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Sample records for ascariasis histopathological aspects

  1. Surgical Aspects of Intestinal Ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

    1977-01-01

    At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, a common differential diagnosis of acute abdomen is intestinal ascariasis. This condition mimics many causes of acute abdomen so that accurate pre-operative diagnosis depends mainly on a high index of suspicion. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to this condition which is prevalent in tropical countries, where preventive and social medicine have not reached their peak, and to review the pathological processes resulting from this disease. PMID:875064

  2. [Biliary ascariasis].

    PubMed

    Mensing, M; Cruz y Rivero, M A; Alarcon Hernandez, C; Garcia Himmelstine, L; Vogel, H

    1986-06-01

    Biliary ascariasis is a complication of intestinal ascariasis. This results in characteristic findings in the intravenous cholangiocholecystogram and in the sonogram. Characteristic signs of biliary ascariasis are, in the longitudinal section, the "strip sign", "spaghetti sign", "inner tube sign", and in transverse section "a bull's eye in the triple O". The helminth can travel from out of the biliary duct system back into the intestines, so that control examinations can even be negative.

  3. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  4. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-01-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety. PMID:24574660

  5. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety.

  6. Digital processing of histopathological aspects in renal transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Andrade, Marcos C.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; dos Santos, A. M. M.

    1993-07-01

    We describe here our initial experience with the digital image processing of histopathological aspects from multiple renal biopsies of transplanted kidney in a patient treated with Cyclosporine (CsA), a powerful immunosupressor drug whose use has improved the chances of a successful vascularized organ transplantation (Tx). Unfortunately, CsA promotes morphological alterations to the glomerular structure of the kidneys. To characterize this process, glomeruli, tufts, and lumen areas distributions are measured. The results are presented in form of graphics.

  7. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas.

  8. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common human infection caused by worms, ascariasis is rare in the United States. Most ... for intestinal blockage. The greater the number of worms involved, the more severe the symptoms are likely ...

  9. [Chronic cholesteatomatous otitis media: the histopathological and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Marcato, P; Giuritti, P; Pozzo, T; Vitiello, R; Valente, G; Giordano, C; Sartoris, A

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the immunologic aspects of the normal and pathological ear have been studied by several authors, with particular attention given to the histopathologic aspects of the epidermis of the tympanic membranes of the outer ear canal and of the middle ear mucosa in normal physiologic as well as in inflammatory conditions. Such studies may help in giving a more precise definition to the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of middle ear cholesteatoma. In this paper we report the results of an immunohistopathologic study carried out using the immunohistochemical technique of monoclonal antibodies on cholesteatoma matrix samples taken during radical mastoidectomy or tympanoplasty. In particular, the presence of T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells was evaluated using selective monoclonal antibodies and a relationship between the data collected and the clinical expression of the disease in each case was sought. In this study it was not possible to establish a close relationship between clinical behavior and immunohistopathological findings, which appeared rather similar in all the cases. The presence of Langerhans' cells may confirm the hypothesized role they play in phlogistic reactions and bone reabsorption due to the presence of the cholesteatoma in the middle ear. Yet, in order to evaluate their true role correctly, more detailed studies should be carried out on the spatial distribution of T-lymphocytes and Langerhans' cells in the cholesteatoma matrix as well as on their ultrastructural characteristics.

  10. Cutaneous field cancerization: clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Torezan, Luís Antônio Ribeiro; Festa-Neto, Cyro

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "field cancerization" was first introduced by Slaughter in 1953 when studying the presence of histologically abnormal tissue surrounding oral squamous cell carcinoma. It was proposed to explain the development of multiple primary tumors and locally recurrent cancer. Organ systems in which field cancerization has been described since then are: head and neck (oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx), lung, vulva, esophagus, cervix, breast, skin, colon, and bladder. Recent molecular studies support the carcinogenesis model in which the development of a field with genetically altered cells plays a central role. An important clinical implication is that fields often remain after the surgery for the primary tumor and may lead to new cancers, designated presently as "a second primary tumor" or "local recurrence," depending on the exact site and time interval. In conclusion, the development of an expanding pre-neoplastic field appears to be a critical step in epithelial carcinogenesis with important clinical consequences. Diagnosis and treatment of epithelial cancers should not only be focused on the tumor but also on the field from which it developed. The most important etiopathogenetic, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of field cancerization are reviewed in this article. PMID:24173184

  11. Ascariasis: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1982-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the roundworm, is one of the largest parasites of man and probably infects one in four persons in the world. Despite its prevalence, ascariasis is a largely neglected public health problem that has attracted relatively little scientific inquiry. Frequently, a number of biases contribute to the uncritical conclusion that infection with A. lumbricoides adversely affects the nutritional status of the host. This situation is exacerbated by number of studies that have confirmed these biases but have employed questionable methods, such as the use of small samples and indistinct categories, the neglect of the double-blind safeguard, the selection of inadequate controls, and the performance of experiments that are not reproducible in a variety of circumstances. It is interesting to note that studies claiming positive correlation between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition have not found a significant difference in weight between infected and uninfected children before intervention. Furthermore, several recent studies have shown no significant improvement in nutritional status after intervention. Thus, the causal relationship between ascariasis and protein energy malnutrition is not clearly proved, and it is premature to advocate mass treatment of children in ascariasis-endemic areas as a method to enhance their growth and development.

  12. Elastoma: clinical and histopathological aspects of a rare disease*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Marina Gagheggi; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Seize, Maria Bandeira de Melo Paiva; Marcassi, Aline Pantano; Piazza, Christiane Affonso De Donato; Cestari, Silmara da Costa Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Elastoma is a connective tissue nevus characterized by changes in elastic fibers. It can be congenital or acquired, and is usually diagnosed before puberty. Associated with osteopoikilosis, it is known as Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Histopathology with specific staining for elastic fibers is critical for a diagnostic conclusion. This report describes the case of a 7-year-old male patient with lesions diagnosed as elastoma, with absence of bone changes in the radiological imaging. This study aims to report the clinical presentation and histological examination of such unusual disease.

  13. Intestinal ascariasis in children.

    PubMed

    Wani, Imtiaz; Rather, Muddasir; Naikoo, Ghulam; Amin, Abid; Mushtaq, Syed; Nazir, Mir

    2010-05-01

    Ascariasis is a staggering health problem commonly seen in children of endemic areas. In the abdomen, ascaris lumbricoides can cause a myriad of surgical complications. Intestinal obstruction by ascaris lumbricoides is commonly seen in children. Most cases are managed conservatively. The purpose was to study the clinical presentation and management of symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. A 3-year study was performed from April 2006 to April 2009 of pediatric-age patients who had symptomatic intestinal ascariasis. All patients had detailed clinical history, examination, plain X-ray of abdomen, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Peroperative findings were recorded in all patients who had surgical intervention. This prospective study had 360 patients. Male to female ratio was 1.37:1. 187 patients (52%) presented within 2-4 days of duration of illness. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) age of patients was 6.35 +/- 2.25 years. Age group of 4-7 years (80%) was commonest group affected. Abdominal pain was a leading symptom in 357 patients (99%) with the pain in periumbilical area present in 215 patients (60%). In 227 patients (63%) abdominal distension was seen and was the commonest physical finding. Palpable worm masses were seen in 129 patients (36%); 81 patients (63%) had palpable worm masses in the umbilical quadrant. On X-ray of abdomen, visible worm masses were seen in 83 patients (23%). Abdominal sonography showed interloop fluid in 177 patients (49%) and free fluid in the pelvis of 97 patients (27%). The number of patients who were managed conservatively was 281 (78%), and 79 patients (22%) had surgical intervention. In patients who had surgical intervention, 39 patients (49%) had enterotomy and 7 patients (9%) had kneading of worms. Postoperative complications occurred in 33 patients, and an overall mortality of 1% (1 patient) was seen. Ascaridial intestinal obstruction is common in children in the Kashmir. Abdominal pain is the leading symptom in

  14. Novel aspects in histopathology of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Francisco; Webb, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is a complex anatomical area in which several diseases may develop. The pituitary gland may be affected by a wide range of conditions having similar clinical characteristics. Diagnosis of these lesions requires a multidisciplinary approach including, in addition to clinical, laboratory, imaging, and surgical findings, histological diagnosis of pituitary adenomas to guide therapeutic management. As the result of development in recent years of new immunohistochemical techniques, histopathological classification has become more complex and wide, and not only continues to be the gold standard in diagnosis, but also has prognostic implications. The aim of this review is to provide a clear and simple update of the main concepts of histological diagnosis of the most common pituitary conditions, especially for professionals in direct contact with such diseases. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.

  16. Clinical and histopathological aspects in two cases of ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen LuminiŢa; Mănescu, Maria Rodica; Deca, Andreea Gabriela; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; Jurja, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    Ligneous conjunctivitis represents a very rare form of chronic membranous conjunctivitis, with unknown etiology; less than 200 cases have been reported in the literature, most of them in infants and children. After 40 years, this condition appears in exceptional circumstances. We present, in this study, two patients (of 55 and 64 years old) with very severe forms of ligneous conjunctivitis, certified by histopathological examination, one of them being previously diagnosed with Lyell's syndrome. The histological examination in ligneous conjunctivitis is important for diagnostic but also to elucidate the etiopathological context. A discontinued hyperplastic conjunctiva with numerous nuclear abnormalities and marked intra- and inter-cellular edema was characteristic for both cases. The epithelium layer presents large area of extension into the connective tissue, in the form of cysts and gland-like structures, or creating deep epithelial lacunas, with goblet cells. The connective subepithelial tissue presents diffuse inflammatory infiltration, with round cells, especially near vessels. Inside the conjunctival tissue, big hyaline areas with rare cellularity are detected. The amorphous deposits containing fibrillar material are also present. At the level of pseudo-membranes, we recorded a massive exudation of fibrin with an inflammatory cellular infiltration, and large areas containing an amorphous eosinophilic hyaline material. The association of ligneous conjunctivitis with Lyell's syndrome in one of our patients suggests its immuno-allergic etiology.

  17. Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis: overview of histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Ranganathan, Kannan; Chattopadhyay, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), first described in 1952, is a potentially malignant disorder associated with betel quid and areca nut chewing, mostly prevalent in the population of the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. Malignant transformation of OSF to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been estimated to be between 2% and 8%. Our study aimed to review the histopathologic changes that contribute to the understanding of the malignant transformation of OSF. Changes in epithelial thickness and dysplasia characterized by micronuclei, altered AgNOR counts and distribution, keratin protein alteration, and alteration of P63 and E-cadherin characterize the epithelial changes during the transformation of OSF to SCC. Common mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in OSF and SCC, through collagen maturation and their interaction with myofibroblasts and mast cells. Fibrosis-driven vascular constriction that results in epithelial hypoxia has also been proposed as an important mechanism for the malignant transformation of OSF. However, reassessment of the classical view is required, because with demonstration of large blood vasculature in the connective tissue stroma of OSF, the hypothesis associated with tissue hypoxia-induced malignant transformation of OSF can be questioned.

  18. Ascariasis: host-pathogen biology.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Z S

    1982-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common intestinal parasites in humans. Daily global contamination of the soil by A. lumbricoides eggs is enormous (approximately 9 x 10(14) eggs/day). Physical factors, particularly temperature and moisture, are critical in determining the maturation of eggs to the infective stage and their survival. Transmission of the infection to humans, on the other hand, depends more on various socioeconomic factors. In theory, ascariasis is preventable; it is indeed on the way to disappearing completely in developed societies where there is a high standard of sanitation. Ascariasis remains a problem in developing countries, however, where methods of disposal of human excreta are inadequate. The intensity of invasion is regulated by specific and nonspecific responses of the host to migrating A. lumbricoides larvae. Whether or not ascariasis becomes symptomatic depends on the intensity of the infection, the nutritional and immunologic status of the host, and the possible complications that may arise. Host responses to A. lumbricoides are brisk during the larval migratory stage in which hypersensitivity reactions may become clinically manifest, whereas people are rather tolerant of intestinal infections with adult worms. The role of ascariasis in the prevalence of allergic asthma still remains unclear. Complications due to migration of adult worms into the biliary duct system and to intestinal obstructions are the major causes of acute morbidity and mortality in ascariasis.

  19. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-09-15

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole.

  20. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. PMID:27672273

  1. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-09-07

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease.

  2. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009)--Part 2: the histopathology and immunohistochemical aspect with attention to the histopathologic diagnosis, vascular response, and infectious agents.

    PubMed

    de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy; Farina, Lisa; Thomsen, Preben D; Plummer, Caryn E; Mangan, Brendan G; Heegaard, Steffen; Coleman, James K; Toft, Nils; Brooks, Dennis E

    2014-07-01

    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Paraffin-embedded biopsy samples from 51 DSA. The biopsies were collected from full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty or split-thickness lamellar keratoplasty surgeries at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center in the period from 2004 to 2009. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were tested for association between each other. Prevalence calculation and test for association with qualitative data analysis was used for data evaluation. Fungal hyphae were found histologically in 47.1% (n = 24) of the DSA cases. Histopathologically, most fungal DSA showed suppurative keratitis (n = 34; 66.7%) and little to no stromal vascularization infiltrating the abscess (negative association, P = 0.005). All three angiogenesis-related factors were expressed to some degree in DSA tissue. A negative association between VEGF-A and PEDF when compared to the presence of fungal hyphae (P < 0.001, P = 0.023) indicated that cases positive for these two factors will most probably not have fungal hyphae present. Abnormally decreased VEGF-A expression is suggested as the reason for the slow vascularization and delayed resolution of fungal DSA, whereas PEDF and IL-ra did not seem to have any influence on the vascularization process. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics of DSA make it possible to suggest an etiology for an equine DSA with an unknown etiology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method.

  4. Sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Schulman, A; Loxton, A J; Heydenrych, J J; Abdurahman, K E

    1982-09-01

    In a prospective 6 month study, sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made in 12 patients: In five, the diagnosis was confirmed by other means, mainly intravenous cholangiography. In three, such confirmation was not sought, but all had proven intestinal infestation. One possible and three definite false-positive diagnoses were made. There were no established false-negative diagnoses. The echogenic, nonshadowing images of the worms were seen in the main bile duct and/or gallbladder as single strips (on one occasion with its digestive tract seen as an anechoic "inner tube"), as multiple strips giving a spaghettilike appearance, as coils, or as more amorphous fragments. Follow-up sonograms were obtained in six patients and showed expulsion of the worms by medical treatment.

  5. Ascariasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 288. Review Date 11/14/2016 Updated by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant ...

  6. Genital warts: comparing clinical findings to dermatoscopic aspects, in vivo reflectance confocal features and histopathologic exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Framil, Valéria Maria de Souza; Nadal, Sidney Roberto; Marta, Alessandra Cristine; Lellis, Rute Facchini

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts can be diagnosed through physical examination and confirmed by histopathology. Noninvasive methods are useful for ruling out other diagnoses with no harm to the patient. In this study the clinical findings were compared to dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and to histopathology findings, in order to determine possible patterns that can aid diagnosis of the lesion. It was possible to identify structural changes on reflectance confocal microscopy that are already known by dermoscopy, in addition to cellular changes previously seen only by histopathological examination. This study shows the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in cases of genital warts, providing important information that can be used in further studies.

  7. Genital warts: comparing clinical findings to dermatoscopic aspects, in vivo reflectance confocal features and histopathologic exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Framil, Valéria Maria de Souza; Nadal, Sidney Roberto; Marta, Alessandra Cristine; Lellis, Rute Facchini

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts can be diagnosed through physical examination and confirmed by histopathology. Noninvasive methods are useful for ruling out other diagnoses with no harm to the patient. In this study the clinical findings were compared to dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and to histopathology findings, in order to determine possible patterns that can aid diagnosis of the lesion. It was possible to identify structural changes on reflectance confocal microscopy that are already known by dermoscopy, in addition to cellular changes previously seen only by histopathological examination. This study shows the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in cases of genital warts, providing important information that can be used in further studies. PMID:24626658

  8. Atypical feline sporotrichosis resembling vaccine-induced sarcoma: clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Isabele Barbieri; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Miranda, Luisa Helena Monteiro; de Sousa Trotte, Marcele Nogueira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Tortelly, Rogerio

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old Siamese cat presenting with three ulcerated cutaneous nodules in the lumbosacral region was seen at the Laboratory for Clinical Research on Dermatozoonoses in Domestic Animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Histopathological analysis showed that the lesions consisted of polyhedral and spindle-shaped voluminous mononuclear cells with loose chromatin and clearly visible nucleoli, few giant cells, and foci of coagulative and caseous necrosis -- findings suggestive of a vaccine-induced sarcoma. No significant mitotic rate, cytological atypias or asteroid bodies were observed. Special histopathological staining with periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott's silver stain demonstrated the presence of small yeast cells characterized by simple and narrow-base budding compatible with Sporothrix schenckii. Mycological culture grew S schenckii. Cytopathology was negative for yeast cells. These atypical clinical and histopathological signs support the importance of histopathological analysis with special staining techniques, in addition to mycological culture in the diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Biochemical and Histopathological Aspects of the Parasitism of Haemoproteus spp. in Southern Caracaras (Caracara plancus).

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raquel; Martinele, Isabel; Vashist, Usha; Castañon, Maria C M N; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Daemon, Erik; D'Agosto, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Haemoproteid species have a wide global distribution, and they have been described in falcon species in several parts of the world. However, few studies in South America have focused on these birds. Haemoproteus spp. infections have been reported as the causative agents of serious histopathological changes, which can lead to the death of the host. Thus, this study aimed to molecularly and phylogenetically characterize Haemoproteus spp. in Caracara plancus, to characterize aspects of parasitism through clinical analysis and biochemical parameters, and to describe the histopathology of infection. To examine these aspects, 5 southern caracaras were examined clinically, and blood samples were collected. Blood smears were subsequently utilized in parasitemia calculations, PCR amplification, and serum biochemical investigations. Histological sections of the liver, kidneys, spleen, and heart were examined to check for possible histopathological changes. The birds showed clinical signs such as pallor and prostration that are consistent with Haemoproteus spp. infection. Moreover, the examination of the blood smears revealed 0.07% parasitemia in young gametocytes only. The PCR and sequencing results confirmed that the parasites belonged to Haemoproteus spp. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, albumin, total serum proteins, and enzymatic urea were first described in C. plancus and serve as reference for future studies of bird species parasitized by Haemoproteus spp. Histopathology results showed signs of injury that were consistent with haemosporidian infection in the tissues of the analyzed organs. The present study is preliminary, and additional studies of Haemoproteus spp. infections in other bird species are needed to better understand the relationship between parasites and hosts, because despite the low parasitemia recorded, biochemical and histopathological changes in various organs were observed.

  10. Research on ascariasis immunity and immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lejkina, E. S.

    1965-01-01

    The pattern of antibody response to Ascaris in the blood of experimentally infected human beings, pigs and laboratory animals indicates that immunity to ascariasis develops mainly under the effect of migrating larvae. The antibody can be demonstrated in the microprecipitation test on live larvae in vitro and in the agglutination test with carmine-adsorbed antigen. The antibodies can be detected 5-10 days after infection and remain in the blood for 90-100 days. The pattern observed in the increase in antibody titre permits the use of serological reactions both for diagnosis of the early phase of ascariasis and for investigation of a number of problems in the epidemiology of this infection. Application of immunological methods in mass surveys of the population makes it possible to correct existing conceptions of the duration of the season of infection, the extent of infection and the risk of infection in foci of ascariasis. PMID:5318223

  11. Malignant tumours of the small intestine: a review of histopathology, multidetector CT and MRI aspects.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zini, C; Kirchin, M A; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2011-08-01

    Small bowel neoplasms, including adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumour, lymphoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumours, represent a small percentage of gastrointestinal cancers, yet are among those with the poorest prognosis compared with other gastrointestinal malignancies. Unclear clinical scenarios and difficult radiological diagnosis often delay treatment with negative effects on patient survival. Recently, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI have been introduced as feasible and accurate diagnostic techniques for the identification and staging of small bowel neoplasms. These techniques are gradually replacing conventional barium radiography as the tool of choice. However, the inherent technical and physiological challenges of small bowel imaging require a familiarity with patient preparation and scan protocols. Adequate knowledge of the histopathology and natural evolution of small bowel neoplasms is also important for differential diagnosis. The aim of this article is to review MDCT and MRI protocols for the evaluation of small bowel tumours and to provide a concise yet comprehensive guide to the most relevant imaging features relative to histopathology.

  12. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  13. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the subrenal aorta. Histopathological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, F; Trimarchi, S; Franch, L; Rampoldi, V; Miani, S

    1994-01-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aneurysms (AIAA) represent a clearly defined clinical entity with an incidence ranging between 1.2% and 15%. In spite of the increasing number of observations reported in recent years, the etiopatholgenesis and natural history have not been defined. The lesion can present in an acute, subacute or chronic manner and the histopathological studies reveal prevalently two components: an inflammatory infiltrate and a diffuse fibrosis, in varying degree. This study aimed to analyze the more recent imaging procedures in order to correctly diagnose this lesion. In our experience the incidence of AIAA is about 2.5%. On the basis of macro microscopic pictures the authors divided patients into two groups: one constituted by the acute or subacute inflammatory forms, the other by chronic clear inflammatory aneurysms. All patients underwent on operative treatment. The surgical adopted techniques and the obtained results are reported.

  14. Obstructive jaundice induced by biliary ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Aine; Quigley, James Aidan; Genterola, Al Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. Its presence can lead to a multitude of presentations, one of the rarer ones being obstructive jaundice due to migration of the worm in to the biliary tree. We describe a case of a man who presented as an emergency to the general surgeons complaining of abdominal pain, fever, jaundice and vomiting. Ultrasound was used and the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made. The patient underwent surgery consisting of a cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration and T-tube choledochostomy. Our report highlights the varied aetiology of obstructive jaundice and the importance of including biliary ascariasis in the differential diagnosis of the jaundiced patient, especially from endemic areas. PMID:23239771

  15. Damage of collagen and elastic fibres by borrelia burgdorferi - known and new clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kurt E

    2012-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme's disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also elastic fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and elastic fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight strain, dislocation of vertebrae and an accumulation of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light.

  16. [Pancreatic ascariasis mimicking a pancreatic tumor].

    PubMed

    Casado Maestre, María Dolores; Alamo Martínez, José María; Segura Sampedro, Juan José; Gómez Bravo, Miguel Ángel; Padillo Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Durán Izquierdo, Elena; Gavilán Carrasco, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection in Spain is anecdotal and is usually associated with travel to areas with high endemicity such as India and South America. Biliopancreatic disease caused by this parasite is both rare and one of the most feared complications. There are few publications in the literature about pancreatic involvement in ascariasis. We describe a case of pancreatic ascariasis diagnosed after a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed for a suspected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A 58-year-old man consulted for longstanding abdominal pain and diarrhea. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans, endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle cytology were performed. The pathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. Cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The postoperative course was favorable. A pancreatic fistula type B (ISGPF classification) developed and was resolved with conservative treatment. Analysis of the surgical specimen revealed the presence of a pancreatic pseudotumor due to Ascaris lumbricoides. After these findings, treatment was completed with oral albendazole. Pancreatic ascariasis in our environment is unusual, but should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors and inflammatory processes of the pancreas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging aspects of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer histopathology – an update for the surgical oncologist

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Ewen A; Pritchard, Susan A; Mapstone, Nicholas P; Welch, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction are rapidly increasing in incidence and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. During recent years there have been changes in the knowledge surrounding disease progression, cancer management and histopathology specimen reporting. Tumours around the gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) pose several specific challenges. Numerous difficulties arise when the existing TNM staging systems for gastric and oesophageal cancers are applied to GOJ tumours. The issues facing the current TNM staging and GOJ tumour classification systems are reviewed in this article. Recent evidence regarding the importance of several histopathologically derived prognostic factors, such as circumferential resection margin status and lymph node metastases, have implications for specimen reporting. With the rising use of multimodal treatments for oesophageal cancer it is important that the response of the tumour to this therapy is carefully documented pathologically. In addition, several controversial and novel areas such as endoscopic mucosal resection, lymph node micrometastases and the sentinel node concept are being studied. We aim to review these aspects, with special relevance to oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancer specimen reporting, to update the surgical oncologist with an interest in upper gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:17118194

  18. Cytotoxicity, histopathological, microbiological and clinical aspects of an endodontic iodoform-based paste used in pediatric dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Elaine Marcílio; Guedes-Pinto, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This review aims at describing and comparing materials commonly used in root canal therapy, the cytotoxicity, histopathological, microbiological and clinical aspects ofa iodoform-based paste (Guedes-Pinto Paste-GPP) used in endodontic treatment of primary teeth. GPP has shown excellent biocompatibility to pulp fibroblasts and mild inflammatory reactions, having been well-tolerated by the periapical and connective tissues. Moreover, GPP bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against many oral microorganisms were also demonstrated. Regarding clinical trials, the GPP technique has achieved success rates when considering clinical and radiographic examinations. In the face of all the above mentioned results, this paper would like to propose the use of this endodontic material as a root canal filling for primary teeth.

  19. Combination of laparoscope and choledochoscope to treat biliary ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ming; Cheng, Ji; Li, Wei; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Cai, Kailin; Wang, Jiliang; Bai, Jie; Rog, Colin; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ascariasis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, which severely burdens the healthcare system as well as harms the personal life quality, especially among less developed regions. Biliary ascariasis is a critical complication of intestinal ascariasis with painful and life-threatening manifestations. The exploration of proper strategies as its medical interventions remains largely controversial. Patient concerns: A 16 year-old patient complained of abdominal pain and yellow sclera. Diagnoses: Biliary ascariasis Interventions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and bile duct exploration. Outcomes: More than one hundred ascarids were extracted and the patient had been discharged from hospital without any complications. Lessons: The combination of laparoscope and choledochoscope is an efficient method to treat biliary ascariasis, despite of large worm burden in the common bile duct. PMID:28353561

  20. Wandering biliary ascariasis with hepatic abscess in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Nahar, N; Khan, N; Islam, S M; Chakraborty, R K; Rima, S Z; Alam, M N; Roy, A S

    2014-10-01

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis is common in developing countries where there is a low standard of public health and hygiene. We are reporting a rare case of ascariasis which induced multiple liver abscesses in a post menopausal woman who presented with fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and mild hepatomegaly. Ultrasonography revealed biliary ascariasis with multiple hepatic abscesses. Laparoscopic drainage of hepatic abscesses was done and microscopic examination of drainage materials showed decorticated eggs of Ascaris Lumbricoides. The post operative recovery of the patient was uneventful. Ultrasonography is a reliable modality to diagnose and follow up of such cases.

  1. [Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses].

    PubMed

    Rakotonaivo, A; Ranoharison, H D; Razarimahefa, S H; Rakotozafindrabe, R; Rabenjanahary, T H; Ramanampamonjy, R M

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis is rare and occurs mainly in areas of high endemicity. The clinical presentation is non-specific, sometimes complicated by liver abscess. Abdominal ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and therapeutic surveillance. We report the case of a 35-year-old Malagasy woman with an acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses and its course to full recovery under medical treatment.

  2. Sarcoidosis of the skin--a dermatological puzzle: important differential diagnostic aspects and guidelines for clinical and histopathological recognition.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Patterson, J W; Nenoff, P; Horn, L C

    2010-02-01

    Sarcoidosis of the skin may have an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation, so that the definitions of 'great imitator' and 'clinical chameleon' have long been used. There is, in fact, a large group of skin diseases that can enter the differential diagnosis with cutaneous sarcoid manifestations, either clinically or/and pathologically. As the clinical consequences and the prognosis of these groups of diseases are often very different, it is important to correctly plan the diagnostic workup. The diagnostic process in this case often presents a challenge as no single test is sufficiently specific, so that a certain diagnosis can be only made in the presence of a compatible clinical and radiographic picture, along with histopathological evidence of non-necrotizing, epithelioid cell granulomas, and exclusion of other potential aetiologies. For practical reasons, four main groups of skin conditions capable of mimicking sarcoidosis can be identified: (i) transmissible, infectious diseases; (ii) allergic and immunological manifestations of various aetiologies; (iii) granulomatous diseases of various aetiologies; and (iv) lymphomas and pseudolymphomas. The aim of this article is to describe the main clinical and histopathological findings of such disease entities, and to discuss the role of those features (morphological, pathological and laboratory) that can help distinguish them from sarcoidosis of the skin.

  3. Damage of Collagen and Elastic Fibres by Borrelia Burgdorferi – Known and New Clinical and Histopathological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kurt E

    2012-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme’s disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also elastic fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and elastic fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight strain, dislocation of vertebrae and an accumulation of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light. PMID:23986790

  4. Lungworm Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus Travassos, 1925 from the black-eared opossum in South America: Morphologic, histopathological and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Mota, Éster Maria; do Val Vilela, Roberto; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Santos Barbosa, Helene; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado Junior, Arnaldo

    2016-09-15

    Nematode parasites of the cardiopulmonary system of livestock and pet animals have been receiving attention due to the pathogenic effects they produce in the course of the infection. However, parasitism in wild animals by metastrongilid nematodes has been neglected, resulting in potential risk to wildlife. Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus is the etiological agent of bronchial pneumonia in the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, a widely distributed marsupial frequently reported to inhabit areas from wild environments to peri-urban spaces. In this study, we reassessed the taxonomy of H. heterostrongylus, describing and comparing morphology of L1 and L3 larvae and adult worms with closely related angiostrongilids, and inferring phylogenetic affinities within the family Angiostrongylidae; we also detailed histopathological reactions under natural infection. Ultrastructural morphology and light microscopy confirmed cephalic structures with well-developed trilobed lips, patterns of caudal bursa rays, spicules shape, terminal anal aperture and presence of the ventral protuberance in L3 larvae, characteristics present for the family Angiostrongylidae. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA gene, suggested that H. heterostrongylus and Didelphostrongylus hayesi are closely related. Pathological analyses agreed with previous findings, showing that cardiopulmonary parasitism provokes verminous pneumonia and mucous bronchiolitis with hypertrophy of the smooth bronchiolar muscle. These data confirmed that H. heterostrongylus represents a pulmonary pathogen in D. aurita, produces severe pathological effects, and may represent risk to domestic and wild animals.

  5. [Audit of histopathological activities in the laboratories of 7 general hospitals. 1. Types of resources and quantitative aspects of the workload].

    PubMed

    Andrion, A; Feyles, E; Langè, A; Giudici, M; Grasso, G; Amore, M; Bondi, A; Cristofori, E; Pezzotta, M G; Bellomi, A; Anghinoni, E; Barbazza, R; Magnani, C; Ciccone, G

    1996-02-01

    Following a major reorganization of the National Health Service, competition for resources will depend to a great extent on the quality of the service offered, and audit will be of increasing importance. The present investigation deals with the quantitative aspects of the histopathology workload. A retrospective analysis of the biopsy handling of 1,000 consecutive cases was conducted in each histopathology lab of seven general hospitals. The data collected included information on specimen type, diagnosis, block/section/stain details for each specimen, as well as information about human resources, total workload and technical equipment. Among the seven labs, the histopathology workload ranged between 6,600 and 15,600 cases/year. The workload per person/year ranged between 1,400 and 2,600 (mean 1,900) for pathologists, between 800 and 3,000 (mean 1,500) for technicians, and between 2,200 and 8,300 (mean 4,400) for secretarial staff. The prevalence of biopsy fragments (endoscopic, endometrial curettage , etc.), "small" surgery (skin, appendix, gallbladder, etc.) and surgery was, respectively, between 42 and 50%, 34 and 47%, 9 and 21%. In all labs but one, 80% of cases were within 1-3 blocks; the seven labs had a mean of blocks/case ranging from 1.8 to 4.0 (total mean = 2.8). Differences in performing special stains were astonishing: one lab performed special stains in about 40%, and another in only 0.6% of cases (mean of the seven labs = 15%). Finally, the labs performed immunohistochemical stains within a range of 2.7-8% of cases (mean of the seven labs = 4.6%). The data we have collected provided baseline information on the laboratory running, and this is likely to be an integral part of laboratory administration in the near future.

