. Here, I give a selection of introductory resources, ranging from classic papers to recent books and reviews.

  3. Cnn: a Paradigm for Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Leon O.

    The following sections are included: * What is a CNN? * Part I: Standard CNNs * Standard CNNs are uniquely specified by CNN genes * Oscillations and chaos from standard CNNs * Complete stability criteria for standard CNNs * Bistable criterion * Coding the CNN gene * Edge detection CNN * Corner detection CNN * A gallery of basic CNN genes * Does there exist a CNN gene for solving Minsky's global connectivity problem? * Decoding the CNN gene * Examples of input-output CNN operators * Uncoupled CNN genes * Boolean CNN genes and truth tables * What task can an uncoupled Boolean CNN gene Perform? * Bifurcation of CNN genes * The game-of-life CNN gene * The CNN universal machine * Generalized cellular automata * A glimpse at some real-world CNN applications * Part II: Autonomous CNNs * Pattern formation in standard CNNs * Characterization of stable equilibria * The dynamics of pattern formation * CNN pattern formation in biology and physics * Pattern formation in reaction-diffusion CNNs * Nonlinear waves in reaction-diffusion CNNs * Simulating nonlinear PDEs via autonomous CNNs * Part III: Local Activity: The Genesis of Complexity * Transistors and local activity: What do they have to common? * Nonlinear circuit models for reaction-diffusion CNNs * What is local activity? * Cell equilibrium points * Local state equations and local power flows * Local activity in reaction-diffusion CNN cells * Testing for local activity * Testing one-port CNN cells for local activity * Testing two-port CNN cells for local activity * Why is local activity necessary for pattern formation? * How to choose locally-active CNN parameters? * Local activity and stability are different concepts * The local activity dogma

  4. [Complex pelvic injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Schmal, H; Klemt, C; Haag, C; Bonnaire, F

    2002-08-01

    Pelvic disruptions are rare in children caused by the flexible anchoring of bony parts associated with a high elasticity of the skeleton. Portion of pelvic fractures in infants is lower than 5% even when reviewing cases of specialized centers. The part of complex pelvic injuries and multiple injured patients in infants is higher when compared to adults, a fact caused by the more intense forces that are necessary to lead to pelvic disruption in children. Combination of a rare injury and the capability of children to compensate blood loss for a long time may implicate a wrong security and prolong diagnostic and therapeutic procedures--a problem that definitely should be avoided. Three cases were analyzed and established algorithms for treatment of patients matching these special injury-features demonstrated. A good outcome may only be achieved when all components of injury pattern get recognized and treatment is organized following the hierarchy of necessity. Therefore in the time table first life-saving steps have to be taken and then accompanying injuries can be treated that often decisively influence life quality. As seen in our cases unstable and dislocated fractures require open reduction and internal fixation ensuring nerval decompression, stop of hemorrhage and realizing the prerequisite for effective treatment of soft tissue damage. The acute hemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes of death following severe pelvic injuries. After stabilization of fracture, surgical treatment of soft tissue injuries and intraabdominal bleeding sources the immediate diagnostic angiography possibly in combination with a therapeutic selective embolization is a well established part of the treatment. The aim of complete restitution can only be accomplished by cooperation of several different specialists and consultants in a trauma center.

  5. 4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-3. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 4 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER. LOOKING 140° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 3 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND WITH ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING. LOOKING 76° ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Edge Detection Using a Complex Wavelet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    A complex wavelet of the form Psi(x, y) = C(x jy)exp(-p(x-sq+y-sq))) is used in the continuous wavelet transform to obtain edges from a digital image...and x and y are position variables. The square root of the sum of the squares of the real and imaginary parts of the wavelet transform are used to...radar images and the resulting images are shown. Continuous wavelet transform , Digital image.

  8. Distilling pathophysiology from complex disease genetics.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2013-09-26

    Technologies for genome-wide sequence interrogation have dramatically improved our ability to identify loci associated with complex human disease. However, a chasm remains between correlations and causality that stems, in part, from a limiting theoretical framework derived from Mendelian genetics and an incomplete understanding of disease physiology. Here we propose a set of criteria, akin to Koch's postulates for infectious disease, for assigning causality between genetic variants and human disease phenotypes.

