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Sample records for asbestos exacerbates atherosclerosis

  1. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come.

  2. Myeloid Deletion of α1AMPK Exacerbates Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLRKO) Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qiang; Cui, Xin; Wu, Rui; Zha, Lin; Wang, Xianfeng; Parks, John S; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-06-01

    Macrophage inflammation marks all stages of atherogenesis, and AMPK is a regulator of macrophage inflammation. We therefore generated myeloid α1AMPK knockout (MAKO) mice on the LDL receptor knockout (LDLRKO) background to investigate whether myeloid deletion of α1AMPK exacerbates atherosclerosis. When fed an atherogenic diet, MAKO/LDLRKO mice displayed exacerbated atherosclerosis compared with LDLRKO mice. To determine the underlying pathophysiological pathways, we characterized macrophage inflammation/chemotaxis and lipid/cholesterol metabolism in MAKO/LDLRKO mice. Myeloid deletion of α1AMPK increased macrophage inflammatory gene expression and enhanced macrophage migration and adhesion to endothelial cells. Remarkably, MAKO/LDLRKO mice also displayed higher composition of circulating chemotaxically active Ly-6C(high) monocytes, enhanced atherosclerotic plaque chemokine expression, and monocyte recruitment into plaques, leading to increased atherosclerotic plaque macrophage content and inflammation. MAKO/LDLRKO mice also exhibited higher plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol content, increased circulating apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, and higher liver apoB expression. We conclude that macrophage α1AMPK deficiency promotes atherogenesis in LDLRKO mice and is associated with enhanced macrophage inflammation and hypercholesterolemia and that macrophage α1AMPK may serve as a therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26822081

  3. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  4. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  5. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  6. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  7. ORAL EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN EXACERBATES ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN APO E-NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Haberzettl, Petra; Hoetker, David J.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Conklin, Daniel J.; D'Souza, Stanley E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a dietary aldehyde that is present in high concentrations in alcoholic beverages and foods including cheese, donuts and coffee. It is also abundant in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and is generated in vivo during inflammation and oxidative stress. Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acrolein on atherosclerosis. Methods Eight-week old male apoE-null mice were gavage-fed acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation and composition and plasma lipids and platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured. Effects of acrolein and PF4 on endothelial cell function was measured in vitro. Results Acrolein feeding increased the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma. NMR analysis of the lipoproteins showed that acrolein feeding increased the abundance of small and medium VLDL particles. Acrolein feeding also increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve and the aortic arch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased macrophage accumulation in the lesions of acrolein-fed mice. Plasma PF4 levels and accumulation of PF4 in atherosclerotic lesions was increased in the acrolein-fed mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with the plasma of acrolein-fed mice augmented transmigration of monocytic cells, which was abolished by anti-PF4 antibody treatment. Conclusions Dietary exposure to acrolein exacerbates atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Consumption of foods and beverages rich in unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein may be a contributing factor to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21371710

  8. Paraoxonase 2 Deficiency Alters Mitochondrial Function and Exacerbates the Development of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Asokan; Bourquard, Noam; Hama, Susan; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor R.; Morvardi, Susan; Clarke, Catherine F.; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Teiber, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of decreased activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes plays a role in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Our previous studies established that paraoxonase 2 (PON2) possesses antiatherogenic properties and is associated with lower ROS levels. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which PON2 modulates ROS production. In this report, we demonstrate that PON2-def mice on the hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E−/− background (PON2-def/apolipoprotein E−/−) develop exacerbated atherosclerotic lesions with enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress. We show that PON2 protein is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is found associated with respiratory complex III. Employing surface-plasmon-resonance, we demonstrate that PON2 binds with high affinity to coenzyme Q10, an important component of the ETC. Enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress in PON2-def mice was accompanied by significantly reduced ETC complex I + III activities, oxygen consumption, and adenosine triphosphate levels in PON2-def mice. In contrast, overexpression of PON2 effectively protected mitochondria from antimycin- or oligomycin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results illustrate that the antiatherogenic effects of PON2 are, in part, mediated by the role of PON2 in mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 341–351. PMID:20578959

  9. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  10. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Atherosclerosis? Español Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque ... problems, including heart attack , stroke , or even death. Atherosclerosis Figure A shows a normal artery with normal ...

  11. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance ... flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including Coronary artery ...

  12. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Atherosclerosis Updated:Jul 6,2015 View an animation of ... the arteries as you get older. How does atherosclerosis start and progress? It's a complex process. Exactly ...

  13. Co-treatment of Pitavastatin and Dexamethasone Exacerbates the High-fat Diet-induced Atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Xue; Hu, Wenquan; Liu, Lipei; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Chen, Yuanli; Duan, Yajun

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophage adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) induces development of atherosclerosis in animal models. We previously reported that statin inhibited while dexamethasone activated macrophage FABP4 expression. However, co-treatment of macrophages with statin and dexamethasone induced FABP4 expression in a synergistic manner, which implies that this co-treatment may exacerbate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we fed apoE-deficient (apoE) mice with HFD or HFD containing dexamethasone or pitavastatin or both for 16 weeks. Compared with HFD alone, pitavastatin or dexamethasone had little effect on lesions in both en face aortas and aortic root cross sections. However, the co-treatment exacerbated HFD-induced lesions. In addition, the co-treatment decreased collagen content and disturbed the integrity of lesion caps. Both serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by pitavastatin and increased by dexamethasone, respectively. However, the co-treatment had little effect on both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, indicating that the exacerbation of lesions is independent of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels. FABP4 expression in aortic lesion area was significantly induced by the co-treatment, suggesting that activation of FABP4 expression is a main contributor to lesions. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that co-treatment of pitavastatin and dexamethasone exacerbates HFD-induced atherosclerosis and defines a potential risk to use the dual treatment for patients in clinics.

  14. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET{sub A}R during insulin resistance, ET{sub A}R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET{sub A}R expression, but not ET{sub B}R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET{sub A}R pathway

  15. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  16. Dysfunctional HDL Containing L159R ApoA-I Leads to Exacerbation of Atherosclerosis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Zabalawi, Manal; Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Wilhelm, Ashley J.; Owen, John S.; Asztalos, Bela F.; Bhat, Shaila; Thomas, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) is a single amino acid substitution within the sixth helical repeat of apoA-I. It is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Mice lacking both mouse apoA-I and LDL receptor (LDL−/−, apoA-I−/−) (double knockout or DKO) were crossed > 9 generations with mice transgenic for human FIN to obtain L159R apoA-I, LDLr−/−, ApoA-I−/− (FIN-DKO) mice. A similar cross was also performed with human wild-type (WT) apoA-I (WT-DKO). In addition, FIN-DKO and WT-DKO were crossed to obtain WT/FIN-DKO mice. To determine the effects of the apoA-I mutations on atherosclerosis, groups of each genotype were fed either chow or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Interestingly, the production of dysfunctional HDL-like particles occurred in DKO and FIN-DKO mice. These particles were distinct with respect to size, and their enrichment in apoE and cholesterol esters. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that particles found in the plasma of FIN-DKO mice migrated as large α3-HDL. Atherosclerosis analysis showed that FIN-DKO mice developed the greatest extent of aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to all other genotypes, including DKO mice which lack any apoA-I. Taken together these data suggest that the presence of large apoE enriched HDL particles containing apoA-I L159R lack the normal cholesterol efflux promoting properties of HDL, rendering them dysfunctional and pro-atherogenic. In conclusion, large HDL-like particles containing apoE and apoA-IL159R contribute rather than protect against atherosclerosis, possibly through defective efflux properties and their potential for aggregation at their site of interaction in the aorta. PMID:21944998

  17. Comparative dose-response assessment of various combustion source particles to indcue acute lung-injury and exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE-Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size in atherosclerosis susceptible mice. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust. emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary transform...

  18. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  19. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  20. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  1. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  2. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.; ,

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  3. Atherosclerosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, ... muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. Atherosclerosis shows no symptoms until a complication occurs.

  4. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    PubMed Central

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  5. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  6. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  7. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  8. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  9. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized.

  10. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized. PMID:21309996

  11. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  12. [Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos].

    PubMed

    Rüttner, J R

    1983-03-12

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm of rapidly lethal course arising primarily in the pleura and less often in the peritoneum. In the majority of cases the disease is closely related to occupational exposure to asbestos. The latency period, calculated from the first contact with asbestos to the appearance of mesothelioma, is generally in the order of 20 years or more irrespective of the duration of exposure. A causal relationship can be established with certainty only by a careful history and positive tissue analysis for the presence of asbestos. The author's own series of 48 pleural mesotheliomas comprises 39 cases involving occupational exposure to asbestos, 6 others with asbestos demonstrable in pulmonary tissue but no discernible source in the history, and 3 where no relation to asbestos could be established at all. Although a dose-response relation may be assumed for asbestos as for all other carcinogens, the lack of data on asbestos dust concentrations at former places of work rendered determination of the minimal noxious dose difficult or impossible. It also remains unclear whether the various asbestos types, such as chrysotile and amphiboles, differ in pathogenic effect. It is hoped that careful registration and continuing study of mesotheliomas will shed further light on their relationship to asbestos and on the possible hazards of the mineral to the general population.

  13. Asbestos-related malignancy.

    PubMed

    Talcott, J A; Antman, K H

    1988-01-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. A description of the processes through which compensation claims for asbestos-associated malignancies are evaluated illustrates for physicians the legal system's approach to possible injury from toxic substances. The differences between scientific and legal reasoning about the causes of diseases with long latency

  14. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  15. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  16. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  17. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  18. Asbestos in Asia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. PMID:25819225

  19. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  20. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  1. Imaging Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarkin, Jason M.; Dweck, Marc R.; Evans, Nicholas R.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Brown, Adam J.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  2. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health.

  3. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  4. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  5. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  6. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  7. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? Treatments for atherosclerosis may include heart-healthy ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  8. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... bundles of fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. ... water through several sources, such as rock or soil erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipes, or the ...

  9. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  10. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  11. Mineralogy of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sporn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos collectively refers to a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals which have been exploited in numerous commercial and industrial settings and applications dating to antiquity. Its myriad uses as a "miracle mineral" owe to its remarkable properties of extreme resistance to thermal and chemical breakdown, tensile strength, and fibrous habit which allows it to be spun and woven into textiles. Abundant in nature, it has been mined considerably, and in all continents save Antarctica. The nomenclature concerning asbestos and its related species is complex, owing to the interest held therein by scientific disciplines such as geology, mineralogy and medicine, as well as legal and regulatory authorities. As fibrous silicates, asbestos minerals are broadly classified into the serpentine (chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, anthophyllite, actinolite) groups, both of which may also contain allied but nonfibrous forms of similar or even identical chemical composition, nonpathogenic to humans. Recently, fibrous amphiboles, not historically classified or regulated as asbestos (winchite, richterite), have been implicated in the causation of serious disease due to their profusion as natural contaminants of vermiculite, a commercially useful and nonfibrous silicate mineral. Although generally grouped, classified, and regulated collectively as asbestos, the serpentine and amphibole groups have different geologic occurrences and, more importantly, significant differences in crystalline structures and chemical compositions. These in turn impart differences in fiber structure and dimension, as well as biopersistence, leading to marked differences in relative potency for causing disease in humans for the group of minerals known as asbestos.

  12. The asbestos war.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries. PMID:12967154

  13. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  14. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  15. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  16. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  17. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  18. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  19. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  20. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  1. Pathogenic effects of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Kannerstein, M; Churg, J; McCaughey, E; Selikoff, I J

    1977-12-01

    The enormous increase in the use of asbestos during this century has necessitated the intensive study of its pathogenic effects. The occurrence of pulmonary parenchymal and pleural fibrosis and an increased prevalence of pulmonary and gastrointestinal carcinoma and of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma have been established. A relationship, also, to laryngeal carcinoma is probable. Mesothelioma has been associated with indirect occupational, domestic, and neighborhood exposure, and the possibility of a similar correlation of pulmonary carcinoma with low exposure has been suggested. Pulmonary fibrosis and pleural plaques have been demonstrated under these circumstances. The physical characteristics of the asbestos fiber appear to be the principal factors in its carcinogenic action. The ability of fine, short fibers, especially fragmented chrysotile, to reach the pleura would appear to account for many of the pathogenetic and anatomical features of asbestos-related disease.

  2. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  3. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  4. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  5. Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, Ian D; Jones, Paul W; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Rabe, Klaus F

    2016-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient’s condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated. COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous, and various phenotypes have been proposed which differ in biologic basis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Identification of biomarkers could enable phenotype-driven approaches for the management and prevention of exacerbations. For example, several biomarkers of inflammation can help to identify exacerbations most likely to respond to oral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and patients with a frequent exacerbator phenotype, for whom preventative treatment is appropriate. Reducing the frequency of exacerbations would have a beneficial impact on patient outcomes and prognosis. Preventative strategies include modification of risk factors, treatment of comorbid conditions, the use of bronchodilator therapy with long-acting β2-agonists or long-acting muscarinic antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying COPD exacerbations will help to optimize use of the currently available and new interventions for preventing and treating exacerbations. PMID:26937187

  6. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  7. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  8. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  9. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE ASBESTOS In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2014 ( Note : This document is an assessment of the noncancer and cancer health effects associated with the inha

  10. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  11. Atherosclerosis and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke When the Beat is Off - Atrial Fibrillation Atherosclerosis and Stroke How Cardiovascular & Stroke Risks Relate Problems ... of LDL cholesterol contribute to the development of atherosclerosis as the cholesterol is deposited in artery walls, ...

  12. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  13. Examination of Susceptibility to Libby Amphibole Asbestos-Induced Injury in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects, no studies have been done assessing the influence of the disease on the development of lung injury induced by asbestos exposure. In this study we examined lung ...

  14. EXACERBATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS COMBUSTION SOURCE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust, emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary tr...

  15. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  16. Asbestos exposure in Israel: findings, issues and needs.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D

    1984-02-01

    In Israel, since the 1950s, at least several thousand workers, their wives and children, and possibly many others, have been or still may be exposed to hazardous amounts of airborne asbestos fibers. These are found both in asbestos-based industries (asbestos cement, textiles and brake linings) and trades with asbestos exposure (construction, shipyard repair, boiler maintenance, insulation work). These people are at increased risk for disability or illness, or for premature death from asbestosis, from lung cancer, from exacerbation of preexisting respiratory disease (especially if they smoke), from mesothelioma, from gastrointestinal cancer, and from other malignancies. Although there has been progress, much still has to be done in the areas of legislation, standard setting, exposure control, technology, surveillance, smoking cessation, and medical care and follow-up. Compensation is needed to care for those workers currently or previously exposed, as well as for their families and others at risk. A national policy for protecting and caring for those formerly or currently exposed is indicated by the review of the situation in Israel. PMID:6368466

  17. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  18. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  19. Vaccination for asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Bardin, P G

    2004-06-01

    Most asthma exacerbations are caused by common cold virus infections, predominantly rhinovirus infections. Full protection against repeat infections with the same rhinovirus serotype is given by serum neutralizing antibody, but cross-reactive antibody developed against other serotypes could yield partial protection and result in attenuated cold and airway symptoms. It is proposed that vaccine-mediated induction of cross-reactive antibody might not prevent rhinovirus infections but might reduce severe asthma symptoms and exacerbations.

  20. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  1. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  2. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  3. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  4. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  5. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  6. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  7. Arsenic and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Petia P; Luster, Michael I

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between environmental or occupational arsenic exposure and a risk of vascular diseases related to atherosclerosis. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction, including inflammatory and coagulating activity as well as impairs nitric oxide (NO) balance. This may provide the pathophysiological basis for atherogenic potential of arsenic. Consistent with these data, arsenic accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice, a model of human atherosclerosis.

  8. Genetic Variation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Biros, Erik; Karan, Mirko; Golledge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    A family history of atherosclerosis is independently associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The genetic factors underlying the importance of inheritance in atherosclerosis are starting to be understood. Genetic variation, such as mutations or common polymorphisms has been shown to be involved in modulation of a range of risk factors, such as plasma lipoprotein levels, inflammation and vascular calcification. This review presents examples of present studies of the role of genetic polymorphism in atherosclerosis. PMID:19424482

  9. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  10. Taurine and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in most mammalian tissues and plays a role in many important physiological functions. Atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarctions, strokes and peripheral artery disease and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies conducted in laboratory animal models using both genetic and dietary models of hyperlipidemia have demonstrated that taurine supplementation retards the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that taurine exerts preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms by which taurine suppress the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed.

  11. Asbestos and cancer in Finland.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Karjalainen, A; Tossavainen, A; Rantanen, J

    1995-01-01

    Primary prevention carried out today can reduce the disease incidence in the future decades. The present disease panorama is the consequence of past asbestos exposure mainly before the 1970s. The peak incidence of asbestos-induced diseases will be reached around 2010 in Finland. The number of asbestos-related premature deaths is at present annually about 150 which exceeds the figure of fatal work accidents. Asbestos-related cancer will increase still for 15-20 years and reach its maximum, about 300 cases, in 2010, and will start to decrease after that. More than 20,000 asbestos-exposed workers have participated in the medical screening and follow-up. The termination of exposure, antismoking campaigns, improved diagnostics and careful attention to compensation issues, as well as other potentials for prevention, were the central issue of the Asbestos Program of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. An important objective of research work is to improve early diagnostics, and thereby treatment prospects, in case of asbestos-induced cancers.

  12. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  13. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  14. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  15. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  16. Pericardial mesothelioma and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Giacomini, Sara; Sieno, Claudia; Consonni, Dario; Riboldi, Luciano

    2011-06-01

    Pericardial mesothelioma (PM) accounts for 0.7% of all malignant mesotheliomas. Although asbestos exposure is a recognized etiological factor for pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas, its role in the development of PM is controversial. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of PM cases occurred in Lombardy, a highly industrialized Region of Northern Italy. From the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry we selected the incident cases of PM registered in the Lombardy Region between 2000 and 2009 and we abstracted clinical characteristics and history of asbestos exposure. We identified 8 cases (6 men and 2 women), with a median age at diagnosis of 55.5 years, representing 0.3% of all mesothelioma cases (n = 3059). The age-standardized incidence rate was 0.09 per million/year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was documented in 5 of the 7 cases for which we obtained an interview. Our findings support the role of asbestos in the pathogenesis of PM.

  17. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  18. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  19. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  20. Obesity, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Viviane Z; Libby, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Understanding of the pathophysiology of atherogenesis has evolved substantially during the last few decades. Atherosclerosis was once identified as a lipid-storage disease, but is now recognized as a subacute inflammatory condition of the vessel wall, characterized by infiltration of macrophages and T cells, which interact with one another and with cells of the arterial wall. The pathological mechanisms of obesity recapitulate many features of the inflammatory processes at work in atherosclerosis. Our current appreciation of the similarities between obesity and atherosclerosis has already fostered innovations for the diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of these two conditions.

  1. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  2. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  4. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  5. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  6. [Epigenetics in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Montse; Vallvé, Joan C; Zaina, Silvio; Ribalta, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The association studies based on candidate genes carried on for decades have helped in visualizing the influence of the genetic component in complex diseases such as atherosclerosis, also showing the interaction between different genes and environmental factors. Even with all the knowledge accumulated, there is still some way to go to decipher the individual predisposition to disease, and if we consider the great influence that environmental factors play in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, epigenetics is presented as a key element in trying to expand our knowledge on individual predisposition to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Epigenetics can be described as the discipline that studies the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, independent of changes in the sequence of DNA, and mostly induced by environmental factors. This review aims to describe what epigenetics is and how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in atherosclerosis.

  7. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  8. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign that you're at risk for atherosclerosis. EKG (Electrocardiogram) An EKG is a simple, painless test that detects and ... beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular). An EKG also records the strength and timing of electrical ...

  9. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  11. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  12. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  13. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  14. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  15. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  16. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  18. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  19. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  20. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  1. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  2. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  3. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  4. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  5. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  6. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains eight sections that…

  7. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  8. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  9. Circulating immune complexes in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Zone, J.J.; Rom, W.N.

    1985-08-01

    Circulating immune complexes, rheumatoid factor, and antinuclear antibodies were evaluated in 25 asbestos insulation workers and 32 brick mason controls. There were 10 asbestos workers with radiographic parenchymal or pleural changes, consistent with their asbestos exposure. There were no differences in antinuclear antibodies or rheumatoid factor between asbestos workers and controls. The asbestos workers had significantly increased levels of IgG and IgA circulating immune complexes. There was a significant correlation between IgA circulating immune complexes and radiographic changes.

  10. Interactions of chrysotile asbestos with erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R; Hill, L H

    1983-09-01

    Chrysotile asbestos causes lysis of red blood cells. It has been proposed that the mechanism of hemolysis is mediated through interactions between asbestos and cell membrane glycoproteins. Our studies support this concept and the following results are reported. Electron microscopy shows that asbestos fibers distort red blood cells and bind to cell membranes which may become wrapped around the fibers. This reaction is prevented by pretreatment of the cells with neuraminidase. The distribution of lectins which bind to membrane glycoproteins is altered by treating the cells with asbestos. Cell distortion and membrane deformation consequent to asbestos treatment correlate with a clear increase in the ratio of intracellular Na+:K+ ions.

  11. Asbestos and metals as carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.

    1980-09-01

    Increased incidences of lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma in humans exposed to asbestos have been irrefutably established. Different forms of asbestos may have different tumorigenic activities, depending on surface properties, durability, and size of the fibers. A number of metals, such as nickel, chromium and arsenic, are known to be carcinogenic to humans; for beryllium and cadmium the epidemiologic evidence is less extensive. All these metals also induce genetic toxicity in vitro. At present it cannot be concluded that all metals act by the same carcinogenic mechanism, even though direct modification of DNA seems to be the common experimental finding.

  12. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  13. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  14. Federal regulations relevant to asbestos pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure in buildings, establishing the School Rule, proposing a ban on use of certain asbestos-containing materials, and requiring removal of all friable asbestos prior to demolishing buildings. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 requires EPA to make rules in several areas related to asbestos hazards abatement which are covered by recommendations in the guidance documents. EPA is also required to study asbestos exposures in public and commercial buildings and recommend to Congress whether or not the same rules should apply to them as to schools. Responsibility for making laws and enforcing the compliance with these rules will become that of the individual State governments.