  6. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  7. Ascariasis as a cause of hepatic abscess: A report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, V; Thakur, S; Rana, B

    2015-01-01

    We receive around 60 cases of hepatic abscess in a year. The commonest diagnosis reached at the time of discharge is amoebic liver abscess. The diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess is mostly presumptive and thus the patients are usually given a mixed treatment with injection ceftriaxone and tablet metronidazole. Here we report three cases of hepatic abscess diagnosed recently, where ascariasis was the probable etiology. Ascariasis may be a much commoner cause of hepatic abscesses in this region than we think.

  8. Life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan-yue; Zhao, Dong-hai; Qu, Hai-yan; Zhou, Chuan-nong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections worldwide. In some rare cases, ascariasis may cause serious consequences even sudden death. This study was undertaken to review the life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients reported in the literature. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles about ascariasis and trauma were searched from Pubmed, Google scholar, Scirus, and Wanfang databases. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with ascariasis were collected from 21 articles searched. Most of these patients were from tropical and subtropical countries. Of the 24 patients, 12 were children. Their major complications occurred in the airway passage and digestive tract. There were 3 fatal cases in these patients. Twelve of the 24 patients described in 10 articles were reported in the last 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are essential to minimize the high morbidity and mortality of these serious complications in trauma patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of Ascaris infection in a trauma patient from endemic area of ascariasis. History of Ascaris infection and routine examination of feces for Ascaris eggs may be helpful to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:25225578

  9. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  10. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  11. Ascaris suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-05-14

    Ascariasis caused by Ascaris is the most common parasite problem in humans and pigs worldwide. No vaccines are available for the prevention of Ascaris infections. In the present study, the gene encoding Ascaris suum enolase (As-enol-1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that As-enol-1 was highly conserved between different nematodes and shared the highest identity (87%) with enolase from Anisakis simplex s.l. The recombinant pVAX-Enol was successfully expressed in Marc-145 cells. The ability of the pVAX-Enol for inducing immune protective responses against challenge infection with A. suum L3 was evaluated in Kunming mice. The immune response was evaluated by lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, and the reduction rate of recovery larvae. The results showed that the mice immunized with pVAX-Enol developed a high level of specific antibody responses against A. suum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production, compared with the other groups immunized with empty plasmid or blank controls, respectively. There was a 61.13% reduction (P<0.05) in larvae recovery compared with that in the blank control group. Our data indicated that A. suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against A. suum infection.

  12. Nail histopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, B

    2013-09-01

    The structure of the nail unit is complex and many dermatologists and dermatopathologists have an incomplete understanding of it. Familiarity with the anatomy and histology of this unit, however, is a key factor in improving the diagnostic yield of nail biopsy. Inflammatory or infectious conditions that affect the nail can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life. A wide-ranging variety of tumors can also develop in this region and they may be life-threatening or require surgery that will result in functional defects. The author reviews the anatomy and histology of the nail unit as well as the basic histopathologic findings in the most common conditions affecting the nails.

  13. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene.

  14. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  15. Hygienic Behaviors and Risks for Ascariasis among College Students in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Mohammad Yousuf; Wagner, Abram L; Carlson, Bradley F; Boulton, Matthew L

    2017-08-01

    Teenagers have a high prevalence of ascariasis in low-income countries with endemic disease, and their hygienic behaviors and access to proper sanitation may be limited in rapidly urbanizing settings. We studied university students in Kabul to estimate the proportion with ascariasis and determine the prevalence of risk factors for infection. Ascariasis was assessed through microscopy for 520 students attending Kabul Medical University. Overall, 15.8% of students were infected. Living in a hostel (21.2% versus 10.4% in houses) using well water (27.7% versus 9.7% for piped water), eating street food (29.4% versus 3.0% for those who do not), and eating unwashed vegetables (63.6% versus 8.8% for those who do not) were risk factors for infection. Recent city migrants who live in group hostels, including students, are important targets for interventions to reduce ascariasis. Such interventions could include encouraging individuals to prepare their own food and use only potable water.

  16. A rare case of ascariasis in the gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Gönen, Korcan Aysun; Mete, Rafet

    2010-12-01

    Due to the anatomical characteristics of the biliary tract, Ascaris lumbricoides rarely settles in the gallbladder, which makes biliary ascariasis a rare clinical condition. Ultrasonography plays a significant and practical role in the diagnosis and follow-up of suspected cases of biliary ascariasis. The 15-year-old case presented herein had been complaining of abdominal pain and dyspepsia for three months, and the clinical and laboratory findings for the patient indicated acute abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography showed worms consistent with Ascaris inside a normal-sized gallbladder, dilated choledochus and the pancreatic duct. We started antiparasitic treatment in the patient, with cholangitis and pancreatitis diagnoses. Post-treatment follow-up ultrasonography showed a normal gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

  17. Epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in a Romanian western county (Timis), 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Dumitrascu, Victor; Neghina, Adriana Maria; Vlad, Daliborca Cristina; Petrica, Ligia; Vermesan, Dinu; Tirnea, Livius; Mazilu, Octavian; Olariu, Tudor Rares

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to bring new and important data regarding the epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in the Romanian largest county during a 14-year period. We have performed a retrospective collection and analysis of the available information provided by the general practitioners to the Statistics Department database of the Timis County Public Health Authority. The mean annual incidence of the studied parasitic diseases during 1993-2006 was the following: 194 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 90-304) for ascariasis, 777 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 417-1241) for enterobiasis and 1076 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 93-1770) for giardiasis. Noteworthy is that Romania reported 90.8% of the total cases of giardiasis at the European Union's level during 2006-2008. The general trend of the incidences throughout the studied period was constant for ascariasis (R(2)=0.192, p=0.1), showed no statistically significant variation (R(2)=0.025, p=0.6) for enterobiasis and was upward for giardiasis (R(2)=0.6, p=0.001). Intestinal parasitoses represent an important public health concern in Romania due to the extremely high incidence rates reported. Special attention should be paid to the young population (0-14 years), where the negative disease consequences on children's health and their educational process may be traced for a long-term. Therefore, efficient educational programs and campaigns should be timely implemented.

  18. Evaluation of two years of mass chemotherapy against ascariasis in Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad; Mirarab, Akbar; Jamalian, Farzad; Ghaderi, Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mass treatment of ascariasis in rural areas of Hamadan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. METHODS: A control programme in rural areas of Hamadan Province, which began in November 1997, involved giving all persons a single dose of 400 mg albendazole at intervals of three months. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by the formalin-ether concentration technique for stool examination and by the Stoll quantitative method. FINDINGS: The average rate of infection with Ascaris before treatment was 53.3%, ranging from 40% in Hamadan district to 75% in Toysercan. Two areas, Malayer and Nahavand, were excluded from the programme because the infection rates were only 13% and 4%, respectively. After two years of mass treatment the infection rate had decreased to 6%. The proportion of positive cases excreting only unfertilized eggs increased to 32%. No side-effects of mass treatment were observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic mass treatment giving high coverage proved to be very effective in the control of ascariasis, notwithstanding a lack of other preventive measures. PMID:12077616

  19. Post Extubation Bronchospasm in an Undiagnosed Case of Ascariasis: Anaesthetic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Ravindra; Kumari, Indira; Verma, Virendra; Bidwaikar, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    One of the most prevalent parasitic infestation is ascariasis which poses a great challenge to both the person being infested with and the treating medical team. We present here a case of round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides) infestation. A 40-year-old male, weighing 60 kg, diagnosed as perforation peritonitis, was scheduled for emergency exploratory laparotomy. The round worm was crawling out from duodenal perforation vent during laparotomy confirming the infestation. Patient later developed bronchospasm in post-extubation period and was managed accordingly. Surprisingly the patient expelled an adult worm in the next morning. This report highlights the importance of anticipating complications (i.e., airway obstruction, bronchospasm, etc.,) in an undiagnosed case of round worm infestation, especially if routine investigations were within normal limits. PMID:28384964

  20. Hyperthemia after cardiac surgery due to ascariasis in a child: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Umezu, Kentaroh; Ohashi, Noburoh; Harada, Yorikazu; Matsui, Hikoroh

    2012-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common parasite affecting humans, especially in countries and regions with lower socio-economic conditions. A 2-year-old female child underwent right pulmonary angioplasty using cardiopulmonary bypass. Serious hyperthermia continued after surgery, and, therefore, a re-exploration of the mediastinum was performed because mediastinitis was suspected. No evidence of wound infection was revealed. Ascaris lumbricoides was subsequently isolated from her stool. The patient had no further hyperthermia throughout her hospitalization and was discharged uneventfully on post-operative day 12. The probable origin of the fever was an A. lumbricoides infection and ascariasis may cause the occurrence of serious hyperthermia during the perioperative period. Ascaris lumbricoides infection may, therefore, cause high-grade fever after cardiac surgery.

  1. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    PubMed

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana.

  2. [The ecological and epidemiological principles of prevention of ascariasis under the conditions of large-scale solid waste storage].

    PubMed

    Kas'ianov, V I

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the impact of large-scale solid waste storage on ascariasis morbidity in the population. The use of sewage sediments as an organic soil fertilizer to grow strawberries and table greens is shown to substantially increase the risk of Ascaris infection in the population. Storage of solid domestic garbage on specialized dumping grounds does not lead to mass environmental pollution with geohelminthic eggs.

  3. Report filing in histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, W K

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of alternative methods of filing histopathology report forms in alphabetical order showed that orthodox card index filing is satisfactory up to about 100000 reports but, because of the need for long-term retrieval, when the reports filed exceed this number they should be copied on jacketed microfilm and a new card index file begun. PMID:591645

  4. Histopathology of chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Uribe, F; Zuluaga, A I; Leon, W; Restrepo, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the histopathologic appearance of chromoblastomycotic lesions was undertaken. Biopsies from 26 patients with the disease were examined. It was found that 23 cases (88.46%) exhibited the organized mixed mycotic granuloma - OMMA -, a granuloma modified by the presence polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN's. An equal proportion of cases exhibited pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, with the epithelium playing an important role in the transepidermic elimination of the fungus. Healing of the lesions took place by fibrosis which was observed in 21 (80.77%) patients; this type of reaction was more common in the deeper areas of the dermis.

  5. [Histopathological evaluation of the subtotal laryngectomy specimen].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Manuel; Romero-Durán, Elizabeth; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The goal of conservative surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer is to obtain oncological control with preservation of laryngeal function. The concept of laryngeal function preservation should be understood as the preservation of the patient's ability to breathe normally with neither tracheostomy nor aspiration, and maintaining intelligible speech. This can be achieved by a balance between two fundamental aspects, proper patient selection (based on tumour extension and preoperative laryngeal function), and an adequate histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Supracricoid subtotal laryngectomy is the voice conservative surgical technique that offers the best possibility of control in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. The proper histopathological analysis allows staging and selecting patients for adjuvant therapy, avoiding unnecessary ones as well as designing monitoring and surveillance programs based on risk factors. To highlight key points in the histopathological evaluation of the surgical specimen of a subtotal laryngectomy. The proper communication between the surgeon and pathologist, offering complete information on preoperative clinical evaluation and the knowledge of the key points in the evaluation of the surgical specimen (sites of tumour leakage and surgical resection margins) are fundamental parameters to achieve a proper histopathological evaluation of the surgical specimen. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-environmental factors and ascariasis infection among school-aged children in Ilobu, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N

    2009-03-01

    The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  8. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  9. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  10. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  11. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  12. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-03-12

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up.

  13. Histopathology of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Giannakakis, Konstantinos; Faraggiana, Tullio

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of morphologic changes in lupus nephritis, either microscopic, ultrastructural, or immunohistological, closely reflects the great variety of immune complexes that are produced in the course of the disease. Every tissue component of the kidney can be affected, but glomeruli are the target structure in most patients. Several attempts have been made to correlate the clinical severity and the outcome of the nephritis with the pathologic features; the current classification and the six classes that resulted from an international study group are entirely based on glomerular changes. Major criteria of classification include the focal or diffuse involvement of the glomerulus, the site of hypercellularity, the site of immune complex deposition and the presence of active and/or sclerotic lesions. Even if less thoroughly investigated than the glomerulus, the interstitial compartment has revealed many interesting features as are vascular lesions, a common and often underestimated feature. Typing of subpopulation of lymphoid infiltrates supports the emerging evidence indicating that B cells are promoting autoimmunity in mechanisms other than autoAb secretion. Many aspects are still debated and/or poorly understood, such as the interpretation of the so-called "full house nephropathy" that closely mimic lupus nephritis in seronegative patients.

  14. Molecular and Histopathological Changes Associated with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Mariam Lotfy; Helwa, Inas; Drewry, Michelle; Seremwe, Mutsa; Estes, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disorder that leads to loss of visual acuity through ectasia, opacity, and irregular astigmatism. It is one of the leading indicators for corneal transplantation in the Western countries. KC usually starts at puberty and progresses until the third or fourth decade; however its progression differs among patients. In the keratoconic cornea, all layers except the endothelium have been shown to have histopathological structural changes. Despite numerous studies in the last several decades, the mechanisms of KC development and progression remain unclear. Both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of KC. Many previous articles have reviewed the genetic aspects of KC, but in this review we summarize the histopathological features of different layers of cornea and discuss the differentially expressed proteins in the KC-affected cornea. This summary will help emphasize the major molecular defects in KC and identify additional research areas related to KC, potentially opening up possibilities for novel methods of KC prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:28251158

  15. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  16. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis among mothers and their pre-school children on Unguja Island, Zanzibar with emphasis upon ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Imison, E; French, M D; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Khamis, I S; Rollinson, D

    2008-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is a scourge to the health and well-being of infants and pre-schoolchildren throughout many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. To improve maternal and child health, regular de-worming is recommended and often delivered from mother and child health (MCH) clinics, yet there have been few studies monitoring the progress and impact of interventions on local levels of disease. A cross-sectional parasitological survey, supplemented with questionnaires, was therefore conducted across 10 Ungujan villages examining mothers (n=322) and their pre-school children (n=359). Within children, mean prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm was 8.6% (95% CI 5.5-11.8), 18.9% (95% CI 14.5-23.4) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.2-3.5) while in mothers mean prevalence was 6.7% (95% CI 3.7-9.7), 11.9% (95% CI 8.0-15.8) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.2-3.5), respectively. There was, however, significant spatial heterogeneity of STH by village, 2 villages having much elevated levels of infection, although general access to anthelminthics and utilization of village MCH clinics was good. Levels of parasite aggregation (k) were determined and a multilevel logistic regression model identified access to a household latrine [OR=0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)] and having an infected household member [OR=3.72 (95% CI 2.22-6.26)] as observed risk factors. To further investigate worm burdens of Ascaris lumbricoides, adult worms were expelled using Combantrin and measured. A negative relationship between mean worm burden and mean worm mass was found. Villages in the north of Unguja represent locations where there is elevated prevalence of both ascariasis and trichuriasis and it appears that local factors are particularly favourable for transmission of these helminths. From a perspective of control, in such locations, intervention efforts should be stepped up and greater efforts placed upon improving household sanitation.

  17. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  2. Histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented.

  3. [Histopathological evaluation of the meniscus].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2011-05-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resection and surgical refixation are the treatments of choice. In terms of diagnosis, this means in general that histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. A good knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential for diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and an appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for a fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting such that problematic insurance cases can be clarified quickly.

  4. Histopathology of a wavy medaka

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Mimori, Norihiko; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wavy medakas are medakas that exhibit spinal curvature characterized by dorsoventrally curved vertebrae. We found a spontaneous wavy medaka in our experimental stock and subjected it to a histopathological examination. Macroscopically, the wavy medaka’s spine formed an M shape, and its vertebrae displayed a dorsoventral curvature that started at the third vertebral bone. Microscopically, the vertebral cavities were filled with fibrous tissue, which was similar to that seen in the central parts of the intervertebral discs of a normal medaka. The vertebral joints were composed of vacuolated notochord cells without intervertebral disc formation. These changes were also observed in the caudal region, which exhibited less curvature. In the normal medaka, the intervertebral discs form via the regression of the notochord that plays a key role in the development of vertebrae and disc formation. We concluded that notochordal subinvolution had induced intervertebral disc dysplasia, leading to lordokyphosis, in the wavy medaka. PMID:27182116

  5. Statistical analysis of histopathological endpoints.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Saulnier, Amy N; Swintek, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Histopathological assessments of fish from aquatic ecotoxicology studies are being performed with increasing frequency. Aquatic ecotoxicology studies performed for submission to regulatory agencies are usually conducted with multiple subjects (e.g., fish) in each of multiple vessels (replicates) within a water control and within each of several concentrations of a test substance. A number of histopathological endpoints are evaluated in each fish, and a severity score is generally recorded for each endpoint. The severity scores are often recorded using a nonquantitative scale of 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no effect, 1 indicating minimal effect, through 4 for severe effect. Statistical methods often used to analyze these scores suffer from several shortcomings: computing average scores as though scores were quantitative values, considering only the frequency of abnormality while ignoring severity, ignoring any concentration-response trend, and ignoring the possible correlation between responses of individuals within test vessels. A new test, the Rao-Scott Cochran-Armitage by Slices (RSCABS), is proposed that incorporates the replicate vessel experimental design and the biological expectation that the severity of the effect tends to increase with increasing doses or concentrations, while retaining the individual subject scores and taking into account the severity as well as frequency of scores. A power simulation and examples demonstrate the performance of the test. R-based software has been developed to carry out this test and is available free of charge at www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/rscabs.htm. The SAS-based RSCABS software is available from the first and third authors. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. The future of histopathology--a personal view.

    PubMed

    Cotton, R E

    1985-04-01

    Pathology in general and histopathology in particular has recently spent some years in the doldrums associated with loss of purpose, direction, enthusiasm and credibility. The historical reasons for this and the reasons for recent emergence from this phase are to be used as a base for identifying needs for the future. As a result of technological advances and acceptance of some philosophical concepts, particularly that functional aspects need to be added to morphological studies, the view is expressed that histopathology should now be able to maintain its regained status as a foremost science in medical laboratory disciplines. These views were shared by Vincent McGovern in private conversation and demonstrated by him in his writings and practice. This written record by a friend is, in all humility and remembrance, dedicated to him.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1273 - Standard: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Histopathology. 493.1273 Section 493.1273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1273 Standard: Histopathology. (a) As specified in § 493.1256(e)(3), fluorescent and...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1273 - Standard: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Histopathology. 493.1273 Section 493.1273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1273 Standard: Histopathology. (a) As specified in § 493.1256(e)(3), fluorescent and...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1273 - Standard: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Histopathology. 493.1273 Section 493.1273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1273 Standard: Histopathology. (a) As specified in § 493.1256(e)(3), fluorescent and...

  10. Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

  11. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M

    2013-11-01

    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphometry in pathology: another look at diagnostic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Collan, Y

    1984-11-01

    Histopathology is crucial for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in many disease states. The created classifications, however, have not always allowed explicit recognition of diagnostic categories. So, considerable intra- and interobserver variations are possible under diagnostic circumstances. Better reproducibility can be reached by applying other than traditional methods. These include morphometry as well as special stains, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Morphometry is basic in that in detects structural and morphological aberrations in samples prepared by other methods and without doubt brings the element of accuracy to support the diagnostic decision. Morphometric approach includes item classification and grading, point counting and intersection counting methods, and the use of various semiautomatic or automatic instruments. In statistical morphometry morphometrical parameters are collected from several disease cases. Such data reinforced with prognostic follow-ups are the basis for disease classification. Diagnostic morphometry, on the other hand, tries to study the sample of one individual and give relevant data for diagnostic decisions. Morphometric methods allow estimation of the limits of possible performance in histopathology, estimation of human performance in the diagnostic process and estimation of the influence of interfering human factors. Diagnostic decisions as well as decisions linked with therapy are basically probabilistic. Also the data collected by diagnostic morphometry should be linked with probabilistic estimates of the prognostic relevance of the findings. Education of histopathology should be developed to meet these demands, both at elementary medical level and at postgraduate medical level. Education of morphometry can be incorporated into the medical curricula as shown by the experience at the University of Kuopio where aspects of morphometry are taught during histopathology course and special postgraduate courses have

  13. Mohs surgery histopathology concordance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ernest; Elliott, Tim; Yu, Lawrence; Litterick, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery is an important technique for dealing with difficult non-melanoma skin cancers. The ability of the Mohs surgeon to correctly interpret the histopathology is crucial to the practice of this surgery. This study sought to assess the concordance between a Mohs surgeon and a dermatopathologist in the reading of Mohs section histopathology slides. This study was a retrospective study of Mohs frozen section histopathology slides of patients from a private Mohs practice. The slides were provided for assessment by a dermatopathologist who had to interpret the histopathology and mark on a Mohs map the location of the tumour. We demonstrate a 95% agreement between the Mohs surgeon and the dermatopathologist in the interpretation of Mohs frozen section histopathology slides. An Australian Mohs surgeon is capable of correctly identifying and interpreting histopathology in non-melanoma skin cancers, and this compares favourably to an overseas study. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2011 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Ascaris and ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Dold, Christina; Holland, Celia V

    2011-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  15. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toxocariasis Stool Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P) Tapeworm Toxoplasmosis Giardiasis Pinworm Salmonella Infections Pinworms Hand Washing Tapeworm Cholera Salmonellosis Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  16. Roundworm eggs - ascariasis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Roundworms are the most common type of worm infection. It is estimated that there are 4,000, ... soil. Ingestion of contaminated soil then leads to roundworm infection. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  17. Ascariasis and handwashing.

    PubMed

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Cairncross, Sandy

    2009-03-01

    This review summarises evidence of the effectiveness of handwashing and the use of soap as a public health intervention against Ascaris infection, in terms of both prevalence and intensity. Literature in five major languages was searched and data were retrieved from 15 papers. The evidence of the effect of handwashing in general upon both prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection is inconclusive. However, the use of soap in handwashing is protective against Ascaris infection with respect to prevalence. There is no direct evidence that it reduces the intensity of infection.

  18. The histopathological study of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Fl; Bogdan, Fl; Muţiu, Gabriela; Lazăr, L

    2011-01-01

    The osteoporosis is characterized by the imbalance between the activity of the osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, and the osteoclasts, the cells that resorb the bone tissue, imbalance that favors the osteoclasts. As a conclusion, in the case of osteoporosis, for the same volume, the bone is less compact and more fragile. The objective of our study is to make a histological evaluation of the different elements of the bone tissue in many 47 bone samples: 27 bone fragments were collected from the head and the femoral head of patients who required hip arthroplasty and 20 bone fragments were collected from the vertebral body of dead patients. The results of our study emphasized the thinned trabeculae of the bone that lost continuity, the preferential resorption of the horizontal trabeculae, the consecutive trabecular anisotropy and the reduction of the trabecular connectivity with enlarged areolae and the adipose degeneration of the marrow. One notices in the osteoporosis a reduction of the trabecular network connectivity directly proportional with the stage of the illness; thus, we determined a strong reduction of the trabecular connectivity in advanced osteoporosis stages. The growth aspects of the medular adiposity, associated with the intratrabecular connectivity concurs to highlight the functional connection between bone and marrow. The diminution of the medullar cellularity together with its enrichment in fat cells has negative outcomes on the bone.

  19. Actinic damage in histopathologically normal skin.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Peter H; Krouse, Robert S; Prasad, Anil R; Yozwiak, Michael; Liu, Yun; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2008-12-01

    To establish measures of sun damage in histopathologically normal skin. Biopsies were taken from the upper inner arm, representing skin with presumably minimum sun exposure, from skin of the forearm with no visible sun damage, from skin of the forearm with visible sun damage and from normal-appearing skin from the forearm of individuals who had sun exposure that had resulted in actinic keratosis (AK) lesions. In addition, a data set of nuclei from AKs was recorded. In histopathologically normal skin, monotonically increasing damage was observed in individuals with increased exposure to solar radiation. Karyometry can detect and statistically secure changes in skin due to solar exposure at a stage at which the skin is histopathologically determined to be normal.

  20. Clinical and Histopathological Investigation of Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Nam Kyung; Hahn, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common epidermal tumors of the skin. However, only a few large-scale clinicohistopathological investigations have been conducted on SK or on the possible correlation between histopathological SK subtype and location. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of a relatively large number of cases of diagnosed SK. Methods Two hundred and seventy-one pathology slides of skin tissue from patients with clinically diagnosed SK and 206 cases of biopsy-proven SK were analyzed. The biopsy-proven cases of SK were assessed for histopathological subclassification. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological data of the patients were collected for analysis of associated factors. Results The most frequent histopathological subtype was the acanthotic type, followed by mixed, hyperkeratotic, melanoacanthoma, clonal, irritated, and adenoid types; an unexpectedly high percentage (9.2%) of the melanoacanthoma variant was observed. The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites than in sun-protected sites (p=0.028). Premalignant and malignant entities together represented almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the clinicopathological mismatch cases (i.e., mismatch between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses). Regarding the location of SK development, the frequency of mismatch for the sun-exposed areas was significantly higher than that for sun-protected areas (p=0.043). Conclusion The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites. Biopsy sampling should be performed for lesions situated in sun-exposed areas to exclude other premalignant or malignant diseases. PMID:27081260

  1. Flat warts undergoing involution: histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Berman, A; Winkelmann, R K

    1977-09-01

    Patients with multiple flat warts were observed during the period of involution, shortly before regression of the warts. The histopathological process was characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration around subpapillary blood vessels, exocytosis of mononuclear cells into the epidermis, and a spectrum of degenerative epidermal changes that culminated in focal areas of necrosis within the epidermis. Lesions near the end stage of involution did not show the histopathologic features of flat warts. The mononuclear cell-associated injury to the epidermis resembles that seen in delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity responses and suggests that regression of flat warts may be due to a cell-mediated rejection reaction.

  2. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Ichhpujani, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juxtacanalicular (JXT) trabecular meshwork and endothelial lining of Schlemm’s canal have been cited as the loci of aqueous outflow resistance, both in a normal as well as a glaucomatous eye. In this review, we attempt to understand the currently available surgical modalities in light of the available histopathological evidence, regarding localization of outflow resistance. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P, Shaarawy T. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(2):51-61. PMID:26997835

  3. Meniere's disease: histopathology, cytochemistry, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Gail; Lopez, Ivan A; Sepahdari, Ali R; Ishiyama, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Meniere's disease is a poorly understood, disabling syndrome causing spells of vertigo, hearing fluctuation, tinnitus, and aural fullness. In this paper, we present a review of the histopathology, cytochemistry, and imaging of Meniere's disease. Histopathology is significant for neuroepithelial damage with hair cell loss, basement membrane thickening, and perivascular microvascular damage. Cytochemical alterations are significant for altered AQP4 and AQP6 expression in the supporting cell, and altered cochlin and mitochondrial protein expression. Current developments include imaging techniques to determine the degree and presence of endolymphatic hydrops, and future studies will endeavor to correlate the observance of hydrops with clinical findings. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Morphea Simulating Paucibacillary Leprosy Clinically and Histopathologically

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, José Saulo Torres; Cavalcanti, Marília Lopes; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Pires, Claudia Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Clinically and histopathologically paucibacillary leprosy shows similar features with initial morphea. In this case we report a 24 yr-old male patient who presented to our dermatology department with diagnosed paucibacillary leprosy by his local dermatologist, and confirmed by perineurovascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the histopathological exam. On physical examination we found new plaque lesions that were suggestive of morphea with alteration of sensitivity. A new biopsy was performed showing sclerotic superficial dermis with thickening of the collagen bundles in deep dermis and linear arrays lymphocytic infiltrate between the collagen bundles that confirm the diagnosis of morphea. PMID:23372229

  5. Audit of tumour histopathology reviewed by a regional oncology centre.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, R J; Wells, S; Bisset, D L; Banerjee, S S; Harris, M

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To analyse the diagnostic differences in reporting tumour histopathology between a district general hospital and a regional oncology centre. METHODS--Tumour histopathology reports (n = 227) extracted from Bolton General Hospital files between 1988 and 1992 were compared with the corresponding Christie Hospital (oncology centre) reports, the same material having been seen at both hospitals. RESULTS--Diagnostic agreement existed in 77% of all cases. The incidence of major discrepancies was 8.37%. Of the diagnoses, 19 (36%) cases involved major discrepancies and 34 (64%) cases minor discrepancies. Most discrepancies occurred in the lymphoma group and involved subclassification of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ki1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma and T cell rich B cell lymphoma were problematic diagnoses. The correct grading of follicle centre cell lymphomas using the Kiel classification was another problem area. In 19 cases certain aspects of immunohistochemistry produced discrepancies. In one case an incorrect diagnosis was made at the oncology centre and in another both centres gave an incorrect diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS--Areas of diagnostic difficulty mainly involve the subclassification of lymphomas. Review of tumour pathology by experts is recommended, at least in certain categories, to ensure correct diagnosis and uniformity in subclassification of tumours. PMID:7730487

  6. THz imaging of histo-pathological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Pascal; Schmalstieg, K.; Koch, Martin; Rehberg, E.; Vauti, F.; Donhuijsen, K.

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the potential of THz imaging for the examination of histo-pathological samples. Data obtained on a pig larynx and on a human liver containing cancerous tissue are presented. Different types of tissue are clearly resolved due to their distinct spectral absorption characteristics or due to a density dependent THz transmission.

  7. Histopathology of fish: I. Techniques and principles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1955-01-01

    The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.

  8. Teaching Veterinary Histopathology: A Comparison of Microscopy and Digital Slides.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter J; Fews, Debra; Bell, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    Virtual microscopy using digitized slides has become more widespread in teaching in recent years. There have been no direct comparisons of the use of virtual microscopy and the use of microscopes and glass slides. Third-year veterinary students from two different schools completed a simple objective test, covering aspects of histology and histopathology, before and after a practical class covering relevant material presented as either glass slides viewed with a microscope or as digital slides. There was an overall improvement in performance by students at both veterinary schools using both practical formats. Neither format was consistently better than the other, and neither school consistently outperformed the other. In a comparison of student appraisal of use of digital slides and microscopes, the digital technology was identified as having many advantages.

  9. Nocardial endophthalmitis: report of two cases studied histopathologically.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, A P; Font, R L; Weinberg, R S; Boniuk, M; Schaffer, C L

    1988-01-01

    We report two cases of nocardial endophthalmitis. Case 1 is a 66-year-old man whose left eye was enucleated about one month after onset of decreased vision. Ophthalmoscopic examination disclosed multiple choroidal masses. Six weeks before the onset of ocular manifestations he had undergone a prolonged carotid endarterectomy with intraoperative complications. The source of the ocular infection was probably exogenous. Case 2 is a 49-year-old woman who had systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with severe pulmonary insufficiency. She had received moderate doses of corticosteroids. Seventeen months after initiation of therapy she developed ocular manifestations leading to enucleation of the eye one month later. Histopathologically, the enucleated eyes in both cases showed numerous branching, Gram-positive, filamentous organisms involving mainly the plane of Bruch's membrane and the subretinal space. The nosological and microbiological aspects of nocardiosis are reviewed. Images PMID:3257704

  10. Databases for technical aspects of immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Nagaike, Mika; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    With the aims of sharing information about the technical aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and making it possible to make a suitable choice of antibody for histopathological examination, this technical report describes the results of a questionnaire administered during the period of 2014 to 2015 to members of the Conference on Experimental Animal Histopathology. It also describes the immunological properties of primary antibodies (clone, supplier, catalog number, species reactivity, etc.) and the IHC staining conditions (fixing solution, fixing time, embedding, antigen retrieval method, antibody dilution, incubation time, incubation temperature, positive control tissue, secondary antibody information, etc.) for a total number of 733 primary antibodies (425 kinds of primary antibody). PMID:28190929

  11. Is there a correlation between the CEAP score and the histopathological findings in varicose disease?

    PubMed

    Mironiuc, A; Palcău, Laura; Rogojan, Liliana; Micula, Sanda; Gherman, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Varicose disease continues to represent an interesting subject. The factors triggering and maintaining vascular and cutaneous tissues alterations in chronic venous insufficiency are not fully known. This is a prospective, statistical analysis study, performed in a consecutive series of 40 patients with varicose disease admitted and treated at the Surgical Clinic II, Cluj-Napoca. The aim of the paper is to evidence histopathological (HP) changes in the vein wall, as well as to correlate histopathological findings, classified into stages, with the clinical stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CEAP classification). Statistical analysis was performed using the Fischer F-test for the comparison of the variances of two selections and the Student t-test for the comparison of the means. For correlation, Pearson's simple correlation coefficient was used. The software used was Excel and Matlab 7. Following the statistical analysis, the mean of CEAP values was found to be higher than the mean of the histopathological stage values in all patients included in the study and in the different risk groups. The values of Pearson's linear correlation coefficient between CEAP values and histopathological stage values did not generally show a statistically significant correlation. CEAP classification remains the main pillar in the diagnosis and the treatment of varicose disease, even if there are some dissimilarities between the clinical appearance and the histopathological results. The presence of a correlation between histological and clinical aspects in varicose disease remains uncertain.