  9. Resonant Acoustic Determination of Complex Elastic Moduli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    F ( 79 "C) 1 Complete Cure - days @ 77"F (25" C) 2 - 4 Complete Cure -L hrs. @ 175 F ( 79 °C) 2 - 3 Color Amber or Black Ratio (By Weight): Part A 100...Classification Authority 3 Distribution Availability of Report 2b Declassification/Downgrading Schedule Approved for public release; distribution is...Mechanical Model ..................................................... 7 3 . Complex Modulus, Loss Tangent and Quality Factor .................... 10 4

  10. Pulling complexes out of complex diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ryan D; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA7) is an incurable disease caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide sequences within the Ataxin-7 gene. This elongated CAG tract results in an Ataxin-7 protein bearing an expanded polyglutamine (PolyQ) repeat. SCA7 disease is characterized by progressive neural and retinal degeneration leading to ataxia and blindness. Evidence gathered from investigating SCA7 and other PolyQ diseases strongly suggest that misregulation of gene expression contributes to neurodegeneration. In fact, Ataxin-7 is a subunit of the essential Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetltransferase (SAGA) chromatin modifying complex that regulates expression of a large number of genes. Here we discuss recent insights into Ataxin-7 function and, considering these findings, propose a model for how polyglutamine expansion of Ataxin-7 may affect Ataxin-7 function to alter chromatin modifications and gene expression. PMID:25054097

  11. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  12. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  13. Current topics on inhibitors of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    There are a variety of chemicals which regulate the functions of bacterial and mitochondrial complex I. Some of them, such as rotenone and piericidin A, have been indispensable molecular tools in mechanistic studies on complex I. A large amount of experimental data characterizing the actions of complex I inhibitors has been accumulated so far. Recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of entire complex I may be helpful to carefully interpret this data. We herein focused on recent hot topics on complex I inhibitors and the subjects closely connected to these inhibitors, which may provide useful information not only on the structural and functional aspects of complex I, but also on drug design targeting this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece.

  15. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G.; Buchanan, J. Michael; Stryker, Jeffrey M.; Wax, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  16. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  17. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. Infact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) 2-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena and Kondo effect, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlations that exist in graphene.

  18. Intelligent freeform manufacturing of complex organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong

    2012-11-01

    Different from the existing tissue engineering strategies, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques aim to automatically produce complex organs directly from computer-aided design freeform models with high resolution and sophistication. Analogous to building a nuclear power plant, cell biology (especially, renewable stem cells), implantable biomaterials, tissue engineering, and single/double/four nozzle RP techniques currently enable researchers in the field to realize a part of the task of complex organ manufacturing. To achieve this multifaceted undertaking, a multi-nozzle rapid prototyping system which can simultaneously integrate an anti-suture vascular system, multiple cell types, and a cocktail of growth factors in a construct should be developed. This article reviews the pros and cons of the existing cell-laden RP techniques for complex organ manufacturing. It is hoped that with the comprehensive multidisciplinary efforts, the implants can virtually replace the functions of a solid internal organ, such as the liver, heart, and kidney.

  19. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, representatives from environmental and Federal agencies head for the block house during presentations about the environmental research project that involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA in a groundwater cleanup effort. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  20. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, Greg Beyke, with Current Environmental Solutions, talks to representatives from environmental and federal agencies about the environmental research project that involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA in a groundwater cleanup effort. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  1. Feasibility of a complex compound heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenfeller, Uwe

    1987-07-01

    A feasibility study is described of a double effect gas fired heat pump using ammoniated solid vapor complex compounds as the working media. The cycle takes advantage of the coordinative characteristics of complex compound ligand bonds resulting in large coordination spheres with only one degree of freedom. The cycle has high efficiency, no moving parts, and minimum electrical parasitic requirements. Fluid properties of candidate materials were measured with respect to vapor pressure equilibria, coordination properties and thermal stability. Preliminary reaction rate measurements were performed in adsorption and desorption processes. A computer model of double effect cycle was developed in order to predict the operating performance of the candidate complex compound media. The computer model was used to determine preliminary heat balances and coefficients of performance.

  2. The Exocyst Complex in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Deeks, Michael J.; Horton, Connor G.; Dawe, Helen R.; Jourdain, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Exocytosis involves the fusion of intracellular secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, thereby delivering integral membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. Importantly, exocytosis also provides a source of lipid moieties for membrane extension. The tethering of the secretory vesicle before docking and fusion with the plasma membrane is mediated by the exocyst complex, an evolutionary conserved octameric complex of proteins. Recent findings indicate that the exocyst complex also takes part in other intra-cellular processes besides secretion. These various functions seem to converge toward defining a direction of membrane growth in a range of systems from fungi to plants and from neurons to cilia. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of exocyst function in cell polarity, signaling and cell-cell communication and discuss implications for plant and animal health and disease. PMID:27148529

  3. The algorithm and program complex for splitting on a parts the records of acoustic waves recorded during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle with the purpose of analyzing their robust spectral and correlation characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernousov, A. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Skvortsova, N. N.