  15. COPD exacerbation: lost in translation.

    PubMed

    Makris, Demosthenes; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2009-01-29

    The introduction and acceptance of a standard definition for exacerbations of COPD can be helpful in prompt diagnosis and management of these events. The latest GOLD executive committee recognised this necessity and it has now included a definition of exacerbation in the guidelines for COPD which is an important step forward in the management of the disease. This definition is pragmatic and compromises the different approaches for exacerbation. However, the inclusion of the "healthcare utilisation" approach (".. may warrant a change in regular medication") in the definition may introduce in the diagnosis of exacerbation factors related to the access to health care services which may not be related to the underlying pathophysiological process which characterizes exacerbations. It should be also noted that the aetiology of COPD exacerbations has not yet been included in the current definition. In this respect, the definition does not acknowledge the fact that many patients with COPD may suffer from additional conditions (i.e. congestive cardiac failure or pulmonary embolism) that can masquerade as exacerbations but they should not be considered as causes of them. The authors therefore suggest that an inclusion of the etiologic factors of COPD exacerbations in the definition. Moreover, COPD exacerbations are characterized by increased airway and systemic inflammation and significant deterioration in lung function. These fundamental aspects should be accounted in diagnosis/definition of exacerbations. This could be done by the introduction of a "laboratory" marker in the diagnosis of these acute events. The authors acknowledge that the use of a test or a biomarker in the diagnosis of exacerbations meets certain difficulties related to performing lung function tests or to sampling during exacerbations. However, the introduction of a test that reflects airway or systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of exacerbations might be another step forward in the management of

  16. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... role in atherosclerosis risk. Other Factors That Affect Atherosclerosis Other factors also may raise your risk for ...

  17. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  18. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  19. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Godfrey S.; Reardon, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to manipulation of the atherogenic process and modeling human atherosclerosis or lipoprotein profile. Useful large animal models include pigs, rabbits and non-human primates. Due in large part to the relative ease of genetic manipulation and the relatively short time frame for the development of atherosclerosis, murine models are currently the most extensively used. While not all aspects of murine atherosclerosis are identical to humans, studies using murine models have suggested potential biological processes and interactions that underlie this process. As it becomes clear that different factors may influence different stages of lesion development, the use of mouse models with the ability to turn on or delete proteins or cells in tissue specific and temporal manner will be very valuable. PMID:22383700

  20. Noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Binod; Rotllan, Noemi; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs which are small, approximately 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through transcript degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis, including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. Apart from microRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs, have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of their regulation and function as well as the significance of other ncRNAs such as small nucleolar RNAs during atherogenesis is largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24623179

  1. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  2. Asbestos fibers in human lung: forensic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, T.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1981-03-01

    Asbestos is a fibrous mineral which, because of its unique properties, has innumerable applications in many industries and is used in a large variety of consumer products. It has become ubiquitous and is woven, literally and figuratively, into the fabric of our present-day civilization. However, its presence is sometimes unknown and unsuspected by those who are exposed to asbestos by virtue of occupation or environment and inhale its fibers. Exposed workers and even urban dwellers may have a variable lung burden of asbestos fibers. There is indisputable clinical, pathological, experimental and epidemiological proof that, after varying periods of latency, asbestos may cause benign and malignant disease often leading to disability or death. Forensic investigation of suspected asbestos-related deaths includes a life-time occupational history, a complete autopsy, and identification of the asbestos fiber tissue burden. The latter usually requires special procedures.

  3. Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Fruth, Kai; Gosepath, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) has been defined as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-triggered hypersensitivity, non-allergic bronchial asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps. The underlying pathophysiology of AERD is not completely understood so far. An altered arachidonic acid metabolism and dysregulated enzyme activity are regarded to be causal. AERD is characterized by recalcitrant CRS with recurrent nasal polyps after sinus surgery, accompanied by difficult to treat bronchial asthma and adverse reaction after NSAID ingestion such as nasal blockage, itching, laryngospasm and severe asthma attacks. Affected individuals suffer from poor quality of life. Besides functional endoscopic sinus surgery, the application of topical and systemic steroids and symptomatic therapy, aspirin desensitization is the only causative treatment option. The diagnostic approach to AERD, the ideal desensitization protocol and especially the following daily maintenance dose is part of an ongoing debate. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the pathophysiology, focuses on modern diagnostic approaches of AERD and discusses various aspirin desensitization protocols with respect to efficacy as well as to undesirable side effects. PMID:27466843

  4. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  5. Biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Solt, K.

    2008-12-01

    Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos represent two mineralogical categories of regulated asbestos commonly evaluated in epidemiological, toxicological, and pathological studies. Lung and digestive fluids are undersaturated with respect to chrysotile and tremolite asbestos (i.e. dissolution is thermodynamically favorable), where the dissolution kinetics control the durability of these minerals in respiratory and gastric systems. Here we examined the biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos in simulated body fluids (SBFs) as a function of mineral surface area over time. Batch experiments in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; HCl and NaCl solution at pH 1.2) and simulated lung fluid (SLF; a modified Gamble's solution at pH 7.4) were performed at 37°C over 720 hours. The rate-limiting step of Si release for both minerals was used to determine and compare dissolution rates. Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos are less biodurable in SGF compared to SLF. Based on equal suspension densities (surface area per volume of solution, m2 L- 1), chrysotile undergoes dissolution approximately 44 times faster than tremolite asbestos in SGF; however, amphibole asbestos dissolves approximately 6 times faster than chrysotile in SLF. Provided identical fiber dimensions, fiber dissolution models demonstrate that chrysotile is more biodurable in SLF and less biodurable in SGF compared to tremolite asbestos. Overall, the methodology employed here provides an alternative means to evaluate asbestos material fiber lifetimes based on mineral surface considerations.

  6. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  7. Asthma exacerbations · 1: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, N W; Sears, M R

    2006-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations may be triggered by a number of atmospheric and domiciliary environmental factors as well as by those encountered in schools and workplaces. The majority of exacerbations, particularly in children, coincide with respiratory viral infections, most commonly rhinovirus. As most respiratory viruses and many aeroallergens appear in seasonal patterns, asthma exacerbations, particularly those requiring emergency treatment, show analogous seasonal cycles which differ in form in children and adults. While similar in form between the sexes, they differ in amplitude, with boys having higher risks of exacerbation in childhood and women in adult life. Simultaneous exposure of asthmatics with respiratory viral infections to allergens or air pollutants may significantly increase the risks of exacerbation. Access to and compliance with inhaled corticosteroid treatment is an important predictor of the likelihood of asthma exacerbations occurring, including those that occur during respiratory viral infections. Epidemiologically, the degree of asthma control achieved by asthmatics is an important predictor of the likelihood of disease exacerbation including respiratory failure, death, and health service consumption. PMID:16877691

  8. Teratogenicity of asbestos in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Tomoko; Hojo, Motoki; Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Nakae, Dai

    2014-04-01

    Possible teratogenicity of 3 different asbestos (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) was assessed in CD1(ICR) mice. Dams on day 9 of gestation were given a single intraperitoneal administration at dose of 40 mg/kg body weight of asbestos suspended in 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution in phosphate buffered saline, while dams in the control group were given vehicle (10 ml/kg body weight). Dams and fetuses were examined on day 18 of gestation. To compare with the control group, the mean percentage of live fetuses in implantations in the group given crocidolite and the incidence of dams with early dead fetuses in the groups given chrysotile or amosite were increased. While no external or skeletal malformation was observed in the control group, the incidence of external malformation (mainly reduction deformity of limb) in the group given amosite, and the incidences of skeletal malformation (mainly fusion of vertebrae) in the all dosed groups were significantly increased. The result indicated that asbestos (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) have fetotoxicity and teratogenicity in mice.

  9. Atherosclerosis, diabetes and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-07-01

    The enormous burden of vascular disease is likely to expand rapidly as sedentary obesity and diabetes increase. Although cholesterol plays a major role in atherosclerosis and LDL is the major carrier of cholesterol in the blood, the importance of the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the development of atherosclerosis is gaining recognition. The role of HDL-cholesterol is also receiving more attention. These changes have been forced upon us by the realization that statins, which primarily lower LDL-cholesterol, only reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by 30%, suggesting that 70% of the risk still has to be explained and treated. In diabetes, abnormality in the metabolism of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the inter-relationship with HDL-cholesterol appears to be of primary importance in atherosclerotic risk. Postprandial studies are difficult to carry out, which is one reason why large studies have not so far been performed. The important new findings in chylomicron metabolism suggest new treatments for the future.

  10. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  11. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-05-12

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  12. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  13. Role of Micronutrients on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Micronutrients in Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nutrition is one of the key factors in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Micronutrient supplements are widely used to prevent many chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, scientific evidence regarding this issue is still insufficient and current data on the association of dietary micronutrients and CVD risk is contradictory. Most of the randomized studies have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this review, role of each micronutrient on subclinical atherosclerosis will be evaluated thoroughly.

  14. Asbestos fibre release by corroded and weathered asbestos-cement products.

    PubMed

    Spurny, K R

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of portable equipment and a method of sampling and measuring asbestos fibre emissions from solid plane surfaces of asbestos-cement products (roofs and facades). Asbestos-cement products, e.g., roof tiles, contain as much as 11-12% of chrysotile asbestos. As a result of continuing exposure to the weather and to acid rain, the surface of asbestos-cement products becomes corroded and weathered. Cement particles, asbestos fibres and agglomerates of particles and fibres are therefore released from the surface and dispersed in air and water. The method described has been used to measure asbestos fibre emissions and ambient air concentrations in the Federal Republic of Germany over the period 1984-1986.

  15. Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orekhov, A N; Grünwald, J

    1997-01-01

    This review discusses the use of garlic and garlic preparations as agents for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Garlic indirectly effects atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. In addition, in animal models, garlic causes direct antiatherogenic (preventive) and antiatherosclerotic (causing regression) effects at the level of artery wall. Garlic's direct effect on atherosclerosis may be explained by its capacity to reduce lipid content in arterial cells and to prevent intracellular lipid accumulation. This effect, in turn, is accompanied by other atherosclerotic manifestations, i.e., stimulation of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Clinical trials are currently being carried out to reveal the possible effect of garlic therapy on human atherosclerosis. Positive results of these trials may open a new era in the use of garlic for prevention and treatment of many atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:9263259

  16. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  17. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  18. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  19. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  20. [Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax].

    PubMed

    Hieckel, H-G; Hering, K G

    2010-07-01

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. PMID:20521020

  1. Cigarette smoking, asbestos exposure, and malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1991-05-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study of 124 (105 male and 19 female) histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma cases and age- and sex-matched controls, the role of cigarette smoking and the risk of asbestos exposure was investigated. Exposure to asbestos for at least 1 year was likely for 78% of male cases and 16% of female cases, and 90% of males were possibly exposed. Male cases worked predominantly in the ship-building industry, construction, or insulation trades. Elevated risks were found for males employed in asbestos-related industries [odds ratio (OR) 8.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9-13.5], e.g., shipyards (OR 82.9, 95% CI 25.5-269.1), construction/maintenance (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.6-14.8), and other asbestos-related jobs (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2), and for males who self-reported exposure to asbestos or insulation (OR 50.9, 95% CI 21.7-119.8). A statistically significant trend was found for the risk of mesothelioma with increasing years employed in non-shipyard asbestos-related occupations. Among women, only one case worked in an asbestos-related industry and two reported domestic contact with asbestos. No association between cigarette smoking and mesothelioma was found for either men or women. We also report the occurrence of mesothelioma in occupations which have not been previously reported.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  7. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  8. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  9. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  10. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  11. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  12. What You Should Know about Asbestos Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The presence of asbestos health hazards in the schools is particulary serious since children exposed to asbestos are more likely to develop cancer than adults similarly exposed. Health risks of asbestos, scope of the problem, and asbestos testing are discussed. (DF)

  13. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  14. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  15. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  16. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  17. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam. PMID:23961336

  18. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam. PMID:23961336

  19. Asbestos in the western San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    1988-07-01

    Attention has recently been focused on high selenium concentrations in soil and water along the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley. The occurrence of chrysotile asbestos fibers, another trace substance, in soil and water on the west side of the valley near the city of Coalinga was first detected in 1980 when sampling was performed to identify the source of asbestos fibers in the California Aqueduct. Subsequent data collected primarily by the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has shown the distribution of naturally occurring asbestos fibers in an area centered around the Arroyo Pasajero watershed. This paper discusses watershed geology, the new Idria serpentinite body, hydrology and sediment yield, asbestos measurement techniques, and asbestos distribution in the watershed. The New Idria serpentinite body, which constitutes only about 1% of the total Arroyo Pasajero drainage area, is the primary source of asbestos fibers detected on the alluvial fan deposits of the San Joaquin Valley floor. The asbestos fibers enter the arroyo tributaries in the upper watershed and are transported along with other sediment downstream to the alluvial fan. Stream channel bed and bank erosion in Pleasant Valley and the lower watershed yields additional sediment having low levels of asbestos fibers. Naturally occurring waterborne asbestos concentrations on the lower fan exceed the proposed EPA drinking water standard, a condition not uncommon elsewhere in California. Asbestos concentrations in fan soils are generally just below the level at which the soil could be classified as a hazardous waste by the California Administrative Code. These results demonstrate to what extent a very small portion of the watershed can contribute to downstream trace concentrations.

  20. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  1. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  2. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  3. Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Choi, Sang-Jun; Kang, Daehee

    2009-01-01

    Although importation of asbestos to Korea has decreased, there are growing concerns of its hazardous effects. This paper describes the use and occupational exposure to asbestos, and the incidence and mortality of malignant mesotheliomas in Korea. Asbestos raw material imports from other countries peaked between 1990 and 1995, but importation of asbestos-containing and -processed materials has steadily increased until now. A comprehensive exposure survey was conducted in Korea between 1995 and 2006. The average airborne asbestos concentration was lower than from other countries and steadily decreased during the study period. The number of malignant mesothelioma cases in Korea was 48 in 1998, 39 in 1999, 45 in 2000, 38 in 2001, and 46 in 2002. There were 334 deaths due to malignant mesothelioma and an average of 30.4 deaths per year between 1996 and 2006. The number of deaths attributed to malignant mesothelioma ranged from 16 cases in 1999 to 57 cases in 2006. The magnitude of asbestos-related health problems in Korea has been underestimated due to under-diagnosis, incomplete reports, and shorter duration of exposure. A nationwide surveillance system for asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma should therefore be implemented.

  4. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  5. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  6. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  7. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  8. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  9. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  10. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  12. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  14. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  15. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  16. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  17. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  19. Asbestos in brakes: exposure and risk of disease.

    PubMed

    Lemen, Richard A

    2004-03-01

    Asbestos has been incorporated into friction products since the early 1900s. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal in their analysis of the incidence of disease among mechanics servicing brakes. Decomposition of asbestos occurs during the normal usage of the brake due to thermal decomposition into forsterite, although not all asbestos is so converted. Short fibers, below 5 microm in length, are also found in brake products. Several facts are discussed including the toxicity of the remaining asbestos fibers, short asbestos fibers, and the health implications of exposure to forsterite. Control methodologies, when used appropriately, have reduced exposure to asbestos during brake servicing, but have not been able to entirely eliminate exposure to asbestos, thus bring into question the controlled use of asbestos for friction product such as brakes. Even the so called "controlled" use of asbestos containing brakes poses a health risk to workers, users, and their families. PMID:14991849

  20. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council`s Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  1. Proceedings: Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 6--7, 1993 in conjunction with the Environmental Information Association`s (formerly National Asbestos Council) Environmental Management `93 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Eleven papers covered such topics as changes in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ban on asbestos, utility experience with asbestos management and abatement, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  2. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council's Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  3. [Atherosclerosis and oncogenes].

    PubMed

    Onraed-Dupriez, B

    1992-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in the developed world, has mainly been studied with respect to the pathogenic role of lipids. However, over the last few years, a new avenue of research has stemmed from Benditt's monoclonal theory which linkens the atheroma plaque to a benign tumor developed from a single smooth muscle cell. Investigations into mechanisms capable of initiating this monoclonal cell growth have included studies of protooncogene activation. Barrett and Benditt have reported increased expression of the sis oncogene in the atheroma plaque; the product of this oncogene is very similar to the beta chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) which may play a role in the development of the atheroma plaque. These recent studies focusing on the earliest step of formation of the atheroma plaque, ie, cell growth, complement the pathophysiologic theories studied until now.

  4. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  5. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  6. Innovative technologies for asbestos removal, treatment and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Kasper, K.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will provide an overview of the Office of Science and Technology`s Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area`s investment in development and demonstration of innovative technologies for asbestos treatment, removal and recycle. The paper will cover the market opportunities for asbestos abatement, major regulations covering asbestos abatement, baseline technologies used by DOE for removal of asbestos, asbestos-related technology needs submitted by DOE`s Site Technology Coordinating Groups, and asbestos development and demonstration projects supported by the D & D Focus Area and other organizations. Based on the Environmental Management Integrated Database, there are about five million cubic feet of asbestos within the DOE Weapons Complex that will be abated by 2030. DOE has three main forms of asbestos: transite used in building construction, thermal pipe insulation, and floor tile. The D & D Focus Area has or is supporting three projects in asbestos removal, and three projects on destruction of asbestos fibers by chemical and thermal treatment. In asbestos removal, the D & D Focus Area is investigating a robot which removes asbestos insulation from pipes; a laser cutting technology which melts asbestos fibers while cutting insulated pipes; and a vacuum system which removes thermal insulation sandwiched between panels of transite. For destruction of asbestos fibers, the D & D Focus Area is supporting development and demonstration of a trailer-mounted process which destroys asbestos fibers by a combination of thermal and chemical treatment; a three-step process which removes organic and radioactive contaminants from the asbestos prior to decomposing the asbestos fibers by acid attack; and an in situ chemical treatment process to convert asbestos fibers into a non-regulated material.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA damage and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Emma P K; Bennett, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as the cellular powerhouses through their ability to generate ATP, the universal fuel for metabolic processes. However, in recent years mitochondria have been recognised as critical regulators of cell death, inflammation, metabolism, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction directly promotes cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress and alters metabolism. These are key processes in atherosclerosis and there is now evidence that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes atherosclerosis directly. In this review we discuss the recent evidence for and mechanisms linking mtDNA defects and atherosclerosis and suggest areas of mitochondrial biology that are potential therapeutic targets.

  8. [PREDICTORS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS: NEW DEVELOPMENTS].

    PubMed

    Gozhenko, A I; Kotyuzhinskaya, S G; Kovalevskaya, L A

    2014-12-01

    The article describes known atherosclerosis predictors of endothelial origin, which are diagnostic criteria for identifying's early stages of atherosclerosis, and can prevent the development of this disease and are used to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy The authors analyzed the possibility of using heparin as an early marker of atherosclerosis, based on the fact that the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity due hyperheparinemia resulting from depletion of mast cells due to endothelial dysfunction, leads to the disorders of lipid transporting system in the form of the resistant hyperlipidemia with the phenomena of dyslipidemia. PMID:26638463

  9. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method at least equivalent...

  10. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method at least equivalent...

  11. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method at least equivalent...

  12. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method at least equivalent...

  13. Asbestos-related benign pleural disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C; Copley, S J; Hansell, D M

    2000-06-01

    Benign pleural disease is the commonest manifestation of asbestos exposure encountered by radiologists. Benign pleural thickening can appear as circumscribed parietal pleural plaques or as more diffuse thickening of the visceral pleura. Benign-asbestos induced pleural effusions are a significant and under-recognized manifestation of asbestos exposure with important sequelae, such as diffuse pleural thickening which may be associated with functional impairment and for which compensation may be sought. This review concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of chest radiography and computed tomography for the detection and characterization of benign asbestos-related pleural disease and the relevance of imaging abnormalities to compensation and functional impairment.Peacock, C. (2000). Clinical Radiology55, 422-432. PMID:10873686

  14. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  15. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  16. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

    1983-01-01

    Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

  17. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  18. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Asbestos (final draft), March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sonich-Mullin, C.; Patel, Y.; Bayard, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Asbestos. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Asbestos; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to Asbestos; Health Effects of Asbestos in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of Asbestos; Quantification of toxicological effects of Asbestos.

  19. [Asbestos exposure in the non-asbestos textile industry: the experience of the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry].

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Macchione, Maria; Termine, Lorenzo; Canti, Zulejka; Rivolta, Giuseppe; Riboldi, Luciano; Chiappino, Gerolamo

    2007-01-01

    The Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, activated in 2000, receives more than 300 cases per year of suspected malignant mesothelioma; the standardized (age and gender) incidence rate of pleural mesothelioma is 2.4/100,000 inhabitants (CI 95% 2.0-2.7). The finding of an increasing number of cases among workers of the non-asbestos-textile industry, classified as "unknown exposure to asbestos", upheld the suspect of presence of asbestos in this compartment. Specific information about a possible asbestos exposure were collected by technicians, maintenance personnel and other experts; industrial machinery utilized in the past was thoroughly examined; direct inspections were carried out in several workplaces that had not yet undergone significant changes with respect to the past. A large amount of asbestos had been regularly used on the ceilings and also to the walls of factories in order to avoid both condensation of steam and reflection of noise. In addition, asbestos had also been widely used to insulate water and steam pipes. The braking systems of most of machines also had asbestos gaskets, and on several looms some brakes operated continuously. The population in study was composed of 119 subjects, 27 males and 92 females, median age of 72 years. Asbestos exposure was ascribed to work in 106 cases (89%). The system devised by the Lombardy Registry had brought to light an occupational hazard in a professional area previously never believed as a source of asbestos exposure. In consideration of the described experience, both environmental and clinical, it seems reasonable to consider the non-asbestos-textile as a new department at risk for asbestos exposure.

  20. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  1. [Algorithm for assessment of exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Martines, V; Fioravanti, M; Anselmi, A; Attili, F; Battaglia, D; Cerratti, D; Ciarrocca, M; D'Amelio, R; De Lorenzo, G; Ferrante, E; Gaudioso, F; Mascia, E; Rauccio, A; Siena, S; Palitti, T; Tucci, L; Vacca, D; Vigliano, R; Zelano, V; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally approved method in the scientific literature to identify subjects exposed to asbestos and divide them in classes according to intensity of exposure. The aim of our work is to study and develope an algorithm based on the findings of occupational anamnestical information provided by a large group of workers. The algorithm allows to discriminate, in a probabilistic way, the risk of exposure by the attribution of a code for each worker (ELSA Code--work estimated exposure to asbestos). The ELSA code has been obtained through a synthesis of information that the international scientific literature identifies as the most predictive for the onset of asbestos-related abnormalities. Four dimensions are analyzed and described: 1) present and/or past occupation; 2) type of materials and equipment used in performing working activity; 3) environment where these activities are carried out; 4) period of time when activities are performed. Although it is possible to have informations in a subjective manner, the decisional procedure is objective and is based on the systematic evaluation of asbestos exposure. From the combination of the four identified dimensions it is possible to have 108 ELSA codes divided in three typological profiles of estimated risk of exposure. The application of the algorithm offers some advantages compared to other methods used for identifying individuals exposed to asbestos: 1) it can be computed both in case of present and past exposure to asbestos; 2) the classification of workers exposed to asbestos using ELSA code is more detailed than the one we have obtained with Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) because the ELSA Code takes in account other indicators of risk besides those considered in the JEM. This algorithm was developed for a project sponsored by the Italian Armed Forces and is also adaptable to other work conditions for in which it could be necessary to assess risk for asbestos exposure.