  12. Histopathological characterization of the oral lichenoid disease subtypes and the relation with the clinical data.

    PubMed

    Alberdi-Navarro, J; Marichalar-Mendia, X; Lartitegui-Sebastián, M-J; Gainza-Cirauqui, M-L; Echebarria-Goikouria, M-A; Aguirre-Urizar, J-M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the histopathological characteristics of samples with a diagnosis of oral lichenoid disease (OLD) and their link with the location and the type of clinical lesion, and the clinicopathological subtypes. Retrospective study on 85 consecutive patients diagnosed with OLD (58 women and 27 men, mean age of 57.7 years). Clinical and histopathological characterization of each case (modified WHO criteria). Collection of the clinical and histopathological data of the lesions. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of the results. The 78.8% of the cases were considered clinically typical while the 21.2% were considered compatible. Histologically, 52.9% were classified as typical and 47.1% as compatible. Biopsies from "plaque-like" lesions presented hyperkeratosis (p>0.001) and epithelial dysplasia (p=0.06) more frequently. Furthermore, acute inflammation was more evident in erosive-ulcerative lesions (p=0.001). Differences regarding the location of the biopsy were statistically non-significant. However, 42.9% of the tongue biopsies showed epithelial dysplasia. The histopathological aspect of this disorder is not specific and does not allow us to differentiate between the main subtypes. Therefore, the main reasons to perform a biopsy in this disorder are to define the differential diagnosis and to rule out epithelial dysplasia or a carcinoma. The final histopathological result may be subject to the type of lesion that is biopsied.

  13. Molecular histopathology by nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-07-01

    A rapid label-free approach for molecular histopathology is presented and reviewed. Broadband vibrational spectra are generated by nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging (NIVI), a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS)- based technique that uses interferometry and signal processing approaches to acquire Raman-like profiles with suppression of the non-resonant background. This allows for the generation of images that provide contrast based on quantitative chemical composition with high spatial and spectral resolution. Algorithms are demonstrated for reducing the diagnostic spectral information into color-coded composite images for the rapid identification of chemical constituents in skin, as well as differentiating normal from abnormal tissue in a pre-clinical tumor model for human breast cancer. This technology and methodology could result in an alternative method to the traditional histological staining and subjective interpretation procedure currently used in the diagnosis of disease, and has the potential for future in vivo molecular histopathology.

  14. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  15. Histopathological lesions in 15 cats with leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J A; Sánchez, J; Peñafiel-Verdú, C; Buendía, A J; Altimira, J; Vilafranca, M

    2010-11-01

    Recent research into the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in the Mediterranean basin points to the involvement of cats as a reservoir host, but only sporadic cases of feline leishmaniosis have been reported. Feline leishmaniosis presents primarily as cutaneous disease and diagnosis is based on the demonstration of the parasite by skin biopsy. The present report describes the microscopical changes in tissue biopsies from 15 cats with leishmaniosis. The biopsies were derived from the skin, ocular tissue and mucocutaneous junctions. The most common histopathological feature was diffuse granulomatous inflammation with macrophages containing numerous amastigotes. Other patterns included granulomatous perifolliculitis and lichenoid interface dermatitis, where there were fewer parasitized macrophages. The presence of amastigotes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in each case. The results of the study confirm the value of histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques for the diagnosis of feline leishmaniosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Histopathological differential diagnosis in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Fociani, P; Carsana, L; Zerbi, P; Ferri, A; Sampietro, G M; Vago, G

    2003-01-01

    In front of the suspicious diagnosis of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the pathologist must have adequate and complete clinical, anamnestic, instrumental informations and, if possible, the previous histopathologic examinations. This is necessary because: the diagnosis of IBD is made with exclusion criteria, different pathologic entities may have similar macroscopic and microscopic findings and the characteristic lesions are often present in little number. The authors consider in this paper the problem of the differential diagnosis of IBD.

  17. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Histopathology of Conjunctivochalasis Compared to Normal Conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Hesam; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Amoli, Fahimeh A.; Kiarudi, Mohammad Y.; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Kheirkhah, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh) compared to age-matched controls. Methods: This cross-sectional, controlled study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with CCh and 16 eyes of 16 age-matched controls. A biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was performed along the temporal lower lid margin before cataract surgery in both groups. Histopathologic evaluation of the specimens was done with light microscopy using staining with hematoxylin/eosin, periodic acid Schiff, and van Gieson elastic stain. Various histopathologic features of the conjunctival epithelium and stroma were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.4 ± 6.9 years in the CCh group and 65.1 ± 6.3 years in the control group (P = 0.54). No significant differences were noted between the two groups in terms of conjunctival epithelial changes including papillomatosis, epithelial clefts, epithelial goblet cells, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Mean thickness of the conjunctival stroma was 0.21 ± 0.08 mm in the CCh group and 0.26 ± 0.21 mm in the control group (P = 0.10). For the conjunctival stroma, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of elastosis, fibrosis, lymphangiectasia, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: No noticeable differences were found in the histopathologic features by light microscopy between eyes with CCh and those of age-matched controls. Therefore, the primary pathology of CCh may not be within the conjunctiva itself. Instead, loose attachment of the conjunctiva to the underlying tissue may be the reason for the redundant folds in the bulbar conjunctiva. PMID:27994801

  19. The post-analytical phase of histopathology practice: Storage, retention and use of human tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Supriya Nikita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    There are several aspects to a histopathology practice besides the acquisition of biopsy specimens and histopathological diagnosis. Pathology Departments are home to an abundant source of knowledge in the form of stored specimens and slides. We attempt to highlight the importance of regulation of storage, retention, and appropriate use of human tissue material in research and ownership rights to the same. We also discuss requirement and waiver of informed consent for scientific work involving the use of such tissues, which in the absence of defined laws come under the purview of Institution Review Boards. Pathology Departments, under the binding of the parent institution, are conceded the responsibility of maintenance and retention of pathology specimens. This communication highlights some of the important aspects in human tissue material handling and research, underscoring the necessity for established regulations regarding the same. PMID:26958513

  20. The post-analytical phase of histopathology practice: Storage, retention and use of human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Supriya Nikita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    There are several aspects to a histopathology practice besides the acquisition of biopsy specimens and histopathological diagnosis. Pathology Departments are home to an abundant source of knowledge in the form of stored specimens and slides. We attempt to highlight the importance of regulation of storage, retention, and appropriate use of human tissue material in research and ownership rights to the same. We also discuss requirement and waiver of informed consent for scientific work involving the use of such tissues, which in the absence of defined laws come under the purview of Institution Review Boards. Pathology Departments, under the binding of the parent institution, are conceded the responsibility of maintenance and retention of pathology specimens. This communication highlights some of the important aspects in human tissue material handling and research, underscoring the necessity for established regulations regarding the same.

  1. Histopathological and immunohistochemical profile in anaplastic gangliogliomas.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Restrepo-Escobar, Ligia I

    2013-01-01

    The anaplastic ganglioglioma (AG) is the high-grade counterpart of ganglioglioma, a rare mixed tumor composed of neuronal/ganglion and glial cells. We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 7 cases of AG and correlate them with the clinical and radiological features. Our AG patients correspond to 2.5% of the central nervous system tumor patients evaluated in our institution. The mean age at presentation was 25.7 years, with a male predominance. The most common clinical presentation was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (3/7 cases), in correlation with frequent cortical/subcortical location (6/7 cases). Histopathologically, all our cases showed high-grade features in glial (glial fibrillary acid protein-positive) and neuron-ganglion cells (synaptophysin, PGP-9.5, neurofilament, NSE and CD56-positive), as well as moderate cellularity, frequent mitotic figures and a Ki-67 labeling index >5%. All our patients had poor survival. We found that a typical histopathological and immunohistochemical profile is constant and can be useful in early diagnosis of these aggressive neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. [Joint endoprosthesis pathology. Histopathological diagnostics and classification].

    PubMed

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Jakobs, M; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Bause, L; Kuhn, H; Matziolis, G; Skutek, M; Gehrke, T

    2011-05-01

    Prosthesis durability has steadily increased with high 10-year rates of 88-95%. However, four pathogenetic groups of diseases can decrease prosthesis durability: (1) periprosthetic wear particle disease (aseptic loosening) (2) bacterial infection (septic loosening) (3) periprosthetic ossification, and (4) arthrofibrosis. The histopathological "extended consensus classification of periprosthetic membranes" includes four types of membranes, arthrofibrosis, and osseous diseases of endoprosthetics: The four types of neosynovia are: wear particle-induced type (type I), mean prosthesis durability (MPD) in years 12.0; infectious type (type II), MPD 2.5; combined type (type III) MPD 4.2; and indeterminate type (type IV), MPD 5.5. Arthrofibrosis can be determined in three grades: grade 1 needs clinical information to be differentiated from a type IV membrane, and grades 2 & 3 can be diagnosed histopathologically. Periprosthetic ossification, osteopenia-induced fractures, and aseptic osteonecrosis can be histopathologically diagnosed safely with clinical information. The extended consensus classification of periprosthetic membranes may be a diagnostic groundwork for a future national endoprosthesis register.

  3. Liver histopathology of fatal phosphine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saleki, Sepideh; Ardalan, Farid Azmoudeh; Javidan-Nejad, Abdullah

    2007-03-02

    Two commonly used pesticides in agriculture are phosphides of aluminium and zinc. Both of these metal phosphides act through elaboration of toxic phosphine gas. The poisoning in Iran is mostly oral and suicidal. Phosphine is rapidly absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and it is partly carried to the liver by the portal vein. In this study the liver histopathology of fatal poisoning is scrutinized. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed on 38 fatal phosphine poisonings. The slides of liver specimens of the cases were retrieved and studied separately by two pathologists. The poisoning was suicidal in 33 (86.5%) of cases. Portal inflammation was negligible in 37 cases and only in one of the cases, a moderate degree of chronic inflammation accompanied by granuloma formation was observed. Major histopathologic findings were as follows: mild sinusoidal congestion; 12 cases (31.6%), severe sinusoidal congestion; 25 cases (45.8%), central vein congestion; 23 cases (60.5%), centrilobular necrosis; 3 cases (7.9%), hepatocytes nuclear fragmentation; 6 cases (15.8%), sinusoidal clusters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 12 cases (31.6%), and mild macrovesicular steatosis; 5 cases (13.2%). Fine isomorphic cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 36 cases (94.7%). These vacuoles were distributed uniformly in all hepatic zones in the majority (75%) of cases. This study reveals that the main histopathologic findings of fatal phosphine poisoning in the liver are fine cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes and sinusoidal congestion.

  4. A Review of Sleeve Gastrectomy Specimen Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Luke A; Garber, James C; Whipple, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution. Of the specimens, 122 had no significant histopathology, 91 had gastritis, 13 had lymphoid aggregates, 5 had hyperplasia, 3 had intestinal metaplasia, 3 had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and 3 had gastric polyps. Of the GISTs all had a low mitotic rate and the size of the tumor ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. The findings of metaplasia may be a marker for increased risk of malignancy and may require additional surveillance. The findings of GIST may warrant interval imaging to survey for recurrence, though the likelihood of recurrence for the tumors in this study is less than 2 per cent based on previous studies.

  5. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical review and update*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Thamy; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the diagnostic and classificatory concepts of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome in light of the latest normative publications. It describes the great variability of the clinical expression of mycosis fungoides in its early stages as well as the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects that help with diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria required for characterizing Sézary syndrome and the staging system used for both mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are described. PMID:23197199

  6. Histopathological characterization of the oral lichenoid disease subtypes and the relation with the clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Lartitegui-Sebastián, María-José; Gainza-Cirauqui, María-Luisa; Echebarria-Goikouria, María-Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze the histopathological characteristics of samples with a diagnosis of oral lichenoid disease (OLD) and their link with the location and the type of clinical lesion, and the clinicopathological subtypes. Material and Methods Retrospective study on 85 consecutive patients diagnosed with OLD (58 women and 27 men, mean age of 57.7 years). Clinical and histopathological characterization of each case (modified WHO criteria). Collection of the clinical and histopathological data of the lesions. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of the results. Results The 78.8% of the cases were considered clinically typical while the 21.2% were considered compatible. Histologically, 52.9% were classified as typical and 47.1% as compatible. Biopsies from “plaque-like” lesions presented hyperkeratosis (p<0.001) and epithelial dysplasia (p=0.06) more frequently. Furthermore, acute inflammation was more evident in erosive-ulcerative lesions (p=0.001). Differences regarding the location of the biopsy were statistically non-significant. However, 42.9% of the tongue biopsies showed epithelial dysplasia. Conclusions The histopathological aspect of this disorder is not specific and does not allow us to differentiate between the main subtypes. Therefore, the main reasons to perform a biopsy in this disorder are to define the differential diagnosis and to rule out epithelial dysplasia or a carcinoma. The final histopathological result may be subject to the type of lesion that is biopsied. Key words:Oral lichenoid disease, histopathology, subtypes, characterization, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesion, epithelial dysplasia. PMID:28390133

  7. Histopathologic variation between liver lobes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S

    2015-01-01

    Biopsy of the liver evaluates a small portion of tissue, with inferences made to the entire organ. The method and number of biopsies obtained are tempered by consideration of the risks and benefits. Recommendations often include biopsy of more than one liver lobe, although the consistency of histopathology among lobes in dogs is unknown. To describe the distribution of histopathologic abnormalities between liver lobes. We hypothesized that discordant results would be evenly distributed among all liver lobes. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver samples were obtained from all lobes. A primary diagnosis was assigned to each liver sample based on the predominant histopathologic abnormality. In this population of dogs, biopsy of at least 2 liver lobes identified the predominant histologic abnormality in 98.6% of the cases. Ten (14%) of the dogs had ≤ 3 lobes in agreement and could not be assigned a predominant diagnosis. The same diagnosis was present in 6/6 lobes in 39 (56.5%) dogs, 5/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 4/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 3/6 lobes in 7 (10.1%) dogs, and 2/6 in 3 (4.3%) dogs. The number of discordant results did not differ between the liver lobes. The likelihood of obtaining a sample that is reflective of the predominant histologic abnormality in the liver is increased when multiple liver lobes are biopsied. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Cutaneous histopathology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kao, G F; Evancho, C D; Ioffe, O; Lowitt, M H; Dumler, J S

    1997-11-01

    The dermatologic diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is often presumptive; the clinical presentation includes skin rash and febrile illness with or without a clear history of tick bite. The characteristic cutaneous manifestations include a generalized skin eruption with purpuric, blanching or non-blanching macules and papules usually involving the extremities. Although skin biopsies are often performed to confirm the diagnosis, the spectrum of cutaneous histopathology in RMSF has not been well described. We studied a series of 26 cases of RMSF, of which 10 were surgical specimens and 16 were autopsies. The microscopic changes were correlated with the duration of illness. The main histopathologic feature was lymphohistiocytic capillaritis and venulitis with extravasation of erythrocytes, edema, predominantly perivascular and some interstitial infiltrate. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) with neutrophilic infiltrate and nuclear dust was seen in 11 of 15 (73%) specimens from involved skin. These lesions with LCV also showed notable epidermal change including basal layer vacuolar degeneration with mild dermoepidermal interface lymphocytic exocytosis. Six lesions with LCV displayed focal fibrin thrombi and capillary wall necrosis. Apoptotic keratinocytes were noted in 3 lesions with LCV. Subepidermal blister was observed in the skin lesion of an autopsied patient with LCV changes. Another lesion of a fatal case with LCV also contained features of acute neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. Focal small nerve twig inflammation was noted in a third autopsy case with LCV. Plasma cells were seen in 6 of 34 specimens (18%); and eosinophils were observed in 3 (9%). The subcutaneous fat contained a mild perivascular inflammation and one case revealed focal lobular neutrophilic inflammation. Immunohistologic (IH) staining using polyclonal rabbit anti-Rickettsia rickettsii demonstrated positive staining of the organisms in the affected endothelial cells in all 12 cases

  9. Histopathology of idiopathic lateral skull base defects.

    PubMed

    Remenschneider, Aaron K; Kozin, Elliott D; Curtin, Hugh; Santos, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize techniques of otopathology to gain insight into the pathogenesis, sites of origin, and associated findings in idiopathic lateral skull base defects. Histopathologic analysis of temporal bones from an otopathology repository. Specimens from a human temporal bone repository were investigated for clinical or otopathologic evidence of occult bony dehiscence indicating communication between the subarachnoid space and air cells of the temporal bone. Specimens were examined by light microscopy, organized by fistula site, and histopathologically described. Premortem patient demographics and clinical history was reviewed. Specimens from 52 individuals met inclusion criteria. Three distinct fistula pathways were determined: transdural, labyrinthine, and perilabyrinthine. Transdural fistulae occur most commonly as the result of arachnoid granulations along the middle or posterior fossa dura (n = 30) and are frequently incidental findings in specimens of older individuals (median age at death: 81 years). Labyrinthine fistulae (n = 10) were noted with cochlear malformations when modiolar atresia permits cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow into a common intracochlear scala and oval window perilymphatic fistula results. Perilabyrinthine fistulae (n = 7) were observed through three congenitally unfused tracts: the tympanomeningeal fissure, the petromastoid canal, or an extension of the subarachnoid space into the fallopian canal. Idiopathic lateral skull base defects occur in three distinct anatomic locations with consistent histopathologic findings. In the absence of clear radiographic localization, patient age and associated cochlear defects may assist in the determination of the site of CSF leak. These data have implications for surgical approaches of CSF fistula repair. NA © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. [Desmoplastic ameloblastoma. Clinical and histopathological diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Maresi, E; Tortorici, S; Orlando, E; Burruano, F

    2003-03-01

    A rare case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma observed in a 62-year old man presenting a swelling in the anterior mandible area with abnormal mobility of 33, 34, 43, 45, is described. Diagnosis of desmoplastic ameloblastoma was based on: anterior localization, radiopaque appearance, severe desmoplastic stroma and increasing infiltrate pattern of the tumor. The authors suggest to consider the desmoplastic histotype as a different nosological entity defined "desmoplastic ameloblastoma" since these clinical and histopathological features are missing in the other histologic variants of common ameloblastoma. A radical surgical treatment is suggested for this neoplasia.

  11. Vitiligo - Part 2 - classification, histopathology and treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Tarlé, Roberto Gomes; Dellatorre, Gerson; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Silva de Castro, Caio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    In an unprecedented effort in the field of vitiligo, a global consensus resulted on a suggested new classification protocol for the disease. The main histopathological finding in vitiligo is the total absence of functioning melanocytes in the lesions, while the inflammatory cells most commonly found on the edges of the lesions are CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Physical and pharmacological treatment strategies aim to control the autoimmune damage and stimulate melanocyte migration from the unaffected edges of lesions and the outer hair follicle root sheath to the affected skin; moreover, surgical treatments can be combined with topical and physical treatments. PMID:25184918

  12. Histopathological and laboratory assessment of visual dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, R

    1982-01-01

    The currently available methods of assessing ocular toxicity are discussed. Manifestations of ocular toxicity are best described clinically; histopathological examination of the eye is beset with problems of preparing the eye for morphological examinations. Electron microscopy is essential to look for chemically induced side effects at the cellular level. Mechanisms of ocular toxicity are poorly understood, and the limitation of animal studies in predicting side effects in man must be appreciated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:7044774

  13. Subcutaneous sacral ependymoma--a histopathological challenge.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous myxopapillary or sacral ependymoma are rare tumors mostly developing in children or adolescents. The majority occurs in the sacrococcygeal region. There are numerous clinical and histopathological differential diagnoses. Owing to the fact that there have been rare reported cases that followed an aggressive course and in which the patient succumbed to metastatic disease, long term follow-up is necessary despite complete excision. We describe here a 25-year-old male patient with a histological unusual subcutaneous sacral ependymoma and discuss the differential diagnosis as well as treatment options.

  14. Chronic Histopathological and Behavioral Outcomes of Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Male Animals

    PubMed Central

    Osier, Nicole D.; Carlson, Shaun W.; DeSana, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this review is to survey the use of experimental animal models for studying the chronic histopathological and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The strategies employed to study the long-term consequences of TBI are described, along with a summary of the evidence available to date from common experimental TBI models: fluid percussion injury; controlled cortical impact; blast TBI; and closed-head injury. For each model, evidence is organized according to outcome. Histopathological outcomes included are gross changes in morphology/histology, ventricular enlargement, gray/white matter shrinkage, axonal injury, cerebrovascular histopathology, inflammation, and neurogenesis. Behavioral outcomes included are overall neurological function, motor function, cognitive function, frontal lobe function, and stress-related outcomes. A brief discussion is provided comparing the most common experimental models of TBI and highlighting the utility of each model in understanding specific aspects of TBI pathology. The majority of experimental TBI studies collect data in the acute postinjury period, but few continue into the chronic period. Available evidence from long-term studies suggests that many of the experimental TBI models can lead to progressive changes in histopathology and behavior. The studies described in this review contribute to our understanding of chronic TBI pathology. PMID:25490251

  15. [Subtotal-supracrioid laryngectomy (SCSL): the importance of the histopathological analysis].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Manuel; Romero-Durán, Elizabeth; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of conservative surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer is to obtain cancer control with preservation of laryngeal function, and in turn, the preservation of laryngeal function should be understood as the preservation of the patient's ability to ventilate in the normal way without tracheostomy and without aspiration and maintaining intelligible speech. This objective is achieved by maintaining a balance between two fundamental aspects: proper patient selection (based on tumor extension and preoperative laryngeal function) and an adequate histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Supracricoid subtotal laryngectomy (SCSL) is the voice conservative surgical technique which offers the best possibility of control in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer, and the proper histopathological analysis allows staging and selecting patients eligible for adjuvant therapy, avoiding unnecessary therapies, and allows design of a monitoring and surveillance program based on risk factors. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight key points in the histopathological evaluation of the surgical specimen of SCSL. The proper communication between the surgeon and pathologist, offering complete information on preoperative clinical evaluation and the knowledge of the key points in the evaluation of the surgical specimen (sites of tumor leakage and surgical resection margins) are fundamental parameters to achieve a proper histopathologic evaluation of the surgical specimen.

  16. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  17. Mastectomy scar histopathology of limited clinical value.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munir; Kiely, Clare; Shah, Syed H; Lawlor, Catriona; O'Donnell, Margaret

    2006-10-01

    This study assesses whether the routine submission of mastectomy scars for histologic examination at the time of delayed breast reconstruction is useful. A retrospective review was performed of all delayed breast reconstructions for breast cancer performed by a single surgeon over a 5-year period from January 2000 to December 2004. One hundred eighty-eight patients underwent delayed breast reconstruction during this period, and of these, 133 scars (1 patient had bilateral scars excised) were submitted for histology where the reconstruction was performed by either transversus rectus abdominus muscle flap (TRAM) or latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LDF) +/- implant. Fifty-six patients had reconstruction performed by tissue expander through the inframammary crease where the original mastectomy scar was not excised and were excluded from the study. One mastectomy scar specimen showed a 2-mm suspicious area of invasive ductal carcinoma consistent with same histopathology at the time of mastectomy. This study corroborates evidence that it is questionable whether routine histopathology of mastectomy scar at the time of delayed breast reconstruction should not be a standard practice.

  18. Paederus fuscipes dermatitis. A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Borroni, G; Brazzelli, V; Rosso, R; Pavan, M

    1991-10-01

    Paederus fuscipes (PF) dermatitis is a self-healing blistering disorder of the skin caused by a small insect belonging to genus Paederus, family Staphylinidae, order Coleoptera. Crushing PF on the skin causes acute dermatitis within 24 hours, corresponding in shape and dimensions to the area affected by the substance released (pederin). The acute vesicular lesions become crusted and scaly within a few days and heal completely in 10-12 days, with a transitory postinflammatory hypercromic patch. Twenty consecutive cases of PF dermatitis at different stages were studied histologically by routine light microscopy. The pederin causes a spectrum of histopathologic changes ranging from acute epidermal necrosis and blistering in acute stages, to marked acanthosis with mitotic figures in the late stages. PF dermatitis is an entomological model of irritant contact dermatitis, having histopathologic features of intraepidermal and subepidermal blistering, epidermal necrosis and acantholysis. The presence of some acantholytic foci, relatively far from the foci of clinically involved skin, in four of the cases considered suggests a possible role of pederin in inducing acantholysis indirectly. Acantholysis is probably caused by the release of epidermal proteases.

  19. Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Isaac H; Milner, Danny A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. We review here the histopathological features and ancillary testing required for diagnosis of all illnesses preventable by vaccines that are currently approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, organized into three sections: viral infections preventable by routine vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and human papillomavirus), bacterial infections preventable by routine vaccination (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus), and infections with specific vaccine indications (anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus). Histopathology for the less common diseases is illustrated in this review. Awareness of a patient's immune and/or vaccine status is a crucial component of the infectious disease work-up, especially for rare diseases that may not otherwise be seen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Locally organised medical audit in histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, A D

    1991-01-01

    The principles behind medical audit are straightforward, and histopathology departments are not exempt from the increasing requirement for audit in hospitals throughout the United Kingdom. Participation in a local audit scheme can offer more direct benefits than those which may be achieved by participation in a diagnosis based external quality assurance system, but the two are not incompatible. Histopathology Departments should establish their own system, developing an audit strategy for their particular laboratory and obtaining funding in advance. The experience gained from Southampton would suggest that such local systems are best kept fairly straightforward, so that they can be managed readily and do not become too onerous. Individual departments should institute a forum for presenting the results of their audit, and should consider how they might go about correcting any inadequacies detected by their system. It is also important for a department to decide on the extent up which their findings are to be disseminated more widely, in particular to the administration and managerial staff of their institute. Images PMID:2045491

  1. Histopathological characterization of a Cameron lesion.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jordan; Brar, Sonia; Sidhu, Jagmohan S

    2012-10-01

    Cameron lesions are linear erosions located at the neck of a hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with a large HH. The prevalence has been seen in up to 5% of patients with HH who undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and they can be associated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. These lesions occur due to vascular compression by the diaphragm in a large sliding HH. Histopathologic changes seen in the biopsy tissue of a Cameron lesion are due to ischemia, but this ischemia is reversible with treatment of HH. The existence of this entity and the histopathologic picture of a Cameron lesion is not well known to pathologists, and therefore, a microscopic picture of a Cameron lesion can be easily confused with ischemic gastritis. Ischemic gastritis is the result of atherosclerosis, usually seen in older people, unrelated to HH, and is not easily reversible. The authors received a gastric biopsy of a hiatal hernia without any associated clinical diagnosis of a Cameron lesion conveyed to the pathologist. This biopsy tissue showed ischemic changes in the gastric mucosa on microscopic examination. Diagnosis of ischemic gastritis was considered but ruled out after the case was discussed with the gastroenterologist. The correct diagnosis was made once the clinical diagnosis of HH with Cameron lesion (ie, a vertical red erosion) was made known to the pathologist. By reporting this case, the authors aim to increase awareness of Cameron lesion among pathologists so that they ask about the presence of a Cameron lesion before making the diagnosis of ischemic gastritis.

  2. Histopathological Features of Dental Pulp in Teeth with Different Levels of Chronic Periodontitis Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zuza, Elizangela Partata; Carrareto, Ana Luiza Vanzato; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Pires, Juliana Rico; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the histopathological condition of the pulp in teeth with different levels of chronic periodontitis in humans. Methods. Twenty-five single-root nondecayed teeth were divided into three groups as follows: group 1, clinical attachment level (CAL) 3 to 4 mm and alveolar bone loss (BL) from 4 to 6 mm without reaching the tooth apex; group 2, CAL ≥ 5 mm and BL > 6 mm without reaching the tooth apex; group 3, CAL ≥ 5 mm and BL > 6 mm up to the tooth apex. Histological analyses were accomplished after laboratorial processing. Results. The mean of CAL was 3.2 ± 0.7 mm in group 1, 7.6 ± 2.0 mm in group 2, and 12.1 ± 2.8 mm in group 3, while for BL it was 4.8 ± 0.9 mm, 7.6 ± 2.2 mm, and 11.9 ± 2.1 mm, respectively. Histopathological data in the pulpal chambers were similar among the three groups showing normal aspects, and, the radicular pulps showed variable levels of reactive dentin, fibrosis, dystrophic mineralizations, atrophy, and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusions. Gradual progression of the chronic periodontitis led to changes in the histopathological aspects of the radicular pulp with progressive involvement. PMID:22577568

  3. Histopathologic studies of ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, D L; Kerrison, J B; Green, W R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define the histopathologic features of eyes in which a pathologic diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy had been made in the years 1951 through 1998. METHODS: The following data were documented: age of patient, race, sex, source of tissue, cause of death, clinical history, interval from loss of vision to death, enucleation, exenteration, and biopsy. The histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy were the presence of localized ischemic edema, cavernous degeneration, or an area of atrophy located superior or inferior in the optic nerve. Cases with history of abrupt loss of vision were combined with reports from the literature to construct a time table of histopathologic features and associated conditions. RESULTS: Ischemic optic neuropathy was present in 193 eyes. There were 88 females and 65 males. The average age was 71.6 years. Ischemic edema without (early) and with (later) gitter macrophages was present in 26 (13.5%). Cavernous degeneration was present in 69 nerves (36%). Mucopolysaccharide (MPS) was present in 37 cavernous lesions 1 month or longer after loss of vision. Cavernous lesions were seen in 3 eyes in which peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer hemorrhage had been observed prior to death. Atrophic lesions, the most common pattern, were observed in 133 optic nerves (66.8%). More than 1 ischemic lesion was seen in 38 optic nerves (19.7%). Bilateral ischemic lesions were seen in 50 (35.2%) of 142 paired eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic optic nerve lesions are initially acellular and later show macrophage infiltration. Cavernous lesions with MPS are present 4 weeks or longer after vision loss. The location of MPS posteriorly and along the internal margin suggests that MPS is produced at the edges of lesions. Progressive vision loss in ischemic optic neuropathy may be secondary to compression of intact nerve from ischemic edema and cavernous swelling, or a second ischemic lesion. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5

  4. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  5. Histopathological study of feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Fondati, A; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on skin specimens from 24 cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Gallego's trichrome stain. In all specimens, flame figures and/or large foci of so-called "collagen degeneration" were detected and histopathological features were not predictive of the clinical picture. Use of the term eosinophilic dermatosis was advocated in diagnostic dermatopathology. On trichrome-stained sections, normally stained collagen fibres were identified in the middle of both flame figures and large foci of "collagen degeneration" and the debris surrounding collagen bundles showed the same tinctorial properties as eosinophil granules. Eosinophil degranulation around collagen bundles seemed to represent the major pathogenetic event in these lesions, analogous with human flame figures. The term flame figures might therefore be more accurately used to designate those foci of eosinophilic to partly basophilic debris commonly referred to as "collagen degeneration".

  6. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    PubMed

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  7. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  8. Histopathological study of nonosseous tarsal coalition.