    2014-03-01

    Currently acute problem of developing new technologies by reducing the noise of aircraft engines, including the directional impact on the noise on the basis of the interaction of plasma disturbances and sound generation pulsations. One of the devices built on this principle being developed in GPI RAS. They are plasma actuators (group of related to each other gaps, built on the perimeter of the nozzle) of various shapes and forms. In this paper an algorithm was developed which allows to separate impulses from the received experimental data, acquired during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle. The algorithm can be adjusted manually under a variety of situations (work of actuator in a nozzle with or without airflow, adjustment to different frequencies and pulse duration of the actuator). And program complex is developed on the basis of MatLab software, designed for building sustainable robust spectral and autocovariation functions of acoustic signals recorded during the experiments with the model of a nozzle with working actuator.

  4. Alanine water complexes.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  5. The complex pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1998-12-01

    In this talk we propose to broaden the conventional notion of quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H†=H, where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. Replacing this mathematical condition by the weaker and more physical requirement H‡=H, where ‡=PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretic models.

  6. The complex pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1999-07-01

    This talk proposes a generalization of conventional quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H †=H , where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. By replacing this mathematical condition with the weaker and more physical requirement H ‡=H , where ‡= PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex-phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.

  7. Nonergodic complexity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  8. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  9. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  10. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  11. When is part substitution okay

    SciTech Connect

    Quernemoen, B.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Will nonoriginal equipment manufacturers (non-OEM) replacement parts allow control valves to operate in their original design parameters This is a concern for maintenance and process engineering groups. New regulations on emissions and plant safety put more emphasis on the integrity of the control equipment. Now maintaining the control valve's performance is more important than ever before. As in all things, control valves do wear from continuous operations and must be repaired or serviced. A critical issue must be deliberated on which replacement program should be used, replacement in kind or will fit parts. However, the decision is not solely based on replacement part costs. Now, replacement parts must meet the definitions set by OSHA 1910.119 for process safety. Replacement in kind means a replacement that satisfies the design specifications. The key point is when and where can you use non-OEM parts and retain the valve's mechanical integrity and preserve your OSHA documentation. This paper discusses OSHA's governing rule; the control valve's effect on process safety management; impact of non-OEM parts; and recommendations.

  12. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  13. Complexity and Animal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity and animal models 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...decrease W/Wmax, thereby maintaining the relationship between variability and W/Wmax. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.05.012 Complexity and animal models...may not be possible during mass casualty and natural disaster situations or may need to be postponed during combat to avoid danger to the medic’s life

  14. Universality classes of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    We give several criteria of complexity and define different universality classes. According to our classification, at the lowest class of complexity are random graph, Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models. At the next level is Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass, connected with neuron-network models. On a higher level are critical theories, spin glass phase of Random Energy Model, percolation, self organized criticality (SOC). The top level class involves HOT design, error threshold in optimal coding, language, and, maybe, financial market. Alive systems are also related with the last class.

  15. The ESCRT Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The ESCRT machinery consists of the peripheral membrane protein complexes, ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III, and Vps4-Vta1, and the ALIX homodimer. The ESCRT system is required for degradation of unneeded or dangerous plasma membrane proteins; biogenesis of the lysosome and the yeast vacuole; the budding of most membrane enveloped viruses; the membrane abscission step in cytokinesis; macroautophagy; and several other processes. From their initial discovery in 2001-2002, the literature on ESCRTs has grown exponentially. This review will describe the structure and function of the six complexes noted above and summarizes current knowledge of their mechanistic roles in cellular pathways and in disease. PMID:20653365

  16. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  17. The Corona Australis Complex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaile, Roberta Anne

    What began as a HI study of the CrA star formation region has grown to incorporate the following: (1) a detailed investigation of the HI content of the CrA dark cloud; (2) an extensive molecular survey of the CrA dark cloud, from which the CrA molecular abundances were determined and compared to those of other Galactic environments; (3) an extensive HI survey of the CrA complex, which was compared to the established Galactic distributions in and near the region; (4) an examination of the extent and nature of the CrA IVCs, components of gas at intermediate, anomalous velocities; (5) an investigation of the correlations which may exist between the features of the CrA region; and (6) an evaluation of where the CrA complex fits within the framework of our understanding of the Galaxy. A review of our perceptions of the Galactic structure is contained in Chapter I. The established state of knowledge of the CrA dark cloud region--chiefly, that of a region of young and on-going star formation--is given in Chapter II. The observational studies of the CrA dark cloud region specifically are presented in Chapter III. The HI survey of the CrA complex is presented in Chapter IV, with the CrA IVCs results presented in Chapter V. A comparison of the CrA HI structure with nearby Galactic features suggests that the CrA complex--exemplified by the T_ {rm A} morphology given as a frontispiece and in Figure 4.1--is a coherently -moving HI structure falling subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, flute and Parker hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities under the Galactic gravitational and differential rotation forces. As the distance to the CrA IVCs still remains speculative, no definitive identity for the CrA IVCs was established. Considering the whole, the CrA complex was interpreted as a feature triggered by the Sco-Cen association, possibly a late-comer to the Lindblad Ring and possibly a result of the Tau-Gem events. The similarities with the Oph northern

  18. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  19. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  20. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  1. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    DOEpatents

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  2. Graphical Representation of Complex Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renka, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods and software for graphing representation of a complex function of a complex variable. Includes an application of a graphical interpretation of the complex zeros of the cubic and their properties. (PK)

  3. Complexant stability investigation. Task 2. Organic complexants

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.C.