  2. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  3. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Schlezinger, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as asbestos workers. Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period.

  4. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  5. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  6. Get ready for the new asbestos standard

    SciTech Connect

    Onderick, W.A.

    1995-10-09

    On October 1, OSHA`s revised asbestos rules became law, and with them are many changes from the previous 1986 standard. The presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) rule is one of the bigger changes in the revised standard. OSHA has declared that owners must presume that there are certain high-risk asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in facilities built prior to 1981, unless bulk sample results prove them to be nonasbestos. The impact of this provision forces companies to think carefully before presuming where asbestos is or where it is not. Companies must also heed the EPA Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which require inspections and bulk sampling to identify materials prior to renovation or demolition. Short and long term needs should be examined when analyzing how to comply with the PACM provision. There are four options available. Option 1: Ignore the standard and face potential enforcement fines. Option 2: Presume all materials in pre-1981 buildings contain asbestos and simply post additional warning signs. Option 3: Survey or resurvey the facilities to be in compliance with the PACM ruling. Option 4: Conduct more comprehensive surveys. Option 3 is discussed in some detail.

  7. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137

  8. MicroRNAs and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Rotllan, Noemi; Aranda, Juan F.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (~22nucleotide) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. MiRNA/mRNA base pairing complementarity provokes mRNA decay and consequent gene silencing. These endogenous gene expression inhibitors were primarily described in cancer but recent exciting findings have also demonstrated a key role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. MiRNAs controls endothelial cell (EC), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and macrophage functions, and thereby regulate the progression of atherosclerosis. MiRNAs expression is modulated by different stimuli involved in every stage of atherosclerosis and conversely miRNAs modulates several pathways implicated in plaque development such as cholesterol metabolism. In the present review, we focus on the importance of miRNAs in atherosclerosis and we further discuss their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:23512606

  9. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... each(function(i){ var city = $(this).find('city').text(); var state = $(this).find('state').text(); var date = $(this).find('date').text(); if ((city != "") && (state != "")){ var citystate = ' | ' + city + ', ' + state; } else ...

  10. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  11. Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  12. SIRT6 protects against endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suowen; Yin, Meimei; Koroleva, Marina; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Zhang, Wenbo; Bai, Peter; Little, Peter J.; Jin, Zheng Gen

    2016-01-01

    SIRT6 is an important member of sirtuin family that represses inflammation, aging and DNA damage, three of which are causing factors for endothelial dysfunction. SIRT6 expression is decreased in atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE−/− mice and human patients. However, the role of SIRT6 in regulating vascular endothelial function and atherosclerosis is not well understood. Here we show that SIRT6 protects against endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Global and endothelium-specific SIRT6 knockout mice exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Moreover, SIRT6+/− haploinsufficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) also displayed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Importantly, SIRT6+/−;ApoE−/− mice after HFD feeding exhibited exacerbated atherosclerotic lesion development, concurrent with increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine VCAM-1. Loss- and gain-of-SIRT6 function studies in cultured human endothelial cells (ECs) showed that SIRT6 attenuated monocyte adhesion to ECs. RNA-sequencing profiling revealed that SIRT6 overexpression decreased the expression of multiple atherosclerosis-related genes, including proatherogenic gene TNFSF4 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that SIRT6 decreased TNFSF4 gene expression by binding to and deacetylating H3K9 at TNFSF4 gene promoter. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that SIRT6 play a pivotal role in maintaining endothelial function and increased SIRT6 activity could be a new therapeutic strategy to combat atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27249230

  13. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  14. [Is one single exposure to asbestos life-threatening?].

    PubMed

    Baas, Paul; Burgers, J A Sjaak

    2014-01-01

    The media occasionally reports on possible asbestos exposure during demolition of houses in an urban setting. The risk for the development of any asbestos-related cancer in these settings is considered to be lower than for that in occupational exposure. Offermans et al. examined a Dutch cohort of 58,279 workers in the period from 1986 to 2007. They concluded that the risk of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer and mesothelioma increased with exposure to asbestos. The risk of development of lung cancer was higher for anyone with increased years of exposure to asbestos fibre combined with a smoking habit. The study was well conducted, but exact data on fibre concentration and type of asbestos are lacking. We suggest that occasional exposure to asbestos poses hardly any risk for the general population. However, rules and regulations for the removal of asbestos-containing material remain important as asbestos exposure remains a serious health risk, especially in smokers.

  15. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  16. Guide to the asbestos NESHAP as revised November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The specific authority of EPA regarding asbestos is listed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act entitled 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants' (NESHAP). The particular standard, that addresses asbestos is contained in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Part 61, Subpart M. These regulations generally specify emission control requirements for the milling, manufacturing and fabricating of asbestos, for activities associated with the demolition and renovation of asbestos-containing buildings, and for the handling and disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. The major intention of the regulations is to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during all activities involving the handling and processing of asbestos and asbestos-containing material.

  17. Asbestos in Schools. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A discussion among six professionals about the status and outlook for asbestos removal in schools. The experts call for state or federal standards for asbestos in buildings and cite lack of funding as a major problem. (MLF)

  18. [The effects of environmental exposure to asbestos dust on health].

    PubMed

    Kotela, Ireneusz; Bednarenko, Marcin; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Kotela, Paweł; Wołowiec, Beata; Laskowicz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an extremely rare neoplasm. Its etiology is related to professional or environmental exposure to asbestos dust. In the present research, the analysis of frequency and causes of death due to asbestos-related cancers in the district polluted with asbestos in comparison with the district free of such pollution has been performed. The increase has been highlighted in the mortality rate because of pleural mesothelioma among inhabitants of the area polluted with asbestos wastes.

  19. [Occupational problems of serpentine asbestos in industry (history and trends)].

    PubMed

    Domnin, S G; Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Shcherbakov, S V

    1999-01-01

    The article presents summarized data of long-standing research of work conditions, asbestosis occurrence, and epidemiology of malignancies in "URALASBEST" enterprises extracting and utilizing asbestos. The research served as a base to elaborate and put into practice a complex of sanitary, technical, medical and biologic measures in various asbestos enterprises. Those measures lowered occupational morbidity due to asbestos. Considering the experience accumulated, the authors set prospects for further studies on "Asbestos and Health" problem.

  20. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in atherosclerosis and stroke.

    PubMed

    Roycik, M D; Myers, J S; Newcomer, R G; Sang, Q-X A

    2013-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of tightly regulated, zinc-dependent proteases that degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), cell surface, and intracellular proteins. Vascular remodeling, whether as a function of normal physiology or as a consequence of a myriad of pathological processes, requires degradation of the ECM. Thus, the expression and activity of many MMPs are up-regulated in numerous conditions affecting the vasculature and often exacerbate vascular dysfunction. A growing body of evidence supports the rationale of using MMP inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and chronic vascular dementia. This manuscript will examine promising targets for MMP inhibition in atherosclerosis and stroke, reviewing findings in preclinical animal models and human patient studies. Strategies for MMP inhibition have progressed beyond chelating the catalytic zinc to functional blocking antibodies and peptides that target either the active site or exosites of the enzyme. While the inhibition of MMP activity presents a rational therapeutic avenue, the multiplicity of roles for MMPs and the non-selective nature of MMP inhibitors that cause unintended side-effects hinder full realization of MMP inhibition as therapy for vascular disease. For optimal therapeutic effects to be realized, specific targets for MMP inhibition in these pathologies must first be identified and then attacked by potent and selective agents during the most appropriate timepoint.

  2. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  6. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  7. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  8. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  9. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  10. Effect of chrysotile asbestos fibers on germ cells of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rita, P.; Reddy, P.P.

    1986-10-01

    An Indian form of chrysotile asbestos procured from a local asbestos factory (Hyderabad) was tested for its toxic effects on spermatocytes and sperm of mice. Swiss albino male mice were fed orally with chrysotile asbestos suspended in water. The concentration tested was 20 mg/kg/day. Chronic oral administration of chrysotile failed to induce chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperms in mice.

  11. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  12. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

  13. Rapid Measurement Of Asbestos Content Of Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, James R.; Grove, Cindy I.; Hoover, Gordon L.; Stephens, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Portable instrument measures asbestos content of construction materials in place. Helps building renovators determine, quickly and accurately, whether asbestos is present. Concept readily adapted to special-purpose, battery-powered instrument. Contractor using such instrument could obtain reliable information on asbestos content in minutes.

  14. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  15. Osteoarthritis accelerates and exacerbates Alzheimer's disease pathology in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether localized peripheral inflammation, such as osteoarthritis, contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease in vivo. Methods We employed the inducible Col1-IL1βXAT mouse model of osteoarthritis, in which induction of osteoarthritis in the knees and temporomandibular joints resulted in astrocyte and microglial activation in the brain, accompanied by upregulation of inflammation-related gene expression. The biological significance of the link between peripheral and brain inflammation was explored in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby osteoarthritis resulted in neuroinflammation as well as exacerbation and acceleration of AD pathology. Results Induction of osteoarthritis exacerbated and accelerated the development of neuroinflammation, as assessed by glial cell activation and quantification of inflammation-related mRNAs, as well as Aβ pathology, assessed by the number and size of amyloid plaques, in the APP/PS1; Col1-IL1βXAT compound transgenic mouse. Conclusion This work supports a model by which peripheral inflammation triggers the development of neuroinflammation and subsequently the induction of AD pathology. Better understanding of the link between peripheral localized inflammation, whether in the form of osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis or other conditions, and brain inflammation, may prove critical to our understanding of the pathophysiology of disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21899735

  16. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  17. Microdomains, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J

    2016-02-19

    Elevated levels of cholesteryl ester (CE)-enriched apoB containing plasma lipoproteins lead to increased foam cell formation, the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Unregulated uptake of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by circulating monocytes and other peripheral blood cells takes place through scavenger receptors and over time causes disruption in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. As lipoproteins are taken up, their CE core is hydrolyzed by liposomal lipases to generate free cholesterol (FC). FC can be either re-esterified and stored as CE droplets or shuttled to the plasma membrane for ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated efflux. Because cholesterol is an essential component of all cellular membranes, some FC may be incorporated into microdomains or lipid rafts. These platforms are essential for receptor signaling and transduction, requiring rapid assembly and disassembly. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 plays a major role in regulating microdomain cholesterol and is most efficient when lipid-poor apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) packages raft cholesterol into soluble particles that are eventually catabolized by the liver. If FC is not effluxed from the cell, it becomes esterified, CE droplets accumulate and microdomain cholesterol content becomes poorly regulated. This dysregulation leads to prolonged activation of immune cell signaling pathways, resulting in receptor oversensitization. The availability of apoAI or other amphipathic α-helix-rich apoproteins relieves the burden of excess microdomain cholesterol in immune cells allowing a reduction in immune cell proliferation and infiltration, thereby stimulating regression of foam cells in the artery. Therefore, cellular balance between FC and CE is essential for proper immune cell function and prevents chronic immune cell overstimulation and proliferation. PMID:26892966

  18. Tabulation of asbestos-related terminology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Greg

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos has been defined in numerous publications including many State and Federal regulations. The definition of asbestos often varies depending on the source or publication in which it is used. Differences in definitions also exist for the asbestos-related terms acicular, asbestiform, cleavage, cleavage fragment, fiber, fibril, fibrous, and parting. An inexperienced reader of the asbestos literature would have difficulty understanding these differences and grasping many of the subtleties that exist in the literature and regulatory language. Disagreement among workers from the industrial, medical, mineralogical, and regulatory communities regarding these definitions has fueled debate as to their applicability to various morphological structures and chemical compositions that exist in the amphibole and serpentine groups of minerals. This debate has significant public health, economic and legal implications. This report summarizes asbestos-related definitions taken from a variety of academic, industrial, and regulatory sources. This summary is by no means complete but includes the majority of significant definitions currently applied in the discipline.

  19. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with work on asbestos fire sleeve materials.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Harbison, Stephen C; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2011-11-01

    Asbestos-containing fire sleeves have been used as a fire protection measure for aircraft fluid hoses. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos fiber exposure experienced by mechanics who work with fire sleeve protected hoses. Duplicate testing was performed inside a small, enclosed workroom during the fabrication of hose assemblies. Personal air samples taken during this work showed detectable, but low airborne asbestos fiber exposures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phrase contract microscopy (PCM) indicated task duration airborne fiber concentrations ranging from 0.017 to 0.063 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) for sampling durations of 167-198 min, and 0.022-0.14 f/ml for 30 min samples. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected for four of these nine personal samples, and the resulting asbestos adjusted airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.014 to 0.025 f/ml. These results indicate that work with asbestos fire sleeve and fire sleeve protected hose assemblies, does not produce regulatory noncompliant levels of asbestos exposure for persons who handle, cut and fit these asbestos-containing materials.

  20. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  1. Asbestos-induced intrathoracic tissue reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, P.; Harley, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Research tested the trace metal hypothesis for the development of asbestos-related lung cancer while also documenting the occurrence of malignant intrathoracic tumors resulting following intrathoracic injections of different types of asbestos in rats and hamsters. Rats and hamsters were injected with amosite, chrysotile or crocidolite prepared by one of five methods. Animals injected with dusts that had been heated (dust treated or untreated with aqua-regia) demonstrated a low tumor incidence, around 2%, whereas animals treated with dusts which had not been heated or treated demonstrated a 21% tumor rate in hamsters and 33% in mice. The incidence of tumors in both species was least with chrysotile. The other two types of asbestos caused similar incidences of tumors in rats, but in hamsters amosite caused a higher incidence of tumors than crocidolite.

  2. Asbestos and Ship-Building: Fatal Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2008-01-01

    The severe bombing of Belfast in 1941 had far-reaching consequences. Harland and Wolff was crippled. The British Merchant Ship Building Mission to the USA was being constrained by the UK treasury. On being told of the Belfast destruction, the British Mission and the United States Maritime Commission were emboldened. The result was 2,710 Liberty Ships launched to a British design. The necessary asbestos use associated with this and other shipbuilding, after a quarter century or more latency, is a genesis of malignancy killing thousands. Reversal of studies on asbestos limitation of fire propagation was crucial to Allied strategic planning of mass-fires which resulted in the slaughter of one to two million civilians. Boston and Belfast institutions made seminal discoveries about asbestos use and its sequelae. PMID:18956802

  3. Oxygen radicals and asbestos-mediated disease.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, T R; Marsh, J P; Janssen, Y M; Borm, P A; Mossman, B T

    1994-01-01

    Asbestos fibers are potent elaborators of active oxygen species whether by reactions involving iron on the surface of the fiber, or by attempted phagocytosis of fibers by cell types resident in the lung. The link between production of active oxygen species and the pathogenesis of asbestos-mediated disease has been highlighted by studies outlined here exploring the use of antioxidant scavengers which inhibit the cytotoxic effects of asbestos both in vitro and in vivo. The use of antioxidant enzymes ameliorates the induction of certain genes necessary for cell proliferation, such as ornithine decarboxylase, implicating oxidants as causative factors in some abnormal cell replicative events. Based on these observations, antioxidant enzymes likely represent an important lung defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress. In addition, their gene expression in lung or in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage might be a valuable biomarker of chronic inflammation and pulmonary disease after inhalation of oxidants. PMID:7705283

  4. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    PubMed

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  5. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  6. Pulmonary fibrosis following household exposure to asbestos dust?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim; Brückel, Bernd; Fink, Ludger; Woitowitz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman was dying from histologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis without having had any asbestos exposure in the workplace. The lung dust fibre analysis showed significantly increased "asbestos bodies" (AB) (2,640 AB per gram of wet lung tissue) and asbestos fibre concentrations (8,600,000 amphibole fibres of all lengths and 540,000 amphibole fibres with a length ≥5 μm per gram of dry lung tissue). Asbestos exposure was revealed to have occurred during household contact after 27 years of washing her husband's industrial clothing that had been contaminated by asbestos at his workplace in an asbestos textile factory. Household asbestos dust exposure as a risk or co-factor in the aetiology of the fatal pulmonary fibrosis is discussed. PMID:25419224

  7. Asbestos occurrence in the Eagle C-4 quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura

    1969-01-01

    An asbestos occurrence was discovered in a remote part of the Eagle quadrangle, Alaska, in the summer of 1968 during geologic reconnaissance in connection with the U.S. Geological Survey's Heavy Metals program. The exposed part of the deposit consists of large joint blocks of serpentine which are cut by closely spaced subparallel veins. Most of the veins are about ? inch thick, and they consist of cross-fiber chrysotile asbestos. The asbestos appears to be of commercial quality, but the total quantity is unknown. The asbestos occurs in a serpentinized ultramafic mass which appears to intrude metamorphic rocks. Many other serpentinized ultramafic masses are known in the Eagle quadrangle, but this is the first one in which considerable asbestos has been found. The deposit is of importance because it shows that geologic conditions are locally favorable for the formation of asbestos in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and hope of finding commercial asbestos deposits thus seems possible.

  8. Case report: peritoneal mesothelioma from asbestos in hairdryers

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, James; Talbott, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos is well established. As a result, the use of asbestos in buildings, construction sites, and mines, as well as the implications of disease for the workers has received considerable attention. However, asbestos was also used in household equipment and consumer products, including hairdryers. Purpose: To examine one case of peritoneal mesothelioma in a hairdresser and review the relevant literature on asbestos exposure from hairdryers. Methods: The subject’s medical and occupational records were obtained and reviewed and a physical examination was performed. Results: The results indicate that the subject developed peritoneal mesothelioma from her occupational exposure to asbestos containing hairdryers in accordance with the literature. Conclusion: Hairdryers are possible sources of asbestos exposure in patients with mesothelioma, and the asbestos exposure risk is higher for those who use hairdryers occupationally. PMID:25633928

  9. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens, causing malignant mesothelioma and a host of other types of cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk; there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, a worldwide ban was called for on asbestos use, mining, and manufacturing. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products; many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos still permit the use of chrysotile asbestos. This exemption has no basis in medical science, but reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos industry. To protect the health of all people, the Collegium Ramazzini calls again on all countries of the world to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed. PMID:20662427

  10. [Asbestos-related diseases observed in Palermo (Italy) among workers exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Costantino, Claudio; Amodio, Emanuele; Costagliola, Eduardo; Curcurù, Loredana; Ilardo, Sara; Trapani, Elisa; Calamusa, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cases of asbestos-related diseases in workers exposed to asbestos in the province of Palermo (Italy) from 2005 to 2009. Data were collected from medical records and from reports from the Prevention and Safety in the Workplace Unit of the provincial health authorities of and between Palermo. Multinomial logistic regression showed a significant association between tobacco smoke and lung cancer and between starting work at an early stage and presence of asbestosis and pleural plaques. Results confirm that over eighteen years after the entry into force of Law 257/1992, which established the cessation of all activities related to asbestos, asbestos-related diseases continue being observed in clinical practice and represent a serious public health problem.

  11. Aortic Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Paola C; Ratliff, Michelle; Snider, Richard; Macias, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Sibbitt, Wilmer; Roldan, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic atherosclerosis (AoA) defined as intima-media thickening or plaques and aortic stiffness (AoS) also considered an atherosclerotic process and defined as decreased vessel distensibility (higher pulse pressure to achieve similar degree of vessel distension) are common in patients with SLE. Immune-mediated inflammation, thrombogenesis, traditional atherogenic factors, and therapy-related metabolic abnormalities are the main pathogenic factors of AoA and AoS. Pathology of AoA and AoS suggests an initial subclinical endothelialitis or vasculitis, which is exacerbated by thrombogenesis and atherogenic factors and ultimately resulting in AoA and AoS. Computed tomography (CT) for detection of arterial wall calcifications and arterial tonometry for detection of increased arterial pulse wave velocity are the most common diagnostic methods for detecting AoA and AoS, respectively. MRI may become a more applicable and accurate technique than CT. Although transesophageal echocardiography accurately detects earlier and advanced stages of AoA and AoS, it is semi-invasive and cannot be used as a screening method. Although imaging techniques demonstrate highly variable prevalence rates, on average about one third of adult SLE patients may have AoA or AoS. Age at SLE diagnosis; SLE duration; activity and damage; corticosteroid therapy; metabolic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; and mitral annular calcification are common independent predictors of AoA and AoS. Also, AoA and AoS are highly associated with carotid and coronary atherosclerosis. Earlier stages of AoA and AoS are usually subclinical. However, earlier stages of disease may be causally related or contribute to peripheral or cerebral embolism, pre-hypertension and hypertension, and increased left ventricular afterload resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Later stages of disease predisposes to visceral ischemia, aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection. Even earlier stages of AoA and Ao

  12. Mechanisms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2015-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are important events that contribute to worsening health status, disease progression, and mortality. They are mainly triggered by respiratory viruses (especially rhinovirus, the cause of the common cold), but airway bacteria are also involved in their pathogenesis. Exacerbations are associated with both airway and systemic inflammation and, this is mainly neutrophilic in origin. Some patients are especially prone to develop exacerbations, and these have been identified as a high-risk group with increased airway inflammation and greater disease progression. Management of acute exacerbations involves therapy with oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, and new therapies are needed. A number of interventions may prevent exacerbations, including vaccination, long-acting bronchodilators, antiinflammatory agents, and long-term antibiotic therapy. Understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD exacerbations is important to develop novel therapies.

  13. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  14. [Adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Shwarts, V

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting more than 30 various adipokines which regulate wide spectrum of metabolic and immune processes. Obesity is associated with development of adipose tissue inflammation. This inflammation is characterized by infiltration with macrophages, alterations of adipokine secretion, development of insulin resistance. All these factors promote atherosclerosis. Inflammation of perivascular adipose tissue is especially important. Adipokines damage vascular endothelium via paracrine pathway. Cytokines released by macrophages as well as changes of adipokine secretion lead to endothelial dysfunction - the first stage of atherogenesis. Besides specific action curative factors used in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus also produce anti-inflammatory effect and thus diminish risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, rate of their development, and alleviate manifestations of atherosclerosis. Inflammation of adipose tissue is a connecting link between obesity and atherosclerosis. This review contains an outline of roles of various major adipokines in development of atherosclerosis as well as synopsis of anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects of glytazones , metformin, rimonabant, statins, and of lowering of body weight.

  15. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  16. The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.

    PubMed

    Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

    2012-10-01

    Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination. PMID:23091967

  17. The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.

    PubMed

    Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

    2012-10-01

    Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination.