    PubMed

    Kumai, T; Takakura, Y; Akiyama, K; Higashiyama, I; Tamai, S

    1998-08-01

    Histopathological analysis was performed on 55 feet in 48 patients with nonosseous tarsal coalitions. Histological findings were similar to those observed at the tendinous attachment site of Osgood-Schlatter disease, accessory navicular, and bipartite patellae. No nerve elements were observed in the fibrocartilaginous tissue at the coalition. Nerve elements were present only in periosteum and articular capsule surrounding the coalition. Pain in the tarsal coalition is not mediated by nerve elements at the coalition site itself. It is assumed that the pain is caused by mechanical abnormality that results from incomplete coalition. Incomplete coalition produces microfractures and remodelings on the boundaries between bone and the coalition, which then lead to degenerative changes. This mechanical abnormality seems to induce pain via free nerve endings in the periosteum and in the articular capsule surrounding the coalition.

  9. Metastatic pheochromocytoma: clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zelinka, Tomáš; Musil, Zdeněk; Dušková, Jaroslava; Burton, Deborah; Merino, Maria J; Milosevic, Dragana; Widimský, Jiří; Pacak, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas are tumors arising from chromaffin tissue located in the adrenal medulla associated with typical symptoms and signs which may occasionally develop metastases, which are defined as the presence of tumor cells at sites where these cells are not found. This retrospective analysis was focused on clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics of primary metastatic versus primary benign pheochromocytomas. Materials and methods We identified 41 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and 108 subjects with apparently benign pheochromocytoma. We assessed dimension and biochemical profile of the primary tumor, age at presentation, and time to develop metastases. Results Subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma presented at a significantly younger age (41.4±14.7 vs. 50.2±13.7 years; P<0.001), with larger primary tumors (8.38±3.27 cm vs. 6.18±2.75 cm; P<0.001) and secreted more frequently norepinephrine (95.1% vs. 83.3 %; P=0.046) compared to subjects with apparently benign pheochromocytomas. No significant differences were found in the incidence of genetic mutations in both groups of subjects (25.7 % in the metastatic group and 14.7 % in the benign group; P=0.13). From available histopathologic markers of potential malignancy, only necrosis occurred more frequently in subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma (27.6 % vs. 0 %; P<0.001). The median time to develop metastases was 3.6 years with the longest interval 24 years. Conclusions In conclusion, regardless of a genetic background, the size of a primary pheochromocytoma and age of its first presentation are two independent risk factors associated with the development of metastatic disease. PMID:21692797

  10. Ocular Histopathologic Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria P; Parra Saad, Edgar; Ospina Martinez, Martha; Corchuelo, Sheryl; Mercado Reyes, Marcela; Herrera, Maria Jose; Parra Saavedra, Miguel; Rico, Angelica; Fernandez, Angela M; Lee, Richard K; Ventura, Camila V; Berrocal, Audina M; Dubovy, Sander R

    2017-09-21

    Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is known to be associated with severe malformations in newborns. Although microcephaly is the hallmark of this disease, the ocular findings are important given the severe visual impairment that has been observed in these patients. Regardless of the increased number of CZS cases reported, to date, no studies have described the ocular histopathologic findings of this entity. To evaluate the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) antigens and describe the associated ocular histopathologic features of 4 cases of CZS. In this observational case series performed from June 19, 2015, through April 30, 2017, ocular tissue samples from 4 deceased fetuses with a diagnosis of CZS from the National Institute of Health in Colombia were sent to the Florida Lions Ocular Pathology Laboratory for evaluation. The microscopic features of each specimen were described, and immunostaining was performed using a ZIKV NS2B protein antibody. Ocular tissue samples from the 4 deceased fetuses (2 female, 2 male) ranging from 21.5 to 29 weeks' gestation with a diagnosis of CZS were studied. The 4 eyes manifested with pupillary membranes, immature anterior chamber angles, loss of pigment and thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium, choroidal thinning, undifferentiated nuclear layers of the retina, and a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate within the choroid. The optic nerve, present in 2 of the eyes, demonstrated atrophy. Expression of ZIKV antigen was present in the iris in cases 1, 3, and 4; the neural retina and choroid in case 1; and in the optic nerve in case 4. Loss of retinal pigment epithelium, the presence of a thin choroid, a perivascular choroidal inflammatory infiltrate, and atrophic changes within the optic nerve were consistently present. These findings may be attributed to ZIKV infection and warrant further study.

  11. Papillary meningioma: clinical and histopathological observations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dai-Jun; Zheng, Ming-Zhe; Gong, Ye; Xie, Qing; Wang, Yin; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Mao, Ying; Zhong, Ping; Che, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Cheng-Chuan; Huang, Feng-Ping; Zheng, Kang; Li, Shi-Qi; Gu, Yu-Xiang; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Bo-Jie; Wu, Jing-Song; Xie, Li-Qian; Tang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Hong-Da; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Papillary meningioma is a rare subtype of malignant meningiomas, which is classified by the World Health Organization as Grade III. Because of lack of large sample size case studies, many of the specific characteristics of papillary meningioma are unclear. This study investigated by retrospective analysis the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of 17 papillary meningioma patients who underwent surgical resection or biopsy, to assess the characteristics of papillary meningioma. Eight female and nine male patients were included, with a mean age of 40 (range: 6 to 55) years. Tumors were mostly located in the cerebral convexity and showed irregular margins, absence of a peritumoral rim, heterogeneous enhancement and severe peritumoral brain edema on preoperative images. Brain invasion was often confirmed during the operations, with abundant to exceedingly abundant blood supply. Intratumoral necrosis and mitosis was frequently observed on routinely stained sections. The average MIB-1 labeling index was 6.9%. Seven cases experienced tumor recurrence or progression, while seven patients died 6 to 29 months after operation. Radiation therapy was given in 52.9% of all cases. Univariate analysis showed that only the existence of intratumoral necrosis and incomplete resection correlated with tumor recurrence. The 3-year progression free survival was 66.7% after gross total resection and 63.6% for other cases. The 3-year mortality rate was 50% after gross total resection and 63.6% for other cases. Papillary meningioma has specific clinical and histopathological characteristics. Tumor recurrence (or progression) and mortality are common. Gross total tumor resection resulted in less recurrence and mortality. PMID:23638219

  12. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  13. Histopathology of the palmar beak ligament in trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, S H; Hicks, D G; Chinchilli, V M; Pellegrini, V D

    1999-05-01

    Eighteen cadaver hands were studied to investigate the relationship between degeneration of the palmar beak ligament and articular disease of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Eight of 18 joints had chondromalacia alone; 10 contained areas of eburnation in the palmar aspect of the joint. Beak ligament degeneration correlated closely with the presence of articular degeneration; all joints with eburnation demonstrated frank detachment of the ligament from its metacarpal insertion site. Histologically, the collagen fibers of the beak ligament were disorganized at the metacarpal attachment. The normal insertional zone of fibrocartilage was often unrecognizable on the metacarpal side and, in more degenerative specimens, an intervening synovial recess appeared at the palmar beak of the metacarpal. The trapezial insertion of the beak ligament showed no degenerative change. Increasingly severe cartilage disease was associated with progressive and selective degeneration of the collagen framework of the beak ligament at its insertion onto the thumb metacarpal. These localized histopathologic findings further support the existence of an anatomically distinct intra-articular beak ligament essential to the normal function of the trapeziometacarpal joint and suggest an etiologic relationship to osteoarthritic disease.

  14. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  16. Improving the interaction between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments

    PubMed Central

    Maudgil, A; Salvi, S M; Tan, J H Y; Mudhar, H S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to improve communication between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, by effectively changing the structure and completion of the histopathology request form through the process of a successful audit. This aimed to ensure that comprehensive information was made available to the histopathologist. Methods An audit was performed by review of 710 histopathology request forms, completed by the ophthalmology department, over a 1-year period, between July 2005 and June 2006 inclusive. Results were used to re-model the ophthalmic histopathology request form. New forms were circulated and all forms completed over a 3-month period, between January 2008 and March 2008, were reviewed, thus closing the audit loop. Results On the basis of audit results of 710 histopathology request forms, a new histopathology request form was created, which was easier to complete. Review of the 224 new histopathology request forms showed improved percentages of completion of important sections of the form. Conclusions Through the audit process we have created a new ophthalmic histopathology request form that is more user-friendly for the ophthalmologist and more consistently provides the necessary information for the ophthalmic histopathologist. This has improved efficiency and effectiveness of communication between the specialities, which should contribute to minimise the chances of medical error and improved turnaround times for the planning and delivery of patient care. PMID:21587272

  17. Improving the interaction between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments.

    PubMed

    Maudgil, A; Salvi, S M; Tan, J H Y; Mudhar, H S

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve communication between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, by effectively changing the structure and completion of the histopathology request form through the process of a successful audit. This aimed to ensure that comprehensive information was made available to the histopathologist. An audit was performed by review of 710 histopathology request forms, completed by the ophthalmology department, over a 1-year period, between July 2005 and June 2006 inclusive. Results were used to re-model the ophthalmic histopathology request form. New forms were circulated and all forms completed over a 3-month period, between January 2008 and March 2008, were reviewed, thus closing the audit loop. On the basis of audit results of 710 histopathology request forms, a new histopathology request form was created, which was easier to complete. Review of the 224 new histopathology request forms showed improved percentages of completion of important sections of the form. Through the audit process we have created a new ophthalmic histopathology request form that is more user-friendly for the ophthalmologist and more consistently provides the necessary information for the ophthalmic histopathologist. This has improved efficiency and effectiveness of communication between the specialities, which should contribute to minimise the chances of medical error and improved turnaround times for the planning and delivery of patient care.

  18. Two Cases of Melasma with Unusual Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    We reported two cases of clinically typical melasma presenting with unusual histopathologic findings. In one case, the epidermal melanocytes were markedly increased in number and protruded into the dermis, and in the other case, increased epidermal pigmentation as well as dermal melanocytosis were found. We suggested that the various treatment modalities of melasma should be applied depend on its histopathologic finding. PMID:16614533

  19. Histopathology of ameloblastoma of the jaws; some critical observations based on a 40 years single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Hertog, Doenja; Bloemena, Elisabeth; H A Aartman, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine all cases of intraosseous benign ameloblastomas treated between 1970 and 2010 in a single institution and to look for a possible correlation between the histopathological aspects and the demographical and clinical parameters, as well as the treatment outcome. The data of a total number of 44 patients were retrieved from the records. Nine patients were excluded because of doubt about the correct diagnosis (8 patients) or because of an extra-osseous presentation (1 patient). No statistically significant differences were found between the histopathological (sub)types of ameloblastomas and the demographical and clinical parameters, nor between the histopathological (sub)types and treatment outcome. Of the 28 patients treated by enucleation, in 17 patients one or more recurrences occurred, with no significant predilection for any histopathological (sub)type, including the unicystic type. There were no significant differences in the recurrence rate after enucleation in patients below and above the age of 20 years either. In six out of 17 patients with a recurrence, the recurrent lesion showed a different histopathological subtype than was encountered in the primary. In two cases a change from solid/multicystic to desmoplastic ameloblastomas was noticed. In conclusion, the current histopathological classification of benign intraosseous ameloblastoma does not seem to have clinical relevance with the possible exception of the luminal unicystic ameloblastoma that has been removed in toto, unfragmented. Since no primary desmoplastic ameloblastomas were encountered in the present study no further comments can be made on this apparently rare entity. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, ameloblastoma, histopathology. PMID:22157674

  20. Actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip: clinical, histopathological and immunogenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Aparecida Martinez Antunes Ribeiro; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2012-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is the main precancerous lesion of the lip. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip is reported together with oral carcinomas in the Brazilian official statistics. Overall, they account for 40% of the head and neck carcinomas. In general, physicians and dentists know little about what causes oral tumor development and progression. Tumor suppressor genes and cell proliferation regulatory proteins play a role in the progression of actinic cheilitis to squamous cell carcinoma and in its biological behavior. Knowledge on prognostic and diagnostic markers has a positive impact on the follow-up of these patients.

  1. [Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Clinical and histopathological aspects of 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Kuri, R; Ruíz Maldonado, R; Tamayo, L

    1978-01-01

    The inflammatory linear verrucous nevus is a recently described variety of epidermal nevus clinically and histologically characterized by an inflammatory component. The lesion stars at birth or at early age, pruritus is constant. Histologically the picture is psoriasiform. The therapeutic response is poor. Seven cases are presented. Associated extracutaneous alterations were presented in four of them.

  2. Effects of Noscarna™ on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model: histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Hiep, Tran Tuan; Han, Sang Duk; Kim, Bo Gyun; Kang, Min Kyung; Do, Eui Seon; Jun, Joon Ho; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Sohn, Young Taek; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and a great loss of skin pigment were observed compared to the non-treated control, base or silicone control-treated scars. Furthermore, histological analysis of Noscarna™-treated scars revealed a significant reduction in scar elevation index (SEI), anterior skin and epithelial thicknesses, inflammatory cells, vessels, collagen disorganization and fibroblasts compared to all control hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, Noscarna™ showed more favorable effects on hypertrophic scars than a commercial product, Contractubex®. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrated that the newly developed silicone-based gel, Noscarna™, could be a promising formulation as an effective therapeutic agent for hypertrophic scars.

  3. Potassium chloride as a euthanasia agent in psittacine birds: Clinical aspects and consequences for histopathologic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Guincho, Mark; Smith, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Twelve parrots anesthetized with isoflurane were euthanized intravenously (IV) with 3 or 10 mEq/kg body weight (BW) of potassium chloride (KCl) resulting in ventricular asystole at 68.0 s and 32.8 s, respectively. Mild vocalization (1/6 birds, 3 mEq/kg BW) and involuntary muscle tremors (5/6 birds, 10 mEq/kg BW) were noted. Unlike barbiturates or T-61 no histologic artefacts resulted from this technique. PMID:21629426

  4. Clinical, ultrasonographical and histopathological aspects in Hashimoto's thyroiditis associated with malignant and benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Zosin, Ioana; Balaş, Melania

    2013-01-01

    The reported prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis associated with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is heterogeneous.The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiological, clinical, sonographical and histological features of operated thyroidnodules with background diffuse autoimmune thyroiditis. The study included 411 cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), of which 118 presented thyroid nodular disease(TND). Thyroidectomy was performed in 76 cases. Of these patients, 24 presented histologically confirmed DTC and 52 benign lesions.DTC types were as follows: papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (n = 6), follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) (n = 6), papillary microcarcinomas(n = 8), follicular thyroid carcinoma (n = 1) and the mixed form (classic PTC and FVPTC) (n = 3). The benign nodules were dominatedby: follicular adenoma (48%), and colloid goitre (40.3%). The sonographic features with predictive risk for malignancy in cases with HT associated with TND were represented by: solidcomposition, hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications. The characters of margins, the nodular shape and the type of vascularity do notseem to be as useful for identification of malignant nodules in HT. Fine needle-aspiration biopsy (FNAB) showed in DTC cases differentcytological smears: malignant (ten), indeterminate (eight), benign (two), and non-diagnostic (four). In the group of benign nodules, theindeterminate smears represented also a significant percentage (n = 12). The incidence of TND associated with HT was 28.7%. Among 76 operated cases, 31.5% presented DTC. The accuracyof FNAB in the preoperative diagnosis showed higher sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (61.5%) compared to sonographic criteria.

  5. Histopathological effects of boldenone in cattle.

    PubMed

    Groot, M J; Biolatti, B

    2004-03-01

    Histopathology of male cattle previously found positive for béta-boldenone in urine in the Netherlands and in Italy was studied. The animals were derived from practice and several weeks had passed after the finding of béta-boldenone before the animals were examined. The animals consisted of 34 male veal calves and one finishing bull. In the prostate gland hypersecretion, cyst formation (45%) and hyperplasia of the urethral epithelium was observed, in the bulbo-urethral gland similar alterations were present. The testis showed reduced development and degeneration of the germinal epithelium (70%), leading to debris and syncytial cell formation in the lumina. Stromal proliferation was evident. In some animals the liver was sampled and showed periportal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and sometimes necrosis. The bull also showed degeneration of the germinal epithelium of the testis and absence of sperm production, the prostate gland showed some secretion and had an atrophic appearance. It is concluded that béta-boldenone may lead to degeneration of the germinal epithelium of the testis and hypersecretion and cyst formation in the prostate and bulbo-urethral gland, which alterations may heal in time.

  6. Histopathology of human laser thermal angioplasty recanalization.

    PubMed

    White, R A; White, G H; Vlasak, J; Fujitani, R; Kopchok, G E

    1988-01-01

    Laserprobe thermal-assisted balloon, angioplasty (LTBA) has demonstrated promising initial clinical results in recanalizing stenotic or occluded superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. Over the past year we have obtained six specimens of laserprobe thermal (LT) and LTBA treated total occlusions (avg. length 12 cm) for histopathologic examination from patients who were treated for limb salvage. Three tissue specimens were obtained acutely, and one was obtained at 6, 8, and 13 days, respectively, after laser angioplasty at the time of revision for complications or failed procedures. Serial histologic sections of the treated LT segments demonstrated recanalization of atherosclerotic lesions to approximately 60-70% of the probe diameter. The LT channels were lined by a thin layer of carbonized or coagulated tissue and several layers of cell necrosis. The histology of the thermal injury was similar regardless of whether it was produced by the heated metal cap or by free argon laser energy. Stellate balloon angioplasty fractures were frequently filled with thrombus. Analysis of these human LT and LTBA specimens revealed that the thermal device produces a confined injury through the path of least resistance. Balloon dilatation produces fragmented cracks in the vessel wall, which appear to be more thrombogenic than the carbonized LT surface. With improved guidance methods, LTBA shows potential for continuing development.

  7. Macular translocation: histopathologic findings in swine eyes.

    PubMed

    Roig-Melo, E A; Afaro, D V; Heredia-Elizondo, M L; Yarbrough, L M; Game, A B; Apple, D J; Quirol, H M

    2000-01-01

    Macular translocation has been proposed as an alternative technique in the treatment of some cases of choroidal neovascularization. The purpose of the paper is to report the histopathologic findings in the retina of swine eyes undergone macular translocation. Ten eyes of ten Yucatan pigs underwent posterior pars plana vitrectomy and scleral imbrication to achieve macular translocation. Mattress sutures were preplaced at the equator of the eyes. After a pars plana vitrectomy, balanced saline solution was injected under the temporal retina to produce a retinal detachment. Scleral imbrication was achieved by tightening the mattress sutures. An air-fluid exchange was performed and the eye was filled with sulfur hexafluoride 18%. The eyes were enucleated 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery and analyzed under light and electron microscopy. Macular translocation was achieved in all cases. The major findings consist of a minimal decrease in the number of photoreceptors outer segments; also a change in the morphology was noted. This included some degree of loss of vertical alignment and an increase in the interphotoreceptor space. There was a recovery in the morphology of the photoreceptors over time. Minimal changes in the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium are observed when macular translocation is performed with recovery of these changes over time. Scleral imbrication is an effective technique to achieve translocation of the fovea.

  8. [Histopathological and immunohistochemical features of cardiac myxomas].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bringas, Omar; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Mixomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors with an estimate incidence of 0,5-1 per 10(6) individuals per year. These tumors have generated interest due to their unique location (left side of the atrial septum near the fossa ovalis), variable clinical presentation and undefined histogenesis. Most cardiac myxomas occur sporadically while approximately 10% of diagnosed cases develop as part of Carney complex. This neoplasm is of uncertain histogenesis, however, endothelial, neurogenic, fibroblastic, and cardiac and smooth muscle cells differentiation has been proposed, and rarely glandular differentiation has been observed. Recently, due to the expression of certain cardiomyocyte-specific factors, an origin of mesenchymal cardiomyocytes progenitor cells has been suggested. Histologically cardiac myxomas are mainly composed of stellated, fusiform and polygonal cells, immersed in an amorphous myxoid matrix. Immunohistochemically some endothelial markers, such as CD31, CD34, FVIIIAg, are present. Positive staining has also been reported for S-100 protein, calretinin, vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin, CD56, α1 antitrypsin and α 1antichymotrypsin. Surgical resection is currently the only treatment of choice. We present in this article a histopathological and immunohistochemical review of cardiac myxomas.

  9. Menstruation and suicide: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Antoon A; Dogra, T D; Girdhar, Shalini; Dattagupta, S; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2009-01-01

    Previous research, albeit limited, has reported mixed findings on the impact of menstruation cycle on suicidal behavior. The contribution of menstruation to completed suicide is also controversial; the studies are, in fact, very limited and are not carefully designed. To examine whether the menstruation cycle impacts on suicide. In order to explore this relationship, 56 autopsies on completed suicides in females were performed and matched to a control group of 44 females who had died from other causes, at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. Histopathological examination, a method of collecting tissue from the uterus through biopsy, was used to determine the stage of the menstrual cycle. The results show that 25% of women who had died by suicide were menstruating at the time, compared to 4.5% of the control group; this is statistically (chi2) significant at the p < .002 level. Menstruation in the women who completed suicide, compared to a control group, appeared to have an association, though more research is warranted. Not only there are serious methodological problems in the study of menstruation and suicide (largely because of problematic tissue storage and examination), but also because of the need to understand the impact within a larger psychological, social, and cultural frame.

  10. Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Studies of Keratoglobus

    PubMed Central

    Meghpara, Beeran; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Vemuganti, Geeta K.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Sugar, Joel; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Edward, Deepak P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of human corneal buttons from patients who developed keratoglobus. Methods Nine corneal buttons were obtained during penetrating keratoplasty from patients with keratoglobus. Histologic features were examined using hematoxylin-eosin– stained sections. Immunohistochemical staining for α1-proteinase inhibitor, Sp1, and matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was performed, with 2 normal and 2 corneal sections with keratoconus as controls. Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed diffuse stromal thinning and focal disruptions in Bowman's layer in all keratoglobus specimens. Similar abnormal immunostaining results for α1-proteinase inhibitor and Sp1 were detected in keratoglobus and keratoconus at their respective active disease sites. Immunostaining for matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was significantly more intense in corneas with keratoglobus than in normal controls. Matrix metalloproteinase staining intensity was especially prominent in areas where the underlying Bowman's layer was disrupted. Conclusions Histological features in our keratoglobus specimens are consistent with previous reports. The similarities in immunohistochemical labeling between keratoglobus and keratoconus suggest that these entities may share common mechanisms that are involved in stromal thinning. PMID:19667340

  11. Pancreatic tuberculosis: still a histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Adarsh; Negi, Sanjay S; Sachdev, Ajay K; Gondal, Ranjana

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis is usually unsuspected as it can present in various forms. Though an uncommon disease, once diagnosed it is potentially curable. Retrospective review of the records of 9 patients with histologically proven tuberculosis of the pancreas. In none of the 9 patients was a preoperative diagnosis of tuberculosis possible. The diagnoses considered included: pancreatic cancer (n = 5); acute pseudocyst (n = 1); pancreatic abscess (n = 1); chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic head mass (n = 1), and carcinoma of the colon causing massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 1). All the patients underwent surgery. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of biopsy specimens obtained at the time of laparotomy. One patient died, the remaining patients received antitubercular therapy and are doing well at a median follow-up period of 26 months. In view of the nonspecific and variable clinical presentation and atypical radiological signs, a clinical diagnosis of pancreatic tuberculosis is usually not possible. Therefore there should be a high index of suspicion for this disease in young patients residing in endemic areas. Our experience highlights the importance of performing biopsy in apparently inoperable pancreatic mass lesions. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. The histopathologic features of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis.

    PubMed

    James, Travis; Ghaferi, Jessica; LaFond, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The histologic features of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) are generally non-specific and have been described only in brief case reports. We present a case of APD and review the literature with a focus on the histologic findings described. A review of the English literature on APD was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE. A total of 39 patients, including our patient are included in this review. The most consistent histologic finding reported was a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate, being seen in 72% of cases. A non-specific or interstitial inflammatory infiltrate was described in 31% of the cases, with 41% having an eosinophilic component and 21% having a neutrophilic component mixed with the predominant lymphocytic infiltrate. Interface dermatitis was the second most common finding with 36% showing a mild to exaggerated interface dermatitis. Although histopathologic changes are non-specific, perivascular dermatitis with eosinophils and interface changes are common in APD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Histopathology of childhood pneumonia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V M; Turner, T

    1991-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infection in children is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Viral and bacterial agents incite characteristic host responses at the level of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar walls, and air spaces that correlate with the clinical course. A systematic review of histopathologic features will enhance the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and cofactors that influence the disease process, particularly how tissue injury may be influenced by nutritional status and access to antibiotics. Research priorities include immunologic assessment, micronutrient assays, and standardized autopsies in developing countries. DNA probes for organisms and immunocytochemical identification of cell markers in tissue promise a new era in microscopic visualization of pathogen-host interactions. International collaborative research between ministries of public health and medical universities must be encouraged as a means of providing technical assistance and of advancing new knowledge. Systematic standardized autopsy studies from multiple geographic areas may help define pathologic mechanisms, monitor the natural history of disease, and evaluate interventions in diverse populations.

  14. Histopathological changes in selenium-exposed fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.; Bell, J.S.; Harlan, C.W.

    1983-06-01

    Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) were collected from Martin Lake in east Texas. For at least 8 months, 1 year earlier, aqueous selenium-laden effluent from man-made sources was released into this 5,000-acre reservoir (unpublished data). Redear sunfish from a reference lake, 8 km upstream, were collected for comparison to Martin Lake fish. The hepatopancreas (i.e., liver and associated, disseminated exocrine pancrease), mesonephros (i.e., kidney), gonads, heart, spleen, stomach, and gill arches were preserved for histopathological examination using optical and/or transmission electron microscopy. Livers from Martin Lake redear sunfish (which had accumulated approximately 20 ppm selenium in the liver) showed central necrosis, reduced quantities of rough endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen particles, and increased numbers of lysosome-like structures. Kidneys showed proliferative glomerulonephritis, and exocrine pancreas showed marked hypertrophy at the optical level. Ultrastructurally, architectural disorganization, reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum, increased cisternal space, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum were evident. The stomach, spleen, gill, heart, and gonads showed no abnormalities.

  15. Histopathology of kidney disease in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    Kidney disease is one of the most puzzling fish diseases known to exist in the United States. In less than Io years it has invaded the Pacific Northwest, exacting a heavy toll of hatchery salmon. Its first appearance apparently was in Massachusetts where Belding and Merrill' described a disease similar to that now seen on the Pacific Coast. In I946 it was diagnosed in Washington2 and since that time has been observed in an ever increasing number of hatcheries. There are unpublished reports of the same or similar diseases in both California and Washington in the early I93o's.3 The latest outbreaks occurred in the Federal hatcheries at Berlin, New Hampshire, and Cortland, New York, in brook, brown, and rainbow trout.4 There is evidence to indicate that the disease may be much more widely spread in New York State.5 The disease is especially dangerous since little is known of the origin or source of the causative agent. Indeed, the classification of the diplobacillus associated with kidney disease is still uncertain. Thus, with our present knowledge, it is difficult or impossible to eradicate the malady from an infected hatchery. Histopathologic studies were undertaken to clarify the pathology of the disease and to compare the eastern form with the western form.

  16. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis. Definition--classification--histopathology--immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dienes, H P

    1996-09-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a distinct form of acute and chronic inflammatory liver disease in which immune reactions against host antigens are found to be the major pathological mechanism. If left untreated it carries an unfavourable prognosis, and the diagnosis should be made as soon as possible. The diagnostic approach has been greatly facilitated by the establishment of a panel of marker autoantibodies, which do not define distinct therapeutic groups of AIH, but do allow a subgrouping based on differences in patient populations, some clinical features and prognosis. The characterization of organ-specific components of the liver cell surface as targets of cellular and humoral autoimmune reactions give new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease, even though the primary event triggering the disease remains to be defined. The most important disease-promoting factor seems to be a genetically determined background for autoimmunity. Without this different environmental factors, including viruses, toxins, cytokines and drugs, are only able to induce transient autoimmune phenomena and not autoimmune disease. The histopathology of AIH is in keeping with the present pathogenetic concept. Although there is no pathognomonic feature distinguishing this type of hepatitis from virus-induced forms, some distinct morphological lesions are regarded as characteristic. Clinical research on AIH has benefited greatly from observations of experimental AIH in mice. Recognition of the critical role of autoreactive T-lymphocytes in the pathogenesis and the observation of spontaneous recovery from AIH in the animal model associated with antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific T-cell suppression have made basic contributions to our improved understanding of the natural course of AIH in humans.

  18. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  19. A Histopathological Study On Human Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Hyun Sook; Chi, Je Geun

    1978-12-01

    A study was made on 258 cases of cysticercosis, that were examined and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University during a period of 9 years from 1968 to 1976 inclusive. There were a total of 35,363 surgical specimens examined during the same period, thus revealing the relative frequency ratio of cysticercosis among surgical accessions to be 0.73%. The common sites of involvement of cysticercosis were skeletal muscle, subcutaneous tissue, breast, brain and eye in decreasing order of frequency. Painless palpable nodules were the most common initial presentation clinically. Histopathological staging was attempted based on the host tissue reaction and worm morphology. It was arbitrarily classified into early, intermediate and late stages. In general the morphology of the parasite consisted of a well preserved and compact calcospherules with intact subcuticular muscle layer in the early stage, showing a progressive deterioration of parasitic structures, finally undergoing resorptive process or mummification. The host tissue reation in the early stage was characterized by a diffuse epithelioid cell proliferation with lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration without capsule formation. The intermediate stage consisted of a diffuse histiocytic proliferation with well formed outer collagen capsule. The latestage revealed mostly thinned out, well collagenized capsule with scanty lymphocytic infiltration. The parasite in the well formed cyst as usually distorted and often mummified. But the hooklets were relatively preserved up to the late stage. These finding suggest that the host tissue reacts to the cysticercus worm in fairly uniform fashion, and this fashion appears to have a sequence, i.e., violent lymphohistiocytic response in the initial phase of infection, and undergoing a gradual fibrotic (encapsulating) self-limiting course, finally being stabilized by a dense, acelluar collagen capsule or collapse and absorption.

  20. Margins of oral leukoplakia: autofluorescence and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elvers, D; Braunschweig, T; Hilgers, R-D; Ghassemi, A; Möhlhenrich, S C; Hölzle, F; Gerressen, M; Modabber, A

    2015-02-01

    Autofluorescence devices are widely used to examine oral lesions. The aim of this study was to see whether there were any signs of dysplasia, parakeratosis, or mucosal inflammation in the borders of homogeneous oral leukoplakia using autofluorescence, and we also compared clinically visible extensions with those detected by autofluorescence. Twenty patients with 26 homogeneous areas of oral leukoplakia were included in the study. After the clinically visible extensions of the lesion had been marked, we took a photograph through the autofluorescence device, which showed both borders in one picture. We then used photo-editing software to measure the size of the area of leukoplakia together with the area with loss of autofluorescence. We took 3 punch biopsy specimens: one from the leukoplakia, one 2.5mm from its marked borders, and one from healthy mucosa. Seventy-eight biopsy specimens were examined by an experienced pathologist, and 95% CI calculated to assess the amount of parakeratosis. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the association with mucosal inflammation. Ten areas of leukoplakia were surrounded by normal green autofluorescence, and 16 were consistent with loss of autofluorescence with a mean size of 66%, which exceeded the clinically visible size of the area of leukoplakia. We calculated that there was a strong association between these entities and their surrounding areas, with loss of autofluorescence for parakeratosis. Some leukoplakias showed clinically invisible extensions during histopathological examination and autofluorescence. The technique described enables clinicians to measure the extent of these lesions beyond their visible margins. We found no dysplasia, which emphasises that autofluorescence detects non-dysplastic lesions caused by mucosal inflammation and parakeratosis.

  1. Variability study between Pap smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Shahida; Bari, Arifa; Hayat, Zartaj

    2015-12-01

    To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5%. The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46%) women, while 77(54%) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5%) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5%) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58%). In the remaining 95(66.4%) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46%), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak.