    1985-06-01

    The safety of high-level defense waste operations has always been given highest priority at the Hanford site. This document is part of the continued effort to appraise and reevaluate the safety of the waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Reservation. Hanford high-level defense waste consists mainly of moist, inorganic salts, NaNO/sub 3/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and other sodium salts. However, in addition to these salts, quantities of organic compounds constitute a significant portion of the waste. The potential reaction of the organic compounds with inorganic salts to form explosive substances is examined and found to be nonexistent or negligible. The concept that the waste mixture might react exothermically is found to be untenable under the present storage conditions. The phenomenon of slurry growth in double-shell waste storage tanks is expected to cause no increase in exothermic reaction potential within the waste. The results of this study indicate that the presence of organic material in the high-level defense waste does not constitute undue hazard under the present storage conditions.

  4. 1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-2 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 1 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND METRO LINK RAILYARD CENTER AT REAR. LOOKING 344° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 2 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER AND FIGUEROA STREET BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Surface complexation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  7. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  8. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  9. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  10. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, R.G; Buchanan, J.M.; Stryker, J.M.; Wax, M.J.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr(P(R{sub 1}){sub 3})HMe. Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkyl cyclopentadienyl radical; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R{sub 1} represents an alkyl group; and Me represents a methyl group.

  11. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  12. Subelliptic Estimates for Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Victor; Sternberg, Shlomo

    1970-01-01

    New results are announced linking properties of the symbol module and characteristic variety of a differential complex with test estimates near the characteristic variety of the type considered by Hörmander (½-estimate). The first result is the invariance of the test estimates under pseudo-differential change of coordinates, and this leads to the introduction of a normal form for the complex in the neighborhood of a Cohen-MacCauley point of the symbol module. If the characteristic variety V is a manifold near the Cohen-MacCauley point (x0,ζ0) with parametrizing functions p1,...,pq, where q is the codimension of the characteristic variety in the complexified contangent bundle, the matrix [Formula: see text] of Poisson brackets defines invariantly a Hermitian form Q on the normal space to V at (x0,ζ0) when the dpζ(x0,ζ0) are used as basis, and the test estimates are satisfied at the ith stage of the complex if sig. Q (signature of Q) is ≥ n - i + 1 (n the dimension of the base manifold) or rank Q - sig. Q ≥ i + 1. Finally, conditions are given in order that, on a manifold with smooth boundary, the associated boundary complexes satisfy the ½-estimate. PMID:16591855

  13. Restricting Grammatical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

  14. Complex Planar Splines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  15. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  16. The Complexity of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Steve; Ting, Hermia

    2014-01-01

    The profession of teaching is unique because of the extent to which a teacher becomes involved in the lives of their "clients". The level of care required to support students well can be intense, confusing, and overwhelming. Relationships co-evolve within an ever-changing process and care is considered an essential aspect of complex relationships…

  17. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  18. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body.

  19. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.

  20. Complex Characters Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physical significance of complex characters is explored with particular reference to the C[subscript 4] point group. While a diagrammatic representation of these characters in this group is possible, the extension to higher groups C[subscript n], n greater than 4 is left as a problem for discussion. (Contains 3 tables, 8 figures, and 1 note.)

  1. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  2. Enthesopathies and enthesitis. Part 1. Etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The pathologies of tendon and ligament attachments are called enthesopathies. One of its types is enthesitis which is a characteristic sign of peripheral spondyloarthropathy. Clinical diagnosis of enthesitis is based on rather non-specific clinical signs and results of laboratory tests. Imaging examinations are highly promising. Numerous publications prove that enthesitis can be differentiated from other enthesopathic processes in an ultrasound examination or magnetic resonance imaging. However, some reports indicate the lack of histological criteria, specific immunological changes and features in imaging examinations that would allow the clinical diagnosis of enthesitis to be confirmed. The first part of the publication presents theories on the etiopathogenesis of enthesopathies: inflammatory, mechanical, autoimmune, genetic and associated with the synovio-entheseal complex, as well as theories on the formation of enthesophytes: inflammatory, molecular and mechanical. The second part of the paper is a review of the state-of-the-art on the ability of imaging examinations to diagnose enthesitis. It indicates that none of the criteria of inflammation used in imaging medicine is specific for this pathology. As enthesitis may be the only symptom of early spondyloarthropathy (particularly in patients with absent HLA-B27 receptor), the lack of its unambiguous picture in ultrasound and magnetic resonance scans prompts the search for other signs characteristic of this disease and more specific markers in imaging in order to establish diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:26674568

  3. Staircase and fractional part functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages - they have some basic uses in various programming tasks. In this paper, we view the staircase and fractional part functions as a classical example of non-continuous real functions. We introduce some of their basic properties, present some interesting constructions concerning them, and explore some intriguing interpretations of such functions. Throughout the paper, we use these functions in order to explain basic concepts in a first calculus course, such as domain of definition, discontinuity, and oddness of functions. We also explain in detail how, after researching the properties of such functions, one can draw their graph; this is a crucial part in the process of understanding their nature. In the paper, we present some subjects that the first-year student in the exact sciences may not encounter. We try to clarify those subjects and show that such ideas are important in the understanding of non-continuous functions, as a part of studying analysis in general.