  18. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  19. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  20. Asbestos Analysis: What School Officials Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bonnie Lee

    1984-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to detect asbestos by analyzing filters from air tests. The modes of operation and types of samples examined by each are explained. Circumstances that a school board should consider when deciding whether to use these methods are discussed. (MLF)

  1. Retired and former asbestos workers in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier-Massey, G.; Wong, G.; Hall, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, a pilot survey defined respiratory status and unmet health care needs of retired and former male asbestos workers in Hawaii. Of 1,401 identified subjects, 741 were contacted and 411 were interviewed. Forty-five subjects were between 39 and 54 years of age; 208, between 55 and 64; and 158, age 65 or more. They represented the main ethnic groups--Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian, and Japanese--on Oahu. Most subjects had had significant exposure to asbestos in a shipyard, and 83% were current nonsmokers (160 had never smoked, and 111 were ex-smokers for ten years or more). Taking age and ethnicity into account, our group had more chronic respiratory and gastrointestinal problems than the comparable male population of Oahu in 1979, but fewer such problems than active shipyard workers elsewhere. These problems related primarily to current smoking status and secondarily to the length of asbestos exposure. Health care was available, but former workers used it less than retirees, despite having more symptoms. Very few abnormalities were reported by the subjects on their chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and sputum cytology performed elsewhere. These findings are compared to those of other shipyards, and support the hypothesis that the biological effects of asbestos exposure are generally mild in Hawaii.

  2. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-15

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  3. The mechanism of asbestos-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goodglick, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Crocidolite asbestos fibers constitute a serious environmental pollutant capable of causing pleural scarring and cancer. This thesis addresses three questions: (1) what is the mechanism of asbestos-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (2) What is the influence of fiber size on cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (3) What is the chronic response of the peritoneal cavity to asbestos fibers of varying lengths Macrophages release reactive oxygen metabolites when exposed to crocidolite in vitro or in vivo. Crocidolite-induced cytotoxicity is prevented with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In addition, presoaking crocidolite fibers in deferoxamine, prevents cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, macrophages exposed to crocidolite also lose mitochondrial membrane potential and undergo lipid peroxidation. Neither of these changes in itself, however, is responsible for macrophage death. We also examined the role of crocidolite fiber size in cytoxicity. Both long and short crocidolite fibers are toxic to macrophages in vitro via an oxidant dependent mechanism. Within the periotoneal cavity long crocidolite fibers are acutely cytotoxic and inflammatory while short fibers are not. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of long and native crocidolite asbestos fibers produced mesotheliomas in 20-40% of mice after 35-50 weeks. Neoplastic and preneoplastic cells were obtained from these mice, cultured, and characterized for in vitro transformation and in vivo tumorigenicity.

  4. Mortality study of asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Giaroli, C; Belli, S; Bruno, C; Candela, S; Grignoli, M; Minisci, S; Poletti, R; Riccò, G; Vecchi, G; Venturi, G

    1994-01-01

    The present study describes cause-specific mortality of asbestos cement workers in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. The cohort included workers in ten factories, most of which started operating between 1955 and 1965. Asbestos, mainly chrysotile, constituted 10%-20% of the dry component of the mixture. Crocidolite range between 5% and 50% of total asbestos. Asbestos concentrations up to 44 ff/cc were reported prior to 1975, while in recent years they have usually been below 0-1 ff/cc. The cohort included 3341 workers who had at some time been employed in the ten factories under study. Their mortality experience was compared with that of the population resident in Emilia Romagna. Vital status was ascertained at 1989. Seventy-three subjects were lost to follow-up (2.2%). Mortality from all causes and from all types of cancer was increased in the cohort. Malignant neoplasms of the respiratory tract showed a significant increase (SMR: 134; 90% confidence interval: 101-175; 40 observed) due to lung cancer (SMR: 124; 90% confidence interval: 91-166; 33 observed) and neoplasms of the pleura, mediastinum, and other parts of the respiratory tract (SMR: 602; 90% confidence interval 237-1267; 5 observed). The discrepancy between observed and expected mortality mainly concerned subjects with at least 20 years of employment in the factories. Five more cases of histologically confirmed mesothelioma occurred after the end of follow-up.

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  13. Penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filters

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Pearson, S.D.; Rohrbacher, K.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1994-11-01

    Currently, the health risks associated with asbestos have restricted its use and created a growing asbestos abatement industry with a need for respirator filters that are effective for worker protection. The main purpose of this project is to determine the influence of fiber size, electrostatic charge, and flow rate on the penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filter cartridges. The study includes four types of filters each tested at two flow rates: the AO-R57A, a dual cartridge HEPA filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-S, a dust and mist filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-A power filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min; and the 3M-8710, a low-efficiency disposable face mask filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min. The three types of asbestos fibers used (amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile) ranged in length from 0.04-0.5 {mu}m and in aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) from 3 to 60. The fibers were used in both charged and neutralized forms. The results from amosite fibers are reported here.

  14. National Use of Asbestos in Relation to Economic Development

    PubMed Central

    Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken; Karjalainen, Antti; Delgermaa, Vanya; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Miyamura, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Sugio; Higashi, Toshiaki; Pan, Guowei; Wagner, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background National disparities in asbestos use will likely lead to an unequal burden of asbestos diseases. Objectives As economic status may be linked to asbestos use, we assessed, globally, the relationship between indicators of national economic development and asbestos use. Methods For the 135 countries that have ever used asbestos, per capita asbestos use (kilograms per capita per year) was compared with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990 Geary–Khamis dollars (GKD) for the period 1920–2003. Countries were grouped into three income levels (high, middle, and low) that were adapted from the 2003 World Bank categories. Results The historical pattern of asbestos use followed the environmental Kuznets curve in which use by high-income countries peaked when incomes attained 10,000–15,000 GKD and essentially ceased at income levels over 20,000 GKD. Currently, middle- and low-income countries are increasing their use of asbestos, closely following the paths once traced by higher income countries. Conclusions Developing countries have the opportunity to eliminate asbestos use sooner than high-income countries and thus reduce the future burden of asbestos diseases. PMID:20056590

  15. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Asbestos Program 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Koskinen, K; Tossavainen, A; Karjalainen, A; Rinne, J P; Rantanen, J

    1995-07-01

    In 1987-1992, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) implemented a nationwide asbestos program aimed at preventing asbestos-related risks in good cooperation with governmental authorities, industry, trade unions, the health care and insurance systems, and mass media. The goals were to minimize all exposure to asbestos, identify people exposed at work, and improve the diagnostics of asbestos diseases, especially cancers. The program entailed several concrete actions and extensive dissemination of information, training, services, and scientific research. As proposed by the State Asbestos Committee, new use of asbestos products was banned and strict regulations were applied to renovation and inspection of old buildings. The screening study of asbestos-induced diseases included 18,943 current and retired workers from house building, shipyard, and asbestos industries. Pleural and parenchymal changes were found in 4,133 persons (22%), who were referred to further clinical examinations as suspected cases of an occupational disease. It was estimated that past exposure of asbestos among the Finnish population of 5 million causes > 150 mesotheliomas and lung cancers annually, totalling > 2,000 asbestos-induced cancer deaths by the year 2010. Although several major control actions were made or started during the program, the bulk of the preventive work still lies ahead.

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. The impact of asbestos in Illinois public schools

    SciTech Connect

    Marucco, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law providing a framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. This study examines the perceived attitudes of Illinois School personnel relative to the impact of asbestos in their buildings. Conclusions are: (1) All districts regardless of size, type, and enrollment have the largest concentration of non-friable asbestos in floor tile. (2) All school districts are surveying their asbestos and report that they are managing it properly following AHERA and state guidelines; removal is the most accepted method of abatement. (3) Administrators, schools boards, teachers, and maintenance staff in general showed a high concern about asbestos abatement. (4) Governmental agencies have exerted the greatest pressure on school districts to manage existing asbestos properly. (5) External pressure does not appear to influence school districts regarding asbestos abatement. (6) Current attitudes and activities would change little if AHERA were repealed. (7) Asbestos abatement activities have taken place when schools are vacated. (8) Most administrators regard radon, leaded water, toxic chemicals, indoor air quality, and air pollution equal to or more threatening than asbestos.

  19. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  20. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  1. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  2. AIP1-mediated stress signaling in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiqin; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2016-01-01

    AIP1 (encoded by the DAB2IP gene), a signaling scaffolding protein, is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC). While it was initially discovered as an ASK1-interacting protein, AIP1 broadly suppresses inflammatory responses triggered by cytokines and stresses such as TNF, LPS, VEGF and ER stress in EC (therefore AIP1 is an Anti-Inflammatory Protein). Human genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified DAB2IP gene variants conferring susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Consistently, a global or vascular EC-specific deletion of DAB2IP in mice strongly enhances inflammatory responses and exacerbates atherosclerosis and graft arteriosclerosis progression in mouse models. Mechanisms for AIP1 function and regulation associated with human cardiovascular diseases need further investigations. PMID:25732743

  3. AIP1-mediated stress signaling in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiqin; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2015-05-01

    AIP1 (ASK1-interacting protein-1; encoded by the DAB2IP gene), a signaling scaffolding protein, is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC). While it was initially discovered as an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-interacting protein, AIP1 broadly suppresses inflammatory responses triggered by cytokines and stresses such as TNF, LPS, VEGF, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in EC (therefore, AIP1 is an anti-inflammatory protein). Human genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified DAB2IP gene variants conferring susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Consistently, a global or vascular EC-specific deletion of DAB2IP in mice strongly enhances inflammatory responses and exacerbates atherosclerosis and graft arteriosclerosis progression in mouse models. Mechanisms for AIP1 function and regulation associated with human cardiovascular diseases need further investigations.

  4. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  5. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  6. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  7. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  8. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  9. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  10. Potential source of asbestos in non-asbestos textile manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Yu, Il Je; Choi, Jeong Keun; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Chang, Hee Kyung; Chung, Yong Hyun; Han, Jeong Hee; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Yong Mook; Chung, Ho Keun

    2002-04-01

    Recently, a worker with lung carcinoma and a metastatic brain tumor was diagnosed as having a work-related disease. He had been employed in a non-asbestos textile company for 25 years. Consequently, to identify and explore possible causative agents for lung cancer in a non-asbestos textile manufacturing company and establish a causal relationship between exposure and lung cancer, an epidemiological investigative study was conducted and the work processes the worker was engaged in were examined. Air samples were taken from the workplace and during the drilling processes, and a suspected causative material was analyzed. The study revealed that the subject had been employed in the non-asbestos textile manufacturing company for 25 years from 1973 and his responsibilities included repairing spinning machines. In particular, the subject was involved in drilling B-bushings that were used to protect against gear abrasion in the spinning machines. An analysis of the B-bushings using a transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer indicated that they contained crocidolite asbestos fibers. Air samples obtained when drilling the B-bushings clearly indicated that the subject had most likely been exposed to crocidolite fibers when installing the B-bushings in the spinning machines. The frequency and duration of the work suggested that there would be a sufficient degree of exposure to crocidolite fibers to cause lung cancer. Except for smoking and asbestos exposure, no other chemical exposure was suspected for developing lung cancer in the workplace. Smoking appeared to be more of a potentiating risk factor in conjunction with the asbestos exposure. Accordingly, this case may provide significant evidence in identifying the cause of the mesothelioma or lung carcinoma found among workers in non-asbestos textile manufacturing companies elsewhere.

  11. Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sanghyuk; Youn, Kan-Woo; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Myeoung-Jun; Choi, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; ① In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. ② High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea ③ An expert's determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. ④ Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert's judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. ⑤ Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

  12. Toxicity and mutagenesis of chrysotile asbestos to Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Naka, T; Sengoku, T; Ogawa, K

    2001-06-01

    The mutation of Agrobacterium radiobacter cells exposed to chrysotile asbestos was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Approximately 1.4 kbp of DNA in A. radiobacter, which was not amplified strongly in the cells that were not exposed to asbestos, was amplified in the cells that were exposed to asbestos. Mutation in genomic DNA of A. radiobacter was found to be induced by asbestos. Specific DNA that was amplified by asbestos present in PCR products and that which exists latently in genomic DNA were cloned, and these sequences were then determined and compared. It was shown that one of the mutations by the asbestos in the A. radiobacter occurred only in the primer annealed region and was a point mutation or deletion.

  13. Aging Exacerbates Pressure-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Mouse Cerebral Arteries.

    PubMed

    Springo, Zsolt; Tarantini, Stefano; Toth, Peter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that in addition to the increased prevalence of hypertension in old patients, the deleterious cerebrovascular effects of hypertension (including atherosclerosis, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment) are also exacerbated in elderly individuals. The cellular mechanisms by which aging and hypertension interact to promote cerebrovascular pathologies are not well understood. To test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates high pressure-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, we exposed isolated segments of the middle cerebral arteries of young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57BL/6 mice to 60 or 140 mmHg intraluminal pressure and assessed changes in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production using a mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive fluorescent indicator dye (MitoSox) by confocal microscopy. Perinuclear MitoSox fluorescence was significantly stronger in high pressure-exposed middle cerebral arteries compared with middle cerebral arteries of the same animals exposed to 60 mmHg, indicating that high pressure increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in the smooth muscle cells of cerebral arteries. Comparison of young and aged middle cerebral arteries showed that aging exacerbates high pressure-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in cerebral arteries. We propose that increased mechanosensitive mitochondrial oxidative stress may potentially exacerbate cerebrovascular injury and vascular inflammation in aging.

  14. Atherosclerosis, inflammation and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Giovanni; Giovino, Maria; Gullotti, Alessandro; Bacarella, Daniela; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the single most common cause of illness and death in the developed world. Coronary atherosclerosis is by far the most frequent cause of ischemic heart disease, and plaque disruption with superimposed thrombosis is the main cause of the acute coronary syndromes of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Atherosclerosis is the result of a complex interaction between blood elements, disturbed flow, and vessel wall abnormality, involving several pathological processes: inflammation, with increased endothelial permeability, endothelial activation, and monocyte recruitment; growth, with smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis; degeneration, with lipid accumulation; necrosis, possibly related to the cytotoxic effect of oxidized lipid; calcification/ossification, which may represent an active rather than a dystrophic process; and thrombosis, with platelet recruitment and fibrin formation. In this review we discuss these processes and the possible pathological effects of Chlamydia infection and the ensuing phlogosis. PMID:21160574

  15. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs) described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm) vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. EMPs release is triggered by inducer like angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there are multiple physiological pathways for EMPs generation like NADPH oxidase derived endothelial ROS formation, Rho kinase pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atheroemboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques, is a major cause of stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. This review aims to provide updated information of EMPs in relation to atherosclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:27066292

  16. Medroxyprogesterone acetate exacerbates glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon; Morales, Alison; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2006-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that progesterone functions as a neuroprotective agent whereas medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera) does not. Moreover, MPA antagonized the neuroprotective and neurotrophic outcomes induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Towards developing effective hormone therapies for protection against neurodegeneration, we sought to determine whether formulation, chemical features or prevention versus treatment mode of exposure affected the outcome of MPA treatment in survival of primary hippocampal neurons. Results of these analyses indicated that both crystalline MPA and a pharmaceutical formulation (Depo-Provera) lacked neuroprotective efficacy, indicating that the effects were not dependent upon MPA formulation. Likewise, MPA in the prevention and treatment paradigms were equally ineffective at promoting neuronal survival, indicating that timing of MPA administration was not a factor. Further, the detrimental effects of MPA were not due to the presence of the acetate group, as medroxyprogesterone was as ineffective as MPA in promoting neuronal survival. Moreover, MPA pretreatment exacerbated neuron death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity as indicated by a 40% increase in neuron death determined by direct live/dead cell count and a commensurate increase in the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling. Collectively these results predict that the progestin formulation of hormone therapy will affect the vulnerability of the central nervous system to degenerative insults.

  17. [Is regression of atherosclerosis possible?].

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Richard, J L; Emmerich, J; Bruckert, E; Delahaye, F

    1992-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown the regression of atherosclerosis in animals given a cholesterol-rich diet and then given a normal diet or hypolipidemic therapy. Despite favourable results of clinical trials of primary prevention modifying the lipid profile, the concept of atherosclerosis regression in man remains very controversial. The methodological approach is difficult: this is based on angiographic data and requires strict standardisation of angiographic views and reliable quantitative techniques of analysis which are available with image processing. Several methodologically acceptable clinical coronary studies have shown not only stabilisation but also regression of atherosclerotic lesions with reductions of about 25% in total cholesterol levels and of about 40% in LDL cholesterol levels. These reductions were obtained either by drugs as in CLAS (Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study), FATS (Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study) and SCOR (Specialized Center of Research Intervention Trial), by profound modifications in dietary habits as in the Lifestyle Heart Trial, or by surgery (ileo-caecal bypass) as in POSCH (Program On the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias). On the other hand, trials with non-lipid lowering drugs such as the calcium antagonists (INTACT, MHIS) have not shown significant regression of existing atherosclerotic lesions but only a decrease on the number of new lesions. The clinical benefits of these regression studies are difficult to demonstrate given the limited period of observation, relatively small population numbers and the fact that in some cases the subjects were asymptomatic. The decrease in the number of cardiovascular events therefore seems relatively modest and concerns essentially subjects who were symptomatic initially. The clinical repercussion of studies of prevention involving a single lipid factor is probably partially due to the reduction in progression and anatomical regression of the atherosclerotic plaque

  18. Asbestos lung burden and disease patterns in man

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.

    1993-12-31

    This article discusses the relationship between disease and asbestos burden in the human lung. The differences in this relationship for various types of asbestos are also discussed. Finally the outstanding issues in the field of asbestos research and disease are presented including the following: discrepancies between data derived from animal experiments, predictions based on mathematical models, and data derived from actual analysis of autopsied human lungs. 75 refs., 3 figs., 3 tab.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian-Xing; Niu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target. Data Sources: This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30, 2015. Articles were selected using the following search terms: “Intestinal microbiota”, “trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)”, “trimethylamine (TMA)”, “cardiovascular”, and “atherosclerosis”. Study Selection: Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis. Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included. Results: A new CVD risk factor, TMAO, was recently identified. It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota, resulting in TMA release. TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver. Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD, particularly atherosclerosis; however, the details of this relationship remain unclear. Conclusions: Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management. PMID:26481750

  20. Interventional strategies in early atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gattone, Marinella; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis remains clinically mute for a long time and frequently manifests itself with an acute cardiovascular event; therefore, the possibility to detect the disease in a subclinical phase and to reduce or reverse its progression is an issue of relevance. Non-invasive diagnostic procedures such as B-mode ultrasonography of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) allow to identify atherosclerotic disease in its early phases, to evaluate the disease progression and monitor the effects of interventions. In recent years, several therapeutic strategies have been adopted over time to slow early atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals at intermediate/high cardiovascular risk. Prospective trials employing multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation) have demonstrated a favorable effect on progression of atherosclerosis. Hence lifestyle modification may be an effective therapeutic strategy to be adopted as a first step and a highly cost-effective intervention in a preclinical setting involving a large number of individuals. Drugs should be considered as a second step or should be associated to further reduce the risk in individuals at high probability of future events, who require more intensive interventions. Reducing low-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure and platelet aggregation seems to be the most effective intervention in these subjects, whereas the treatment of emerging coronary risk factors, e.g. oxidative stress, inflammatory activation and infections has not produced the expected protective effect. PMID:17125046

  1. Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory condition with immune competent cells in lesions producing mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dead cells and oxidized forms of low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are abundant. The major direct cause of CVD appears to be rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. oxLDL has proinflammatory and immune-stimulatory properties, causes cell death at higher concentrations and contains inflammatory phospholipids with phosphorylcholine (PC) as an interesting epitope. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) may be atheroprotective, one mechanism being anti-inflammatory. Bacteria and virus have been discussed, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence, and antibiotic trials have not been successful. Heat shock proteins could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. To prove that inflammation is a cause of atherosclerosis and CVD, clinical studies with anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory treatment are needed. The potential causes of immune reactions and inflammation in atherosclerosis and how inflammation can be targeted therapeutically to provide novel treatments for CVD are reviewed. PMID:23635324

  2. South African experience with asbestos related environmental mesothelioma: is asbestos fiber type important?

    PubMed

    White, Neil; Nelson, Gill; Murray, Jill

    2008-10-01

    South Africa (SA), a country in which all three commercially important asbestos minerals have been mined and milled, has retained proven cases of mesothelioma linked with environmental exposure to asbestos. This study illustrates the importance of fiber type in the occurrence of environmental mesothelioma. Four studies have reviewed the source of occupational or environmental asbestos exposure in 504 histologically proven cases of mesothelioma in South Africa. One hundred and eighteen cases (23%) were thought to be related to environmental exposure to asbestos. In the vast majority of these cases, exposure was linked to crocidolite mining activities in the Northern Cape Province. Two cases were thought to have occurred in relation to amosite and Transvaal crocidolite exposure in the Limpopo Province. In the balance of cases there was some uncertainty. No cases were reported with exposure to South African chrysotile. Consequently, in the vast majority of cases of mesothelioma, environmental exposure to asbestos occurred in the Northern Cape Province, in proximity to mines, mills and dumps where crocidolite was processed. Crocidolite appears to be far more mesotheliomagenic than amosite, and chrysotile has not been implicated in the disease. This is true for both occupationally and environmentally exposed individuals.

  3. The global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-01-20

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs.

  4. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  5. The Global Health Dimensions of Asbestos and Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. PMID:27325079

  6. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned.

  7. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Asbestos and peritoneal mesothelioma among college-educated men.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Acherman, Yair I Z; Haile, Elizabeth; Sokas, Rosemary K; Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2005-01-01

    The proportion of peritoneal mesotheliomas among all mesotheliomas has been decreasing, leading some to suggest that peritoneal mesothelioma occurs only after high levels of exposure to asbestos. To investigate the relationship between asbestos exposure and the development of peritoneal mesothelioma, a case-control study examined 40 cases of primary peritoneal mesothelioma from a single institution. This series differed from previous reports in that 75% of the cases and controls had attended college. Results show an odds ratio of 6.6 for asbestos exposure among this group of primary peritoneal mesothelioma cases with relatively slight asbestos exposures.

  10. The relationship between lung cancer and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Okada, K

    1988-09-01

    This study supports the theory that asbestos exposure may be implicated in a recent upsurge of terminal lung cancer cases in Kure, Japan. The number of asbestos bodies found in the lung during autopsy of 158 subjects from 1984 to 1986 suggests that 70.4 percent of the 51 diagnosed lung cancer cases could be attributed to asbestos exposure. Of the 107 subjects in whom death was not caused by cancer, 38.4 percent had significant asbestos exposure. Types of asbestos bodies found in diagnosed lung cancer cases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analyzer. Chrysotile was the most widely found component, but amphiboles such as crocidolite and amosite also were detected. Residents of Kure had high exposure to the inhalation of asbestos bodies, possibly related to the upsurge in lung cancer deaths. In our earlier report, asbestos exposure was implicated in the increased incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Kure, an active Japanese ship-building port since the 1920s. Our current findings indicate that asbestos exposure may be a pathogenic factor in lung cancer in world seaports where asbestos exposure has been prevalent.