  2. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia: unique histopathological findings in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Leithauser, Laurel A; Mutasim, Diya F

    2012-04-01

    Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited, multisystem disease thought to be caused by abnormalities in desmosomes and gap junctions. HMD affects the skin, mucosae, hair, eyes and lungs. Nearly all patients clinically display the triad of non-scarring alopecia, well-demarcated mucosal erythema and erythematous intertriginous plaques. Although histopathological findings of mucous membrane epithelium have been well characterized, only three reports have described histopathologic findings in the skin. We report a case with unique histopathological findings not previously reported in HMD.

  3. Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Volume with Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Daar, Dagane; Benjamin, Compton; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Wood, Bradford J.; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The biology of prostate cancer may be influenced by the index lesion. The definition of index lesion volume is important for appropriate decision making, especially for image guided focal treatment. We determined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for determining index tumor volume compared with volumes derived from histopathology. Materials and Methods We evaluated 135 patients (mean age 59.3 years) with a mean prostate specific antigen of 6.74 ng/dl who underwent multiparametric 3T endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and subsequent radical prostatectomy. Index tumor volume was determined prospectively and independently by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The ellipsoid formula was applied to determine histopathology tumor volume, whereas manual tumor segmentation was used to determine magnetic resonance tumor volume. Histopathology tumor volume was correlated with age and prostate specific antigen whereas magnetic resonance tumor volume involved Pearson correlation and linear regression methods. In addition, the predictive power of magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age for estimating histopathology tumor volume (greater than 0.5 cm3) was assessed by ROC analysis. The same analysis was also conducted for the 1.15 shrinkage factor corrected histopathology data set. Results There was a positive correlation between histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.633, p <0.0001), but a weak correlation between prostate specific antigen and histopathology tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.237, p=0.003). On linear regression analysis histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume were correlated (r2=0.401, p <0.00001). On ROC analysis AUC values for magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age in estimating tumors larger than 0.5 cm3 at histopathology were 0.949 (p <0.0000001), 0.685 (p=0.001) and 0.627 (p=0

  4. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging tumor volume with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Daar, Dagane; Benjamin, Compton; McKinney, Yolanda L; Linehan, W Marston; Wood, Bradford J; Merino, Maria J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    The biology of prostate cancer may be influenced by the index lesion. The definition of index lesion volume is important for appropriate decision making, especially for image guided focal treatment. We determined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for determining index tumor volume compared with volumes derived from histopathology. We evaluated 135 patients (mean age 59.3 years) with a mean prostate specific antigen of 6.74 ng/dl who underwent multiparametric 3T endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and subsequent radical prostatectomy. Index tumor volume was determined prospectively and independently by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The ellipsoid formula was applied to determine histopathology tumor volume, whereas manual tumor segmentation was used to determine magnetic resonance tumor volume. Histopathology tumor volume was correlated with age and prostate specific antigen whereas magnetic resonance tumor volume involved Pearson correlation and linear regression methods. In addition, the predictive power of magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age for estimating histopathology tumor volume (greater than 0.5 cm(3)) was assessed by ROC analysis. The same analysis was also conducted for the 1.15 shrinkage factor corrected histopathology data set. There was a positive correlation between histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.633, p <0.0001), but a weak correlation between prostate specific antigen and histopathology tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.237, p = 0.003). On linear regression analysis histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume were correlated (r(2) = 0.401, p <0.00001). On ROC analysis AUC values for magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age in estimating tumors larger than 0.5 cm(3) at histopathology were 0.949 (p <0.0000001), 0.685 (p = 0.001) and 0.627 (p = 0.02), respectively. Similar

  5. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  6. Correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses in periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Diegues, Liliane Lopes; Colombo Robazza, Carlos Roberto; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Costa Pereira, Alessandro Antônio; Silva, Cléverson O

    2011-08-01

      The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions, focusing mainly on cystic conditions.   Files dating from 1998 to 2006 at the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, Brazil, were reviewed to identify cases with histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions. A total of 1788 files were analyzed, and 255 cases were identified with clinical diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions.   The most prevalent clinical diagnosis was apical periodontal cyst (59%), followed by periapical granuloma (20%), and dentoalveolar abscess (2%). After histopathological analysis, 53% of the cases represented apical periodontal cyst, 42% periapical granuloma, and 5% dentoalveolar abscess.   The outcomes of the present study show a high prevalence of periapical cysts among periapical inflammatory lesions. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of histopathological evaluation for the correct diagnosis of periapical inflammatory lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. HEPATOBILIARY ASCARIASIS COMPLICATED BY PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Muhammad; Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Khan, Asim; Mustafa, Saqib; Shah, Imran Ali; Hameed, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the commonest organism causing soil-transmitted helminth infection. It is particularly common in poor sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, involvement of the gallbladder by Ascaris is a rare entity. A lady presented to us with long-standing history of vague abdominal symptoms suggesting dyspepsia. Ultrasound showed a tube like structure invading the biliary channels. Serum amylase was elevated and the patient was managed conservatively, as for acute pancreatitis. She improved clinically, but subsequent imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed worm in the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and Ascaris lumbricoides was removed. Ascaris infestation is an important differential diagnosis of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and screening with stool examination and ultrasound is warranted in high-risk population.

  8. The role of histochemistry in increasing objectivity in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques of microscopic histochemistry, successfully applied to problems in histopathology, necessarily result in increased objectivity. Combined with procedures for quantification the increase may be such as to remove subjective judgment altogether. Extended to the ultrastructural level the quality of the information derived is greatly enhanced in terms of localization but there is usually no increase in objectivity. Of all branches of technology capable of conferring on histopathology an increase in objectivity, histochemistry must take first place. PMID:1105505

  9. Cystic adenomatoid malformation in children: CT histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Lanza, C; Bolli, V; Galeazzi, V; Fabrizzi, B; Fabrizzi, G

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed to assess the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in classifying the various types of cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM) of the lung, as described by Stocker et al., taking histopathology as the gold standard. We retrospectively reviewed six cases of histologically proven CAM. Chest radiography, chest CT and histopathology results were available for all patients. The CT images were reviewed blinded to the histological findings, and attention was paid to the number and size of cysts so as to classify the lesions into the three groups described by Stocker et al. The classification of lesions based on the CT images was then correlated to the histopathological findings. Areas with small-sized cysts (<2 cm) were detected by CT in two patients (33.3%), areas with large cysts (>2 cm) were seen in three cases (50%) whereas in the remaining case, the diagnosis was mixed type I and type II CAM. In one patient with type I CAM, an area of low-density consolidation around the cysts was interpreted as CAM in a context of pulmonary sequestration. The CT classification based on Stocker et al.'s categories was in agreement with the histopathological findings in four cases, whereas in the remaining two cases, the lesions were classed as type I or II on CT and as mixed (type I and II) lesions at histopathology. In one case, the CT classification was correct, but the histopathology revealed the coexistence of pulmonary sequestration. In our study, there was concordance between CT and histopathology in 66.7% of cases, whereas in 33.3% histopathology revealed areas with mixed grade lesions. CT proved to be accurate in identifying and characterising CAM and provided important information on lesion site and extension.

  10. Histopathological and Digital Morphometrical Evaluation of Uterine Leiomyoma in Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Paula Fernandes; Mello, Luciano de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Erlene Roberta Ribeiro; Paz, Silvania Tavares; Cavalcanti, Carmelita Lima Bezerra; de Melo-Junior, Mario Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate histopathological and digital morphometrical aspects associated with uterine leiomyomas in one hundred and fifty (150) patients diagnosed with leiomyoma. Uterine tissues were subjected to the histopathological and digital morphometric analyses of the interstitial collagen distribution. The analysis of medical records indicates that most of the women diagnosed with uterine leiomyomas (68.7%) are between 37 and 48 years old. As for the anatomic location of the tumors, approximately 61.4% of the patients had intramural and subserosal lesions. In 50% of the studied cases, the patients developed uterine leiomyomatosis (with more than eight tumors). As for the morphometric study, the average size of the interstitial collagen distribution held approximately 28.53% of the capture area, whereas it was of 7.43% in the normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. Another important aspect observed in the current study was the high rate of young women subjected to total hysterectomy, a fact that resulted in early and definitive sterility. PMID:27293441

  11. More than meets the eye: the changing face of histopathology.

    PubMed

    Underwood, James C E

    2017-01-01

    This personal reflection on trends in histopathology over the past 50 years draws upon experience of professional training and practice in the specialty in the UK. Developments during this period often resulted from new therapies (and their adverse effects) necessitating greater precision in the histopathological classification of disease, for which morphology alone can be insufficient. Conversely, histopathology has contributed to advances in our understanding of disease, leading directly to novel and more effective treatments. New infections, some involving histopathology in their discovery, have also led to fresh diagnostic challenges. Increasingly, patients have benefited from fundamental changes in professionalism in pathology. Through audit, external quality assurance, continuing professional development, standardized reporting, and increasing specialization, the consistency and reliability of histopathological diagnoses have steadily improved. Regarding the specialty's future, some now see rivalry between the morphological and molecular approaches to diagnosis and classification, particularly for neoplastic disease. An integrated strategy led by the specialty is more likely to strengthen histopathology and ultimately to have the greatest benefit for patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Histopathological Parameters Affecting Biochemical Recurrence in Radical Prostatectomies.

    PubMed

    Dere, Yelda; Altinboga, Aysegu Aksoy; Bal, Kaan; Calli, Aylin; Ermete, Murat; Sari, Aysegul Akder

    2017-04-01

    To determine the relationship between biochemical recurrence and other histopathological factors in prostate cancer. Analytical study. Pathology and Urology Departments, Izmir Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, between 2001 - 2013. 117 cases diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma and treated by radical prostatectomy were reviewed retrospectively for histopathological features; whereas, other prognostic findings were noted. PSA levels and many other histopathological parameters were assessed in order to put forth their effect on biochemical recurrence. PSA level (p<0.001), tumor volume (p<0.001), Gleason score (p<0.001), extraprostatic extension (p<0.001), perineural invasion (p<0.001), ganglion involvement (p=0.040), vascular invasion (p<0.001), positive surgical margins (p<0.001), presence of tertiary pattern (p=0.004) and the involvement of the seminal vesicles (p<0.001) were found to be statistically related to the pathological stage. Age, perineural invasion, high grade tertiary pattern, intraluminal mucin, collagenous micronodules and foamy cytoplasmic changes were unrelated to recurrence. Histopathological features can be helpful in predicting prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinomas. However some of the histopathological factors such as intraluminal mucin and foamy cytoplasmic changes may not reflect high recurrence.

  13. The utility of routine polyp histopathology after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Yeh, David H; Wong, Jay; Hoffbauer, Stephanie; Wehrli, Bret; Sommer, Doron; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-11-01

    Routine histopathological assessment is standard practice for nasal polyp specimens obtained during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Retrospective studies suggest that routine histopathology of nasal polyps shows few unexpected diagnoses that alter patient management. Our objective was to study the use of routine pathological analysis, and its cost to the healthcare system, in a prospective manner. A multicenter prospective assessment was performed from data collected between 2007 and 2013. Only cases of patients undergoing ESS for bilateral CRS were included. We excluded unilateral disease cases, and cases in which diagnoses other than polyps were suspected either preoperatively or intraoperatively. We then compared the preoperative diagnosis with the final histopathology and identified the rate of unexpected pathologies. A cost analysis was performed. Only 4 of 866 pathological specimens were identified as having a clinically significant unexpected diagnosis. All unexpected pathologies in this series were benign. These 4 cases account for 0.46% of all specimens reviewed. This translates to a number needed to screen of 217 cases of bilateral CRS to discover 1 unexpected pathology. The associated cost for making an unexpected diagnosis was $19,192.73. Routine histopathology of nasal polyps in ESS for bilateral CRS with polyps yields few unexpected and management-altering diagnoses. It carries a significant cost to the healthcare system. In cases of bilateral CRS with no other concerning clinical features, clinicians should exercise judgment in submitting polyp specimens for pathology rather than routinely sending polyps for histopathologic analysis. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  15. Histopathological features of equine superficial, nonhealing, corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Julie E; Clode, Alison B; Borst, Luke B; Gilger, Brian C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate corneal changes associated with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers in horses via common histopathological stains. Retrospective study. Twenty-four horses diagnosed with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulceration. The medical records of horses evaluated at North Carolina State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (NCSU-VTH) from 2005 to 2011, diagnosed with a chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcer and treated with superficial keratectomy (SK) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were superficial corneal ulceration, no cellular infiltration via slit-lamp biomicroscopy, no microorganisms evident on corneal cytology, and acquisition of samples for aerobic bacterial and common fungal cultures. Corneal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically for the presence or absence of a nonadherent epithelial 'lip', epithelial dysmaturity, intraepithelial inflammatory cells, an acellular hyaline zone in the anterior stroma, and stromal inflammatory cells, fibrosis and vascularization. In the majority of analyzed samples, epithelial cells adjacent to the ulcerated site showed nonadherence to the basement membrane and dysmaturity. Intraepithelial inflammatory cell infiltration was uncommon. Histopathological features of an anterior stromal hyaline zone, intrastromal inflammation, fibrosis and vascularization were variably present. The most consistent histopathological characteristics of equine chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers include epithelial nonadherence, epithelial dysmaturity and mild to moderate stromal inflammation; however, one set of histopathological characteristics does not definitively define this syndrome in horses. Additionally, the anterior stromal acellular hyaline zone commonly cited in canine spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) is not a consistent finding in equine corneas. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Pathogenesis and histopathology of pertussis: implications for immunization.

    PubMed

    Cherry, James D; Paddock, Christopher D

    2014-09-01

    Pertussis is a unique infectious disease in that it can be severe and fatal but occurs without fever and other evidence of an inflammatory illness. The authors with others have studied the histopathology of fatal pertussis and also the unique characteristics of severe pertussis in young infants. Histopathologic observations from approximately 100 years ago, and from recent evaluation, indicate that the histopathologic changes of the upper respiratory tract of patients with fatal pertussis are often relatively normal unless there is a secondary bacterial infection. Bordetella pertussis contains many protein antigens and perhaps a polysaccharide capsule which contribute to the infectious process. However, only two of these antigens contribute to clinical illness. These antigens are pertussis toxin and the yet to be identified 'cough toxin'. The authors speculate as to the nature of the 'cough toxin' and discuss the implications of their observations and concepts for the future control of pertussis.

  17. HISTOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Howard M.; Cardona, Diana M.; Greenson, Joel K.; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Horn, Thomas; Huber, Elisabeth; Kreft, Andreas; Longerich, Thomas; Morton, Thomas; Myerson, David; Prieto, Victor G.; Rosenberg, Avi; Treister, Nathaniel; Washington, Kay; Ziemer, Mirjana; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Schultz, Kirk R.; Jagasia, Madan; Martin, Paul J.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Kleiner, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2005 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference outlined histopathological diagnostic criteria for the major organ systems affected by both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The 2014 Consensus Conference led to this updated document with new information from histopathological studies of GVHD in the gut, liver, skin and oral mucosa and expanded discussion of GVHD in the lungs and kidneys. The recommendations for final histological diagnostic categories have been simplified from 4 categories to 3: no GVHD, possible, and likely GVHD based on better reproducibility achieved by combining the previous categories of consistent with and definite GVHD into the single category of likely GVHD. Issues remain in the histopathological characterization of GVHD, particularly with respect to the threshold of histological changes required for diagnostic certainty. Guidance is provided for the incorporation of biopsy information into prospective clinical studies of GVHD, particularly with respect to biomarker validation. PMID:25639770

  18. Efficient segmentation of skin epidermis in whole slide histopathological images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongming; Mandal, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of epidermis areas is an important step towards automatic analysis of skin histopathological images. This paper presents a robust technique for epidermis segmentation in whole slide skin histopathological images. The proposed technique first performs a coarse epidermis segmentation using global thresholding and shape analysis. The epidermis thickness is then estimated by a series of line segments perpendicular to the main axis of the initially segmented epidermis mask. If the segmented epidermis mask has a thickness greater than a predefined threshold, the segmentation is suspected to be inaccurate. A second pass of fine segmentation using k-means algorithm is then carried out over these coarsely segmented result to enhance the performance. Experimental results on 64 different skin histopathological images show that the proposed technique provides a superior performance compared to the existing techniques.

  19. Histopathological changes in tendinopathy--potential roles of BMPs?

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2013-12-01

    The pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Chondro-osteogenic BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7 have been reported in clinical samples and animal models of tendinopathy. As chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits have been observed in both clinical samples and animal models of failed tendon healing tendinopathy, chondro-osteogenic BMPs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and other histopathological changes in tendinopathy. In this review I have summarized the current evidence supporting the roles of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy. The potential targets, effects and sources of these BMPs are discussed. I have also provided directions for future studies about the potential roles of BMPs in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Better understanding of the roles of these BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy could provide new options for the prevention and treatment of this disabling tendon disorder.

  20. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint : Histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Aycan Guner; Akyol, Onat; Ekici, Murat; Sitilci, Tolga; Topacoglu, Hakan; Ozyuvaci, Emine

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. Methods: In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group). Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg) dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. Results: No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats. PMID:25297355

  1. Histopathologic and MRI findings in hypokalemic myopathy induced by glycyrrhizin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hayashi, R; Maruyama, K; Yanagisawa, N

    1995-08-01

    Histopathologic studies and magnetic resonance images of the leg muscles were conducted in two patients with glycyrrhizin-induced hypokalemic myopathy (GHM). Muscle biopsy showed myopathic changes and vacuolated fibers with light microscopy, and dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, various types of vacuoles and myofibrillar degeneration with electron microscopy. High signal intensities in T2-weighted images obtained during severe muscle weakness were widely distributed in the leg muscles, especially the pretibial and soleus muscles. These high signal intensities disappeared after full recovery of muscle weakness. We suggest that high signal intensity in T2-weighted images can be seen and correspond to histopathologic changes in the muscles of GHM patients.

  2. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Levene, Adam P; Goldin, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Fatty liver disease includes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), each of which is increasing in prevalence. Each represents a histological spectrum that extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance, and is considered to be the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and ALD involves cytokines, adipokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Histopathology is the gold standard for assessing the severity of liver damage in NAFLD and ALD. We have reviewed the literature, and described and compared the epidemiology, natural disease history, pathogenesis and histopathology of NAFLD and ALD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Diffusion, Perfusion, and Histopathologic Characteristics of Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chang Y; Gener, Melissa; Bonnin, Jose; Kralik, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    We present a case series of a rare tumor, the desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) with MRI diffusion and perfusion imaging quantification as well as histopathologic characterization. Four cases with pathologically-proven DIG had diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and two of the four had dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging. All four tumors demonstrate DWI findings compatible with low-grade pediatric tumors. For the two cases with perfusion imaging, a higher relative cerebral blood volume was associated with higher proliferation index on histopathology for one of the cases. Our results are discussed in conjunction with a literature review. PMID:27761184

  4. Histopathology of retinoblastoma: does standardization make a difference in reporting?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Sharma, Tarun; Gopal, Lingam; Khetan, Vikas

    2013-02-01

    The International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group (IRSWG) provided guidelines for tissue handling of eyes enucleated for retinoblastoma. We adopted these guidelines from January 2009. Reviewing histopathology slides between January 2006 and December 2010 we found significantly more number of eyes with massive choroidal, optic nerve, and anterior segment invasion by tumor cells in the post-IRSWG era. The guidelines provided by the IRSWG; in addition to being standardized; recognize more eyes with histopathologic risk factors compared to techniques applied in the past. This may translate to more children receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and contribute to reduced mortality rates in the future.

  5. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  6. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  7. Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Diagnostic Histopathology and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Traore, Lamine; Kergosien, Yannick; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    With the wider acceptance of Whole Slide Images (WSI) in histopathology domain, automatic image analysis algorithms represent a very promising solution to support pathologist's laborious tasks during the diagnosis process, to create a quantification-based second opinion and to enhance inter-observer agreement. In this context, reference vocabularies and formalization of the associated knowledge are especially needed to annotate histopathology images with labels complying with semantic standards. In this work, we elaborate a sustainable triptych able to bridge the gap between pathologists and image analysis scientists. The proposed paradigm is structured along three components: i) extracting a relevant semantic repository from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) organ-specific Cancer Checklists and associated Protocols (CC&P); ii) identifying imaging formalized knowledge issued from effective histopathology imaging methods highlighted by recent Digital Pathology (DP) contests and iii) proposing a formal representation of the imaging concepts and functionalities issued from major biomedical imaging software (MATLAB, ITK, ImageJ). Since the first step i) has been the object of a recent publication of our team, this study focuses on the steps ii) and iii). Our hypothesis is that the management of available semantic resources concerning the histopathology imaging tasks associated with effective methods highlighted by the recent DP challenges will facilitate the integration of WSI in clinical routine and support new generation of DP protocols.

  8. Revised histopathological consensus classification of joint implant related pathology.

    PubMed

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Perino, G; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Hassenpflug, G J; Thomsen, M; Thomas, P; Huber, M; Kendoff, D; Baumhoer, D; Krukemeyer, M G; Natu, S; Boettner, F; Zustin, J; Kölbel, B; Rüther, W; Kretzer, J P; Tiemann, A; Trampuz, A; Frommelt, L; Tichilow, R; Söder, S; Müller, S; Parvizi, J; Illgner, U; Gehrke, T

    2014-12-01

    This extended classification of joint implant related pathology is a practical histopathologic classification based on defined morphological criteria covering the complete spectrum of pathohistologic changes in periprosthetic tissues. These changes may occur as a consequence of endoprosthetic replacement of large joints and may lead to a reduction in the prosthesis survival rate. We describe the established consensus classification of the periprosthetic membrane, in which aseptic and septic prosthetic loosening can be subdivided into four histological types, as well as histopathological criteria for additional significant pathologies including endoprosthetic-associated arthrofibrosis, particle-induced immunological, inflammatory and toxic mechanisms (adverse reactions), and bone tissue pathologies. These characteristic tissue alterations and their relationships are summarized in the extended classification. Since particle heterogeneity in periprosthetic tissue is high and particle identification is a necessary part of diagnosis, the identification of different types of particles is described in the histopathological particle algorithm. The morphological qualities of prosthetic material particles and the demarcation between abrasion and non-abrasion endogenous particles are also summarized. This feasible classification which is based on low cost standard tissue processing and examination and on well-defined diagnostic criteria is a solid platform for the histological diagnosis of implant associated pathologies providing a stable and reproducible tool for the surgical pathologist. Since this classification is suitable for standardized histopathological diagnostics, it might also provide a useful data set for joint arthroplasty registers, particularly for registers based on so-called routine data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-technical skills in histopathology: definition and discussion.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter W; Fioratou, Evie; Flin, Rhona

    2011-09-01

    Health care is a high-risk industry, with most documented adverse incidents being associated with 'human factors' including cognitive and social skills termed 'non-technical skills'. Non-technical skills complement the diagnostic and specialist skills and professional attributes required by medical practitioners, including histopathologists, and can enhance the quality of practice and delivery of health-care services and thus contribute to patient safety. This review aims to introduce histopathologists to non-technical skills and how these pertain to everyday histopathological practice. Drawing from other domains in medicine, specifically anaesthesia and surgery, a variety of non-technical skills are identified and described in the context of histopathology to illustrate the role each plays, often collectively, in daily practice. The generic non-technical skills are defined as situation awareness, decision-making, communication, teamwork, leadership, managing stress and coping with fatigue. Example scenarios from histopathology are presented and the contributions to outcomes made by non-technical skills are explained. Consideration of these specific non-technical skills as a component in histopathology training may benefit practitioners as well as assuring patient safety.

  10. Effect of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Arzu Babayigit; Karaman, Ozkan; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Erbil, Guven; Yilmaz, Osman; Kivcak, Bijen; Bagriyanik, H Alper; Uzuner, Nevin

    2012-12-01

    Hedera helix is widely used to treat bronchial asthma for many years. However, effects of this herb on lung histopathology is still far from clear. We aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma.BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I (Placebo), II (Hedera helix), III (Dexamethasone) and IV (Control). All mice except controls were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Then, mice in group I received saline, group II 100 mg/kg Hedera helix and group III 1 mg/kg dexamethasone via orogastic gavage once daily for one week. Airway histopathology was evaluated by using light and electron microscopy in all groups.Goblet cell numbers and thicknesses of basement membrane were found significantly lower in group II, but there was no statistically significant difference in terms of number of mast cells, thicknesses of epithelium and subepithelial smooth muscle layers between group I and II. When Hedera helix and dexamethasone groups were compared with each other, thickness of epithelium, subepithelial muscle layers, number of mast cells and goblet cells of group III were significantly ameliorated when compared with the group II. Although Hedera helix administration reduced only goblet cell counts and the thicknesses of basement membrane in the asthmatic airways, dexamethasone ameliorated all histopathologic parameters except thickness of basement membrane better than Hedera helix.

  11. An evaluation of websites to help neurosurgical trainees learn histopathology.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R L

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of histopathology is essential for good neurosurgical practice but current pressures on neurosurgical trainees' time restrict opportunities to learn histopathology by traditional methods. The internet offers a possible alternative resource. The aim of this project was to assess the existing, free, internet-based resources for learning histology and histopathology, from the perspective of a neurosurgical trainee. English language websites were evaluated by an expert, and by neurosurgical trainees, for the range of content, academic credibility, quality of the histopathological images, quality of supporting content, educational features and the usability. Thirty-nine websites were examined in detail by the author. Although many websites were useful, no individual website met all the requirements. Five neuropathology websites were clearly superior to the others. These were then assessed by neurosurgical trainees. The results of the assessment, a brief resume of each website, and the characteristics of a good website for the surgical trainees to learn pathology are discussed. The best websites featured a large number of high-quality images, accurate, detailed clinical and pathophysiological information, labelling or description of individual images, and organisation by organ system. Free internet sites can offer a valuable learning resource to supplement textbooks and clinical pathology sessions.

  12. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  13. Can Routine Histopathology Distinguish Between Vulvar Cutaneous Candidosis and Dermatophytosis?

    PubMed

    Day, Tania; Borbolla Foster, Ailsa; Phillips, Samuel; Pagano, Ross; Dyall-Smith, Delwyn; Scurry, James; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine if vulvar cutaneous candidosis and dermatophytosis can be distinguished by routine histopathology. Twenty-four cases of periodic acid-Schiff-stained vulvar biopsies with a diagnosis of cutaneous mycosis were reviewed and histopathological characteristics on both periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin and eosin were recorded. Data were collected on age, clinical impression, microbiological results, and treatment, and all specimens underwent multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. The mean age was 60 years, and all but 3 women had at least 1 risk factor for mycosis including 15 (62.5%) with lichen sclerosus and/or planus managed with topical corticosteroids. A clinical suspicion of tinea or candidosis was documented in 12 (50%) of the cases. Vulvovaginal swabs showed Candida species in 9 women; one skin scraping was positive for Trichophyton rubrum. Microbiology was not obtained in 8 patients, 5 had a negative swab, and 1 had negative skin scrapings. No histopathological or morphological features distinguished Candida species from dermatophytes. Organisms appeared as basophilic structures in the stratum corneum in 15 (62.5%) hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Polymerase chain reaction results were positive for Candida species in 5 (21%) and for dermatophytes in 3 (13%), negative in 13, and unassessable in 3 cases. Vulvar cutaneous candidosis and dermatophytosis cannot be reliably distinguished by routine histopathology or specific polymerase chain reaction. A high index of suspicion combined with adequate microbiological testing remains the best approach to differentiating between the 2, which impacts on counseling, treatment, and prognosis.

  14. Histopathological cutaneous alterations in systemic sclerosis: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aims of the present study were to identify histopathological parameters which are linked to local clinical skin disease at two distinct anatomical sites in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with skin involvement (limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc)) and to determine the sensitivity of SSc specific histological alterations, focusing on SSc patients without clinical skin involvement (limited SSc (lSSc)). Methods Histopathological alterations were systematically scored in skin biopsies of 53 consecutive SSc patients (dorsal forearm and upper inner arm) and 18 controls (upper inner arm). Clinical skin involvement was evaluated using the modified Rodnan skin score. In patients with lcSSc or dcSSc, associations of histopathological parameters with local clinical skin involvement were determined by generalised estimation equation modelling. Results The hyalinised collagen score, the myofibroblast score, the mean epidermal thickness, the mononuclear cellular infiltration and the frequency of focal exocytosis differed significantly between biopsies with and without local clinical skin involvement. Except for mononuclear cellular infiltration, all of the continuous parameters correlated with the local clinical skin score at the dorsal forearm. Parakeratosis, myofibroblasts and intima proliferation were present in a minority of the SSc biopsies, but not in controls. No differences were found between lSSc and controls. Conclusions Several histopathological parameters are linked to local clinical skin disease. SSc-specific histological alterations have a low diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:21356083

  15. Histopathology of oligofructose-induced acute laminitis in heifers.

    PubMed

    Thoefner, M B; Wattle, O; Pollitt, C C; French, K R; Nielsen, S S

    2005-08-01

    Histopathology of the dermo-epidermal junction in the lamellar region of front claws was examined in 6 dairy heifers given an alimentary oligofructose overload and compared with sections from a control group of 6 heifers. Four of the 6 heifers administered oligofructose developed clinical signs of acute laminitis before they were euthanized. Postmortem samples from front claws were processed for histology. Eleven histopathologic characteristics were selected from the existing literature and used in a blinded evaluation of sections. In total, 104 front claw samples, including 8 samples from 2 cows having spontaneously occurring acute laminitis, were evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin as well as periodic acid-Schiff staining. The major morphological features associated with oligofructose-induced acute clinical laminitis were stretching of lamellae, dermal edema, hemorrhage, changes in basal cell morphology, presence of white blood cells in dermis, and signs of basement membrane detachment. Changes at the lamellar junction of claw tissue affected by oligofructose-induced clinical laminitis resembled tissue from the 2 cows suffering from spontaneous acute clinical laminitis, and generally were consistent with existing descriptions of laminitis histopathology. Important exceptions to existing descriptions in the literature were stretching of lamellae and basement membrane changes. Not previously described, we considered these early signs of acute laminitis. In conclusion, this study documents that oligofructose-induced clinical laminitis is associated with histopathological changes at the lamellar interface. A weakened dermo-epidermal junction is a possible intermediate stage in the pathophysiology of bovine sole ulceration at the typical site.

  16. [Corneal macular dystrophy: clinical, histopathologic and ultrastructural features].

    PubMed

    Gulias-Cañizo, R; Castañeda-Díez, R; Gómez-Leal, A; Klintworth, G K; Rodríguez-Reyes, A A

    2006-06-01

    To assess the main clinical, genetic, histopathological and ultrastructural features of Mexican patients with macular corneal dystrophy, and to compare the results with those previously reported. We analyzed six cases where a histopathologic diagnosis of macular corneal dystrophy had been made between 1957 and 2004. Clinically, all corneas showed focal grayish-white stromal opacities with diffuse edges. Histopathologically, intrastromal granules stained strongly positive with Alcian blue and colloidal iron. Transmission electron microscopy showed enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles that corresponded to glycosaminoglycans. Genetic analysis showed novel mutations in the CHST6 gene in 2 of the patients. Females were more affected than males and the mean age at the time of diagnosis was older than that reported previously, however the clinical, histopathological and ultrastructural features were similar to those of previous reports. As described in other cases in the literature, in some instances a disorder is found in CHST6 gene as a basis for this condition.

  17. [Histopathological study on acute poisoning of methamphetamine, morphine or cocaine].