  4. Parts Specialist. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; And Others

    This set of instructional materials provides secondary and postsecondary students with an opportunity to explore the career choices available in the parts merchandising industry. The skills presented are useful to any student pursuing a career in auto parts, heavy equipment parts, small engine parts, tractor parts, appliance parts, or for any…

  5. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  6. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  7. Interference in Bohmian mechanics with complex action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Yair; Tannor, David J.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, intensive effort has gone into developing numerical tools for exact quantum mechanical calculations that are based on Bohmian mechanics. As part of this effort we have recently developed as alternative formulation of Bohmian mechanics in which the quantum action S is taken to be complex [Y. Goldfarb et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 231103 (2006)]. In the alternative formulation there is a significant reduction in the magnitude of the quantum force as compared with the conventional Bohmian formulation, at the price of propagating complex trajectories. In this paper we show that Bohmian mechanics with complex action is able to overcome the main computational limitation of conventional Bohmian methods—the propagation of wave functions once nodes set in. In the vicinity of nodes, the quantum force in conventional Bohmian formulations exhibits rapid oscillations that present a severe numerical challenge. We show that within complex Bohmian mechanics, multiple complex initial conditions can lead to the same real final position, allowing for the accurate description of nodes as a sum of the contribution from two or more crossing trajectories. The idea is illustrated on the reflection amplitude from a one-dimensional Eckart barrier. We believe that trajectory crossing, although in contradiction to the conventional Bohmian trajectory interpretation, provides an important new tool for dealing with the nodal problem in Bohmian methods.

  8. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  9. Calculus: A Computer Oriented Presentation, Part 1 [and] Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Warren; Walker, Robert J.

    Parts one and two of a one-year computer-oriented calculus course (without analytic geometry) are presented. The ideas of calculus are introduced and motivated through computer (i.e., algorithmic) concepts. An introduction to computing via algorithms and a simple flow chart language allows the book to be self-contained, except that material on…

  10. Border Issues in Education, Part 1 [and] Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Kasparik, Rosalind, Ed.; Soulas, John, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    These newsletters examine issues in education along the United States and Mexico border. Topics in Part 1 include the ramifications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for education, the impact of immigration on schools, and the structure and history of the Mexican educational system and its reforms in theory and practice. Educators…

  11. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  12. Update on rheumatology: part 1.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2009-05-01

    There are many rheumatic diseases. Part 1 of this 2 part series on rheumatology presented a few of those most commonly seen in the community. Home health clinicians can be helpful in managing these diseases and preventing progression by watching for new symptoms or acute attacks of pain or disability, ensuring that patients take their medications appropriately, reminding patients to see their rheumatology providers and have their lab work done regularly, and reporting adverse effects to medications promptly. Additionally, as with most home health patients, an interdisciplinary approach that includes physical and occupational therapy, social work, nursing, nutrition, and other disciplines as needed should be implemented so that all patient needs are met and the patient is discharged at the highest level of self-care that is possible. Part 2 of this series will discuss the care of the patient with rheumatic disease at home and will provide a more in-depth look at lab diagnosis of rheumatic diseases.

  13. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  14. Surface Seal for Carbon Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, D. M.; Spruiell, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Surface pores in parts made of graphite or reinforced-carbon/ carbon materials are sealed by a silicon carbide-based coating. Coating inhibits subsurface oxidation and lengthens part life. Starting material for coating is graphite felt, which is converted to silicon carbide felt by processing it according to a prescribed time/temperature schedule. Converted felt is pulverized in a ball mill and resulting powder is mixed with an equal weight of black silicon carbide powder. Powder mixture is combined with an equal weight of adhesive to form a paste.

  15. Understanding quantitative research: part 1.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  16. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  17. 78 FR 46265 - Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acids; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acids; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acids... level for residues of Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy Acids (CPPA) under FFDCA. DATES: This regulation...

  18. Classification of Software Projects' Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitsilis, P.; Kameas, A.; Anthopoulos, L.

    Software project complexity is a subject that has not received detailed attention. The purpose of this chapter is to present a systematic way for studying and modeling software project complexity. The proposed model is based on the widely known and accepted Project Management Body of Knowledge and it uses a typology for modeling complexity based on complexity of faith, fact, and interaction.