  11. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  12. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  13. Asbestos removal in the construction industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the impact of asbestos abatement on the construction industry. It is estimated that the cleanup effort may cost $100 billion over the next twenty five years. More than 733,000 structures, or twenty percent of U. S. commercial and public properties are believed to contain asbestos. Some of the material is in a friable state. This asbestos is crumbling into microscopic fibers that can float in through the air. The use of asbestos was restricted after high doses of its fibers were found to scar lungs, causing cancer and other diseases. Construction businesses use 50 percent of the U. S. supply of asbestos in asbestos cement pipes, sheets, siding shingles, floor tiles, coatings, and sealants. Some 29,000 workers install asbestos insulation during building construction. Other estimates of exposed workers include 20,400 in demolition, 67,800 in abatement, 82,500 in general building renovation, 135,700 doing routine maintenance in buildings, and 183,200 in routine maintenance in general industry. The demand for asbestos removal services exceeds the ability of the industry to supply it safely. Asbestos management and removal are major issues for the construction industry world wide.

  14. Chlor-alkali producers evaluate safer alternatives to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Stadig, W.

    1993-03-01

    Until recently, 75% of all US capacity for producing chlor-alkali - more than 40% of the world's capacity - has used asbestos diaphragm-cell technology. Although the Environmental Protection Agency continues to exempt asbestos use in diaphragms from restrictions, producers are considering alternatives. In Germany, stringent regulations will ban asbestos in chlor-alkali production after 1994. Heavy fines were levied recently against some chlor-alkali producers in the United States when EPA inspectors found asbestos fibers in cell renewal areas. Restrictions on the mining of asbestos raise the cost of obtaining adequate amounts of high-quality asbestos and gradually raise the cost of transporting and discarding spent diaphragms. Two alternatives are to use newly developed, non-asbestos diaphragms or to convert to existing ion-exchange membrane-cell technology. Only the former seems economical in the United States. The non-asbestos diaphragm is based on an inorganic polymer composite developed in 1988 as an asbestos substitute. The composite received Du Pont's Plunkett Award for Innovation with Teflon[trademark], landed on the National Development Association's 1991 Honor Roll and became a 1991 R D 100 Award winner. 6 figs.

  15. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  16. Survival of asbestos insulation workers with mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J

    1992-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a lethal disease. It is rare in the general population; however, workers exposed to asbestos suffer significant burdens of the neoplasm. The survival time of 457 consecutive fatal cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma that occurred among 17,800 asbestos insulation workers observed prospectively from 1 January 1967 to 1 January 1987 was studied. Mean survival time from initial presentation of the disease to death was 11.4 months for the pleural mesothelioma patients compared with 7.4 months for the peritoneal group. This difference was statistically significant. Mean survival time from diagnosis to death was shorter for both groups of patients: 8.4 months for pleural mesothelioma v 5.8 months for the peritoneal cases. In conclusion, survival time in mesothelioma patients is short; most die within a year from the onset of the initial symptoms. No effective therapy is yet available. PMID:1419863

  17. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Ohwada, H; Ishibashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tamiya, N; Yamaguchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    A 71 year old man was admitted for the purpose of diagnosis of a right solitary pulmonary nodule. The size of the nodule was 18 x 18 mm in diameter 2 years ago, but it has become large, 25 x 25 mm in diameter. The nodule was resected by thoracotomy. Microscopically, eosinophilic amorphous, acellular substances were surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates. It stained with Congo red stain and showed green birefringence with polarizing microscopy. Amyloid fibrils were observed electron microscopically. Asbestos bodies were observed in the lung parenchyma around the nodule. This case shows that a nodule in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can grow gradually and suggests the possibility of asbestos fibers as one of the etiologic factors in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. PMID:10846552

  18. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Miserocchi, G; Sancini, G; Mantegazza, F; Chiappino, Gerolamo

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption) and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric) pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation) wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation). Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots) reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow) and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability) while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier). Ultrafine fibers (length < 5 mum, diameter < 0.25 mum) can travel larger distances due to low steric hindrance (in mesothelioma about 90% of fibers are ultrafine). Fibers translocation is a slow process developing over decades of life: it is aided by high biopersistence, by inflammation-induced increase in permeability, by low steric

  19. Asbestos-induced decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, M.K.; Roman-Franco, A.A.; Quiles, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Decomposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ by chrysotile asbestos was demonstrated employing titration with KMnO/sub 4/. The participation of OH radicals in this process was delineated employing the OH radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A mechanism involving the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions as the pathway for the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ decomposition and OH radical production is postulated.

  20. Inspection In Overhead Spaces Containing Asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jacque; Hartwick, George; Hutcherson, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for inspection in spaces above dropped ceilings that contain asbestos saves time and effort without sacrificing safety. With new method, only items of safety equipment needed are glove bag, storage bag, and roll of adhesive tape. Inspector tapes glove bag tightly to support grid around ceiling tile to be removed. With hands in gloves inspector lifts tile gently and places it aside. Extending head and shoulders into bag, inspector examines space above ceiling with help of flashlight.

  1. Lung sounds in asbestos induced pulmonary disorders.

    PubMed

    Piirilä, P; Lehtola, H; Zitting, A; Kivisaari, L; Koskinen, H; Luukkonen, R; Salo, S P; Vehmas, T; Nordman, H; Sovijärvi, A R

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the lung sounds in patients with asbestos related pulmonary disorders with findings in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and with lung function variables, in order to find out associations of acoustic changes with radiological fibrosis, emphysema or with pulmonary gas transfer functions. Sixty-four patients with asbestos-related pleural disease, with or without pulmonary disease, were studied. Lung sound recording and analysis was carried out with a computerized lung sound analyser, and HRCT of the chest, as well as forced spirometry and diffusing capacity measurement were performed. The fibrosis score correlated positively with the quartile frequencies of the power spectrum of lung sounds in inspiration (f50) and expiration (f50) and crackle count in inspiration, as well as negatively with diffusing capacity. When the patients with crackling sounds and significant fibrosis were excluded (n=18), emphysema correlated negatively with expiratory quartile frequencies of the power spectrum, with f25 and f50. Furthermore, diffusing capacity correlated with inspiratory f25 and forced expiratory volume in one second with inspiratory f50 when crackles and fibrosis were excluded. Changes in lung sounds were significantly associated with radiologically verified abnormalities and gas transfer of pulmonary tissue. High sound frequencies were associated with fibrotic changes of the lung while low sound frequencies with pulmonary emphysema. Acoustic analysis gives complementary clinical information for evaluation of asbestos-related pulmonary disorders. PMID:11153590

  2. [Ordinary epidemiology: pleural mesothelioma and asbestos].

    PubMed

    Bonazzina, R; Azara, M; Gianera, A; Cannatelli, P; Zocchetti, C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a practical experience which took place in a Health District of the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy). This experience was motivated by the publication, on a newspaper, of the results of an epidemiological study which reported the nationwide geographical distribution of the mortality data for pleural mesothelioma during the period 1980-1987. The presence of excesses of pleural mesothelioma cases in two municipalities of Health District captured the attention of some field operators which decided to start working on the topic. Using all information available in the District all cases of pleural mesothelioma occurring during the period 1978-1993 in the two municipalities were identified; possible sources of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure in the area were identified; and the next-of-kin of the cases was interviewed so as to gain information on the history of possible exposure to asbestos of the cases. For thirteen (out of seventeen) deaths the next-of-kin accepted to be interviewed and for them results are reported: the information presented describes gender, smoking habits, and an evaluation of the potential for exposure to asbestos both of occupational and environmental origin. We discuss the value importance of the experience, with particular emphasis on: a) the routine activities of the Services participating in the study; b) the resources employed; c) the use of epidemiological methods and tools; d) the primary prevention activities originated in the area; e) the personal motivations hat such experiences are capable to convey.

  3. Decomposition of chrysotile asbestos by fluorosulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Sabatini, R.; Petrakis, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a fluorosulfonic acid (FSO{sub 3}H) aqueous solution on decomposing the chrysotile asbestos fibers was investigated by using FT-IR, XRD, and XPS. From the equilibrium of FSO{sub 3}H in an aqueous medium (FSO{sub 3}H + H{sub 2}O = HF + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), the resulting H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had a strong affinity for the external Mg(OH){sub 2} layers in the tubular, scroll-like chrysotile structure. This acid-base reaction led to the precipitation and lixiviation of MgSO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, MgO, and Mg{sup 2+} ion. Once the breakage of the outer Mg(OH){sub 2} layers occurred, HF readily diffused into the inner silicious layers and then reacted with silicates, converting them into SiO{sub 2} hydrate and H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}, while the ionic reaction between lixiviated Mg{sup 2+} and F{sup {minus}} resulted in precipitating MgF{sub 2}, thereby destroying the fibrous nature of the asbestos. An optimum combination of HF and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} contributed significantly to enhancing the rate of conversion of asbestos into nonfibrous materials in a short treatment time without any physical agitation.

  4. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Disease; Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus

  5. Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-12

    Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebral Arteriosclerosis; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Ischemia; Atherosclerosis

  6. Effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid on the risk of arsenic-associated carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.-M.; Chiou, H.-Y. . E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Hong, C.-T.; Su, C.-L.; Chang, S.-F.; Huang, W.-L.; Wang, H.-T.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-J.

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic-contaminated well water has been shown to increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Because of involving S-adenosylmethionine, homocysteine may modify the risk by interfering with the biomethylation of ingested arsenic. In this study, we assessed the effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) on the risk of atherosclerosis associated with arsenic. In total, 163 patients with carotid atherosclerosis and 163 controls were studied. Lifetime cumulative arsenic exposure from well water for study subjects was measured as index of arsenic exposure. Homocysteine level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proportion of MMA{sup V} (MMA%) was calculated by dividing with total arsenic species in urine, including arsenite, arsenate, MMA{sup V}, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). Results of multiple linear regression analysis show a positive correlation of plasma homocysteine levels to the cumulative arsenic exposure after controlling for atherosclerosis status and nutritional factors (P < 0.05). This correlation, however, did not change substantially the effect of arsenic exposure on the risk of atherosclerosis as analyzed in a subsequent logistic regression model. Logistic regression analyses also show that elevated plasma homocysteine levels did not confer an independent risk for developing atherosclerosis in the study population. However, the risk of having atherosclerosis was increased to 5.4-fold (95% CI, 2.0-15.0) for the study subjects with high MMA% ({>=}16.5%) and high homocysteine levels ({>=}12.7 {mu}mol/l) as compared to those with low MMA% (<9.9%) and low homocysteine levels (<12.7 {mu}mol/l). Elevated homocysteinemia may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure in individuals with high levels of MMA% in urine.

  7. Asbestos and cancer: An overview of current trends in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Magnani, C; Krstev, S; Rapiti, E; Shefer, I

    1999-01-01

    This review assesses the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure to the occurrence of mesothelioma and lung cancer in Europe. Available information on national asbestos consumption, proportions of the population exposed, and exposure levels is summarized. Population-based studies from various European regions on occupational asbestos exposure, mesothelioma, and lung cancer are reviewed. Asbestos consumption in 1994 ranged, per capita, between 0. 004 kg in northern Europe and 2.4 kg in the former Soviet Union. Population surveys from northern Europe indicate that 15 to 30% of the male (and a few percent of the female) population has ever had occupational exposure to asbestos, mainly in construction (75% in Finland) or in shipyards. Studies on mesothelioma combining occupational history with biologic exposure indices indicate occupational asbestos exposure in 62 to 85% of the cases. Population attributable risks for lung cancer among males range between 2 and 50% for definite asbestos exposure. After exclusion of the most extreme values because of methodologic aspects, most of the remaining estimates are within the range of 10 to 20%. Estimates of women are lower. Extrapolation of the results to national figures would decrease the estimates. Norwegian estimates indicate that one-third of expected asbestos-related lung cancers might be avoided if former asbestos workers quit smoking. The combination of a current high asbestos consumption per capita, high exposure levels, and high underlying lung cancer rates in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union suggests that the lung cancers will arise from the smoking-asbestos interaction should be a major concern. PMID:10350513

  8. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-04-24

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI.

  9. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause signs and symptoms ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Feng; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Kou, Yu Ru; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is associated with atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease complications, but we lack direct evidence of its unfavorable effect on atherogenesis. In this study, we aimed to clarify in vivo and in vitro the contribution of DEHP to the development of atherosclerosis and its underlying mechanisms. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice chronically treated with DEHP for 4 weeks showed exacerbated hyperlipidemia, systemic inflammation, and atherosclerosis. In addition, DEHP promoted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, which led to inflammation in endothelial cells as evidenced by increased protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, chronic DEHP treatment increased hepatic cholesterol accumulation by downregulating the protein expression of key regulators in cholesterol clearance including LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydrolase, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5 and G8, and liver X receptor α. Moreover, the adiposity and inflammation of white adipose tissues were promoted in DEHP-treated apoE(-/-) mice. In conclusion, DEHP may disturb cholesterol homeostasis and deregulate the inflammatory response, thus leading to accelerated atherosclerosis.

  11. Deficiency of Glycine N-Methyltransferase Aggravates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E–Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Ching, Li-Chieh; Liao, Yi-Jen; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tsou, Chia-Yuan; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in atherogenesis is not understood fully. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) has been implicated in hepatic lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, little is known about the significance of GNMT in atherosclerosis. We showed the predominant expression of GNMT in foamy macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic aortas. Genetic deletion of GNMT exacerbated the hyperlipidemia, inflammation and development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. In addition, ablation of GNMT in macrophages aggravated oxidized low-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells by downregulating the expression of reverse cholesterol transporters including ATP-binding cassette transporters-A1 and G1 and scavenger receptor BI. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α–induced inflammatory response was promoted in GNMT-null macrophages. Collectively, our data suggest that GNMT is a crucial regulator in cholesterol metabolism and in inflammation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This finding may reveal a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. PMID:22415010

  12. H. R. 5369: a bill to require asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Asbestos Information Act of 1986 requires asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. It also requires owners of buildings containing asbestos to inspect the buildings and take samples of asbestos before initiating civil actions aimed at recovering costs or seeking relief relating to the presence, abatement, or management of asbestos or asbestos-containing material. The information developed under the analysis must accompany any civil action.

  13. Oxyradical Stress, Endocannabinoids, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anberitha T.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is caused by several factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic inflammation. Oxidants and electrophiles have roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the concentrations of these reactive molecules are an important factor in disease initiation and progression. Overactive NADPH oxidase (Nox) produces excess superoxide resulting in oxidized macromolecules, which is an important factor in atherogenesis. Although superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have obvious toxic properties, they also have fundamental roles in signaling pathways that enable cells to adapt to stress. In addition to inflammation and ROS, the endocannabinoid system (eCB) is also important in atherogenesis. Linkages have been postulated between the eCB system, Nox, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis. For instance, CB2 receptor-evoked signaling has been shown to upregulate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways, whereas CB1 signaling appears to induce opposite effects. The second messenger lipid molecule diacylglycerol is implicated in the regulation of Nox activity and diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ) is a key biosynthetic enzyme in the biosynthesis eCB ligand 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). Furthermore, Nrf2 is a vital transcription factor that protects against the cytotoxic effects of both oxidant and electrophile stress. This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intracellular signaling and the impact of deregulated ROS-mediated signaling in atherogenesis. In addition, there is also emerging knowledge that the eCB system has an important role in atherogenesis. We will attempt to integrate oxidative stress and the eCB system into a conceptual framework that provides insights into this pathology. PMID:26702404

  14. ABC transporters, atherosclerosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Michael L; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2010-08-01

    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangier disease, loss of ABCA1 prevents cells from exporting cholesterol and phospholipid, thus resulting in the build-up of cholesterol in the peripheral tissues and a loss of circulating HDL. Consistent with HDL being an athero-protective particle, Tangier patients are more prone to develop atherosclerosis. Likewise, sitosterolemia is another inherited syndrome associated with premature atherosclerosis. Here mutations in either the ABCG5 or G8 loci, prevents hepatocytes and enterocytes from excreting cholesterol and plant sterols, including sitosterol, into the bile and intestinal lumen. Thus, ABCG5 and G8, which from a heterodimer, constitute a transporter that excretes cholesterol and dietary sterols back into the gut, while ABCA1 functions to export excess cell cholesterol and phospholipid during the biogenesis of HDL. Interestingly, a third protein, ABCG1, that has been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic activity in mice, may also act to transfer cholesterol to mature HDL particles. Here we review the relationship between the lipid transport activities of these proteins and their anti-atherosclerotic effect, particularly how they may reduce inflammatory signaling pathways. Of particular interest are recent reports that indicate both ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate cell surface cholesterol levels and inhibit its partitioning into lipid rafts. Given lipid rafts may provide platforms for innate immune receptors to respond to inflammatory signals, it follows that loss of ABCA1 and ABCG1

  15. Pulmonary Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary exacerbations treated with intravenous antibiotics have significant, well-characterized negative consequences on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF). The impact of milder exacerbations in children with CF, commonly treated with oral antibiotics, are less well defined. Pulmonary exacerbations have multiple triggers, but viral infections are particularly common in children. Children with CF and healthy control subjects have similar frequencies of viral respiratory infections, but there is evidence of greater virus-related morbidity in patients with CF, likely due to a combination of increased viral load, more pronounced inflammatory response, and more pronounced impairment in mucociliary clearance. In recent clinical trials in children, definitions have been used that are more symptom based rather than intervention based. These studies have demonstrated differences in the spectrum of symptoms between children and older patients but have also shown that, despite low threshold definitions, a considerable number of patients receive treatment for events not fulfilling the pulmonary exacerbation criteria. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of these milder exacerbations on lung function recovery and time to subsequent exacerbation as well as long-term outcomes such as mortality. PMID:26595740

  16. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy.

  17. Incidence of pulmonary embolism during COPD exacerbation*, **

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hoşgün, Derya; Akpýnar, Serdar; Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Doğanay, Beyza; Gülhan, Meral

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because pulmonary embolism (PE) and COPD exacerbation have similar presentations and symptoms, PE can be overlooked in COPD patients. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of PE during COPD exacerbation and to describe the clinical aspects in COPD patients diagnosed with PE. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at a university hospital in the city of Ankara, Turkey. We included all COPD patients who were hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of COPD between May of 2011 and May of 2013. All patients underwent clinical risk assessment, arterial blood gas analysis, chest CT angiography, and Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities. In addition, we measured D-dimer levels and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels. RESULTS: We included 172 patients with COPD. The prevalence of PE was 29.1%. The patients with pleuritic chest pain, lower limb asymmetry, and high NT-pro-BNP levels were more likely to develop PE, as were those who were obese or immobile. Obesity and lower limb asymmetry were independent predictors of PE during COPD exacerbation (OR = 4.97; 95% CI, 1.775-13.931 and OR = 2.329; 95% CI, 1.127-7.105, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PE in patients with COPD exacerbation was higher than expected. The association between PE and COPD exacerbation should be considered, especially in patients who are immobile or obese. PMID:24626268

  18. Iron homeostasis in the lung following asbestos exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to asbestos can cause a wide variety of pulmonary diseases, including pneumoconiosis (i.e., asbestosis). This lung injury is mediated by oxidant generation which increases with the concentration of iron associated with the asbestos. Iron from host sources is comple...

  19. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  20. The Role of Gatekeepers in the Asbestos Awareness Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freimuth, Vicki S.; Van Nevel, J. Paul

    The role of news media as gatekeepers controlling the flow of information that the public receives was explored during the 1978 Asbestos Awareness campaign conducted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). In an effort to inform high risk workers and the general public about the health hazards associated with asbestos exposure,…

  1. Gene-asbestos interaction in malignant pleural mesothelioma susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Sara; Ferrante, Daniela; Mirabelli, Dario; Andorno, Silvano; Betti, Marta; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma; Magnani, Corrado

    2015-10-01

    Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare aggressive tumor. Nevertheless, on average less than 10% of subjects highly exposed to asbestos develop MPM, suggesting the possible involvement of other risk factors. To identify the genetic factors that may modulate the risk of MPM, we conducted a gene-environment interaction analysis including asbestos exposure and 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified through a genome-wide association study on Italian subjects. In the present study, we assessed gene-asbestos interaction on MPM risk using relative excess risk due to interaction and synergy index for additive interaction and V index for multiplicative interaction. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) analyses were also performed. Positive deviation from additivity was found for six SNPs (rs1508805, rs2501618, rs4701085, rs4290865, rs10519201, rs763271), and four of them (rs1508805, rs2501618, rs4701085, rs10519201) deviated also from multiplicative models. However, after Bonferroni correction, deviation from multiplicative model was still significant for rs1508805 and rs4701085 only. GMDR analysis showed a strong MPM risk due to asbestos exposure and suggested a possible synergistic effect between asbestos exposure and rs1508805, rs2501618 and rs5756444. Our results suggested that gene-asbestos interaction may play an additional role on MPM susceptibility, given that asbestos exposure appears as the main risk factor.

  2. Epidemiology of occupational asbestos-related diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, S X; Zhang, C H; Zhang, X; Morinaga, K

    2001-04-01

    In 1950s and 60s, asbestosis had been a major health hazard for asbestos exposed workers. In the late 1970s, lung cancers with or without asbestosis were found among asbestos workers. All cohort studies on asbestos workers and on chrysotile miners in China showed excess deaths from lung cancer. In a large scale of cohort study on asbestos workers, a synergistic effect was found between cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure in the production of lung cancer. There have been not so many cases of malignant mesotheliomas reported, so far. In the cohort of chrysotile miners, 4 cases of pleural mesothelioma were observed. In the large scale of cohort study on asbestos workers in 9 factories using only chrysotile only one case of pleural mesothelioma was detected for 10 years' observation. In another 2 cohort studies, 2 cases of peritoneal mesotheliomas were found, one in Shanghai asbestos factory where a small amount of crocidolite had been used in 1960s, and one in Anqing asbestos factory that was located near tremolite mine. Further study is needed especially for the relationship between exposure to Chinese chrysotile and malignant mesotheliomas.