    PubMed

    Maruta, T; Nihira, M; Tomita, Y

    1997-04-01

    Methamphetamine, morphine or cocaine was injected intraperitoneally into Wistar rats (male, 6 weeks old) at a dose of 50 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg body weight, respectively. These doses of drugs were determined to ensure that the rats would show signs of drug intoxication and survive for a day. Over the period from 5 min to 18 hr after injection, concentrations of the drugs and metabolites in blood were analyzed by the GC/MS method, and the histopathological changes of the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys were examined by light microscopy. The time of maximum drug concentration in the blood after injection was 5 min in the methamphetamine-treated group, 1 hr (total morphine) in the morphine group and 5 min in the cocaine group. These blood concentrations decreased with time. In the liver at 2.5 hr after injection of methamphetamine, centrolobular vacuolation and diffuse eosinophilic changes of hepatocytes appeared. At 6 hr this damage spread to the midzone of the liver and partial necrosis of the centrolobe was found. At 18 hr the liver damage became worse and necrosis was also found in the midzone of the liver. In the heart, from 2.5 hr, eosinophilic changes of the myocardium were observed diffusely. Furthermore, at 18 hr, partial inflammatory cell infiltration and contraction bands were observed. The degree of histopathological damage did not coincide with the time of maximum drug concentration. In the morphine group, centrolobular and midzonal vacuolation, diffuse fatty degeneration and eosinophilic changes were observed in the liver from 2.5 hr to 18 hr after the administration. No necrosis was found, perhaps because the rats did not suffer the hyperthermia observed in the methamphetamine group. The degree of histopathological damage became more serious with time, as it did in the methamphetamine group. In the cocaine group, no histopathological changes were observed, probably because the doses of cocaine were too small to cause histopathological damage, and

  18. Effects of simvastatin, ezetimibe, and their combination on histopathologic alterations caused by adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carmem Patrícia; Ritter, Alessandra Milene; da Silva, Lorena Gimenez; Grespan, Renata; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of monotherapy with simvastatin or ezetimibe compared with those of an ezetimibe + simvastatin combination on the histopathologic aspects of arthritis induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant in rats. The characteristics of diarthrosis were analyzed 7 and 28 days after arthritis induction with regard to the regularity and integrity of articular cartilage, the presence of leukocytes in blood vessels at the inflammation site, and the cytokine levels in articular tissue. Monotherapy with simvastatin or ezetimibe and the ezetimibe + simvastatin combination effectively reduced the cytokine levels (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor) and articular lesions that are characteristic of this experimental disease. Although the results did not reveal significant differences between the monotherapy and the combined therapy, they suggest that these drugs have considerable antiinflammatory properties, as reflected by an attenuation of articular cartilage lesions mediated by a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines.

  19. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece: Blinding and Binning in Histopathology Methods in the Biomarker Qualification Process.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Rodney

    2015-08-01

    Both, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have released documents discussing histopathology methods in biomarker qualification studies. These documents appear to disagree on two critical and controversial aspects of methodology; blinding of pathologists and binning of data (Burkhardt et al. 2011; U.S. FDA 2011). Upon closer examination, however, both documents propose that blinded evaluation of biomarker studies is appropriate under similar strict criteria. However, they differ in their recommendations on the binning of data (i.e., individual binning of all changes vs. common binning of changes observed in control animals), seemingly based on different perceptions of study objectives and the role of the pathologist. This article offers a personal opinion on blinded evaluations and data binning in the context of biomarker qualification studies.

  20. Quality Measures in Pre-Analytical Phase of Tissue Processing: Understanding Its Value in Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shalinee; Masilamani, Suresh; Sundaram, Sandhya; Duvuru, Prathiba; Swaminathan, Rajendiran

    2016-01-01

    Quality monitoring in histopathology unit is categorized into three phases, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical, to cover various steps in the entire test cycle. Review of literature on quality evaluation studies pertaining to histopathology revealed that earlier reports were mainly focused on analytical aspects with limited studies on assessment of pre-analytical phase. Pre-analytical phase encompasses several processing steps and handling of specimen/sample by multiple individuals, thus allowing enough scope for errors. Due to its critical nature and limited studies in the past to assess quality in pre-analytical phase, it deserves more attention. This study was undertaken to analyse and assess the quality parameters in pre-analytical phase in a histopathology laboratory. This was a retrospective study done on pre-analytical parameters in histopathology laboratory of a tertiary care centre on 18,626 tissue specimens received in 34 months. Registers and records were checked for efficiency and errors for pre-analytical quality variables: specimen identification, specimen in appropriate fixatives, lost specimens, daily internal quality control performance on staining, performance in inter-laboratory quality assessment program {External quality assurance program (EQAS)} and evaluation of internal non-conformities (NC) for other errors. The study revealed incorrect specimen labelling in 0.04%, 0.01% and 0.01% in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. About 0.04%, 0.07% and 0.18% specimens were not sent in fixatives in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. There was no incidence of specimen lost. A total of 113 non-conformities were identified out of which 92.9% belonged to the pre-analytical phase. The predominant NC (any deviation from normal standard which may generate an error and result in compromising with quality standards) identified was wrong labelling of slides. Performance in EQAS for pre-analytical phase was satisfactory in 6 of 9 cycles. A low incidence

  1. Kidney biopsy in AA amyloidosis: impact of histopathology on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Kiremitci, Saba; Ozturk, Bengi; Akturk, Serkan; Erdogmus, Siyar; Duman, Neval; Ates, Kenan; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Nergizoglu, Gokhan; Kutlay, Sim; Sengul, Sule; Ensari, Arzu; Keven, Kenan

    2017-09-01

    In AA amyloidosis, while kidney biopsy is widely considered for diagnosis by clinicians, there is no evidence that the detailed investigation of renal histopathology can be utilized for the prognosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to obtain whether histopathologic findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have prognostic and clinical value. This is a retrospective cohort study that included 38 patients who were diagnosed with AA amyloidosis by kidney biopsy between 2005 and 2013.The kidney biopsy specimens of patients were evaluated and graded for several characteristics of histopathological lesions and their relationship with renal outcomes. Segmental amyloid deposition in the kidney biopsy was seen in 29%, global amyloid deposition in 71, diffuse involvement of glomeruli in 84.2%, focal involvement in 7%, glomerular enlargement in 53%, tubular atrophy in 75% and interstitial fibrosis in 78% of patients. Histopathologically, glomerular enlargement, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and global amyloid deposition were significantly associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = .02, p < .001, p = .001, p = .009, p = .002, respectively) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, tubular atrophy was the only predictor of eGFR (p = .019 B = -20.573). In the follow-up at an average of 27 months, 18 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among them, global amyloid deposition was the only risk factor for the development of ESRD (p = .01, OR = 18.750, %95 CI= 2.021-173.942). This is the first study showing that the histopathological findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have a prognostic and clinical value for renal outcomes.

  2. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κw) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κw = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κw = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κw = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κw = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κw = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  3. Peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma: histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of a case.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de Almeida-Oslei, Paes; Toral-Rizo, Victor; Martínez-Mata, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    In this study we present a rare case of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma and discuss its clinical features, histopathology, and immunohistochemical profile. This article reports a new case of this unusual neoplasm in a 66 year-old woman in which the main complaint was an asymptomatic swelling located in the right body of mandible. Histopathological findings were similar to the two previously reported cases of this tumor. Positive immunohistochemical stain for laminin V and type IV collagen suggests an inductive effect of the epithelium over the stroma while the low index of p53 protein and Ki-67 expression in epithelium and stromal cells, as well as CD138 uniform positive-stain in epithelial cells, support the benign biological behavior of this lesion. Including this new case, currently there are only three reports of this rare neoplasm. Reports of new cases of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma are necessary for a better understanding of the origin and behavior of this particular subtype of ameloblastoma.

  4. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  5. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans.

  6. Histopathological changes in relation to cadmium concentration in horse kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Jonsson, L.; Piscator, M.; Rahnster, B.

    1981-10-01

    Histopathological changes in kidney cortex, as observed by light microscopy, are related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex from 69 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidney ranged from 11 to 186 ..mu..g Cd/g wet wt with an average of 60 ..mu..g Cd/g, which is considerably higher than those normally found in humans. The microscopical changes were rated and related to cadmium concentrations in kidneys by dose-response curves. A relationship existed between frequency of morphological changes and cadmium concentration in the renal cortex. There was no obvious relationship between age and frequency of histopathological changes. This indicates that in horse kidneys morphological changes occur at cadmium concentrations which are lower than the tentative critical level for humans of 200 ..mu..g Cd/g. It is concluded that horses constitute a population at risk for environmental cadmium contamination.

  7. [Histopathology of strobilocercosis found in the livers of white mouse.].

    PubMed

    Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Miman, Ozlem; Gül, Mehmet; Daldal, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    The adult form of Taenia taeniaeformis is found in the intestine of the cat and cheetah. The larva form is called Strobilocercus fasciolaris and is found in rodents such as mice and rats. Our objective was to draw attention to that rare zoonosis, since it has already been reported in the literature as strobilocercosis in humans. During an experimental animal study conducted at Inonu University, some unexpected cystic formations were found in the livers of nine 6-8-month-old healthy white mice, which affected the conducted study negatively. These cystic formations were examined histopathologically. Prepared sections were stained with haemotoxylin eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome stains, and examined by light microscopy. Strobilocercus fasciolaris larvae that curled towards cyst cavity and their hooks were seen. Plasma cells, macrophage, focus of eosinophilic infiltration and fibroblastic connective tissue were simultaneous found. In this paper, histopathological changes in intermediate hosts caused by Strobilocercus fasciolaris and other cestod larvae have been discussed.

  8. [Histopathologic diagnostics in endoprosthetics: periprosthetic neosynovialitis, hypersensitivity reaction, and arthrofibrosis].

    PubMed

    Krenn, V; Otto, M; Morawietz, L; Hopf, T; Jakobs, M; Klauser, W; Schwantes, B; Gehrke, T

    2009-06-01

    The durability of endoprosthetic implants of the large joints has increased over the last decades. North American studies have shown a 10-year durability of 94% for prosthetic hip implants, and European studies have shown 10-year durabilities of 88-95%. Pathologists differentiate three etiological disease patterns for the"pathology of endoprosthetics" that lead to reduction of implant durability: 1) periprosthetic particle disease (aseptic loosening), 2) infection, and 3) arthrofibrosis. Four types of neosynovitis/periprosthetic membrane have been determined in a consensus classification: particle-induced type (type I), with a mean prosthesis durability (MPD) of 12 years; infectious type (type II), MPD 2.5 years; combined type (type III), MPD 4.2 years; and indeterminate type (type IV), MPD 5.5 years. There are three histopathologic degrees of arthrofibrosis; grade 1 always needs clinical information for diagnosis, whereas grades 2 and 3 are distinct histopathologic entities.

  9. The gingival Stillman's clefts: histopathology and cellular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Maria Antonietta; Cerroni, Loredana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Orlandi, Augusto; Pilloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Stillman's cleft is a mucogingival triangular-shaped defect on the buccal surface of a root with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the Stillman's cleft obtained from excision during root coverage surgical procedures at an histopathological level. Harvesting of cleft was obtained from two periodontally healthy patients with a scalpel and a bevel incision and then placed in a test tube with buffered solution to be processed for light microscopy. Microscopic analysis has shown that Stillman's cleft presented a lichenoid hand-like inflammatory infiltration, while in the periodontal patient an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was identified. Stillman's cleft remains to be investigated as for the possible causes of such lesion of the gingival margin, although an inflammatory response seems to be evident and active from a strictly histopathological standpoint.

  10. The gingival Stillman’s clefts: histopathology and cellular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cassini, Maria Antonietta; Cerroni, Loredana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Orlandi, Augusto; Pilloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study Stillman’s cleft is a mucogingival triangular-shaped defect on the buccal surface of a root with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the Stillman’s cleft obtained from excision during root coverage surgical procedures at an histopathological level. Materials and method Harvesting of cleft was obtained from two periodontally healthy patients with a scalpel and a bevel incision and then placed in a test tube with buffered solution to be processed for light microscopy. Results Microscopic analysis has shown that Stillman’s cleft presented a lichenoid hand-like inflammatory infiltration, while in the periodontal patient an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was identified. Conclusion Stillman’s cleft remains to be investigated as for the possible causes of such lesion of the gingival margin, although an inflammatory response seems to be evident and active from a strictly histopathological standpoint. PMID:26941897

  11. A statistical model for characterization of histopathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Pablo; Castro, Guatizalema; Corredor, Germán.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Accessing information of interest in collections of histopathology images is a challenging task. To address such issue, previous works have designed searching strategies based on the use of keywords and low-level features. However, those methods have demonstrated to not be enough or practical for this purpose. Alternative low-level features such as cell area, distance among cells and cell density are directly associated to simple histological concepts and could serve as good descriptors for this purpose. In this paper, a statistical model is adapted to represent the distribution of the areas occupied by cells for its use in whole histopathology image characterization. This novel descriptor facilitates the design of metrics based on distribution parameters and also provides new elements for a better image understanding. The proposed model was validated using image processing and statistical techniques. Results showed low error rates, demonstrating the accuracy of the model.

  12. Neutrophilic Epitheliotropism is a Histopathological Clue to Neutrophilic Urticarial Dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Sigrid M C; Böer-Auer, Almut; Kerl, Katrin; Herrgott, Ilka; Schulz, Xenia; Bonsmann, Gisela; Brehler, Randolf; Metze, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD) comprises a particular autoinflammatory condition within the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatoses characterized by a distinct urticarial eruption clinically and a neutrophilic dermatosis histopathologically. In this study, we reviewed skin biopsies of lesional skin of patients seen in our outpatient clinic for autoimmune dermatoses and in allergy department from 1982 to 2014 that fulfilled these criteria. A total of 77 biopsies from 50 patients were analyzed histopathologically. Included were cases of Schnitzler syndrome, Still disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and those that had signs of systemic inflammation not otherwise specified, that is, fever, arthritis, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A control cohort was defined as including a total of 70 biopsies from 50 patients comprising neutrophilic urticaria (pressure-induced and not pressure-induced), conventional urticaria, lupus erythematosus expressing neutrophils, and exanthematous drug reaction of macular type expressing neutrophils. Skin biopsies of NUD revealed a perivascular and interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate focally extending into the epithelia of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, a feature which we termed neutrophilic epitheliotropism. This neutrophilic epitheliotropism proved to be of high sensitivity (83.1%) and lower specificity (74.3%). The histological findings could be substantiated by immunohistochemical markers for leukocytes (elastase and myeloperoxidase), in particular in cases where neutrophils showed uncharacteristic band-like nuclei. Neutrophilic epitheliotropism is a new sensitive and specific histopathological clue for NUD, a histopathological reaction pattern within the spectrum of neutrophilic dermatoses that needs to be differentiated from conventional urticaria.

  13. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  14. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes.

  15. Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise

    PubMed Central

    Thottathil, Mujeeburahiman; Verma, Ashish; D’souza, Nischith; Khan, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too. PMID:27453671

  16. Historical development of the renal histopathology services in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2009-06-01

    Western-style medicine was introduced to Malaya by the Portuguese, Dutch and British between the 1500s and 1800s. Although the earliest pathology laboratories were developed within hospitals towards the end of the 19th Century, histopathology emerged much later than the biochemistry and bacteriology services. The University Departments of Pathology were the pioneers of the renal histopathology diagnostic services. The Department of Pathology, University of Malaya (UM) received its first renal biopsy on 19 May 1968. Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) started their services in 1979 and 1987 respectively. It is notable that the early services in these University centres caterred for both the university hospitals and the Ministry of Health (MOH) until the mid-1990s when MOH began to develop its own services, pivoted on renal pathologists trained through Fellowship programmes. Currently, key centres in the MOH are Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru and Malacca Hospital. With the inclusion of renal biopsy interpretation in the Master of Pathology programmes, basic renal histopathology services became widely available throughout the country from 2000. This subsequently filtered out to the private sector as more histopathologists embraced private practice. There is now active continuing professional development in renal histopathology through clinicopathological dicussions, seminars and workshops. Renal research on amyloid nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis and microwave technology have provided an insight into the patterns of renal pathology and changing criteria for biopsy. More recently, there has been increasing involvement of renal teams in clinical trials, particularly for lupus nephritis and renal transplant modulation.

  17. Extraocular retinoblastoma in Indian children: clinical, imaging and histopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sumita; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; Sharma, Sanjay; Mehta, Mridula; Bakhshi, Sameer; Khurana, Saurbhi; Ghose, Supriyo

    2013-01-01

    AIM To study eyes with extraocular dissemination (EORB), with the following aims: first to establish the mean lag period and to understand various reasons for delayed presentation, second to study their imaging profiles and third to analyze histopathological features of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS Prospective study of clinical and imaging features of EORBs (stage III and IV International Retinoblastoma Staging System) presenting to a tertiary eye care centre. Histopathological features of eyes enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. A pictorial illustration of the varied imaging profile of EORB was also presented. RESULTS Over a period of one year, 97 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 32 children (36 eyes) (37.1%) had EORB. Mean age 3.6±1.9 years, 71.9% males, 71.9% unilateral, 3.1% with positive family history and 40.6% with metastasis. On imaging, there was extrascleral involvement in 22.2%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve in 33.3%, involvement of central nervous system in 27.8% and orbital wall involvement in 2.9% eyes. On histopathological analysis of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25.0% had no residual viable tumour tissue and rest all tumours were poorly differentiated. CONCLUSION There are very few human malignancies where definitive treatment is started without any confirmed histopathological diagnosis and imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and appropriate staging of the disease. Chemotherapy has a variable effect on EORB, 75.0% of eyes with EORB had residual viable tumour tissue when enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23991383

  18. Extraocular retinoblastoma in Indian children: clinical, imaging and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumita; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; Sharma, Sanjay; Mehta, Mridula; Bakhshi, Sameer; Khurana, Saurbhi; Ghose, Supriyo

    2013-01-01

    TO STUDY EYES WITH EXTRAOCULAR DISSEMINATION (EORB), WITH THE FOLLOWING AIMS: first to establish the mean lag period and to understand various reasons for delayed presentation, second to study their imaging profiles and third to analyze histopathological features of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Prospective study of clinical and imaging features of EORBs (stage III and IV International Retinoblastoma Staging System) presenting to a tertiary eye care centre. Histopathological features of eyes enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. A pictorial illustration of the varied imaging profile of EORB was also presented. Over a period of one year, 97 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 32 children (36 eyes) (37.1%) had EORB. Mean age 3.6±1.9 years, 71.9% males, 71.9% unilateral, 3.1% with positive family history and 40.6% with metastasis. On imaging, there was extrascleral involvement in 22.2%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve in 33.3%, involvement of central nervous system in 27.8% and orbital wall involvement in 2.9% eyes. On histopathological analysis of eyes enucleated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 25.0% had no residual viable tumour tissue and rest all tumours were poorly differentiated. There are very few human malignancies where definitive treatment is started without any confirmed histopathological diagnosis and imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and appropriate staging of the disease. Chemotherapy has a variable effect on EORB, 75.0% of eyes with EORB had residual viable tumour tissue when enucleated after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  19. Histopathological and clinical analysis of chronic rhinosinusitis by subtype.

    PubMed

    Czerny, Mary S; Namin, Arya; Gratton, Michael Anne; Antisdel, Jastin L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses diverse phenotypic expression. Clinical and histological differences suggest 4 CRS subtypes: eosinophilic CRS with and without nasal polyps (eCRSwNP, eCRSsNP, respectively) and non-eosinophilic CRS with and without nasal polyps (neCRSwNP, neCRSsNP, respectively). The mucosal basement membrane (BM) and cilia are believed to play roles in CRS pathogenesis by impacting mucociliary clearance and immune barriers. This study aimed to identify clinical, surgical, and histopathological subtype differences to further elucidate disease mechanisms. Ethmoid tissue from 33 adult CRS patients and 7 controls was obtained during endoscopic sinus or other sinonasal surgery (controls) and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy for BM thickness and presence of cilia. CRS patients were categorized into the 4 subtypes, and 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score, endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), and surgical data were compared and analyzed for association with histopathology measures. CRS subtypes could be distinguished by CT score and surgical data, with eCRSwNP patients exhibiting greatest disease severity. Whereas eosinophilia was associated with absence of cilia, nasal polyposis showed no association with surgical or histopathological measures. No significant difference in BM thickness was found between controls and CRS subtypes, but distinctions were found regarding cilia, which were less common in eosinophilic subgroups compared to controls and neCRSsNP patients. CRS subtypes exhibit some differentiating histopathological and surgical features. The absence of cilia appears to have an important role in the eosinophilic subgroups. Further histologic evaluation is warranted to evaluate for possible subtype-specific treatment targets or prognostic markers. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology can be an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of chemical exposure in fish at the level of the individual. Although somewhat qualitative, the histopathological approach is especially valuable because observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  1. Histopathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:21482725

  2. Automated Segmentation of Nuclei in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images.

    PubMed

    Paramanandam, Maqlin; O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Mammen, Joy John; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Thamburaj, Robinson; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The process of Nuclei detection in high-grade breast cancer images is quite challenging in the case of image processing techniques due to certain heterogeneous characteristics of cancer nuclei such as enlarged and irregularly shaped nuclei, highly coarse chromatin marginalized to the nuclei periphery and visible nucleoli. Recent reviews state that existing techniques show appreciable segmentation accuracy on breast histopathology images whose nuclei are dispersed and regular in texture and shape; however, typical cancer nuclei are often clustered and have irregular texture and shape properties. This paper proposes a novel segmentation algorithm for detecting individual nuclei from Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained breast histopathology images. This detection framework estimates a nuclei saliency map using tensor voting followed by boundary extraction of the nuclei on the saliency map using a Loopy Back Propagation (LBP) algorithm on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The method was tested on both whole-slide images and frames of breast cancer histopathology images. Experimental results demonstrate high segmentation performance with efficient precision, recall and dice-coefficient rates, upon testing high-grade breast cancer images containing several thousand nuclei. In addition to the optimal performance on the highly complex images presented in this paper, this method also gave appreciable results in comparison with two recently published methods-Wienert et al. (2012) and Veta et al. (2013), which were tested using their own datasets.

  3. Histopathological changes in skeletal muscle associated with chronic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sara; Fyhr, Ing-Marie; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Oldfors, Anders; Ullman, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Muscle biopsy is an essential part in the diagnostic workup in patients with suspected neuromuscular disorders. It is therefore important to be aware of morphological alterations that can be caused by systemic factors or natural ageing. Chronic limb ischaemia is frequent in elderly individuals. This study was performed to examine histopathological and mitochondrial changes in muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischaemia. Muscle biopsy of skeletal muscle of the lower limb of patients with chronic ischaemia leading to amputation was performed and compared with muscle biopsies of healthy, age-matched controls. The histopathological abnormalities included fibrosis, necrosis, atrophy, glycogen depletion, internal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, fibre type grouping, cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres, MHC-I upregulation, and signs of microangiopathy. The only alteration found in age-matched controls was a few cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres. There were also increased levels of multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in ischaemic muscles compared with controls. Critical limb ischaemia is associated with significant histopathological changes in muscle tissue and also increased levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions. Since the alterations mimic different primary myopathic changes, chronic ischaemia is important to consider as a differential diagnosis in elderly individuals, investigated with muscle biopsy for muscle disease.

  4. Histopathology of Ossicular Grafts and Implants in Chronic Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Bahmad, Fayez; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We describe the histopathology of ossicular grafts and implants so as to provide insight into factors that may influence functional results after surgery for chronic otitis media. Methods Histopathologic observations were made on 56 cases: 50 surgical specimens and 6 temporal bone cases in which the graft was sectioned in situ. Results and Conclusions Autogenous malleus, incus, and cortical bone grafts behaved in a similar manner and maintained their morphological size, shape, and contour for extended periods of time, at least up to 30 years. These histopathologic observations support the continued use of autograft ossicular and cortical bone grafts for middle ear reconstruction. Cartilage grafts developed chondromalacia with resulting loss of stiffness and showed a tendency to undergo resorption. Synthetic prostheses made of porous plastic (Plastipore, Polycel) elicited foreign body giant cell reactions with various degrees of biodegradation of the implants. Prostheses made of hydroxyapatite and Bioglass were enveloped by a lining of connective tissue and mucosal epithelium. The Bioglass material was broken down into small fragments and partially resorbed by a host response within the middle ear. These results warrant caution in the use of prostheses made of porous plastic or Bioglass. PMID:17419521

  5. Histopathological audit of 373 nononcological hysterectomies in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Tiwana, Kanwardeep Kaur; Nibhoria, Sarita; Monga, Tanvi; Phutela, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Hysterectomy, the most common gynecological surgery, provides a definitive cure to various diseases like DUB (dysfunctional uterine bleeding), leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, prolapse, and malignancy. However, with advent of effective medical and conservative treatment modalities for nononcological causes it is now posing question mark on justification of hysterectomy. Therefore, an audit is required to assess the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of specimen for justification of the procedure. In this study over period of one year (April 2013 to March 2014) 373 hysterectomies specimens were received in the department of pathology for nononcological causes. The age of patients ranged from 22 to 85 years with mean 45 ± 9.2 years. All cases were divided into five categories on the basis of age and audit was done. In this study the most common finding was leiomyoma (43.7%) followed by adenomyosis (19.3%). Almost 50% of hysterectomies causes were justified as preoperative diagnosis matched with histopathology. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with κ value being 0.36. This study highlights that regular audit of surgeries can help improve quality of health care services and provide safe conservative option to patients.

  6. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  7. Time-efficient sparse analysis of histopathological whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Hui; Veillard, Antoine; Roux, Ludovic; Loménie, Nicolas; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Histopathological examination is a powerful standard for the prognosis of critical diseases. But, despite significant advances in high-speed and high-resolution scanning devices or in virtual exploration capabilities, the clinical analysis of whole slide images (WSI) largely remains the work of human experts. We propose an innovative platform in which multi-scale computer vision algorithms perform fast analysis of a histopathological WSI. It relies on application-driven for high-resolution and generic for low-resolution image analysis algorithms embedded in a multi-scale framework to rapidly identify the high power fields of interest used by the pathologist to assess a global grading. GPU technologies as well speed up the global time-efficiency of the system. Sparse coding and dynamic sampling constitute the keystone of our approach. These methods are implemented within a computer-aided breast biopsy analysis application based on histopathology images and designed in collaboration with a pathology department. The current ground truth slides correspond to about 36,000 high magnification (40×) high power fields. The processing time to achieve automatic WSI analysis is on a par with the pathologist's performance (about ten minutes a WSI), which constitutes by itself a major contribution of the proposed methodology.

  8. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Palić, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail. PMID:23883179

  9. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Boris; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Palić, Dušan

    2014-11-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail.

  10. Automated Segmentation of Nuclei in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images

    PubMed Central

    Paramanandam, Maqlin; O’Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Mammen, Joy John; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Thamburaj, Robinson; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The process of Nuclei detection in high-grade breast cancer images is quite challenging in the case of image processing techniques due to certain heterogeneous characteristics of cancer nuclei such as enlarged and irregularly shaped nuclei, highly coarse chromatin marginalized to the nuclei periphery and visible nucleoli. Recent reviews state that existing techniques show appreciable segmentation accuracy on breast histopathology images whose nuclei are dispersed and regular in texture and shape; however, typical cancer nuclei are often clustered and have irregular texture and shape properties. This paper proposes a novel segmentation algorithm for detecting individual nuclei from Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained breast histopathology images. This detection framework estimates a nuclei saliency map using tensor voting followed by boundary extraction of the nuclei on the saliency map using a Loopy Back Propagation (LBP) algorithm on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The method was tested on both whole-slide images and frames of breast cancer histopathology images. Experimental results demonstrate high segmentation performance with efficient precision, recall and dice-coefficient rates, upon testing high-grade breast cancer images containing several thousand nuclei. In addition to the optimal performance on the highly complex images presented in this paper, this method also gave appreciable results in comparison with two recently published methods—Wienert et al. (2012) and Veta et al. (2013), which were tested using their own datasets. PMID:27649496

  11. Histopathology and treatment of a huge overhanging filtering bleb.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Ping-Bo; Qi, Xin; Duan, Xuan-Chu

    2016-10-06

    The giant filtering bleb encroaching onto the corneal surface is a rare occurrence in our and other's clinical experience (Kapoor and Syed, Int. Ophthalmol 31(5):403-404, 2011), even in patients having had a trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, and how it developed is debated. In this paper, we report a patient who developed a huge overhanging filtering bleb after trabeculectomy, and present our intraoperative photographs, histopathology and immunohistochemistry results. A 62-year-old female visited our hospital due to the giant filtering bleb encroaching onto the corneal surface which was about 6 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. We dissected the filtering bleb from the cornea and present the histopathology and immunohistochemistry results of it. The results from histopathology and immunohistochemistry in this study are consistent with the filtering cicatrix hypothesis. However, our finding that the overhanging blebs had tight connections with the corneal tissue or corneoscleral limbus, rather than simply leaning on it, might be highly related to their development and still needs to be further studied.

  12. Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2011-03-01

    The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation.

  13. Parallel multiple instance learning for extremely large histopathology image analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Li, Yeshu; Shen, Zhengyang; Wu, Ziwei; Gao, Teng; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao

    2017-08-03

    Histopathology images are critical for medical diagnosis, e.g., cancer and its treatment. A standard histopathology slice can be easily scanned at a high resolution of, say, 200,000×200,000 pixels. These high resolution images can make most existing imaging processing tools infeasible or less effective when operated on a single machine with limited memory, disk space and computing power. In this paper, we propose an algorithm tackling this new emerging "big data" problem utilizing parallel computing on High-Performance-Computing (HPC) clusters. Experimental results on a large-scale data set (1318 images at a scale of 10 billion pixels each) demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for low-latency real-time applications. The framework proposed an effective and efficient system for extremely large histopathology image analysis. It is based on the multiple instance learning formulation for weakly-supervised learning for image classification, segmentation and clustering. When a max-margin concept is adopted for different clusters, we obtain further improvement in clustering performance.

  14. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    PubMed

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Voidăzan, Toader Septimiu; Coşarcă, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions.

  15. Histopathological Image Classification using Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, UK Arvind

    2016-01-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available. PMID:26513781

  16. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Fukusato, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is the most common chronic liver disease, and the prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although noninvasive clinical scores and image-based diagnosis for NAFLD have improved, histopathological evaluation of biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD/NASH. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning are all necessary components for the diagnosis of NASH; fibrosis is also typically observed. Other histopathological abnormalities commonly observed in NASH include hepatocellular glycogenated nuclei, lipogranulomas, and acidophil bodies. The characteristics of pediatric NAFLD/NASH differ from adult NAFLD/NASH. Specifically, steatosis and portal inflammation are more severe in pediatric NAFLD, while intralobular inflammation and perisinusoidal fibrosis are milder. Although interobserver agreement for evaluating the extent of steatosis and fibrosis is high, agreement is low for intralobular and portal inflammation. A recently reported histological variant of HCC, steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), shows features that resemble non-neoplastic steatohepatitis, and is thought to be strongly associated with underlying NASH. In this report, we review the histopathological features of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:25400438

  17. Comparison of optical coherence tomography imaging of cataracts with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of radiation during the mid and late 1960s. The radiation and age related cataracts in these animals were closely monitored using a unique grading system developed specifically for the DEC. In addition to this system, a modified version of a common cataract grading scheme for use in humans was applied. Of the original 18 monkeys imaged, lenses were collected at necropsy from seven of these animals, processed, and compared to OCT images. Results showed a direct correlation between the vertical OCT images and the cataractous lesions seen on corresponding histopathological sections of the lenses. Based on the images obtained and their corresponding documented comparison to histopathology, OCT showed tremendous potential to aid identification and characterization of cataracts. There can be artifactual problems with the images related to movement and shadows produced by opacities. However, with the advent of increased speed in imaging and multiplanar imaging, these disadvantages may easily be overcome.

  18. The Japanese Viewpoint on the Histopathology of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Jansen, Marnix; Kushima, Ryoji

    Japanese histopathologists have traditionally had greater opportunity to study the histology and clinical course of early gastric cancer because of technological developments including double contrast radiography and endoscopy systems, combined with the higher incidence of gastric cancer in the general population in Japan. Endoscopic resection is now considered best practice for treatment of early gastric cancers with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Histopathologic evaluation plays a critical role in assessing the likelihood of lymph node metastasis on endoscopically resected specimens. There remains disparity between Western and Japanese histopathologists in the conceptual approach to the histopathologic evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular regarding lesions straddling the borderline between noninvasive and invasive disease. Although in routine practice, the clinical impact of these conceptual differences is small, this disparity does complicate international exchange of datasets and the development of globally applicable formal definitions. Here we review the current practice in histological diagnosis of early gastric cancer in Japan and discuss some of the conceptual differences between Japanese and Western histopathological assessment of lesions in the neoplastic stomach.