  19. Statistical Factors in Complexation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chung-Sun

    1985-01-01

    Four cases which illustrate statistical factors in complexation reactions (where two of the reactants are monodentate ligands) are presented. Included are tables showing statistical factors for the reactions of: (1) square-planar complexes; (2) tetrahedral complexes; and (3) octahedral complexes. (JN)

  20. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  1. Debating complexity in modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    As scientists trying to understand the natural world, how should our effort be apportioned? We know that the natural world is characterized by complex and interrelated processes. Yet do we need to explicitly incorporate these intricacies to perform the tasks we are charged with? In this era of expanding computer power and development of sophisticated preprocessors and postprocessors, are bigger machines making better models? Put another way, do we understand the natural world better now with all these advancements in our simulation ability? Today the public's patience for long-term projects producing indeterminate results is wearing thin. This increases pressure on the investigator to use the appropriate technology efficiently. On the other hand, bringing scientific results into the legal arena opens up a new dimension to the issue: to the layperson, a tool that includes more of the complexity known to exist in the real world is expected to provide the more scientifically valid answer.

  2. Reducing GWAS Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  3. Compressively sensed complex networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

  4. Carney Complex: an update

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo; Salpea, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Carney Complex (CNC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosa, cardiac, cutaneous and other myxomas, and multiple endocrine tumors. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations or large deletions of the PRKAR1A gene located at 17q22–24 coding for the regulatory subunit type I alpha of protein kinase A (PKA) gene. Most recently, components of the complex have been associated with defects of other PKA subunits, such as the catalytic subunits PRKACA (adrenal hyperplasia) and PRKACB (pigmented spots, myxomas, pituitary adenomas). In this report, we review CNC, its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and molecular etiology including PRKAR1A mutations and the newest on PRKACA and PRKACB defects especially as they pertain to adrenal tumors and Cushing’s syndrome. PMID:26130139

  5. Oscillations of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lai, Choy Heng

    2006-12-01

    A complex network processing information or physical flows is usually characterized by a number of macroscopic quantities such as the diameter and the betweenness centrality. An issue of significant theoretical and practical interest is how such quantities respond to sudden changes caused by attacks or disturbances in recoverable networks, i.e., functions of the affected nodes are only temporarily disabled or partially limited. By introducing a model to address this issue, we find that, for a finite-capacity network, perturbations can cause the network to oscillate persistently in the sense that the characterizing quantities vary periodically or randomly with time. We provide a theoretical estimate of the critical capacity-parameter value for the onset of the network oscillation. The finding is expected to have broad implications as it suggests that complex networks may be structurally highly dynamic.

  6. Complex Flows by Nanohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, E; Covello, P; Alder, B

    2004-03-01

    The study of complex flows by particle simulations is speeded up over molecular dynamics (MD) by more than two orders of magnitude by employing a stochastic collision dynamics method (DSMC) extended to high density (CBA). As a consequence, a picture generated on a single processor shows the typical features of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and is in quantitative agreement with the experimentally found long time behavior.

  7. The Complex Information Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborsky, Edwina

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.

  8. Complex spatiotemporal convection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesch, W.

    1996-09-01

    This paper reviews recent efforts to describe complex patterns in isotropic fluids (Rayleigh-Bénard convection) as well as in anisotropic liquid crystals (electro-hydrodynamic convection) when driven away from equilibrium. A numerical scheme for solving the full hydrodynamic equations is presented that allows surprisingly well for a detailed comparison with experiments. The approach can also be useful for a systematic construction of models (order parameter equations).

  9. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  10. [Complex vascular access].

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

    1998-03-01

    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  11. Sporadic meteoroid complex: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of the sporadic meteoroids flux density over the celestial sphere is the common form of representation of the meteoroids distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of the flux density of sporadic meteor bodies is Q(V,e,f) = Q_0 P_e(V) P(e,f) where V is the meteoroid velocity, e,f are the radiant coordinates, Q_0 is the meteoroid flux over whole celestial sphere, P_e(V) is the conditional velocity distributions and P(e,f) is the radiant distribution over the celestial sphere. The sporadic meteoroid complex model is analytical and based on heliocentric velocities and radiant distributions. The multi-mode character of the heliocentric velocity and radiant distributions follows from the analysis of meteor observational data. This fact points to a complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of the parent bodies and the origin mechanisms of the meteoroids. The meteoroid complex was divided into four groups for that reason and with a goal of more accurate modelling of velocities and radiant distributions. As the classifying parameter to determine the meteoroid membership in any group, we adopt the Tisserand invariant relative to Jupiter T_J = 1/a + 2 A_J^{-3/2} √{a (1 - e^2)} cos i and the meteoroid orbit inclination i. Two meteoroid groups relate to long-period and short-period comets. One meteoroid group is related to asteroids. The relationship to the last, fourth group is a problematic one. Then, we construct models of radiant and velocity distributions for each group. The analytical model for the whole sporadic meteoroid complex is the sum of the ones for each group.