  3. Malignant mesothelioma: global incidence and relationship with asbestos.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2007-06-01

    Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The highest annual crude incidence rates (about 30 cases per million) are observed in Australia, Belgium, and Great Britain. A lot of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos. The hot areas for mesothelioma exactly correspond to the sites of industries with high asbestos use, such as shipbuilding and asbestos-cement industry. However, in many countries with high asbestos consumption, mesothelioma incidence is low. The reasons for this fact are not clear. The latency periods elapsing between first exposure to asbestos and development of mesothelioma are mostly longer than 40 yr. An inverse relationship exists between intensity of asbestos exposure and length of the latency period. Mesothelioma generally develops after long-time exposures to asbestos. Some recent studies show that the risk increases with the duration of exposure. Possible co-factors in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related mesothelioma include genetic predisposition, diets poor in fruit and vegetables, viruses, immune impairment, recurrent serosal inflammation. The study of co-morbidity in mesothelioma could give an insight into the pathogenesis of the tumor. While a levelling-off in mesothelioma incidence has been registered in some countries, a worsening of the epidemic is predictable in large parts of the world.

  4. Fungal weathering of asbestos in semi arid regions of India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; John, P J; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    The science of Geomicrobiology, which deals with mineral- microbe interaction in nature contributes effectively to three important processes namely- mineral and metal bioremediation, biomining and soil mineral formation by microbes. Bioremediation one of the important process of the above, degrades or transforms hazardous contaminants to less toxic compounds. Several groups of fungi have proved highly efficient in this aspect, with asbestos being one such toxic entity in the environment on which their activity was studied. The present investigation uses the same tool as a device for detoxifying asbestos, a potent carcinogenic entity; with fungal isolates native to the asbestos mines of Rajasthan, India, being investigated for the first time. The cellular mechanism of asbestos toxicity is mainly attributed to the presence of iron in its chemical composition which catalyzes generation of free radicals leading to oxidation of biomolecules. The two dominant novel species found therein, identified as Aspergillus tubingenesis and Coemansia reversa have proved capable of actively removing iron from asbestos fibers as studied by scanning electron microscopy- electron diffraction X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. This probably could lead to a reduction in toxicity of asbestos, due to reduced iron concentration as reported in related studies. Many fungi are known to release iron chelating compounds, siderophores, which could be instrumental in the study. The findings related to two new fungal species being added to the list of earlier identified fungal bioremediators of asbestos, widens the prospect of using bioremediation as an effective tool for asbestos detoxification.

  5. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  6. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by specific…

  7. Bidding Documents for Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    All relevant specifications and forms for the removal of asbestos from Oklahoma public buildings are consolidated in this document. The specifications cover the entire procedure for asbestos removal beginning with solicitation for bids; contractor's responsibilities concerning date of completion, general cleanup, laying out work, wage scale, and…

  8. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  9. The Continuing Problem of Asbestos in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the significant health problems caused by asbestos materials in school buildings throughout the United States in general and in New York in particular. Describes state and federal statutes and the financial problems that result in noncompliance and argues for available federal funding for asbestos inspection and mandatory removal. (MLF)

  10. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  11. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  12. Cholesterol-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Aggravated by Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hong Seog; Lee, Yong Jik; Kim, Hyun Hee; Son, Hyun-Hwa; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-01-01

    Although triglyceride accumulation in the liver causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hypercholesterolemia is also a main cause of NAFLD as well as atherosclerosis. However, NAFLD and atherosclerosis have not been investigated simultaneously in animal models fed a high-cholesterol diet. Moreover, it is unclear whether systemic inflammation can exacerbate both pathologies in the same model. Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of additional systemic inflammation on NAFLD and atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol overload in wild animals. New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 4 groups: groups I (control) and II received normal chow, and groups III and IV received a 1% cholesterol diet. To induce inflammation via toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling, groups II and IV received subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mL of 1% carrageenan every 3 weeks. After 3 months, total cholesterol markedly increased in groups III and IV, and the serum expressions of systemic inflammatory markers were elevated in the groups II–IV. Early NAFLD lesions (e.g., mild fatty changes in the liver with sporadic fibrosis) and atherosclerosis (e.g., intimal hyperplasia composed of foam cells) were observed in both the liver and aorta specimens from group III, and advanced lesions were observed in group IV. The expressions of inflammatory cellular receptors, TLR-2 and TLR-4, in the aorta gradually increased from group I to IV but were similar in the liver in groups II–IV. Cholesteryl ester (CE) levels were higher in group IV than in group III, although the difference was not significant. CE levels in the aorta were similar between groups III and IV. Systemic inflammation can simultaneously exacerbate existing early lesions due to cholesterol overload in both the liver and aorta of rabbits. However, the cellular response of inflammatory receptors and expression of cholesterol metabolites differ between these organs. PMID:24901254

  13. Therapeutic approaches to drug targets in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Chandak, Prakash G.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.; Barde, Sonal R.; Tidke, Priti S.; Sakhare, Ram S.

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes are responsible for major social and health burden as millions of people are dying every year. Out of which, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. The lipid abnormality is one of the major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. Both genetic and environmental components are associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Immune and inflammatory mediators have a complex role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding of all these processes will help to invent a range of new biomarkers and novel treatment modalities targeting various cellular events in acute and chronic inflammation that are accountable for atherosclerosis. Several biochemical pathways, receptors and enzymes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis that would be possible targets for improving strategies for disease diagnosis and management. Earlier anti-inflammatory or lipid-lowering treatments could be useful for alleviating morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, novel drug targets like endoglin receptor, PPARα, squalene synthase, thyroid hormone analogues, scavenger receptor and thyroid hormone analogues are more powerful to control the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the review briefly focuses on different novel targets that act at the starting stage of the plaque form to the thrombus formation in the atherosclerosis. PMID:25061401

  14. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  15. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  16. Asbestos in schools: low marks for government action

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    The problem of asbestos in the US public schools gives every indication of being one of the most pervasive issues in the area of toxic torts in the years to come. The health hazards caused by exposure to asbestos result in a host of wide-ranging environmental, political, and legal questions of every grade and order, many of which have not been finally determined. For the most part, the attention has been on asbestos as the cause of some occupational diseases and has specifically centered on the exposure of asbestos workers who inhaled the fibers. This article will outline another subject upon which increased focus may reasonably be expected: the significant health problems, the full impact of which will not be felt for years to come, caused by the presence of asbestos materials in American schools. 41 references.

  17. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  18. Detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, N; Kashimura, K; Hashiguchi, M; Sato, M; Horikoshi, S; Mitani, T; Shinohara, N

    2015-03-01

    The detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was investigated through simulations and experiments. The permittivities of pure CaO and Mg3Si4O12, as quasi-asbestos materials, were measured using the cavity perturbation method. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ɛr' and ɛr″) of CaO are functions of temperature, and numerical simulations revealed the thermal distributions in an electromagnetic field with respect to both asbestos shape and material configuration based on permittivity. Optical microscopic observation revealed that the thickness of chrysotile fibers decreased as a result of CaO heating. The heating mechanism of asbestos materials has been determined using CaO phase, and the detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was discussed based on the heating mechanism.

  19. Asbestos in public hospitals: are employees at risk?

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Postlethwait, Edward; Delzell, Elizabeth; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Oestenstad, R Kent

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is an established human carcinogen. Asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) are used in surfacing materials, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous materials, and they have been used in buildings in Jamaica in the past. The objective of the study described here was to identify ACBM, its characteristics, and its determinants in Jamaican hospitals. A walk-through survey of all hospitals was undertaken and 152 bulk samples were collected from 26 public and private hospitals. The samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Sixteen (61.5%) hospitals had ACBM used mainly as TSI. The ACBM in most cases was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fiber release and contained the fibers chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. The age of hospitals was not associated with the presence of ACBM. Results indicated potential risk of asbestos exposure in hospitals. The hospital authorities should formulate and implement an asbestos policy for hospitals and undertake proper management of asbestos in all hospitals.

  20. Increases in endogenous antioxidant enzymes during asbestos inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Y M; Marsh, J P; Absher, M; Borm, P J; Mossman, B T

    1990-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pulmonary damage is still not completely understood, an important role has been attributed to active oxygen species. In the present paper we present results of a study investigating the effect of crocidolite asbestos inhalation on different lung antioxidant enzymes in rats. During the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by crocidolite asbestos, lung superoxide dismutase, catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities increased, indicating an adaptive response to increased pulmonary oxidant stress. However, this adaptive response obviously is not sufficient to protect the lung from asbestos-induced pulmonary damage. Considering the role of active oxygen species in both the fibrotic process and tumor promotion, it is hypothesized that antioxidants may also protect the lung from chronic asbestos-induced pulmonary damage such as bronchogenic carcinoma. PMID:1963619

  1. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet... asbestos, Portland cement, silica, and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  2. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  3. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet... asbestos, Portland cement, silica, and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  4. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Rule (40 CFR part 763, Subpart E; applicable State and local...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C.... Definitions For purposes of Appendix C: 1. “Friable asbestos-containing material (ACM)” means any...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Rule (40 CFR part 763, Subpart E; applicable State and local...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C.... Definitions For purposes of Appendix C: 1. “Friable asbestos-containing material (ACM)” means any...

  7. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk, and there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. Asbestos cancer victims die painful lingering deaths. These deaths are almost entirely preventable. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, the concerned parties, including the Collegium Ramazzini, called for a universal ban on the mining, manufacture and use of asbestos in all countries around the world. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries, and safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos continues to be permitted, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. To protect the health of all people in the world--industrial workers, construction workers, women and children, now and in future generations--the Collegium Ramazzini calls again today on all countries of the world, as we have repeatedly in the past, to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed. PMID:20682491

  8. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  9. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  10. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  11. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  12. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  13. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  14. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  15. 40 CFR 436.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. 436.70 Section 436.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Asbestos and Wollastonite Subcategory § 436.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of asbestos...

  16. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  17. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  18. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  19. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  20. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  1. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  2. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  3. Double standards: the multinational asbestos industry and asbestos-related disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Jock; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This study documents and contrasts the development of knowledge about asbestos-related disease (ARD) in South Africa and the United Kingdom. It also contributes to the globalization debate by exploring corporate decision-making in a multinational industry. Between the 1930s and 1960s, the leading U.K. asbestos companies developed a sophisticated knowledge of ARD, though in South Africa, where the leading companies such as Turner & Newall and Cape Asbestos owned mines, there was little attempt to apply this knowledge. Asbestos mines (and their environments) in South Africa were uniquely dusty and ARD was rife. Social and political factors in South Africa, especially apartheid, allowed these companies to apply double standards, even after 1960 when the much more serious hazard of mesothelioma was identified. This shows the need for greater regulation of multinationals. Because of the lack of such regulation in the early 1960s, an opportunity was lost to prevent the current high morbidity and mortality of ARD both in South Africa and worldwide.

  4. Occupational exposure to asbestos and mortality among asbestos removal workers: a Poisson regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Frost, G; Harding, A-H; Darnton, A; McElvenny, D; Morgan, D

    2008-09-01

    The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient deaths were obtained from Poisson regression. Risk factors considered included dust suppression technique, type of respirator used, hours spent stripping, smoking status and exposure length. Deaths were elevated for all causes (SMR 123, 95% CI 119-127, n=985), all cancers including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and circulatory disease. There were no significant differences between suppression techniques and respirator types. Spending more than 40 h per week stripping rather than less than 10, increased mortality risk from all causes (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), circulatory disease and ischaemic heart disease. Elevated mesothelioma risks were observed for those first exposed at young ages or exposed for more than 30 years. This study is a first step in assessing long-term mortality of asbestos removal workers in relation to working practices and asbestos exposure. Further follow-up will allow the impact of recent regulations to be assessed.

  5. Quantification of carotid vessel atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. D.; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the development of plaques in the arterial wall, which ultimately leads to heart attacks and stroke. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to screen patients' carotid arteries. Plaque measurements obtained from these images may aid in the management and monitoring of patients, and in evaluating the effect of new treatment options. Different types of measures for ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been proposed. Here, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze changes in carotid plaque morphology from 3D US images obtained at two different time points. We evaluated our technique using manual segmentations of the wall and lumen of the carotid artery from images acquired in two US scanning sessions. To incorporate the effect of intraobserver variability in our evaluation, manual segmentation was performed five times each for the arterial wall and lumen. From this set of five segmentations, the mean wall and lumen surfaces were reconstructed, with the standard deviation at each point mapped onto the surfaces. A correspondence map between the mean wall and lumen surfaces was then established, and the thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque at each point in the vessel was estimated to be the distance between each correspondence pairs. The two-sample Student's t-test was used to judge whether the difference between the thickness values at each pair corresponding points of the arteries in the two 3D US images was statistically significant.

  6. Role of LCAT in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Simonelli, Sara; Vitali, Cecilia; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the only enzyme capable of esterifying cholesterol in plasma, thus determining the maturation of high-density lipoproteins. Because it maintains an unesterified cholesterol gradient between peripheral cells and extracellular acceptors, for a long time, LCAT has been considered as a key enzyme in reverse cholesterol transport. However, despite the fact that it has been more than 50 years since the identification of LCAT, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still debated. A number of studies have been conducted in different animal models, with contradictory results. Studies in humans, in particular in the general population, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, and in carriers of genetic LCAT deficiency in an excellent model to evaluate the correlation between the reduction of LCAT activity and atherosclerosis also gave conflicting results. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the controversial findings obtained in animals and humans, strengthening the necessity of further investigation to establish how LCAT could be regulated in a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:26607351

  7. The roles of macrophage autophagy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bo-zong; Han, Bin-ze; Zeng, Yan-xia; Su, Ding-feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Although various types of drugs and therapies are available to treat atherosclerosis, it remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Macrophages are the major source of foam cells, which are hallmarks of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently, the roles of macrophages in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis are increasingly investigated. Autophagy is a self-protecting cellular catabolic pathway. Since its discovery, autophagy has been found to be associated with a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, and immune system disorders. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, and in promoting efferocytosis and cholesterol efflux. These facts suggest the induction of autophagy may be exploited as a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we mainly discuss the relationship between macrophage autophagy and atherosclerosis and the molecular mechanisms, as well as the recent advances in targeting the process of autophagy to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26750103

  8. Vasa vasorum in atherosclerosis and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyan; Lu, Xiaotong; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to several acute cardiovascular complications with poor prognosis. For decades, the role of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis has received broad attention. The presence of VV neovascularization precedes the apparent symptoms of clinical atherosclerosis. VV also mediates inflammatory cell infiltration, intimal thickening, intraplaque hemorrhage, and subsequent atherothrombosis that results in stroke or myocardial infarction. Intraplaque neovessels originating from VV can be immature and hence susceptible to leakage, and are thus regarded as the leading cause of intraplaque hemorrhage. Evidence supports VV as a new surrogate target of atherosclerosis evaluation and treatment. This review provides an overview into the relationship between VV and atherosclerosis, including the anatomy and function of VV, the stimuli of VV neovascularization, and the available underlying mechanisms that lead to poor prognosis. We also summarize translational researches on VV imaging modalities and potential therapies that target VV neovascularization or its stimuli.

  9. Vasa Vasorum in Atherosclerosis and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Lu, Xiaotong; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to several acute cardiovascular complications with poor prognosis. For decades, the role of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis has received broad attention. The presence of VV neovascularization precedes the apparent symptoms of clinical atherosclerosis. VV also mediates inflammatory cell infiltration, intimal thickening, intraplaque hemorrhage, and subsequent atherothrombosis that results in stroke or myocardial infarction. Intraplaque neovessels originating from VV can be immature and hence susceptible to leakage, and are thus regarded as the leading cause of intraplaque hemorrhage. Evidence supports VV as a new surrogate target of atherosclerosis evaluation and treatment. This review provides an overview into the relationship between VV and atherosclerosis, including the anatomy and function of VV, the stimuli of VV neovascularization, and the available underlying mechanisms that lead to poor prognosis. We also summarize translational researches on VV imaging modalities and potential therapies that target VV neovascularization or its stimuli. PMID:26006236

  10. Comparison of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the NESHAP Method for Demolition of Asbestos-Containing Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires the removal of all Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) prior to the demolition of the buildings that fall under the auspices of the NESHAP. This removal process can be a costly and ti...

  11. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  12. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  13. Asbestos surface provides a niche for oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Toshikazu; Lee, Wen-Hua; Ohara, Hiroki; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Okawa, Katsuya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2011-12-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with increased risks of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. Although the mechanism of carcinogenesis remains elusive, the physicochemical characteristics of asbestos play a role in the progression of asbestos-induced diseases. Among these characteristics, a high capacity to adsorb and accommodate biomolecules on its abundant surface area has been linked to cellular and genetic toxicity. Several previous studies identified asbestos-interacting proteins. Here, with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, we systematically identified proteins from various lysates that adsorbed to the surface of commercially used asbestos and classified them into the following groups: chromatin/nucleotide/RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, cytoprotective proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, histones and hemoglobin. The surfaces of crocidolite and amosite, two iron-rich types of asbestos, caused more protein scissions and oxidative modifications than that of chrysotile by in situ-generated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. In contrast, we confirmed the intense hemolytic activity of chrysotile and found that hemoglobin attached to chrysotile, but not silica, can work as a catalyst to induce oxidative DNA damage. This process generates 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and thus corroborates the involvement of iron in the carcinogenicity of chrysotile. This evidence demonstrates that all three types of asbestos adsorb DNA and specific proteins, providing a niche for oxidative modification via catalytic iron. Therefore, considering the affinity of asbestos for histones/DNA and the internalization of asbestos into mesothelial cells, our results suggest a novel hypothetical mechanism causing genetic alterations during asbestos-induced carcinogenesis.

  14. Evaluation of asbestos exposure during brake repair and replacement.

    PubMed

    Kakooei, Hossein; Hormozy, Maryam; Marioryad, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber of brake repair job (auto mechanics) has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in the breathing zone of auto mechanics between July 2008 and December 2008. The asbestos fiber concentrations of 60 personal air samples collected from 30 cars and trucks brake replacement and they were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the personal monitoring fiber concentrations were 0.92 PCM f/ml and 0.46 PCM f/ml respectively in car and passenger heavy truck auto shops. There was a significant differences in the asbestos fiber concentrations between the car and truck auto shops (p=0.006). Based on these findings, auto mechanics who worked with asbestos containing brake may have been exposed to asbestos concentrations approximately 7 times higher than the current occupational safety and health agency (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/ml. Fiber morphology and energy dispersive X-ray analysis by SEM revealed that amphibole fibers such as tremolite and actinolite existed in the brakes dust and that the vast majority (>30%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were greater than 1 μm in diameter. It can be concluded that the imported chrysotile asbestos contains trace amounts of tremolite and actinolite fibers and they are responsible for the high airborne asbestos levels and occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos in auto mechanics job in Iran. Thus, it is to be expected that the auto mechanics will suffer negative health effects due to exposure to the serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers.

  15. Asbestos remediation, removal, and containment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the cleanup of asbestos pollution and asbestos construction remediation. Articles discuss cleanup of asbestos-polluted water, removal of asbestos insulation from public and private buildings, and control of air pollution during removal. Asbestos containment by impervious coatings, exposure control in industrial workplaces, and removal from drinking water are also covered. Analysis, monitoring, and control techniques for asbestos abatement are included. Toxicity and effects on health from asbestos exposure are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during dry vacuuming and wet cleaning of asbestos-contaminated carpet. Report for January 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for asbestos fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. Two types of carpet cleaning equipment were evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  17. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure at an asbestos cement sheet and pipe factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marioryad, Hossein; Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Yunesian, Masud; Azam, Kamal

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, asbestos fiber concentrations during AC sheet and pipe manufacturing were measured by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) in 98 personal air samples. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels indicated a range from 0.02 to 0.55PCM f/ml (0.02-0.69PLM f/ml). The AC workers' geometric mean asbestos exposure was 0.09 PCM f/ml (0.11 PLM f/ml), with arithmetic mean of 0.13 PCM f/ml (0.16 PLM f/ml). The observed fiber concentrations in many processes were higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. Based on these findings, the PLM values were approximately 25% higher than PCM values. The SEM data demonstrate that fibrous particles contained chrysotile. The thinnest fiber recognized by SEM had a diameter of 0.2μm. Mean exposure exceeded the TLV for asbestos in pipe molding and finishing (100%) as well as sheet molding and finishing (45.5-83.3%). In conclusion exposure control may be needed to be in compliance with the ACGIH TLV and other guidance levels. Also, with regard to PCM limitations for airborne fiber analysis, the use of microscopic methods other than PCM can be used to improve the techniques used presently.

  18. Mesothelioma incidence and community asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Berry, M

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluates the environmental, nonoccupational component of mesothelioma incidence among persons living in Manville, Somerset County, New Jersey, the location of the largest asbestos manufacturing plant in North America. Prior to removal of occupational cases, residents of Manville had an average annual (1979-1990) mesothelioma rate of 636 male cases and 96 female cases per million population, about 25 times higher than average state rates. Somerset County had 143 diagnosed mesothelioma cases reported to the population-based. New Jersey State Cancer Registry from 1979 through 1990. Cases were removed from the analysis when their "usual employment" was reported as being at the asbestos plant, as evidenced through union lists or occupational information from either the Cancer Registry or mortality records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed for residents of Manville and Somerset County (less the Manville population) by sex. New Jersey mesothelioma rates less the Somerset County contribution, 1979-1990, were used to generate the expected number of cases. The SIRs for Manville males and females were respectively 10.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-16.4] and 22.4 (95% CI: 9.7-44.2). Male and female Somerset County mesothelioma incidence rates were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6). This record-based approach demonstrates a strong relationship between past asbestos exposure from living in Manville and eventual development of mesothelioma. The use of methods in this study may be helpful in evaluating hazards of other known occupational carcinogens found in community settings.