  19. Weakly supervised histopathology cancer image segmentation and classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-Yan; Chang, Eric I-Chao; Lai, Maode; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-04-01

    Labeling a histopathology image as having cancerous regions or not is a critical task in cancer diagnosis; it is also clinically important to segment the cancer tissues and cluster them into various classes. Existing supervised approaches for image classification and segmentation require detailed manual annotations for the cancer pixels, which are time-consuming to obtain. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, multiple clustered instance learning (MCIL) (along the line of weakly supervised learning) for histopathology image segmentation. The proposed MCIL method simultaneously performs image-level classification (cancer vs. non-cancer image), medical image segmentation (cancer vs. non-cancer tissue), and patch-level clustering (different classes). We embed the clustering concept into the multiple instance learning (MIL) setting and derive a principled solution to performing the above three tasks in an integrated framework. In addition, we introduce contextual constraints as a prior for MCIL, which further reduces the ambiguity in MIL. Experimental results on histopathology colon cancer images and cytology images demonstrate the great advantage of MCIL over the competing methods.

  20. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Fukusato, Toshio

    2014-11-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is the most common chronic liver disease, and the prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although noninvasive clinical scores and image-based diagnosis for NAFLD have improved, histopathological evaluation of biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD/NASH. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning are all necessary components for the diagnosis of NASH; fibrosis is also typically observed. Other histopathological abnormalities commonly observed in NASH include hepatocellular glycogenated nuclei, lipogranulomas, and acidophil bodies. The characteristics of pediatric NAFLD/NASH differ from adult NAFLD/NASH. Specifically, steatosis and portal inflammation are more severe in pediatric NAFLD, while intralobular inflammation and perisinusoidal fibrosis are milder. Although interobserver agreement for evaluating the extent of steatosis and fibrosis is high, agreement is low for intralobular and portal inflammation. A recently reported histological variant of HCC, steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), shows features that resemble non-neoplastic steatohepatitis, and is thought to be strongly associated with underlying NASH. In this report, we review the histopathological features of NAFLD/NASH.

  1. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy.

  2. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report I: comparative placentation and animal models, advanced techniques in placental histopathology, human pluripotent stem cells as a model for trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, W E; Carter, A M; De Mestre, A M; Golos, T G; Jeschke, U; Kusakabe, K; Laurent, L C; Parast, M M; Roberts, R M; Robinson, J M; Rutherford, J; Soma, H; Takizawa, T; Ui-Tei, K; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of models and technical issues involved in placenta research: 1) comparative placentation and animal models; 2) advanced techniques in placental histopathology; 3) human pluripotent stem cells as a model for trophoblast differentiation.

  3. Histopathological identification of colon cancer with microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J; Watanabe, T; Wu, T T; Rashid, A; Li, S; Hamilton, S R

    2001-02-01

    Cancer with high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) is the hallmark of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome, and MSI-H occurs in approximately 15% of sporadic colorectal carcinomas that have improved prognosis. We examined the utility of histopathology for the identification of MSI-H cancers by evaluating the features of 323 sporadic carcinomas using specified criteria and comparing the results to MSI-H status. Coded hematoxylin and eosin sections were evaluated for tumor features (signet ring cells; mucinous histology; cribriforming, poor differentiation, and medullary-type pattern; sponge-like mucinous growth; pushing invasive margin) and features of host immune response (Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction, intratumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, and intraepithelial T cells by immunohistochemistry for CD3 with morphometry). Interobserver variation among five pathologists was determined. Subjective interpretation of histopathology as an indication for MSI testing was recorded. We found that medullary carcinoma, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and poor differentiation were the best discriminators between MSI-H and microsatellite-stable cancers (odds ratio: 37.8, 9.8, and 4.0, respectively; P = 0.000003 to < 0.000001) with high specificity (99 to 87%). The sensitivities, however, were very low (14 to 38%), and interobserver agreement was good only for evaluation of poor differentiation (kappa, 0.69). Mucinous histopathological type and presence of signet ring cells had low odds ratios of 3.3 and 2.7 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.02) with specificities of 95% but sensitivities of only 15 and 13%. Subjective interpretation of the overall histopathology as suggesting MSI-H performed better than any individual feature; the odds ratio was 7.5 (P < 0.000001) with sensitivity of 49%, specificity of 89%, and moderate interobserver agreement (kappa, 0.52). Forty intraepithelial CD3-positive lymphocytes/0.94 mm2, as established by receiver operating characteristic

  4. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  5. Histopathological baseline levels and confounding factors in common sole (Solea solea) for marine environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, N; Zorita, I; Costa, P M; Larreta, J; Franco, J

    2015-09-01

    Liver and gonad histopathology, biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation were assessed monthly over a one-year period in common soles from the Basque continental shelf, in order to determine baseline levels and confounding factors within biomonitoring studies. Biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation varied according to season and gender. Accordingly, hepatic histopathological traits presented seasonal variations related to the reproductive cycle. However, the hepatic histopathological index showed that seasonality and gender were not significant confounding factors. Conversely, the gonad histopathological index was modulated by season and gender. As for organ comparison, the liver endured more severe histopathological damage than the gonad. In brief, the sampling period and gender may not affect the estimation of hepatic histopathological indices for biomonitoring purposes. Nonetheless, due to different sensitivities to environmental 'noise' variables, the sampling period and gender differentiation should be thoroughly considered for the assessment of gonad histopathology, biometrics and metal bioaccumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, A K; Angus, J C; Coyner, K S; Loeffler, D G; Rankin, S C; Lewis, T P

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis (ALD). Microbial characteristics of ALD are poorly described in current literature. If infection is recognized, antimicrobial selection is usually empirical, based on appearance, cytology or surface culture, rather than deep tissue culture. It was hypothesized that cultures obtained from deep tissue would yield different results than predicted by surface culture and cytology, and that isolates from ALD have unpredictable susceptibility patterns showing resistance to antibiotics routinely administered for canine pyoderma. Biopsies were obtained from 31 lesions and submitted for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture, and histopathological evaluation. Surface aerobic culture and susceptibility and cytology were obtained for comparison in 22 dogs. Skin scrapings and dermatophyte culture were performed. Bacteria were isolated in 30 of 31 cases. Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated in 58% of deep cultures. Twenty per cent of deep isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species. Forty-eight per cent of cases yielded organisms defined as multidrug resistant on deep culture. Only 57% and 55% of bacteria isolated from tissue culture were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin, respectively. Cytology and superficial cultures did not correlate well with deep cultures. Surface culture predicted deep tissue isolates in eight of 22 cases. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from one dog. Histopathological features included acanthosis, follicular elongation, lymphoplasmacytic dermal inflammation, folliculitis, furunculosis, perihidradenitis, hidradenitis and vertical streaking fibrosis. Lesions associated with ALD warrant tissue bacterial cultures as the majority of cases yielded positive growth of bacteria differing from superficial culture and often resistant to empirical drugs.

  7. Temporal Bone Histopathology in NOG-Symphalangism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Quesnel, Alicia M.; Nadol, Joseph B.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Curtin, Hugh D.; Lesperance, Marci M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the human temporal bone histopathology in NOG-related Symphalangism Spectrum Disorder, a spectrum of congenital stapes fixation syndromes caused by mutations in the NOG gene. To discuss implications for clinical management. Patient A patient with a mutation in the NOG gene Intervention(s) Removal of temporal bones, post-mortem temporal bone computed tomography, histologic processing and review of temporal bones Main Outcome Measure(s) Temporal bone histopathology, and correlation with clinical, genetic, audiologic, and radiologic evaluations Results Both temporal bones demonstrated fixation of the stapes footplate to the otic capsule due to a circumferential bridge of calcified cartilage. In the right ear (unoperated), there was no additional abnormality of the ossicles or ossicular joints. In the left ear, fenestrations of the stapes footplate and the lateral semicircular canal were seen, consistent with a history of stapedectomy and fenestration procedure. Severe loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) throughout the left cochlea accounted for the profound sensorineural hearing loss; there was a normal number of SGN in the right ear. In both ears, the cochleae demonstrated grossly preserved organs of Corti. Conclusion The temporal bone pathologic correlate for conductive hearing loss in this patient with a NOG mutation was circumferentially calcified cartilage bridging the stapedo-vestibular joint space. The temporal bone histopathology findings suggest that conductive hearing loss related to NOG mutation should be improved after stapedectomy; however, care must be taken in extrapolating to all patients with NOG mutations, as there may be variability in the pathology, especially given the variability of NOG spectrum disorders. PMID:26474326

  8. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Krasne, Sally; Hillman, Joseph D.; Kellman, Philip J.; Drake, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses) that appear during a learning session based on each learner's accuracy and response time (RT). We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a “Score” that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1st-year students, but not significantly so for 2nd-year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1st and 2nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students. PMID:24524000

  9. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with digital histopathology in prostate.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Sankineni, Sandeep; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J

    2016-04-01

    We propose a systematic approach to correlate MRI and digital histopathology in prostate. T2-weighted (T2W) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are acquired, and a patient-specific mold (PSM) is designed from the MRI. Following prostatectomy, a whole mount tissue specimen is placed in the PSM and sectioned, ensuring that tissue blocks roughly correspond to MRI slices. Rigid body and thin plate spline deformable registration attempt to correct deformation during image acquisition and tissue preparation and achieve a more complete one-to-one correspondence between MRIs and tissue sections. Each tissue section is stained with hematoxylin and eosin and segmented by adopting a machine learning approach. Utilizing this tissue segmentation and image registration, the density of cellular and tissue components (lumen, nucleus, epithelium, and stroma) is estimated per MR voxel, generating density maps for the whole prostate. This study was approved by the local IRB, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Registration of tissue specimens and MRIs was aided by the PSM and subsequent image registration. Tissue segmentation was performed using a machine learning approach, achieving ≥0.98 AUCs for lumen, nucleus, epithelium, and stroma. Examining the density map of tissue components, significant differences were observed between cancer, benign peripheral zone, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (p value <5e−2). Similarly, the signal intensity of the corresponding areas in both T2W MRI and DWI was significantly different (p value <1e−10). The proposed approach is able to correlate MRI and digital histopathology of the prostate and is promising as a potential tool to facilitate a more cellular and zonal tissue-based analysis of prostate MRI, based upon a correlative histopathology perspective.

  10. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology.

    PubMed

    Krasne, Sally; Hillman, Joseph D; Kellman, Philip J; Drake, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses) that appear during a learning session based on each learner's accuracy and response time (RT). We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a "Score" that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1(st)-year students, but not significantly so for 2(nd)-year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1(st) and 2(nd) year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students.

  11. Reliability of the histopathologic diagnosis of keratinocyte carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jagdeo, Jared; Weinstock, Martin A; Piepkorn, Michael; Bingham, Stephen F

    2007-08-01

    We sought to determine the interobserver reliability of the histopathologic diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (keratinocyte carcinomas) in the setting of a Department of Veteran Affairs multicenter chemoprevention study. Interobserver concordance was assessed by blinded review of histopathologic slides by study dermatopathologists. Overall interobserver agreement between the two dermatopathogists was kappa = 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.69). The dermatopathologists' interobserver agreement was highest for basal cell carcinoma at kappa = 0.88 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) and for a diagnostic category in the SCC-actinic keratosis spectrum at kappa = 0.80 (95% CI 0.73-0.86). The largest disagreements between the two reference dermatopathologists were regarding the categories of invasive SCC at kappa = 0.62 (95% CI 0.52-0.72), SCC in situ at kappa = 0.42 (95% CI 0.29-0.56), and actinic keratosis at kappa = 0.51 (95% CI 0.40-0.62). Agreement between the local pathologists and central reference dermatopathologists were similar to the agreement between the central dermatopathologists. The morphea subtype of basal cell carcinoma was the only reliably diagnosed subtype (kappa = 0.79, 95% CI 0.51-1.00), and tumor depth was reliably measured. A limitation of this study was the use of only two reference dermatopathologists. Because of the impact on physician decision making and patient care, researchers and clinicians need to be aware of reliability of histopathology results, particularly pertaining to the SCC and actinic keratosis spectrum.

  12. Adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma: histopathological and molecular comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Hoos, Axel; Omeroglu, Atilla; Leung, Denis H Y; Dudas, Maria E; Nissan, Aviram; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2003-08-01

    We compared histomorphological features and molecular expression profiles of adrenocortical adenomas (ACAd) and carcinomas (ACCa). A critical histopathological review (mean, 11 slides per patient) was conducted of 37 ACAd and 67 ACCa. Paraffin-embedded tissue cores of ACAd (n = 33) and ACCa (n = 38) were arrayed in triplicate on tissue microarrays. Expression profiles of p53, mdm-2, p21, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, p27, and Ki-67 were investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with histopathology and patient outcome using standard statistical methodology. Median follow-up period was 5 years. Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, and >1 mitosis per 50 high-power fields were factors that were highly specific for ACCa (P <.001). Number (0 to 4) of unfavorable markers [Ki-67 (+), p21 (+), p27 (+), mdm-2(-)] expressed was significantly associated with mitotic activity and morphologic index (i.e., number of adverse morphologic features) and highly predictive of malignancy (P <.001). Ki-67 overexpression occurred in 0 ACAd and 36% ACCa (P <.001) and was significantly associated with mitotic rate and unfavorable morphologic index (P <.001). Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, >5 mitoses per 50 high-power fields, sinusoidal invasion, histologic index of >5, and presence of more than two unfavorable molecular markers were associated significantly with metastasis in ACCa. Well-established histopathologic criteria and Ki-67 can specifically distinguish ACCAd from ACCa. Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) correlates with mitotic activity and morphologic index. Tumor morphology is a better predictor of metastatic risk in ACCa than current immunohistochemistry-detected cell cycle regulatory and proliferation-associated proteins.

  13. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  14. A generic nuclei detection method for histopathological breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Henning; Homeyer, André; Bult, Peter; Balkenhol, Maschenka C. A.; van der Laak, Jeroen A. W. M.; Hahn, Horst K.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of cell nuclei plays a key role in various histopathological image analysis problems. Considering the high variability of its applications, we propose a novel generic and trainable detection approach. Adaption to specific nuclei detection tasks is done by providing training samples. A trainable deconvolution and classification algorithm is used to generate a probability map indicating the presence of a nucleus. The map is processed by an extended watershed segmentation step to identify the nuclei positions. We have tested our method on data sets with different stains and target nuclear types. We obtained F1-measures between 0.83 and 0.93.

  15. Cutaneous porphyrias part I: epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Horner, Mary E; Alikhan, Ali; Tintle, Suzanne; Tortorelli, Silvia; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Hand, Jennifer L

    2013-12-01

    The porphyrias are a group of disorders characterized by defects in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Many present with skin findings including photosensitivity, bullae, hypertrichosis, and scarring. Systemic symptoms may include abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric changes, anemia, and liver disease. With advances in DNA analysis, researchers are discovering the underlying genetic causes of the porphyrias, enabling family members to be tested for genetic mutations. Here we present a comprehensive review of porphyria focusing on those with cutaneous manifestations. In Part I, we have included the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology. Treatment and management options will be discussed in Part II. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  17. Practical use of a word processor in a histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, J C; Ibrahim, N B; Mackintosh, I; Norris, D

    1982-01-01

    Some of the facilities available with a commercially purchased word processing program, linked to a DEC PDP 11/23 computer are described, together with an account of the practical histopathological use. The system is based on a share of the computer with a Clinical Chemistry Department. Development was time-consuming and required the constant availability of the Department of Physics. However, once working, considerable saving in secretarial time has resulted and a number of projects have been started which would not have been contemplated without the use of the word processor and its linked computer. Images PMID:7068906

  18. Histopathological insight of complex odontoma associated with a dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Kaur, Prabhpreet; Singh, Jappreet

    2014-01-31

    Odontomas and dentigerous cysts are common findings for practicing dental professionals. However, simultaneous occurrence of pathologies like odontoma and dentigerous cyst are uncommon and their diagnosis based on the radiographic appearance alone is a challenge to overcome. They together are a potential for complications like attaining large size, root resorption, destruction of the jaw bones and sometimes neoplastic changes like ameloblastoma. This paper presents a case of complex odontoma associated with dentigerous cyst in relation to a retained deciduous tooth in the maxillary anterior region and confirming its diagnosis histopathologically.

  19. Association of Histopathologic Phenotype of Periampullary Adenocarcinomas With Survival.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L; Chan, Carmen K; Toste, Paul A; Elliott, Irmina A; Vasquez, Charles R; Sunjaya, Dharma B; Swanson, Eric A; Koo, Jamie; Hines, O Joe; Reber, Howard A; Dawson, David W; Donahue, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas have widely variable survival. These cancers are traditionally categorized by their anatomic location of origin, namely, the duodenum, ampulla, distal common bile duct (CBD), or head of the pancreas. However, they can be alternatively subdivided histopathologically into intestinal or pancreaticobiliary (PB) types, which may more accurately estimate prognosis. To identify factors associated with survival in patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas and to compare survival between those having intestinal-type or PB-type cancers originating from the duodenum, ampulla, or distal CBD with those having pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study was a retrospective analysis of medical records in a prospectively maintained database. Three pathologists separately evaluated histopathologic phenotypes at a university-based tertiary referral center. Study participants were all patients (N = 510) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma between January 1995 and December 2014. Overall survival. This study identified 510 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.1 [10.9] years; 245 female [48%]) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinomas: 13 duodenal, 110 ampullary, 43 distal CBD, and 344 PDAC. The median overall survival was 61.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 22.0-111.0), 70.4 (IQR, 26.7-147.7), 40.6 (IQR, 15.2-59.6), and 31.4 (IQR, 17.3-86.3) months for patients with cancers of the duodenum, ampulla, distal CBD, or pancreas, respectively (P = .01), indicating a significant difference between the 4 tumor anatomic locations. Most duodenal (61.5% [8 of 13]) and ampullary (51.8% [57 of 110]) cancers were intestinal type, and most distal CBD tumors were PB type (86.0% [37 of 43]). Those with intestinal-type duodenal, ampullary, or distal CBD adenocarcinomas had longer median overall survival than those with PB type (71.7 vs 33.3 months, P = .02) or PDAC (31.4 months, P = .003). There was no survival

  20. Alien hand sign in association with Alzheimer's histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, J A; Lantos, P L; Jackson, M; Marsden, C D; Scadding, J W; Rossor, M N

    1993-01-01

    A 68 year old man is described with an alien left hand, cortical myoclonus, bilateral parietal lobe dysfunction and memory impairment but preserved language skills. The clinical diagnosis was of corticobasal degeneration but at necropsy, four years after the onset of symptoms, the pathology was of Alzheimer's disease together with some scattered chromatolytic pale neurons in the cerebral cortex. The alien hand sign has not previously been described in Alzheimer's dementia and is an illustration of the clinical heterogeneity that may occur in association with Alzheimer histopathology. Images PMID:8410026

  1. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  2. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  3. Histopathology of common tendinopathies. Update and implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Khan, K M; Cook, J L; Bonar, F; Harcourt, P; Astrom, M

    1999-06-01

    Tendon disorders are a major problem for participants in competitive and recreational sports. To try to determine whether the histopathology underlying these conditions explains why they often prove recalcitrant to treatment, we reviewed studies of the histopathology of sports-related, symptomatic Achilles, patellar, extensor carpi radialis brevis and rotator cuff tendons. The literature indicates that healthy tendons appear glistening white to the naked eye and microscopy reveals a hierarchical arrangement of tightly packed, parallel bundles of collagen fibres that have a characteristic reflectivity under polarised light. Stainable ground substance (extracellular matrix) is absent and vasculature is inconspicuous. Tenocytes are generally inconspicuous and fibroblasts and myofibroblasts absent. In stark contrast, symptomatic tendons in athletes appear grey and amorphous to the naked eye and microscopy reveals discontinuous and disorganised collagen fibres that lack reflectivity under polarised light. This is associated with an increase in the amount of mucoid ground substance, which is confirmed with Alcian blue stain. At sites of maximal mucoid change, tenocytes, when present, are plump and chondroid in appearance (exaggerated fibrocartilaginous metaplasia). These changes are accompanied by the increasingly conspicuous presence of cells within the tendon tissue, most of which have a fibroblastic or myofibroblastic appearance (smooth muscle actin is demonstrated using an avidin biotin technique). Maximal cellular proliferation is accompanied by prominent capillary proliferation and a tendency for discontinuity of collagen fibres in this area. Often, there is an abrupt discontinuity of both vascular and myofibroblastic proliferation immediately adjacent to the area of greatest abnormality. The most significant feature is the absence of inflammatory cells. These observations confirm that the histopathological findings in athletes with overuse tendinopathies are

  4. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  5. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  6. Mining histopathological images via composite hashing and online learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yang, Lin; Liu, Wei; Su, Hai; Zhang, Shaoting

    2014-01-01

    With a continuous growing amount of annotated histopathological images, large-scale and data-driven methods potentially provide the promise of bridging the semantic gap between these images and their diagnoses. The purpose of this paper is to increase the scale at which automated systems can entail scalable analysis of histopathological images in massive databases. Specifically, we propose a principled framework to unify hashing-based image retrieval and supervised learning. Concretely, composite hashing is designed to simultaneously fuse and compress multiple high-dimensional image features into tens of binary hash bits, enabling scalable image retrieval with a very low computational cost. Upon a local data subset that retains the retrieved images, supervised learning methods are applied on-the-fly to model image structures for accurate classification. Our framework is validated thoroughly on 1120 lung microscopic tissue images by differentiating adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The average accuracy as 87.5% with only 17ms running time, which compares favorably with other commonly used methods.

  7. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05).

  8. Breast Histopathological Image Retrieval Based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibing; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Xie, Fengying; Zheng, Yushan; Shi, Huaqiang; Zhao, Yu

    2016-09-20

    In the field of pathology, whole slide image (WSI) has become the major carrier of visual and diagnostic information. Content based image retrieval among WSIs can aid the diagnosis of an unknown pathological image by finding its similar regions in WSIs with diagnostic information. However, the huge size and complex content of WSI pose several challenges for retrieval. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised, accurate and fast retrieval method for breast histopathological image. Specifically, the method presents local statistical feature of nuclei for morphology and distribution of nuclei, and employs Gabor feature to describe texture information. Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is utilized for high-level semantic mining. Locality- Sensitive Hashing is used to speed up the search. Experiments on a WSI database with over 8000 images from 15 types of breast histopathology demonstrate that our method achieves about 0.9 retrieval precision as well as promising efficiency. Based on the proposed framework, we are developing a search engine for an online digital slide browsing and retrieval platform, which can be applied in computer-aided diagnosis, pathology education, WSI archiving and management.

  9. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits: Serological screening and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Giovanni; Ricci, Emanuele; Cantile, Carlo; Mannella, Riccardo; Mancianti, Francesca; Paci, Gisella; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Perrucci, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in 129/183 (70.5%) analysed sera. At statistical analysis, E. cuniculi seropositivity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in industrial and zoo rabbits. At histology, different degrees of pathological lesions were found in serological positive (9) deceased animals. In three rabbits deceased after showing neurological signs, the severity of the lesions was interpreted as a likely cause for their death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating IPMN and pancreatic carcinoma utilizing quantitative histopathology.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Evan S; Zhang, Hao Helen; Hill, Kimberly A; Patel, Charmi; Kha, Stephanie T; Yozwiak, Michael L; Bartels, Hubert; Nafissi, Nellie N; Watkins, Joseph C; Alberts, David S; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are pancreatic lesions with uncertain biologic behavior. This study sought objective, accurate prediction tools, through the use of quantitative histopathological signatures of nuclear images, for classifying lesions as chronic pancreatitis (CP), IPMN, or pancreatic carcinoma (PC). Forty-four pancreatic resection patients were retrospectively identified for this study (12 CP; 16 IPMN; 16 PC). Regularized multinomial regression quantitatively classified each specimen as CP, IPMN, or PC in an automated, blinded fashion. Classification certainty was determined by subtracting the smallest classification probability from the largest probability (of the three groups). The certainty function varied from 1.0 (perfectly classified) to 0.0 (random). From each lesion, 180 ± 22 nuclei were imaged. Overall classification accuracy was 89.6% with six unique nuclear features. No CP cases were misclassified, 1/16 IPMN cases were misclassified, and 4/16 PC cases were misclassified. Certainty function was 0.75 ± 0.16 for correctly classified lesions and 0.47 ± 0.10 for incorrectly classified lesions (P = 0.0005). Uncertainty was identified in four of the five misclassified lesions. Quantitative histopathology provides a robust, novel method to distinguish among CP, IPMN, and PC with a quantitative measure of uncertainty. This may be useful when there is uncertainty in diagnosis.

  11. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; EL-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  12. Histopathology of explanted AlphaCor due to keratoprosthesis extrusion.

    PubMed

    Caporossi, Aldo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Occhini, Rossella; Toti, Paolo; Traversi, Claudio

    2006-07-01

    AlphaCor keratoprosthesis (KPro) is a new-concept poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) one-piece KPro that makes possible a two-step implantation technique easy to perform with a short learning curve. In literature an 18% incidence of AlphaCor removal due to melting complications is reported. The histopathology of corneal tissue removed during a re-operation while bearing an AlphaCor KPro has previously been described in the literature only in one report. Herein, the first histological features of an AlphaCor-corneal complex explanted because of KPro extrusion is described. The histopathology of the AlphaCor-corneal complex is characterized by mild inflammation in the corneal tissues, limited to the region surrounding the anteriorized and extruded part of the KPro. It is not possible to fully understand the mechanisms that trigger the device extrusion. One possible explanation could be a dislocation of the prosthesis in the corneal pocket due to the untied fixation stitch. Another explanation could be a foreign body reaction induced by KPro.

  13. Histopathology and enhanced detection of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Tumor invasion of the peritoneal membrane may have an adverse prognostic significance, but its histopathologic features can be diagnostically difficult to recognize. We observed that local peritoneal injury associated with tumor invasion is characterized by activation and proliferation of serosal stromal cells that express cytokeratin, a characteristic property of injured serosal membranes that may have diagnostic utility. To explore this, we examined 120 primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system using cytokeratin and elastic stains to assess for tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes. Peritoneal invasion by tumor was associated with retraction, splaying, and destruction of the elastic lamina and proliferation of keratin-expressing stromal cells of serosal membranes. All 82 peritoneal invasive tumors were characterized by neoplastic cells that invaded the elastic lamina and the serosal connective tissue with neoplastic cells that abutted or were surrounded by keratin-positive stromal cells, whereas all 38 tumors limited to the subserosa showed none of these features. The diagnosis of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes is enhanced by the combined use of cytokeratin and elastic stains, which in turn would enable better histopathologic correlation with patient treatment and outcome. PMID:28282462

  14. Molecular transplantation pathology: the interface between molecules and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Han R; Sis, Banu

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, high-throughput molecular screening methods have revolutionized the transplantation research. This article reviews the new knowledge that has emerged from transplant patient sample-derived 'omics data by examining the interface between molecular signals and allograft pathology. State-of-the-art molecular studies have shed light on the biology of organ transplant diseases and provided several potential molecular tests with diagnostic, prognostic, and theranostic applications for the implementation of personalized medicine in transplantation. By comprehensive molecular profiling of patient samples, we have learned numerous new insights into the effector mechanisms and parenchymal response during allograft diseases. It has become evident that molecular profiles are coordinated and move in patterns similar to histopathology lesions, and therefore lack qualitative specificity. However, molecular tests can empower precision diagnosis and prognostication through their objective and quantitative manner when they are integrated in a holistic approach with histopathology and clinical factors of patients. Despite clever science and large amounts of public money invested in transplant 'omics studies, multiparametric molecular testing has not yet been translated to patient care. There are serious challenges in the implementation of transplant molecular diagnostics that have increased frustration in transplant community. We appeal for a full collaboration between pathologists and researchers to accelerate transition from research to clinical practice in transplantation.

  15. Histopathological and genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in rats.

    PubMed

    Ezzi, Lobna; Belhadj Salah, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Sakly, Amina; Grissa, Intissar; Chakroun, Sana; Kerkeni, Emna; Hassine, Mohsen; Mehdi, Meriem; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos's sub-acute exposure on male rats. Two groups with six animals each were orally treated, respectively, with 3.1 mg/kg b w and 6.2 mg/kg b w of chlorpyrifos during 4 weeks. The genotoxic effect of chlopyrifos was investigated using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Some hematological and liver's histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results revealed that chlorpyrifos induced histopathological alterations in liver parenchyma. The lymphoid infiltration observed in liver sections and the increase in white blood cells parameter are signs of inflammation. A significant increase in the platelet' count and in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio was observed in chlorpyrifos-treated groups which could be due to the stimulatory effect of chlorpyrifos on cell formation in the bone marrow at lower doses. In addition, the increase of bone marrow micronucleus percentage and the comet tail length revealed a genotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos in vivo.

  16. Molluscum-like cutaneous cryptococcosis: a histopathological and pathogenetic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Calonje, Eduardo; Sing, Yetish; Chotey, Nivesh A; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2008-11-01

    Molluscum-like cutaneous cryptococcosis (MLCC) is characterized by hypopigmented or skin-colored papules with central umbilication. The histomorphological nuances of Cryptococcus neoformans infection that effect mimicry of molluscum contagiosum are undocumented. This histopathological study was undertaken to assess the histopathological characteristics of MLCC and to determine potential evolutionary pathogenetic mechanisms and significance. A 5-year retrospective re-appraisal of cutaneous cryptococcosis biopsies with a clinical molluscum-like appearance. All 26 specimens with a molluscum-like appearance showed a dome-shaped architecture with central invagination and dermal C. neoformans of varying size and shape, with capsular fragmentation; 20 biopsies had a paucireactive appearance and 6 combined granulomatous and paucireactive foci. Twenty, two and four biopsies showed transepidermal, transfollicular and combined transepidermal and transfollicular elimination (TFE) of fungi, necrobiotic collagen and debris through the central invagination, respectively. Subepithelial neutrophils and collagen necrobiosis were identified in 8 and 14 cases each, respectively. Varying sized and shaped yeasts, capsules of varying width, capsular fragmentation and collagen necrobiosis were ultrastructurally confirmed. Transepithelial and TFE of C. neoformans, necrobiotic collagen, inflammatory cells and cellular debris account for the morphological attributes of MLCC. The eliminatory process is a potential public health hazard, serving as a vehicle for C. neoformans transfer to the exterior.

  17. Primary mucinous carcinoma with direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    PubMed

    Warycha, Melanie; Kamino, Hideko; Mobini, Narciss; Hale, Elizabeth K

    2006-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare sweat gland neoplasm which occurs most commonly in the periorbital region. Although the tumor has a propensity for local recurrence and regional spread, distant metastases are rare. The standard treatment of primary mucinous carcinoma is wide local excision. Mohs micrographic surgery may also be utilized in cases where tissue conservation is of utmost concern. We present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma arising in the scalp, which was treated with wide local excision. A case report and literature review are presented. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed neoplasm characterized by lobules and aggregates of epithelial cells embedded in abundant pools of mucin. In addition, small aggregates of neoplastic cells were found at a distance from the primary nodule, indicative of lymphatic invasion. Primary mucinous carcinoma has a high propensity for locoregional metastases and recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion which correlates with this tumor's biologic behavior.

  18. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  19. Histopathology and enhanced detection of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jey-Hsin; Borges, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Tumor invasion of the peritoneal membrane may have an adverse prognostic significance, but its histopathologic features can be diagnostically difficult to recognize. We observed that local peritoneal injury associated with tumor invasion is characterized by activation and proliferation of serosal stromal cells that express cytokeratin, a characteristic property of injured serosal membranes that may have diagnostic utility. To explore this, we examined 120 primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system using cytokeratin and elastic stains to assess for tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes. Peritoneal invasion by tumor was associated with retraction, splaying, and destruction of the elastic lamina and proliferation of keratin-expressing stromal cells of serosal membranes. All 82 peritoneal invasive tumors were characterized by neoplastic cells that invaded the elastic lamina and the serosal connective tissue with neoplastic cells that abutted or were surrounded by keratin-positive stromal cells, whereas all 38 tumors limited to the subserosa showed none of these features. The diagnosis of tumor invasion of peritoneal membranes is enhanced by the combined use of cytokeratin and elastic stains, which in turn would enable better histopathologic correlation with patient treatment and outcome.