  12. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  13. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  14. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  15. The Emparassment of Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  16. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  17. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  18. Piecing Together a College Education behind Bars. Part One [and] Part Two [and] Part Three [and] Part Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jon Marc

    2002-01-01

    This is a four-part article on how to earn a college degree from inside prison. The author, who earned his master's while in prison, argues that education offers prisoners the best chance of staying out of prison after their release, as well as qualifying them for a decent job and easing social reintegration. The author outlines the approaches…

  19. Death: A Part of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

    This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

  20. Theorem of Mystery: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The Varignon parallelogram has always provided a simple geometric investigation for students that gives rise to a surprising result. It is possible to extend the Varignon investigation by looking at special quadrilaterals or by considering different dissection points along the sides. In the second of his two-part series, the author offers some…

  1. Part-Time Faculty Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Mainland, Texas City, TX.

    This document contains comprehensive information designed to orient the part-time faculty member to the College of the Mainland. Information included in the handbook covers the history and philosophy of the college; student and instructor rights; a description of social and economic characteristics of the students; a description of the faculty;…

  2. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  3. Growing Up Literate, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1984-01-01

    Reviews "Key Lingo" (vocabulary practice in adventure setting), "Watch Your Speech" (practice identifying parts of speech), and "WordWork" (challenging word game to stimulate reading and spelling skills). Includes computer needed, manufacturer, current price, and detailed evaluation of the software. (JN)

  4. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  5. Taking Part One GNVQ Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankland, Gillian; Ebrahim, Nazir

    This document is intended to assist practitioners involved in the delivery of Part One General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs), which are GNVQs designed for students in the United Kingdom who are at Key Stage 4 and the post-16 level. Section 1 examines the following topics of interest to centers that are contemplating introducing Part…

  6. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  7. Glues Used in Airplane Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S W; Truax, T R

    1920-01-01

    This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.

  8. Understanding quantitative research: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Zoë; Hoe, Juanita

    This article, which is the second in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Understanding statistical analysis will ensure that nurses can assess the credibility and significance of the evidence reported. This article focuses on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  9. The PC Connection Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, David L.; Zilora, Karen S.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a series of four applications of data acquisition, system control, and data analysis using personal computers. Covers topics of pilot plant information and control, automation of drug safety evaluation, analysis and characterization of petroleum resources, and high-speed analog-digital conversion connections. Part three of a series on…

  10. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  11. The Word Part Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasao, Yosuke; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of English affixes plays a significant role in increasing knowledge of words. However, few attempts have been made to create a valid and reliable measure of affix knowledge. The Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was developed to measure three aspects of affix knowledge: form (recognition of written affix forms), meaning (knowledge of affix…

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics, Chaotic and Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infeld, E.; Zelazny, R.; Galkowski, A.

    2011-04-01

    Part I. Dynamic Systems Bifurcation Theory and Chaos: 1. Chaos in random dynamical systems V. M. Gunldach; 2. Controlling chaos using embedded unstable periodic orbits: the problem of optimal periodic orbits B. R. Hunt and E. Ott; 3. Chaotic tracer dynamics in open hydrodynamical flows G. Karolyi, A. Pentek, T. Tel and Z. Toroczkai; 4. Homoclinic chaos L. P. Shilnikov; Part II. Spatially Extended Systems: 5. Hydrodynamics of relativistic probability flows I. Bialynicki-Birula; 6. Waves in ionic reaction-diffusion-migration systems P. Hasal, V. Nevoral, I. Schreiber, H. Sevcikova, D. Snita, and M. Marek; 7. Anomalous scaling in turbulence: a field theoretical approach V. Lvov and I. Procaccia; 8. Abelian sandpile cellular automata M. Markosova; 9. Transport in an incompletely chaotic magnetic field F. Spineanu; Part III. Dynamical Chaos Quantum Physics and Foundations Of Statistical Mechanics: 10. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and ergodic theory L. A. Bunimovich; 11. Pseudochaos in statistical physics B. Chirikov; 12. Foundations of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics J. P. Dougherty; 13. Thermomechanical particle simulations W. G. Hoover, H. A. Posch, C. H. Dellago, O. Kum, C. G. Hoover, A. J. De Groot and B. L. Holian; 14. Quantum dynamics on a Markov background and irreversibility B. Pavlov; 15. Time chaos and the laws of nature I. Prigogine and D. J. Driebe; 16. Evolutionary Q and cognitive systems: dynamic entropies and predictability of evolutionary processes W. Ebeling; 17. Spatiotemporal chaos information processing in neural networks H. Szu; 18. Phase transitions and learning in neural networks C. Van den Broeck; 19. Synthesis of chaos A. Vanecek and S. Celikovsky; 20. Computational complexity of continuous problems H. Wozniakowski; Part IV. Complex Systems As An Interface Between Natural Sciences and Environmental Social and Economic Sciences: 21. Stochastic differential geometry in finance studies V. G. Makhankov; Part V. Conference Banquet