  19. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  20. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  1. Identification and quantitation of asbestos in talc

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Arthur N.; Langer, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    The currently used analytical methods for identification, characterization and quantitation of asbestos fiber in consumer talcum products include polarized light microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Light microscope methods have severe limitations imposed by the ultimate size resolution of the light-optical system. Small particles go unresolved; those marginally resolved may possess optical properties different from those properties cited in the literature; most optical properties, e.g., indices of refraction, are difficult to measure on small particles. In addition to these difficulties, talc fibers often possess optical properties different from those of talc plates, which further confound analysis. Light microscopy is recommended for use only as a preliminary tool on limited, large-sized, samples. Transmission electron microscopy is a good standard technique for visualization of contaminant asbestos fibers. Together with selected area electron diffraction, talc fibers may be easily differentiated from amphibole asbestos fibers on the basis of both morphological and structural characterization. Chrysotile fibers are easily distinguished on this basis as well. The amphibole asbestos minerals require chemical characterization to differentiate among the different fiber types. Probe analysis is mandatory for such fibers. The major drawbacks to electron beam instrumentation for the mineralogical characterization of talcum products are the time and effort required for data acquisition. These techniques do not lend themselves to routine study. X-ray diffraction analysis, utilizing the step-scan method, offers a relatively rapid, quantitative technique for gross fiber analysis. Based on comparison with standard specimens the fiber content of talcs may be quantitatively determined. It is essential to employ a specimen preparation technique which yields

  2. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  3. The role of free radicals in asbestos-induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamp, D W; Graceffa, P; Pryor, W A; Weitzman, S A

    1992-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes pulmonary fibrosis and malignant neoplasms by mechanisms that remain uncertain. In this review, we explore the evidence supporting the hypothesis that free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important mechanism by which asbestos mediates tissue damage. There appears to be at least two principal mechanisms by which asbestos can induce ROS production; one operates in cell-free systems and the other involves mediation by phagocytic cells. Asbestos and other synthetic mineral fibers can generate free radicals in cell-free systems containing atmospheric oxygen. In particular, the hydroxyl radical often appears to be involved, and the iron content of the fibers has an important role in the generation of this reactive radical. However, asbestos also appears to catalyze electron transfer reactions that do not require iron. Iron chelators either inhibit or augment asbestos-catalyzed generation of the hydroxyl radical and/or pathological changes, depending on the chelator and the nature of the asbestos sample used. The second principal mechanism for asbestos-induced ROS generation involves the activation of phagocytic cells. A variety of mineral fibers have been shown to augment the release of reactive oxygen intermediates from phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved are unclear but may involve incomplete phagocytosis with subsequent oxidant release, stimulation of the phospholipase C pathway, and/or IgG-fragment receptor activation. Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of asbestos-induced toxicity to a number of pulmonary cells including alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, mesothelial cells, and endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species may contribute to the well-known synergistic effects of asbestos and cigarette smoke on the lung, and the reasons for this synergy are discussed. We conclude that there is strong evidence supporting the premise that reactive

  4. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 48 natural asbestos occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Rocky Mountain States. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/) and the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  5. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, laryngeal, and ovarian cancers, and may cause gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Asbestos cancer victims die painful lingering deaths. These deaths are almost entirely preventable. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, concerned parties, including the Collegium Ramazzini, called for a universal ban on the mining, manufacture, and use of asbestos in all countries around the world (J Occup Environ Med. 1999;41:830-832). Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries, and safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos is exempted from the ban, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed. PMID:20705571

  6. Naringenin and atherosclerosis: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay E; Nabavi, Seyed F; Daglia, Maria; Tenore, Gian C; Mansouri, Kowsar; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol in macrophages of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks as well as stroke. Epidemiological studies showed that there is an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of atherosclerosis. The promising effect of high vegetable and fruit containing diet on atherosclerosis is approved by several experimental studies on isolated phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are known to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant system, suppress oxidative and nitrosative stress, decrease macrophage oxidative stress through cellular oxygenase inhibition as well as interaction with several signal transduction pathways and from these ways, have therapeutic effects against atherosclerosis. Naringenin is a well known flavonoid belonging to the chemical class of flavanones. It is especially abundant in citrus fruits, especially grapefruits. A plethora of evidences ascribes to naringenin antiatherosclerotic effects. Naringenin abilities to decrease LDL and triglycerides as well as inhibit glucose uptake; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL); co-oxidation of NADH; suppress protein oxidation; protect against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); suppress macrophage inflammation; inhibit leukotriene B4, monocyte adhesion and foam cell formation; induce of HO-1 and G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and down regulate atherosclerosis related genes are believed to have crucial role in the promising role against atherosclerosis. In the present review, we have summarized the available literature data on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of naringenin and its possible mechanisms of action.

  7. Prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, R J; Chłopicki, S; Swies, J; Niezabitowski, P

    1995-01-17

    Disorders in arterial production of PGI2 and NO occur in atherosclerosis. Exogenous PGI2 and NO are capable of interacting pharmacologically. We claim that no such direct interactions occur between endogenous endothelial PGI2 and NO. Studying mechanisms of cardiac reactive hyperemia in guinea pigs and of thrombolysis in cats, we surmise that in vivo vascular intima releases PGI2 intraluminally while NO is secreted abluminally and thus these two ephemeral mediators do not see each other. Hence, in any disease, the disturbances in endothelial generation of PGI2 or NO have to be scrutinized separately. It may well be that endogenous PGI2 maintains endothelial thromboresistance while NO controls arterial myocytes and tissues in which microcirculation is embedded. These responsibilities remain unshared. Interactions between PGI2 and NO are confined to pharmacological domains. PMID:7695165

  8. Noninvasive Assessment of Preclinical Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Helen A; Smith, Jamie C; Davies, J Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Initially considered as a semipermeable barrier separating lumen from vessel wall, the endothelium is now recognised as a complex endocrine organ responsible for a variety of physiological processes vital for vascular homeostasis. These include the regulation of vascular tone, luminal diameter, and blood flow; hemostasis and thrombolysis; platelet and leucocyte vessel-wall interactions; the regulation of vascular permeability; and tissue growth and remodelling. The endothelium modulates arterial stiffness, which precedes overt atherosclerosis and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Unsurprisingly, dysfunction of the endothelium may be considered as an early and potentially reversible step in the process of atherogenesis and numerous methods have been developed to assess endothelial status and large artery stiffness. Methodology includes flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, assessment of coronary flow reserve, carotid intimamedia thickness, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, and plethysmography. This review outlines the various modalities, indications, and limitations of available methods to assess arterial dysfunction and vascular risk. PMID:17319466

  9. LXR signaling pathways and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Anna; Tontonoz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    First discovered as orphan receptors, liver X receptors (LXRs) were subsequently identified as the nuclear receptor target of the cholesterol metabolites, oxysterols.1 There are 2 LXR receptors encoded by distinct genes: LXRα is most highly expressed in the liver, adipose, kidney, adrenal tissues and macrophages, and LXRβ is ubiquitously expressed. Despite differential tissue distribution, these isoforms have 78% homology in their ligand-binding domain and appear to respond to the same endogenous ligands. Work over the past 10 years has shown that the LXR pathway regulates lipid metabolism and inflammation via both the induction and repression of target genes. Given the importance of cholesterol regulation and inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease, it is not surprising that activation of the LXR pathway attenuates various mechanisms underlying atherosclerotic plaque development.2 In this minireview we will discuss the impact of the LXR pathway on both cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. PMID:20631351

  10. The scientific basis of a total asbestos ban.

    PubMed

    Terracini, B

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide, in the new millennium, standards for the protection of workers and the general population from as-bestos risks are not equally stringent in all countries. The present review analyzes some arguments which in recent years have been proposed as a rationale for the reconsideration of the scientific background of a total asbestos ban, such as that adopted in the European Union. The conclusion is that in order to ensure adequate protection, there is no alternative to a total ban. The evidence for carcinogenicity of chrysotile is as good as for the amphiboles, the carcinogenic potency of chrysotile is lower than that of the amphiboles, but risk estimates must also be based on extent of exposure (nowadays chrysotile represents 95% of asbestos used worldwide). The fact that induction of mesothelioma by asbestos results from the interaction of environmental exposure and genetic factors reflects a general phenomenon in carcinogenesis and does not warrant any re-consideration of the role of asbestos. The role of SV40 as yet is unclear: even assuming that current risk estimates are correct (which is debatable), this agent would interact with asbestos in only a faction of mesothelioma cases. The effectiveness of protocols suggested for "controlled use" has not been tested with a scientfiic approach: they seem hardly practicable, particularly in the countries which are currently the major consumers of asbestos.

  11. [Risk of developing mesothelioma due to neighborhood exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2007-05-01

    Routes of asbestos exposure consist of occupational and non-occupational exposures, and furthermore the latter is classified as para-occupational, neighborhood or true general environmental exposure. Consequently, in order to evaluate health risk caused by neighborhood exposure to asbestos, it is necessary to exclude risk due to the other exposure routes from overall risk. We reviewed epidemiological studies on the relationship between neighborhood asbestos exposure and risk of mesothelioma. In studies on a crocidolite mine in South Africa and a chrysotile mine in Canada, occupational exposure was not excluded. In studies on a crocidolite mine in Australia and an asbestos manufacturing factory in U.S.A., risk caused by non-occupational exposure was evaluated, but the risk was not classified as para-occupational and neighborhood exposures. In a study on an asbestos cement factory in Italy, first, occupational and para-occupational exposures were excluded, and next, the incidence rate of mesothelioma in neighborhood residents was calculated, so that risk caused by neighborhood exposure could be evaluated. In case-control studies in Italy, South Africa, three European countries and the U.K., risks caused by occupational, para-occupational and neighborhood exposures were evaluated separately. As a whole, relative risk (RR) of neighborhood exposure in crocidolite and amosite mines was about 10 to 30 and RR in major asbestos factories was about 5 to 20. On the other hand, statistically significant RR of neighborhood exposure was not observed in chrysotile mines and some asbestos facilities.

  12. [Pulmonary disease due to asbestos in steel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Rita; Capone, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers in their variety chrysotile or white asbestos. Although the ban in Argentina dates from 2003, there are numerous industries where work continues with this mineral, including iron and steel industries. It is currently known the high pathogenicity of this material, so that in many countries there are programs to monitoring the exposed workers. Here we describe the general characteristics and pulmonary manifestations in 27 patients who had worked in a very huge steel factory in South America. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases was made by a medical-occupational record, history of asbestos exposure, additional studies of lung function and chest images. Then the sources of exposure (occupational, domestic and environmental), exposure time and latency period were analyzed, in those patients in whom a related disease was detected. Smoking history was also taken into account. Twenty-two patients had benigns pathologies (81.4%), sixteen of them with lesions localyzed in pleura, and other six pulmonary asbestosis. The malignant pathologies occurred in five patients (18.5%), in four of them mesothelioma and in other one lung cancer. The problem of asbestos exposure has contemporary relevance. Hence the need for a surveillance program in workers exposed to asbestos in the past or currently, to detect, report, record and investigate the characteristics of these pathologies.

  13. Laboratory plant study on the melting process of asbestos waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shinichi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    The melting process was studied as a method of changing asbestos into non-hazardous waste and recovering it as a reusable resource. In an initial effort, the thermal behaviors of asbestos waste in terms of physical and chemical structure have been studied. Then, 10 kg/h-scale laboratory plant experiments were carried out. By X-ray diffraction analysis, the thermal behaviors of sprayed-on asbestos waste revealed that chrysotile asbestos waste change in crystal structure at around 800 C, and becomes melted slag, mainly composed of magnesium silicate, at around 1,500 C. Laboratory plant experiments on the melting process of sprayed-on asbestos have shown that melted slag can be obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis of the melted slag revealed crystal structure change, and SEM analysis showed the slag to have a non-fibrous form. And more, TEM analysis proved the very high treatment efficiency of the process, that is, reduction of the asbestos content to 1/10{sup 6} as a weight basis. These analytical results indicate the effectiveness of the melting process for asbestos waste treatment.

  14. Cameron Station remedial investigation: Final asbestos survey report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) conducted a comprehensive asbestos survey of the facilities at Cameron Station as part of its contract with the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) to perform a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) at the base. The purpose of the survey which was initiated August 23, 1990 in response to the Base Realignment And Closure Environmental Restoration Strategy (BRAC), was to identify friable and non-friable asbestos-containing material (ACM), provide options for abatement of asbestos, provide cost estimates for both abatement and operations and maintenance costs, and identifying actions requiring immediate action in Cameron Station`s 24 buildings. BRAC states that only friable asbestos which presents a threat to health and safety shall be removed; non-friable asbestos or friable asbestos which is encapsulated or in good repair shall be left in place and identified to the buyer per GSA agreement. The investigation followed protocols that met or exceeded the requirements of 40 CFR 763, the EPA regulations promulgated under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

  15. A common-sense approach to asbestos in roofing

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, W.R. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The word asbestos carries an ominous connotation to many plant engineers and building owners. Many are caught up in the hype surrounding asbestos abatement. Others are confused about how to face the questions surrounding this mysterious, dangerous, and often misunderstood substance. Asbestos issues cast a particularly perplexing spell over decisions about how to deal with the material in the removal of roofing systems. The product is an excellent roofing choice because it is fire-resistant, durable, and nonrotting. And most significantly on the other hand, asbestos causes three deadly diseases: lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma (cancer of the lung lining and always fatal). This danger prompted enactment of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) in the early 1980s. The regulation required every K-12 school in the US to develop a management plant for dealing with asbestos. Since then, much has been done to raise awareness of the issues surrounding this material. The standard`s earliest form based removal requirements primarily on exposure levels. A 1994 revision, however, extended stringent removal requirements to all roof removal work involving asbestos, regardless of exposure level. This paper looks at the regulations, concerns, considerations, and procedures for dealing with the problem.

  16. Local factors modify the dose dependence of 56Fe-induced atherosclerosis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Yu, Tao; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz; Yu, Shaohua

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure from a number of terrestrial sources is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence establishing whether high-LET radiation has similar effects has been lacking. We recently demonstrated that 600 MeV/n 56Fe induces atherosclerosis as well. Ten-week old male apolipoprotein-E deficient mice, a well-characterized atherosclerosis animal model, were exposed to 0 (control) 2, or 5Gy 56Fe targeted to the chest and neck. In these mice, 56Fe-induced atherosclerosis was similar in character to that induced by X-rays in the same mouse model and to that resulting from therapeutic radiation in cancer patients. Atherosclerosis was exacerbated by 56Fe only in targeted areas, however, suggesting a direct effect of the radiation on the arteries themselves. This is in contrast to some other risk factors, such as high cholesterol or tobacco use, which have systemic effects. The radiation dose required to accelerate development of atherosclerotic plaques, however, differed depending on the vessel that was irradiated and even the location within the vessel. For example, atherosclerosis in the aortic arch was accelerated only by the highest dose (5 Gy), while the carotid arteries and the aortic root showed effects at 2 Gy (a dose four- to eight-fold lower than the dose of X-rays that produces similar effects in this model). Since shear stress is disrupted in the area of the aortic root, it is likely that at least part of the site-specificity is due to additive or synergistic effects of radiation and local hydrodynamics. Other factors, such as local oxidative stress or gene expression may also have been involved. Since the pro-atherogenic effects of 56Fe depend on additional local factors, this suggests that radiation exposure, when unavoidable, might be mitigated by modification of factors unrelated to the radiation itself.

  17. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  18. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  19. [Asbestos and agriculture: new perspectives of risk].

    PubMed

    Massaro, T; Dragonieri, S; Martina, G L M; Baldassarre, A; Cassano, F; Musti, M

    2012-01-01

    The presence of ophiolites in areas of Basilicata, where there have been reports of mesothelioma in farmers, is known. This study evaluates the increased risk of exposure to tremolite in carrying out agricultural activities. Cases of mesothelioma occurred in farmers with unknown exposure to asbestos have been selected and assessed the employment in areas contaminated by tremolite. Personal samplings were conducted in a group of farmers employed in these areas and a group of subjects used in activities that do not involve contact with the ground. For the 5% of cases of mesothelioma in the lucan register emerged exposure to asbestos exclusively in farming activities in areas at tremolite risk. The analysis of the samples showed the presence of personal fibers of tremolite in 2/3 of the cases. In 60% there was an overcoming of the natural limit of 2 ff/l, with a peak up to 23.6 ff/l. The study shows that the risk of exposure to tremolite in agriculture is significantly higher than natural exposure.

  20. Origin and the mechanical properties of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hanley, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Dual networks and chemographic analysis are used to investigate the stability of lizardite and chrysotile in the simplest multisystem that describes serpentinization. Phase diagrams for Mg serpentinites described by MgO-SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O are constructed for systems of five, six and seven phases using dual networks. The seven-phase system brucite, forsterite, lizardite, chrysotile, antigorite, enstatite, and talc describes the serpentinization of Mg peridotites. The chrysotile asbestos deposits of southeastern Quebec occur in serpentinized peridotites of Ordovician ophiolites. The asbestos is localized in veins within blocks of partly serpentinized peridotite bounded by zones containing schistose serpentinite and granitic masses. A simple, rapid microscopic test was designed to obtain semi-quantitative measurements of the bending strength of acicular or fibrous crystals. The instrument was tested on samples of asbestiform tremolite from Baltimore, Maryland, and non-asbestiform tremolite from the Warren Head mine in New Hampshire. The samples ranged in size from 0.3 to 0.8 mm in length and 0.9 to 15 ..mu..m in diameter. The asbestiform tremolite was stronger than the non-asbestiform tremolite at every diameter, with an order of magnitude higher strength at small diameters. This indicates that asbestiform tremolite behaves as a whisker, whereas non-asbestiform tremolite does not.

  1. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  2. Methylarginines in Mice with Experimental Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gilinsky, M A; Sukhovershin, R A; Cherkanova, M S

    2015-11-01

    We studied the dynamics of indexes for the system of endogenous regulation of NO bioavailability. The content of NO synthase inhibitors (monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine) in the blood of mice was measured after intraperitoneal injections of a nonionic surfactant poloxamer 407 for 2 and 14 weeks. The concentrations of both methylarginines in animals with atherosclerosis due to 14-week administration of poloxamer were much higher than in control specimens. The amount of arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine practically did not differ from the control. Poloxamer-induced model of atherosclerosis is characterized by increased content of NO synthase inhibitors. These changes contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26601840

  3. Methylarginines in Mice with Experimental Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gilinsky, M A; Sukhovershin, R A; Cherkanova, M S

    2015-11-01

    We studied the dynamics of indexes for the system of endogenous regulation of NO bioavailability. The content of NO synthase inhibitors (monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine) in the blood of mice was measured after intraperitoneal injections of a nonionic surfactant poloxamer 407 for 2 and 14 weeks. The concentrations of both methylarginines in animals with atherosclerosis due to 14-week administration of poloxamer were much higher than in control specimens. The amount of arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine practically did not differ from the control. Poloxamer-induced model of atherosclerosis is characterized by increased content of NO synthase inhibitors. These changes contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

  4. Variable feed rate mechanism for fluidized bed asbestos generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.G.; Gearhart, J.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive dust feed mechanism has been designed for use with a two-phase fluidized bed generator (FBG). The mechanism is especially useful for generating asbestos aerosols, but may be used with other dusts as well. Using this system, a steady state concentration (39.1 fibers/cc > 5 ..mu..m in length +/- 6.2%) of asbestos aerosol was maintained in an inhalation chamber for five hours. In addition, FBG output concentration was easily adjusted and quickly equilibrated (within 10 minutes). The system provides a good technique for generating asbestos aerosols for day-long animal exposures.

  5. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    PubMed

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  6. [Comparative evaluation of fibrogenesis and toxicity of asbestos-containing heat-proof materials].

    PubMed

    Kashanskiĭ, S V; Kogan, F M; Malysheva, L G; Zykova, V A

    1994-01-01

    The article deals with the results of studies analyzing the fibrogenic activity and toxicity of asbestos-containing heat insulators exemplified by asbestos board, vulcanite and asbestos vermiculite. Physical and chemical parameters of the studied dust are presented. All studied dust types have the distinct fibrogenic activity, the highest one was seen in asbestos board. The studied dust types could be classified according to the acute toxicity: asbestos board (DL50-3.2 +/- 0.09 g/kg), chrysotile asbestos (DL50-2.0 +/- 0.08 g/kg), vulcanite (DL50-1.9 +/- 0.08 g/kg) and asbestos vermiculite (DL50-0.7 +/- 0.04 g/kg). The article touches upon the probable acting mechanism of acute toxicity of asbestos and asbestos-containing dust. PMID:7804707

  7. MRI of Atherosclerosis: Diagnosis and Monitoring Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin D.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Atherosclerosis is a prevalent disease affecting millions of Americans. Despite our advances in diagnosis and treatment, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in America. High resolution MRI has overcome the limitations of current angiographic techniques and has emerged as a leading noninvasive imaging modality of atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis of the arterial wall of human carotid, aortic, peripheral, and coronary arteries have all been successfully evaluated. In addition, the power of MRI to differentiate the major components of atherosclerotic plaque has been validated. The ability to image the vessel wall and risk stratify atherosclerotic plaque will create management decisions not previously faced and has the potential to change the way atherosclerosis is treated. PMID:17187458

  8. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Feig, Jonathan E; Feig, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in the Western world. It results from the interaction between modified lipoproteins and cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and other cellular elements present in the arterial wall. This inflammatory process can ultimately lead to the development of complex lesions, or plaques, that protrude into the arterial lumen. Ultimately, plaque rupture and thrombosis can occur leading to the clinical complications of myocardial infarction or stroke. Although each of the cell types plays roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the focus of this review will be primarily on the macrophages and DCs. The role of these two cell types in atherosclerosis is discussed, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in atherosclerosis regression.

  9. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder after all.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation has been increasingly recognized as an important player in the pathophysiology of numerous human disorders. Accumulating evidence has led to the conclusion that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, although it was believed to be a disorder of high cholesterol levels in the bloodstream for over a century. Cholesterol does contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but through inflammatory mechanisms. Statins lower cholesterol levels and hence reduce inflammation in the vasculature and prevent heart disease. Statins may also exert anti-inflammatory effects through mechanisms independent of cholesterol lowering. Adhesion molecules, cytokines, oxidative stress, etc. appear to contribute to the inflammatory state of atherosclerosis and therapeutic approaches directed toward these markers or targets have the potential to be effective in reducing inflammation and treating atherosclerosis. PMID:16454761

  10. Studies on genotoxicity of orally administered crocidolite asbestos in rats: implications for ingested asbestos induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Varga, C; Pocsai, Z; Horváth, G; Timbrell, V

    1996-01-01

    The early genotoxic action of oral exposure to UICC crocidolite asbestos fibres was studied in different short-term tests. Fischer-344 rats were gavaged with 50 mg/b.w.kg untreated asbestos fibres and fibres which had been allowed to adsorb benzo(a)pyrene molecules from extremely low concentration (0.25-2.5 microg/ml) aqueous solutions. This system can be considered a model for the drinking of potable water contaminated by asbestos fibres together with biologically active organic micro-pollutants. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay was performed on concentrated urine and serum samples of treated animals. The formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges was also studied in the bone marrow of the exposed rats. The micronucleus analysis indicated marginal genotoxic activity only upon treatment with crocidolite prepared from the solution of 1 microg/ml. A dose-dependent increase was, however, demonstrated in the sister chromatid exchange frequency upon treatment with benzo(a)pyrene coated fibres. These experiments suggest the acute cogenotoxic activity of such fibres in orally exposed animals. PMID:8687133

  11. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-01-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry. PMID:2169860

  12. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-09-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry.

  13. EPA/ORD/RTP (Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park) asbestos program support for the OTS (Office of Toxic Substances) asbestos-in-schools program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the EPA/ORD/RTP Asbestos program support for the OTS Asbestos-in-Schools Program is given. The program includes (1) a bulk sample asbestos analysis audit program, (2) an intercomparison of three measurement methods for airborne asbestos, (3) the development of audit materials for airborne asbestos measurement methods, and (4) the development of guidance for post-abatement asbestos air monitoring.