  13. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy, Part III: Lung Cancer, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1985-01-01

    An update in cancer chemotherapy that deals with the various therapies of lung cancer is described. At present, the stage of the disease and cell type are the major factors that determine the treatment. Important differences in the biological behavior and response to treatment exist between small cell and non-small cell cancers. The small cell type is sensitive to many chemotherapeutic agents. Differences in response to chemotherapy and survival have been less among the non-small cell types. The treatment of non-small cell carcinomas including squamous cell, large cell, and adenocarcinoma are reviewed in Part I of this paper. Small cell lung cancer will be described in Part II, which will be published in a future issue of the journal. PMID:2414458

  14. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'.

  15. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific ‘carbonic anhydrase domain’ of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe ‘life without complex I’. PMID:27122571

  16. The physics of communicability in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi; Benzi, Michele

    2012-05-01

    A fundamental problem in the study of complex networks is to provide quantitative measures of correlation and information flow between different parts of a system. To this end, several notions of communicability have been introduced and applied to a wide variety of real-world networks in recent years. Several such communicability functions are reviewed in this paper. It is emphasized that communication and correlation in networks can take place through many more routes than the shortest paths, a fact that may not have been sufficiently appreciated in previously proposed correlation measures. In contrast to these, the communicability measures reviewed in this paper are defined by taking into account all possible routes between two nodes, assigning smaller weights to longer ones. This point of view naturally leads to the definition of communicability in terms of matrix functions, such as the exponential, resolvent, and hyperbolic functions, in which the matrix argument is either the adjacency matrix or the graph Laplacian associated with the network. Considerable insight on communicability can be gained by modeling a network as a system of oscillators and deriving physical interpretations, both classical and quantum-mechanical, of various communicability functions. Applications of communicability measures to the analysis of complex systems are illustrated on a variety of biological, physical and social networks. The last part of the paper is devoted to a review of the notion of locality in complex networks and to computational aspects that by exploiting sparsity can greatly reduce the computational efforts for the calculation of communicability functions for large networks.

  17. Attack Robustness and Centrality of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy; Sundaram, Bala; Wang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described by networks, in which the constituent components are represented by vertices and the connections between the components are represented by edges between the corresponding vertices. A fundamental issue concerning complex networked systems is the robustness of the overall system to the failure of its constituent parts. Since the degree to which a networked system continues to function, as its component parts are degraded, typically depends on the integrity of the underlying network, the question of system robustness can be addressed by analyzing how the network structure changes as vertices are removed. Previous work has considered how the structure of complex networks change as vertices are removed uniformly at random, in decreasing order of their degree, or in decreasing order of their betweenness centrality. Here we extend these studies by investigating the effect on network structure of targeting vertices for removal based on a wider range of non-local measures of potential importance than simply degree or betweenness. We consider the effect of such targeted vertex removal on model networks with different degree distributions, clustering coefficients and assortativity coefficients, and for a variety of empirical networks. PMID:23565156

  18. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  19. Scalable complexity-distortion model for fast motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoquan; Ling, Nam

    2005-07-01

    Recently established international video coding standard H.264/AVC and the upcoming standard on scalable video coding (SVC) bring part of the solution to high compression ratio requirement and heterogeneity requirement. However, these algorithms have unbearable complexities for real-time encoding. Therefore, there is an important challenge to reduce encoding complexity, preferably in a scalable manner. Motion estimation and motion compensation techniques provide significant coding gain but are the most time-intensive parts in an encoder system. They present tremendous research challenges to design a flexible, rate-distortion optimized, yet computationally efficient encoder, especially for various applications. In this paper, we present a scalable motion estimation framework for complexitydistortion consideration. We propose a new progressive initial search (PIS) method to generate an accurate initial search point, followed by a fast search method, which can greatly benefit from the tighter bounds of the PIS. Such approach offers not only significant speedup but also an optimal distortion performance for a given complexity constrain. We analyze the relationship between computational complexity and distortion (C-D) through probabilistic distance measure extending from the complexity and distortion theory. A configurable complexity quantization parameter (Q) is introduced. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scalable complexity-distortion framework enables video encoder to conveniently adjust its complexity while providing best possible services.

  20. The Effects of Inspecting and Constructing Part-Task-Specific Visualizations on Team and Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether inspecting and constructing different part-task-specific visualizations differentially affects learning. To this end, a complex business-economics problem was structured into three phase-related part-tasks: (1) determining core concepts, (2) proposing multiple solutions, and (3) coming to a single solution. Each phase…