  14. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  15. COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England

    PubMed Central

    Merinopoulou, Evie; Raluy-Callado, Mireia; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; MacLachlan, Sharon; Khalid, Javaria Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with accelerated disease progression and are important drivers of health care resource utilization. The study aimed to quantify the rates of COPD exacerbations in England and assess health care resource utilization by severity categories according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2013. Methods Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics were used to identify patients with a COPD diagnosis aged ≥40 years. Those with complete spirometric, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale information, and exacerbation history 12 months prior to January 1, 2011 (index date) were classified into GOLD severity groups. Study outcomes over follow-up (up to December 31, 2013) were exacerbation rates and resource utilization (general practitioner visits, hospital admissions). Results From the 44,201 patients in the study cohort, 83.5% were classified into severity levels GOLD A: 33.8%, GOLD B: 21.0%, GOLD C: 18.1%, and GOLD D: 27.0%. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years and 52.0% were male. Annual exacerbation rates per person-year increased with severity, from 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–0.85) for GOLD A to 2.51 (95% CI: 2.47–2.55) for GOLD D. General practitioner visit rates per person-year also increased with severity, from 4.82 (95% CI: 4.74–4.93) for GOLD A to 7.44 (95% CI: 7.31–7.61) for GOLD D. COPD-related hospitalization rates per person-year increased from less symptoms (GOLD A: 0.28, GOLD C: 0.39) to more symptoms (GOLD B: 0.52, GOLD D: 0.84). Conclusion Patients in the most severe category (GOLD D) experienced nearly three times the number of exacerbations and COPD-related hospitalizations as those in the least severe category (GOLD A), in addition to increased general practitioner visits. Better patient management to stabilize the disease progression could allow for an

  16. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  17. Chronic occupational exposure to asbestos: more than medical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lebovits, A.H.; Byrne, M.; Bernstein, J.; Strain, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine workers chronically exposed to asbestos were interviewed regarding their perceived health status and concerns, their health behaviors, particularly their smoking behavior, and their psychologic well-being. In contrast to a non-exposed comparison group of postal workers, asbestos workers exhibited significantly elevated levels of somatic concern (P less than .03), and significantly lower levels of mental health functioning only when experiencing high levels of stress (P less than .01). Despite feeling significantly more susceptible to developing cancer (P less than .0001), 34% of asbestos workers were cigarette smokers (compared to 32% of the postal group) and long-term mask usage was minimal. Asbestos workers' increased sensitivity to stress and changes in health status along with the lack of adaptation of health-promotive behaviors indicate the need for interventions to attend to the psychologic effects of increased risk status.

  18. Geologic sources of asbestos in Seattle's tolt reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.E.; Craven, G.

    1996-01-01

    Water from Seattle's South Fork Tolt Reservoir contains chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers, derived from natural sources. Using optical petrographic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, we identified the geologic source of these asbestiform minerals within the watershed. No asbestos was found in the bedrock underlying the watershed, while both chrysotile and amphibole fibers were found in sediments transported by Puget-lobe glacial processes. These materials, widely distributed throughout the lower watershed, would be difficult to separate from the reservoir sediments. The probable source of this asbestos is in pods of ultramafic rock occurring north of the watershed. Because asbestos is contained in widespread Pugetlobe glacial materials, it may be naturally distributed in other watersheds in the Puget Sound area.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Libby Amphibole Asbestos that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  20. Minimal pathologic changes of the lung and asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, D.; Andrion, A.; Delsedime, L.; Mollo, F.

    1989-02-01

    A group of 199 autopsy subjects was investigated for minimal pathologic pulmonary changes possibly resulting from asbestos exposure. According to the standards proposed by the Pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists, features consistent with asbestosis grade 1 (AG1) include findings of bilateral pleural plaques, high concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) in digested lung tissue, and a history of occupational risk. Similar changes without evidence of ABs on histologic section and referred to as small airway lesions (SALs) present a less well-correlated association. In this study, SALs showed significant differences when compared with the features observed in subjects without possible asbestos-related pulmonary fibrotic changes. Minimal bronchioloalveolar fibrotic changes with concomitant presence of ABs can be considered a mild pneumoconiotic lesion (AG1), and SALs may be regarded as an additional indicator of asbestos exposure.

  1. [Twenty years' follow-up study of asbestos workers].

    PubMed

    Morinaga, K; Hara, I; Yasui, I; Yokoyama, K; Sera, Y

    1990-07-01

    This report describes a cohort study conducted on workers who were employed in a factory mainly manufacturing asbestos yarn and cloth and were followed from 1964 to 1981. A total of 208 workers (73 males and 135 females) could be traced and 15 deaths were observed by the end of 1983. Among them, three had lung cancer and its relative risk was 6.8 (p less than 0.05) computed based on the age, sex and year specific death rates of Osaka Prefecture. One case of peritoneal mesothelioma was also found. The period from first asbestos exposure to death of these four cases of asbestos-related malignancies was more than 25 yr. In the analysis of the employees who had more than 1 yr of exposure to asbestos and those who had already been engaged in this factory at the beginning of the observation, the relative risk of lung cancer was 8.1 and 13.6, respectively.

  2. Recent data on cancer due to asbestos in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rösler, J A; Woitowitz, H J

    1995-01-01

    The Authors evaluate the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among asbestos workers in Germany. 3,988 workers (3,372 male and 616 female) were included in the study, which took into consideration the branch of the asbestos industry in which they had worked, the duration of their employment and also their smoking habits. At the end of the 12 year follow-up, 3,315 workers were alive and 673 dead. The analysis of cause of death showed an increased risk of dying from lung cancer and pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, in men as well as in women. The risk was shown to be greatest among workers in the asbestos textile industry and among insulators. A probable multiplicative effect of asbestos exposure and smoking on lung cancer causation was noted.

  3. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated? No treatments can reverse the effects ... then draw out the excess fluid. Treatments for Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma If you have lung cancer ...

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  5. Bidding documents for asbestos abatement in Oklahoma public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Hodges, J.; Hallett, P.; Myers, B.

    1981-03-01

    The publication contained the necessary forms and requirements for those bidding for asbestos removal projects in public buildings in Oklahoma. Included were the solicitation for bids form, and information concerning the contracting of labor for the treatment of friable asbestos-containing material. The information concerned requirements for site examination, rejection of bids, stipulations to be followed in awarding the contract, general clean-up rules, methods of laying out the work, use of temporary utilities, prevailing wage scale, liquidated damages, required bonds and affidavits, completion and final payment, liability insurance, property insurance, and other contractor obligations. A sample contract was included along with samples of work orders, statutory bonds, performance bonds, defect bonds, bid affidavits, claim or invoice affidavits, notifications, disposal permits, pertinent extracts from the Asbestos Control Act of 1980, copies of sections of the U.S. Department of Labor/Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos Regulations, and copies of relevant Environmental Protection Agency regulations.

  6. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  7. EPA's Program for Asbestos Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    1979-01-01

    Comments from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning three recommendations (in an article in a previous issue of this journal about inspecting schools for asbestos-containing materials) that are in direct conflict with those offered by EPA. (MLF)

  8. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Martin R; Sinha, Sanjay; Owens, Gary K

    2016-02-19

    The historical view of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis is that aberrant proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap. However, this view has been based on ideas that there is a homogenous population of VSMCs within the plaque, that can be identified separate from other plaque cells (particularly macrophages) using standard VSMC and macrophage immunohistochemical markers. More recent genetic lineage tracing studies have shown that VSMC phenotypic switching results in less-differentiated forms that lack VSMC markers including macrophage-like cells, and this switching directly promotes atherosclerosis. In addition, VSMC proliferation may be beneficial throughout atherogenesis, and not just in advanced lesions, whereas VSMC apoptosis, cell senescence, and VSMC-derived macrophage-like cells may promote inflammation. We review the effect of embryological origin on VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis, the role, regulation and consequences of phenotypic switching, the evidence for different origins of VSMCs, and the role of individual processes that VSMCs undergo in atherosclerosis in regard to plaque formation and the structure of advanced lesions. We think there is now compelling evidence that a full understanding of VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis is critical to identify therapeutic targets to both prevent and treat atherosclerosis.

  9. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Orbay, Hakan; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events are the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Atherosclerosis develops insidiously and the initial manifestation is usually sudden cardiac death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging is a valuable tool to identify the disease at an early stage before fatal manifestations occur. Among the various molecular imaging techniques, this review mainly focuses on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of atherosclerosis. The targets and pathways that have been investigated to date for PET imaging of atherosclerosis include: glycolysis, cell membrane metabolism (phosphatidylcholine synthesis), integrin αvβ3, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLr), natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPCRs), fatty acid synthesis, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), macrophages, platelets, etc. Many PET tracers have been investigated clinically for imaging of atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions by PET imaging can help to prevent the premature death caused by atherosclerosis, and smooth translation of promising PET tracers into the clinic is critical to the benefit of patients. PMID:24312158

  10. Nanoparticles: a promising therapeutic approach in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Charalambos; Psarros, Costantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Shirodaria, Cheerag; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-10-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis is the largest cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialised countries. Despite recent advances in medical therapies, the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis remain suboptimal. Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, involving the accumulation of macrophages and excess low density lipoproteins (LDL), the formation of foam cells which create the atheromatous plaque, resulting in stenosis, aneurysm and plaque rupture leading to acute coronary events. Every step in the atherogenesis process is a potential therapeutic target for both the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis. A novel approach is the use of nanoparticles containing drugs, providing new perspectives in targeted modification of these pathways. Nanoparticles are ultrafine particles sized between 1-100 nm. By using specific methods, nanoparticles can be filled with drugs and achieve targeted drug delivery near the diseased area. In this review article we describe the basic actions of nanoparticles, and we discuss their potential applications in atherosclerosis. We also discuss their advantages and we expose the existing toxicity issues, making it clear however, that the use of nanoparticles is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis.

  11. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Tikellis, Chris; Thomas, Merlin C; Golledge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a homolog of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) which generates angiotensin II from angiotensin I. ACE, its product angiotensin II and the downstream angiotensin type I receptor are important components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II, the most important component of the RAS, promotes the development of atherosclerosis. The identification of ACE2 in 2000 opened a new chapter of research on the regulation of the RAS. ACE2 degrades pro-atherosclerotic angiotensin II and generates anti-atherosclerotic angiotensin 1-7. In this review, we explored the importance of ACE2 in protecting experimental animals from developing atherosclerosis and its involvement in human atherosclerosis. We also examined the published evidence assessing the importance of ACE2 in different cell types relevant to atherosclerosis and putative underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms linking ACE2 with protection from atherosclerosis. ACE2 shifts the balance from angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7 inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis in animal models.

  12. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  13. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  14. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims. PMID:26513124

  15. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims.

  16. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence.

  17. Assessment of potential exposure to friable insulation materials containing asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos and the procedures for assessing potential exposure hazards are discussed. Assessment includes testing a bulk sample of the suspected material for the presence of asbestos, and monitoring the air, if necessary. Based on field inspections and laboratory analyses, the health hazard is evaluated, and abatement measures are taken if a potential hazard exists. Throughout the assessment and abatement program, all applicable regulations are administered as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  18. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  19. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during vacuuming and wet cleaning of carpet at a captive research site

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freybery, R.W.; Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1989-03-31

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of alternative carpet-cleaning techniques and to evaluate the potential for asbestos-fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. The equipment was evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet-cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  20. Asbestos exposure: Health effects. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the health effects of exposure to asbestos in the workplace, at home, and in public sites. Exposure, during procurement of asbestos, removal of asbestos materials, manufacture of materials, and while living and working with materials containing asbestos, is considered. Mortality patterns and clinical studies of exposure, risk, and resulting diseases are presented as well as analytical techniques used to study asbestos health effects. Asbestos removal and abatement questions, and equipment used in these operations are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. [Estimation of asbestos exposure among workers repairing asbestos cement pipes used for conduits].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakachi, S; Kurumatani, N; Nakagiri, S; Kataoka, A

    1993-05-01

    Asbestos cement pipes (ACPs) containing 15 to 20% chrysotile or crocidolite have been used for underground conduits. Even today 16.2% of all conduits in Japan are ACPs, though the production of ACPs was suspended in 1985. When such a conduit is accidentally damaged the workers belonging to the Waterworks Bureau of a local government cut off the damaged conduit using a high-speed disk cutter and replace it with a new conduit. This operation develops a cloud of dust and the workers involved run the risk of asbestos exposure. It was the aim of the present study to estimate asbestos exposure levels among these workers. First, in the experiment, we established the typical working conditions and requested an experienced worker to cut an ACP using a high-speed disc cutter in a hole dug in the ground as he routinely does. The experiment was repeated three times. During a bout of each experiment, dust was sampled at several points both inside and outside the hole. Second, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain information from the workers regarding their working conditions in cutting ACPs. The subjects of the survey were 1,048 men belonging to conduit repair sections of the Waterworks Bureau of 119 local governments. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1) Each bout of cutting ACPs required about five minutes. The concentration of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns with 3:1 aspect ratio ranged from 48 to 170 fibers/ml (92 fibers/ml on an average) inside and 1.7 to 15 fibers/ml outside the hole. The concentration inside the hole exceeded the ceiling limit (10 fibers/ml) recommended for asbestos by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health. A concentration of 92 fibers/ml is equivalent to 0.96 fibers/ml as 8-h time-weighted average. 2) The number of subjects with experience of cutting ACPs was 849 (81.0%). The average length of service in conduit repair section was 14.2 yr. Based on the information obtained from each subject

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Leigang; Lin, Zhuofeng

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:26912152

  3. Superoxide and Peroxynitrite in Atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. Roger; Brock, Tommy A.; Chang, Ling-Yi; Crapo, James; Briscoe, Page; Ku, David; Bradley, William A.; Gianturco, Sandra H.; Gore, Jeri; Freeman, Bruce A.; Tarpey, Margaret M.

    1994-02-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species in the vascular pathology associated with atherosclerosis was examined by testing the hypothesis that impaired vascular reactivity results from the reaction of nitric oxide (^.NO) with superoxide (O^-_2), yielding the oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO^-). Contractility studies were performed on femoral arteries from rabbits fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet. Cholesterol feeding shifted the EC50 for acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation and impaired the maximal response to ACh. We used pH-sensitive liposomes to deliver CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) to critical sites of ^.NO reaction with O^-_2. Intravenously injected liposomes (3000 units of SOD per ml) augmented ACh-induced relaxation in the cholesterol-fed group to a greater extent than in controls. Quantitative immunocytochemistry demonstrated enhanced distribution of SOD in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as in the extracellular matrix. SOD activity in vessel homogenates of liposome-treated rabbits was also increased. Incubation of β very low density lipoprotein with ONOO^- resulted in the rapid formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Our results suggest that the reaction of O^-_2 with ^.NO is involved in the development of atherosclerotic disease by yielding a potent mediator of lipoprotein oxidation, as well as by limiting ^.NO stimulation of vascular smooth muscle guanylate cyclase activity.

  4. The autoimmune concept of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Grundtman, Cecilia; Wick, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the recent data on the ‘Autoimmune Concept of Atherosclerosis’, according to which the first stage of this disease is due to an autoimmune reaction against arterial endothelial cells expressing heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and adhesion molecules when stressed by classical atherosclerosis risk factors. Special emphasis is put on oxidized low-density lipoproteins as early endothelial stressors. Recent findings Plasma cholesterol and LDL levels considered ‘normal’ by the medical community are possibly too high from an evolutionary viewpoint. The proinflammatory milieu at sites of early atherosclerotic lesions could be conducive to oxidation of LDL in situ. LDL oxidation can also take place at nonvascular sites or in the circulation under general proinflammatory conditions explaining its proatherosclerotic role in ‘normocholesterolemic’ individuals. Summary We hypothesize that the plasma cholesterol and LDL levels currently considered normal are evolutionarily too high. Cholesterol and/or oxidized low-density lipoprotein, even as a mild HSP60-inducing endothelial stressor, function as a ubiquitous risk factor. If this hypothesis is true, most members of developed societies might be at risk to develop atherosclerotic plaques at anti-HSP60-immunity-triggered intimal inflammatory foci, irrespective of the primary risk-factor(s). PMID:21881502

  5. The chylomicron: relationship to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tomkin, Gerald H; Owens, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The B-containing lipoproteins are the transporters of cholesterol, and the evidence suggests that the apo B48-containing postprandial chylomicron particles and the triglyceride-rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles play an important part in the development of the plaque both directly and indirectly by their impact on LDL composition. The ratio of dietary to synthesised cholesterol is variable but tightly regulated: hence intervention with diet at best reduces serum cholesterol by <20% andusually <10%. Statins are the mainstay of cholesterol reduction therapy, but they increase cholesterol absorption, an example of the relationship between synthesis and absorption. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption with Ezetimibe, an inhibitor of Niemann Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1-L1), the major regulator of cholesterol absorption, increases cholesterol synthesis and hence the value of adding an inhibitor of cholesterol absorption to an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. Apo B48, the structural protein of the chylomicron particle, is synthesised in abundance so that the release of these particles is dependent on the amount of cholesterol and triglyceride available in the intestine. This paper will discuss cholesterol absorption and synthesis, chylomicron formation, and the effect of postprandial lipoproteins on factors involved in atherosclerosis.

  6. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos.

  7. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. PMID:22401880

  8. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment. PMID:22953203

  9. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  10. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    PubMed

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations.

  11. Asbestos worker protection. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-11-15

    In this Final Rule, EPA is amending both the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule (WPR) and the Asbestos-in-Schools Rule. The WPR amendment protects State and local government employees from the health risks of exposure to asbestos to the same extent as private sector workers by adopting for these employees the Asbestos Standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The WPR's coverage is extended to State and local government employees who are performing construction work, custodial work, and automotive brake and clutch repair work. This final rule cross-references the OSHA Asbestos Standards for Construction and for General Industry, so that future amendments to these OSHA standards are directly and equally effective for employees covered by the WPR. EPA also amends the Asbestos-in-Schools Rule to provide coverage under the WPR for employees of public local education agencies who perform operations, maintenance, and repair activities. EPA is issuing this final rule under section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  12. Asbestos-related disease: A community epidemic in the making

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.A.; Selikoff, I.J.; Hurst, G.A.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of epidemiological assessments in tracing the development of disease among workers was demonstrated in the report concerning the exposure of workers to asbestos (1332214) particles. A field survey made at a thermal pipe insulation facility in the southwestern portion of the United States measured airborne asbestos concentrations of 15 to 20 times the current standard. A significant number of workers employed for less than 10 years at this site demonstrated symptoms and signs consistent with asbestos-related diseases. Potential for community exposure was also great. Prior to the opening of this facility in the southwest, its predecessor was operating in the northeastern United States from the early 1940s through 1954. A study of a 900 member cohort of former employees at this earlier site was completed and demonstrated a highly significant excess of asbestos related diseases, malignant and nonmalignant in nature. A study of family members living with the worker at the time of employment, indicated that 50% of these family members had x-ray abnormalities consistent with asbestos-related disease. Other reports indicating that asbestos-related diseases were not limited to the worker were cited as well.

  13. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.; Ulerich, N.; Nocito, T.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  14. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  15. [Management of acute exacerbations of COPD].

    PubMed

    Rabbat, A; Guetta, A; Lorut, C; Lefebvre, A; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-10-01

    Exacerbations of COPD are common and cause a considerable burden to the patient and the healthcare system. To optimize the hospital care of patients with exacerbations of COPD, clinicians should be aware of some key points: management of exacerbations is broadly based on clinical features and severity. Initial clinical evaluation is crucial to define those patients requiring hospital admission and those who could be managed as outpatients. In hospitalized patients, the appropriate level of care should be determined by the initial severity and response to initial medical treatment. Medical treatment should follow recent recommendations, including rest, titrated oxygen therapy, inhaled or nebulized short-acting bronchodilators (Beta2-agonists and anticholinergic agents), DVT prevention with LMWH, steroids in most severely ill patients, unless there are contraindications and antibiotics in the case of a clear bacterial infectious aetiology. Severe exacerbations may lead to acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Unless contraindicated, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) should be the first line ventilatory support for these patients. NIV should be commenced early, before severe acidosis ensues, to avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and to reduce mortality and treatment failures. Several randomised controlled clinical trials support the use of NIV in the management of acute exacerbations of COPD, demonstrating a decreased need for mechanical ventilation and an improved survival. In most severe cases, NIV should be provided in ICU. Although it has been shown that for less severe patients (with pH values>7.30), NIV can be administered safely and effectively on general medical wards, a lead respiratory consultant and trained nurses are mandatory. Mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube should be considered when patients have contraindications to the use of NIV or fail to improve on NIV. The duration of mechanical ventilation should be shortened as much as

  16. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    PubMed

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  17. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  18. Concentrations of asbestos fibers and metals in drinking water caused by natural crocidolite asbestos in the soil from a rural area.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bingxiong; Yu, Jiangping; Jia, Xianjie; Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Xiuwu; Lu, Rongan; Dong, Tingrong; Yang, Linsheng

    2013-04-01

    Asbestos fibers and metals in drinking water are of significant importance to the field of asbestos toxicology. However, little is known about asbestos fibers and metals in drinking water caused by naturally occurring asbestos. Therefore, concentrations of asbestos fibers and metals in well and surface waters from asbestos and control areas were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectrometer, and ICP-mass spectrometry in this study. The results indicated that the mean concentration of asbestos fibers was 42.34 millions of fibers per liter by SEM, which was much higher than the permission exposure level. The main compositions of both asbestos fibers in crocidolite mineral and in drinking water were Na, Mg, Fe, and Si based on energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This revealed that the drinking water has been contaminated by asbestos fibers from crocidolite mineral in soil and rock. Except for Cr, Pb, Zn, and Mn, the mean concentrations of Ni, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Ca, and SiO2 were much higher in both surface water and well waters from the asbestos area than in well water from the control area. The results of principal component and cluster analyses indicated that the metals in surface and well waters from the asbestos area were significantly influenced by crocidolite mineral in soil and rock. In the asbestos area, the mean concentrations of asbestos fibers and Ni, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Ca, and SiO2 were higher in surface and well waters, indicating that asbestos fibers and the metals were significantly influenced by crocidolite in soil and rock.

  19. Asthma Exacerbation: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Karen; Parsons, Michael; Cheeseman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In the practice of emergency medicine, simulation is a valuable tool that allows medical students and postgraduate residents to develop skills in a safe environment at no risk to patients. In this report, we present a case simulation of an acute asthma exacerbation utilizing a human patient simulator. The case is designed such that it can be easily modified to accommodate the trainee’s level of expertise, allowing instructors to challenge both the novice and advanced learner alike. PMID:26180682

  20. Virus Infection-Induced Bronchial Asthma Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2012-01-01

    Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs), leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation. PMID:22966430