  20. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  1. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  2. Sclerosing adenosis: Ultrasonographic and mammographic findings and correlation with histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Chen, Jia-Jian; Chang, Cai; Gao, Yi; Wu, Jiong; Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Ya-Jia

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the radiological findings, particularly the ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of sclerosing adenosis (SA), and their correlation with histopathological results. A retrospective review identified 191 patients with a total of 200 lesions histopathologically confirmed as SA following breast surgery between July 2009 and December 2012. Of the 191 patients, 145 (151 lesions) with SA as the major component were included for US and mammographic (MG) analysis. All 145 patients analyzed were female, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 46.8±7.8 years (range, 25–71 years). All 145 patients underwent US examination and the imaging findings included heterogeneously echogenic areas in 9.3% (14/151), masses in 51.7% (78/151), masses with calcifications in 13.9% (21/151), focal acoustic shadowing in 4.0% (6/151) and were negative in 21.2% (32/151) patients. Among the 119 lesions with visible abnormalities, 87.4% (104/119) were hypoechoic, 58.0% (69/119) were irregular in shape, 52.1% (62/119) had an ill-defined margin, calcifications were found in 17.6% (21/119) and 7.6% (9/119) were hypervascular, while none of the characteristics mentioned above were significantly correlated with histopathology. A total of 136 patients underwent MG at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, and the imaging findings included microcalcifications in 31.6% (43/136), masses in 23.5% (32/136), asymmetric focal density in 14.7% (20/136), focal architectural distortion in 22.8% (31/136), and were negative in 7.4% (10/136). The mass lesions were fewer on MG compared with US (23.5 vs. 65.6%, respectively). The area under the curve of US distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions was significantly larger compared with that of MG (0.547 vs. 0.497, respectively; P=0.036). In the 60 lesions that were overestimated by Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System US category, one or more characteristics of malignancy were found on US imaging. The

  3. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  4. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  5. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  6. The January Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Glenn F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The January aspect of college administration refers to the Roman god Janus, who was capable of looking forward and backward simultaneously. It is applied to academic deans who must look toward both administrative superiors and subordinates, and the same two-directional interface is imposed on presidents, department chairmen, professors, and…

  7. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  8. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  9. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis: a histopathological study of nine cases from Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, P J; Hutt, M S

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and histopathological features of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in nine patients from Malawi are presented. The patients had varied clinical presentations and microscopically, in each case, there was a subcutaneous abscess or cystic granuloma. In seven cases (78%) the causative fungal elements were easily identified in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The fungal elements were easily identified in the other two cases with special fungus stains. The misleading terminology, which was used previously to cover this infection, is discussed. Even though this paper reports on this disease in a tropical country, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis occurs world wide, and these fungi should be looked for in otherwise unexplained subcutaneous abscesses or cystic granulomata. Images PMID:3973053

  10. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of histopathologic and cytopathologic examination of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; Hazen, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of histopatho-logic and cytopathologic examination (HCE) of Aspergillus species (spp), we performed an 11-year retrospective review to correlate surgical/cytology cases with a diagnosis of Aspergillus spp with their concurrent fungal culture results. Diagnostic accuracy was defined as the percentage of cases with culture-proven Aspergillus spp divided by the number of cases diagnosed as Aspergillus spp on HCE that had growth on fungal culture. Ninety surgical/cytology cases with concurrent fungal culture were reviewed, 58 of which grew a fungal organism. Of these 58 cases, 45 grew an Aspergillus spp, whereas 13 grew an organism other than Aspergillus spp, including both common (Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Paecilomyces spp) and uncommon mimickers (Trichosporon loubieri), resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The low diagnostic accuracy indicates that several fungal organisms can morphologically mimic Aspergillus spp and can only be distinguished by fungal culture and DNA sequencing.

  12. Dowling-Degos disease: classic clinical and histopathological presentation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Carolina Cotta; Sforza, Deborah; Macedo, Priscila Marques de; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Alves, Maria de Fatima G S; Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da S

    2011-01-01

    Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is a rare genetic disease of the skin (reticulate pigmented anomaly), clinically characterized by flexural brown pigmented reticulate macules, comedo-like papules on the back, neck and pitted perioral or facial scars. We present the case of a 51 year-old man with macrocomedo-like lesions, pitted scars, cysts, hyperpigmented macules in his back, chest, axillae, neck, groin and face. The patient reported having two children, three brothers and a father with a similar condition. The histopathology of the skin biopsies was very characteristic of Dowling-Degos disease, showing dilated follicular, fingerlike projections called rete ridges (dermal pegs), with thinning of the suprapapillary plates, resulting in an "antler-like" pattern and increased pigmentation of the basal layer.

  13. Histopathological study of spinal meningioma originating from the arachnoid villi.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Morii, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Maki; Hori, Yumiko; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Umegaki, Masao; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-02-01

    Although the histogenesis of meningiomas remains unclear, it is believed that arachnoid cells are the most likely origin of this type of neoplasm. Further, little attention has been paid to the histopathology of spinal meningiomas arising from the arachnoid villi. We came across a case of spinal meningioma that was locally attached to the arachnoid membrane. The associated arachnoid villi were investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. We confirmed the presence of tumor cells under the fibrous capsule that forms the outer component of the arachnoid villi. Tumor cells grew out from the apical portion of the arachnoid villi. Furthermore, immunohistochemical study suggested that arachnoid cells made the transition to tumor cells on the arachnoid cell layer.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: fundus changes and histopathologic correlations.

    PubMed

    De Laey, J J; Hanssens, M; Colette, P; Geerts, L; Priem, H

    1983-12-15

    This paper describes the fundus changes in 2 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). In both cases the ocular involvement preceded the neurological symptoms by several months. In one patient a localized serous detachment in the macular region was associated with retinal infiltrates and in the second patient an atypical unilateral macular chorioretinitis was first diagnosed. The diagnosis of SSPE was suspected when neurological signs appeared and it was confirmed by the typical EEG changes and especially by the high titers of measles antibodies in serum and CSF. The affected left eye of the second patient could be studied histopathologically and presented mainly pigment epithelial changes at the level of the scar, edema of the external plexiform layer, retinal folds and a detachment and rupture of the internal limiting membrane.

  15. Histopathology of the inner ear relevant to cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Joseph B; Eddington, Donald K

    2006-01-01

    The most common forms of severe hearing loss and deafness are related to morphological changes in the cochlea. Many individuals with such forms of hearing disorders have received cochlear implants. It has been assumed that preservation of spiral ganglion cells is important for success of cochlear implants. Preservation of ganglion cells is negatively correlated with the duration of the hearing loss. It has, however, not been possible to reveal a relationship between the degree of survival of spiral ganglion cells and performance of cochlear implants. It is important to understand the histopathological changes that follow cochlear implantation. Insertion of cochlear implants may cause trauma to the basilar membrane, the spiral lamina, and the spiral ligament. Rupture of the basilar membrane may occur. Over time, new bone forms at the cochleostomy and along the implant track. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate the causes of variability of behavioral measures of performance.

  16. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  17. A histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Salazar-Rodríguez, Sirced; Bedoya-Borella, Ana María; Carreón-Burciaga, Ramón Gil; Tapia-Repetto, Gabriel; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD) is considered a mixed odontogenic tumor that is characterized by conserved epithelial and ectomesenchymal neoplastic components. AFD is composed of long narrow cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium; the epithelial strands lie in a myxoid cell-rich ectomesenchymal tissue with stellate-shaped fibroblasts that exhibit long slender cytoplasmic extensions that resemble dental papilla. The lesions show the presence of dysplastic dentin. Although AFD is a rare entity and its very existence is not completely accepted, based on the extent of histodifferentiation, it is considered to represent a stage between ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. This study aimed to provide a histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of this infrequent tumor. A large panel of antibodies including amelogenin, Ck 19, calretinin, syndecan-1, E-cadherin, MSH2, histone H3, and Ki-67 was used to illustrate the nature of the tumor.

  18. A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Salazar-Rodríguez, Sirced; Bedoya-Borella, Ana María; Carreón-Burciaga, Ramón Gil; Tapia-Repetto, Gabriel; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD) is considered a mixed odontogenic tumor that is characterized by conserved epithelial and ectomesenchymal neoplastic components. AFD is composed of long narrow cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium; the epithelial strands lie in a myxoid cell-rich ectomesenchymal tissue with stellate-shaped fibroblasts that exhibit long slender cytoplasmic extensions that resemble dental papilla. The lesions show the presence of dysplastic dentin. Although AFD is a rare entity and its very existence is not completely accepted, based on the extent of histodifferentiation, it is considered to represent a stage between ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. This study aimed to provide a histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of this infrequent tumor. A large panel of antibodies including amelogenin, Ck 19, calretinin, syndecan-1, E-cadherin, MSH2, histone H3, and Ki-67 was used to illustrate the nature of the tumor. PMID:23476862

  19. Ultrasound, x-ray mammography, and histopathology of cystosarcoma phylloides

    SciTech Connect

    Cole-Beuglet, C.; Soriano, R.; Kurtz, A.B.; Meyer, J.E.; Kopans, D.B.; Goldberg, B.B.

    1983-02-01

    Ultrasound and x-ray mammograms were obtained in 8 patients with palpable breast masses, which were subsequently proven to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Histopathologic examination of the 8 tumors showed benign cystosarcoma phylloides in 5, recurrent benign tumor in 1, coexistent invasive papillary carcinoma in 1, and coexistent in situ duct cancer and in situ lobular cancer in 1. A retrospective review of the B-scan images was undertaken to list the descriptive ultrasound features of cystosarcoma phylloides. The ultrasound findings included low-level internal echoes, smooth walls, and good through transmission. The carcinomas were indistinguishable from the benign lesions, although ultrasound was able to distinguish the cystosarcoma phylloides lesions as predominantly solid lobulated masses.

  20. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes associated with herpesvirus infection in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Francisco J; Sánchez-Cordón, Pedro J; Núñez, Alejandro; Gómez-Villamandos, José C

    2002-04-01

    Duck virus enteritis is an acute contagious viral disease affecting birds of the order Anseriformes (ducks, geese and swans). The disease agent is a member of the Herpesviridae family (Anatidae herpes virus 1). A group of Anseriformes waterfowl from a Nature Reserve and Centre for the Recovery of Endangered Species in Spain suffered an outbreak of the disease, affecting adults, young and newborns. Other non-Anseriformes waterfowl such as coots, from the family Rallidae, order Gruiformes, were also affected. Histopathological and ultrastructural findings confirmed the viral infection. The present study provides evidence that birds different from the order Anseriformes can be affected, suggesting that the virus has the ability to infest other non-Anseriformes waterfows.

  1. Polyganglioradiculoneuritis in a young cat: clinical and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Henke, D; Vandevelde, M; Oevermann, A

    2009-05-01

    An 18-month-old European shorthair cat was presented with a two week history of progressive decrease in consciousness, ambulatory tetraparesis, moderate ataxia and generalised decreased-to-absent postural reactions. Bilateral facial and nasal hypalgesia, absent menace response and anisocoria were found, and segmental spinal reflexes were normal. Neurological signs progressed to nonambulatory tetraparesis, tremor and spinal hyperalgesia. Histopathological examination revealed a mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltration, predominantly in the dorsal spinal roots, cranial nerves and ganglia in association with marked demyelination and proliferation of Schwann cells. Neurons and axons were preserved. Lesions were multi-focal and varied in severity. A predominantly sensory polyganglioradiculoneuritis was diagnosed. This lesion has not been reported previously in cats. Rabies, herpesviruses, feline infectious peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline leukaemia virus were excluded as possible aetiologies. Infections by other viruses or an autoimmune disease are discussed.

  2. Molecular Histopathology by Spectrally Reconstructed Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Praveen D.; Jiang, Zhi; Chaney, Eric J.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Marks, Daniel L.; Gruebele, Martin; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for rapid quantitative analysis of histologic sections, resected tissue specimens, or in situ tissue are highly desired for early disease diagnosis. Stained histopathology is the gold standard but remains a subjective practice on processed tissue taking from hours to days. We describe a microscopy technique that obtains a sensitive and accurate color-coded image from intrinsic molecular markers. Spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging can differentiate cancer versus normal tissue sections with greater than 99% confidence interval in a preclinical rat breast cancer model and define cancer boundaries to ±100 μm with greater than 99% confidence interval, using fresh unstained tissue sections imaged in less than 5 minutes. By optimizing optical sources and beam delivery, this technique can potentially enable real-time point-of-care optical molecular imaging and diagnosis. PMID:21098699

  3. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization, and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well-accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods were developed historically, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time and labor intensive. Here we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic crystal fiber source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate collection of optical signatures of the tumor microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumor cell migration, and (lymph-)angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  4. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  5. Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    King, N. W.; Hunt, R. D.; Letvin, N. L.

    1983-01-01

    The authors recently described the clinical course of an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in a colony of macaque monkeys. In the present study, they have reviewed the histopathology of tissues obtained from a cohort of 16 animals with this clinical syndrome at necropsy. They found evidence in these animals of several opportunistic infections, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), simian virus 40 (SV-40), and noma. Furthermore, a number of other unusual pathologic processes were noted. In 4 animals an array of lymphoproliferative disorders was observed, ranging from multiple nodules of lymphocytes in the kidney, liver, and bone marrow, to frank lymphoma. Evidence of retroperitoneal fibrosis was found in 3 of the animals. Finally, amyloidosis was observed in several animals; in two instances it was present only in the mucosa of the small intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6316791

  6. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization, and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well-accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods were developed historically, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time and labor intensive. Here we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic crystal fiber source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate collection of optical signatures of the tumor microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumor cell migration, and (lymph-)angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use. PMID:27668009

  7. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  8. Histopathological and immunohistochemical features of drug-induced exanthems.

    PubMed

    Lisi, P; Pelliccia, S; Bellini, V

    2014-04-01

    Exanthematic eruptions, together with urticaria-angioedema syndrome and fixed drug eruption, are the most frequent cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Among the drug-induced exanthems (DIEs), erythematous maculopapular eruptions are the most common. Their management, especially when retrospective, is often not easy, and it is based on the use of clinical criteria, history, results of some laboratory tests, drug elimination test, skin tests, and oral challenge test. The superficial perivascular and spongiotic dermatitis, which is the prevalent histopathological features of DIEs, is not very useful in the differential diagnosis with virus- and bacteria-induced exanthems (VBIEs). On the contrary, some immune-histochemical findings (interleukin-5 overexpression, concomitant enhancement of perforin, interleukin-5, and granzyme B production, positivity for fatty acid synthase-ligand-L in amoxicillin-induced exanthems) seem to be more important. These data justifie the inclusion of DIEs in the subtypes IVb and IVc of delayed hypersensitivity reactions.

  9. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  10. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  11. Treatment and histopathology of a congenital vitreous cyst.

    PubMed

    Nork, T M; Millecchia, L L

    1998-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of a congenital vitreous cyst and to examine the cyst histopathologically to determine its cellular makeup and possible origin. The study design was a case report, including a clinicopathologic correlation. A 35-year-old woman with a known vitreous cyst since childhood became increasingly troubled by its symptoms. The cyst was treated initially with argon laser photocoagulation. Vitrectomy subsequently was performed because the deflated cyst remained near the visual axis. Histopathologic studies included light and electron microscopy; immunocytochemistry for actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); and enzyme histochemistry for carbonic anhydrase (CA). The cyst was composed of a single layer of heavily pigmented cells with a thick basement membrane along the internal borders of the cells. Ultrastructurally, the cells were connected with tight junctions, had microvillous processes at their apices, and contained numerous large melanosomes in various stages of maturity, including premelanosomes. Immunochemistry showed the cells were positive for actin but negative for GFAP. Enzyme histochemical staining for CA also was strongly positive. The confinement of this cyst to the region of Cloquet's canal, the presence of a Mittendorf's dot, the cyst's existence for many years, and the finding of pigment epithelial-type cells having immature melanosomes (a feature not seen after birth in normal pigment epithelium) lead the authors to believe that this cyst was a congenital remnant of the primary hyaloidal system. Because pigmented cells are not normally present in this part of the eye, the cyst was a choristoma of the primary hyaloidal system.

  12. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AUDIT OF HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SETTING.

    PubMed

    Hoosain, A; Luvhengo, T E; Mitchell, C; Schamm, M

    2017-06-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder. Parathyroidectomy is indicated for primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid adenoma is the cause in close to 85% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. An audit based on histopathology records of patients who had parathyroidectomy from January 2011 to December 2015 in academic hospitals linked to Wits was conducted. Data collected included patients' demographics and histopathological findings. Categorical data was expressed in number and percentage whereas the mean or median if appropriate was used for continuous data. Chi-square test was used for comparison and a p-value was set at less than 0.05 for significance. The study was partly done by GEMP 3 students and permission to conduct the study was received from HREC at Wits (M160477). A total of 69 records were found of which 67.6% (46/68) were females. Average age for females was 55.0 years (range 25-83) whereas for males was 60.0 years (25-80). Parathyroid adenoma was reported in 75.4% and 69.6% of specimen from females and males, respectively. In 1.5% (1/86) the resected parathyroid was reported to be normal. Concomitant thyroidectomy was done in 17.4% (8/46) of specimens from females and 8.7% (2/23) from males. Male patients with hyperparathyroidism present at younger age compared to females. Fewer than expected parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism are being performed in the Wits circuit. The commonest findings following parathyroidectomy is parathyroid adenoma. No case of parathyroid cancer was reported. Concomitant thyroidectomy is likely in females.

  13. Learning semantic histopathological representation for basal cell carcinoma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of a histopathology glass slide is a complex process that involves accurate recognition of several structures, their function in the tissue and their relation with other structures. The way in which the pathologist represents the image content and the relations between those objects yields a better and accurate diagnoses. Therefore, an appropriate semantic representation of the image content will be useful in several analysis tasks such as cancer classification, tissue retrieval and histopahological image analysis, among others. Nevertheless, to automatically recognize those structures and extract their inner semantic meaning are still very challenging tasks. In this paper we introduce a new semantic representation that allows to describe histopathological concepts suitable for classification. The approach herein identify local concepts using a dictionary learning approach, i.e., the algorithm learns the most representative atoms from a set of random sampled patches, and then models the spatial relations among them by counting the co-occurrence between atoms, while penalizing the spatial distance. The proposed approach was compared with a bag-of-features representation in a tissue classification task. For this purpose, 240 histological microscopical fields of view, 24 per tissue class, were collected. Those images fed a Support Vector Machine classifier per class, using 120 images as train set and the remaining ones for testing, maintaining the same proportion of each concept in the train and test sets. The obtained classification results, averaged from 100 random partitions of training and test sets, shows that our approach is more sensitive in average than the bag-of-features representation in almost 6%.

  14. Explicit shape descriptors: Novel morphologic features for histopathology classification

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Rachel; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Object morphology, defined as shape and size characteristics, observed on medical imagery is often an important marker for disease presence and/or aggressiveness. In the context of prostate cancer histopathology, gland morphology is an integral component of the Gleason grading system which enables discrimination between low and high grade disease. However, clinicians are often unable to distinguish between subtle differences in object morphology, as evidenced by high inter-observer variability in Gleason grading. Boundary-based morphologic descriptors, such as the variance in the distance from points on the boundary of an object to its center, may not have the requisite discriminability to separate objects with subtle shape differences. In this paper, we present a set of novel explicit shape descriptors (ESDs) which are capable of distinguishing subtle shape differences between prostate glands of intermediate Gleason grades (grades 3 and 4) on prostate cancer histopathology. Calculation of ESDs involves: (1) representing object morphology using an explicit shape model (e.g. medial axis); (2) aligning the shape models via a non-rigid registration scheme with a diffeomorphic constraint and quantifying shape model dissimilarity; and (3) applying a non-linear dimensionality reduction scheme (e.g. Graph Embedding) to learn a low dimensional projection encoding the shape differences between objects. ESDs are hence the principal eigenvectors in the reduced embedding space. In this work we demonstrate that ESDs in conjunction with a Support Vector Machine classifier are able to correctly distinguish between 888 prostate glands corresponding to different Gleason grades (benign, grade 3, or grade 4) of prostate cancer from 58 needle biopsy specimens with a maximum accuracy of 0.89 and corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78. PMID:23850744

  15. Gill histopathologies following exposure to nanosilver or silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Adam D; Thornton, Cammi; Kennedy, Alan J; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James; Jones, Bradley W; Steevens, Jeffery A; Willett, Kristine L

    2015-01-01

    Fish gill is the site for many crucial physiological functions. It is among the first sites of xenobiotic exposure, and gill histopathological alterations may be detected soon after toxicant exposure. Silver (Ag) is one of the most toxic metals to aquatic organisms mainly due to its ability to disrupt ionic regulation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of ionic and nanoscale Ag on fathead minnow gills by examining gill histology and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. Fathead minnows were exposed to two measured concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3: 1.3 or 3.7 μg/L as Ag(+)), citrate silver nanoparticles (citrate-AgNP: 15 or 39 μg/L), and polyvinylpyrrolidone-AgNP (PVP-AgNP) (AgNP: 11 or 50 μg/L). Circulatory disturbances were the most prevalent gill alterations detected and were significantly increased in all Ag treatment groups compared to control. AgNO3 (1.3 μg/L) was the only treatment that significantly elevated the number of total mucous goblet cells present. In all other Ag treatments, the percent of degenerated goblet cells was significantly increased compared to control. When the sum of all histopathological abnormalities (weighted index) was calculated, all Ag groups displayed a significantly higher index, with citrate-AgNP having the highest toxicity (index of 10 ± 0.32 versus 2.4 ± 0.6 in controls). Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was decreased by Ag. These results indicated that both AgNO3 and AgNP created similar disruptions in gill structure and ionic regulation, possibly due to the ionic Ag portion of each treatment.

  16. Stain Specific Standardization of Whole-Slide Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Litjens, Geert; Timofeeva, Nadya; Otte-Höller, Irene; Homeyer, André; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M

    2016-02-01

    Variations in the color and intensity of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological slides can potentially hamper the effectiveness of quantitative image analysis. This paper presents a fully automated algorithm for standardization of whole-slide histopathological images to reduce the effect of these variations. The proposed algorithm, called whole-slide image color standardizer (WSICS), utilizes color and spatial information to classify the image pixels into different stain components. The chromatic and density distributions for each of the stain components in the hue-saturation-density color model are aligned to match the corresponding distributions from a template whole-slide image (WSI). The performance of the WSICS algorithm was evaluated on two datasets. The first originated from 125 H&E stained WSIs of lymph nodes, sampled from 3 patients, and stained in 5 different laboratories on different days of the week. The second comprised 30 H&E stained WSIs of rat liver sections. The result of qualitative and quantitative evaluations using the first dataset demonstrate that the WSICS algorithm outperforms competing methods in terms of achieving color constancy. The WSICS algorithm consistently yields the smallest standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the normalized median intensity measure. Using the second dataset, we evaluated the impact of our algorithm on the performance of an already published necrosis quantification system. The performance of this system was significantly improved by utilizing the WSICS algorithm. The results of the empirical evaluations collectively demonstrate the potential contribution of the proposed standardization algorithm to improved diagnostic accuracy and consistency in computer-aided diagnosis for histopathology data.

  17. Visually Meaningful Histopathological Features for Automatic Grading of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Niazi, M Khalid Khan; Keluo Yao; Zynger, Debra L; Clinton, Steven K; Chen, James; Koyuturk, Mehmet; LaFramboise, Thomas; Gurcan, Metin

    2017-07-01

    Histopathologic features, particularly Gleason grading system, have contributed significantly to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of prostate cancer for decades. However, prostate cancer demonstrates enormous heterogeneity in biological behavior, thus establishing improved prognostic and predictive markers is particularly important to personalize therapy of men with clinically localized and newly diagnosed malignancy. Many automated grading systems have been developed for Gleason grading but acceptance in the medical community has been lacking due to poor interpretability. To overcome this problem, we developed a set of visually meaningful features to differentiate between low- and high-grade prostate cancer. The visually meaningful feature set consists of luminal and architectural features. For luminal features, we compute: 1) the shortest path from the nuclei to their closest luminal spaces; 2) ratio of the epithelial nuclei to the total number of nuclei. A nucleus is considered an epithelial nucleus if the shortest path between it and the luminal space does not contain any other nucleus; 3) average shortest distance of all nuclei to their closest luminal spaces. For architectural features, we compute directional changes in stroma and nuclei using directional filter banks. These features are utilized to create two subspaces; one for prostate images histopathologically assessed as low grade and the other for high grade. The grade associated with a subspace, which results in the minimum reconstruction error is considered as the prediction for the test image. For training, we utilized 43 regions of interest (ROI) images, which were extracted from 25 prostate whole slide images of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. For testing, we utilized an independent dataset of 88 ROIs extracted from 30 prostate whole slide images. The method resulted in 93.0% and 97.6% training and testing accuracies, respectively, for the spectrum of cases considered. The

  18. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Danielle L; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Tawa, Gregory J; Baer, Christine E; Permenter, Matthew G; McDyre, Bonna C; Dennis, William E; Boyle, Molly H; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Streicker, Michael A; Snowden, Bobbi S; Lewis, John A; Wallqvist, Anders; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals induce liver injury, which is difficult to diagnose without invasive procedures. Identifying indicators of end organ injury can complement exposure-based assays and improve predictive power. A multiplexed approach was used to experimentally evaluate a panel of 67 genes predicted to be associated with the fibrosis pathology by computationally mining DrugMatrix, a publicly available repository of gene microarray data. Five-day oral gavage studies in male Sprague Dawley rats dosed with varying concentrations of 3 fibrogenic compounds (allyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, and 4,4'-methylenedianiline) and 2 nonfibrogenic compounds (bromobenzene and dexamethasone) were conducted. Fibrosis was definitively diagnosed by histopathology. The 67-plex gene panel accurately diagnosed fibrosis in both microarray and multiplexed-gene expression assays. Necrosis and inflammatory infiltration were comorbid with fibrosis. ANOVA with contrasts identified that 51 of the 67 predicted genes were significantly associated with the fibrosis phenotype, with 24 of these specific to fibrosis alone. The protein product of the gene most strongly correlated with the fibrosis phenotype PCOLCE (Procollagen C-Endopeptidase Enhancer) was dose-dependently elevated in plasma from animals administered fibrogenic chemicals (P < .05). Semiquantitative global mass spectrometry analysis of the plasma identified an additional 5 protein products of the gene panel which increased after fibrogenic toxicant administration: fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, vitronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, and α2-macroglobulin. These results support the data mining approach for identifying gene and/or protein panels for assessing liver injury and may suggest bridging biomarkers for molecular mediators linked to histopathology.

  19. Multimodal optical analysis of meningioma and comparison with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Marc; Poulon, Fanny; Varlet, Pascale; Chretien, Fabrice; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Pages, Mélanie; Ibrahim, Ali; Pallud, Johan; Dezamis, Edouard; Abi-Lahoud, Georges; Nataf, François; Turak, Baris; Devaux, Bertrand; Abi-Haidar, Darine

    2017-02-01

    Meningioma is the most frequent primary central nervous system tumor. The risk of recurrence and the prognosis are correlated with the extent of the resection that ideally encompasses the infiltrated dura mater and, if required, the infiltrated bone. No device can deliver real-time intraoperative histopathological information on the tumor environment to help the neurosurgeon to achieve a gross total removal. This study assessed the abilities of nonlinear microscopy to provide relevant and real-time data to help resection of meningiomas. Nine human meningioma samples (four World Health Organization Grade I, five Grade II) were analyzed using different optical modalities: spectral analysis and imaging, lifetime measurements, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescence emitted under one- and two-photon excitation and the second-harmonic generation signal imaging using a multimodal setup. Nonlinear microscopy produced images close to histopathology as a gold standard. The second-harmonic generation signal delineated the collagen background and two-photon fluorescence underlined cell cytoplasm. The matching between fluorescence images and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was possible in all cases. Grade I meningioma emitted less autofluorescence than Grade II meningioma and Grade II meningioma exhibited a distinct lifetime value. Autofluorescence was correlated with the proliferation rates and seemed to explain the observed differences between Grade I and II meningiomas. This preliminary multimodal study focused on human meningioma samples confirms the potential of tissue autofluorescence analysis and nonlinear microscopy in helping intraoperatively neurosurgeons to reach the actual boundaries of the tumor infiltration. Correspondence between H&E staining (top pictures) and the two-photon fluorescence imaging (bottom pictures).

  20. Equine glaucoma: a histopathologic retrospective study (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Curto, Elizabeth M; Gemensky-Metzler, Anne J; Chandler, Heather L; Wilkie, David A

    2014-09-01

    To characterize and describe the histopathologic findings in equine globes enucleated due to glaucoma. Medical records at The Ohio State University from 1999 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, history, and treatment data were collected, and histologic slides of enucleated globes were examined and lesions recorded. Twenty-three eyes from 23 horses were eligible for inclusion in this study. The majority of affected horses were > 15 years of age (65%). The ages ranged from 5 to 35 years (mean = 17.4 years). The left eye was affected in 10 cases (43%) and the right eye in 13 cases (57%). There were 13 mares (56%) and 10 geldings (44%). Quarter Horses (30%), Appaloosas (26%), and Thoroughbreds (22%) were the most common breeds in the study population. The most common histopathologic changes included hypercellularity of the optic nerve (93%), retinal atrophy (89%), corneal vascularization (83%), descemetization of pectinate ligaments (83%), hypercellularity of the anterior corneal stroma (75%), posterior bowing of the iris base (74%), ciliary body atrophy (74%), corneal striae (70%), pars plana elongation (60%), cataract (53%), and collapsed ciliary cleft/trabecular meshwork (52%). Evidence of uveitis (cataract, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the uvea, and/or anterior or posterior synechiae) was present in 20/23 eyes (87%). Equine glaucoma most commonly occurs secondary to uveitis with Appaloosas and older horses predisposed. Histologic changes are comparable to prior reports of chronic glaucoma; notable findings not previously described in the horse were posterior bowing of the iris base and relative sparing of the superior retina from atrophy associated with elevated IOP. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Repair of bone defect by nano-modified white mineral trioxide aggregates in rabbit: A histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Tanideh, Nader; Asatourian, Armen; Janghorban, Kamal; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Background Many researchers have tried to enhance materials functions in different aspects of science using nano-modification method, and in many cases the results have been encouraging. To evaluate the histopathological responses of the micro-/nano-size cement-type biomaterials derived from calcium silicate-based composition with addition of nano tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) on bone healing response. Material and Methods Ninety mature male rabbits were anesthetized and a bone defect was created in the right mandible. The rabbits were divided into three groups, which were in turn subdivided into five subgroups with six animals each based on the defect filled by: white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), Nano-WMTA, WMTA without 3CaO.Al2O3, Nano-WMTA with 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3, and empty as control. Twenty, forty and sixty days postoperatively the animals were sacrificed and the right mandibles were removed for histopathological evaluations. Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc comparisons based on the LSMeans procedure was used for data analysis. Results All the experimental materials provoked a moderate to severe inflammatory reaction, which significantly differed from the control group (p< 0.05). Statistical analysis of bone formation and bone regeneration data showed significant differences between groups at 40- and 60- day intervals in all groups. Absence of 3CaO.Al2O3 leads to more inflammation and foreign body reaction than other groups in all time intervals. Conclusions Both powder nano-modification and addition of 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3 to calcium silicate-based cement enhanced the favorable tissue response and osteogenesis properties of WMTA based materials. Key words:Bone regeneration, cement, endodontics, histopathology, nano-wmta, tricalcium aluminate. PMID:26034924

  2. Histopathological study of the outer membrane of the dura mater in chronic sub dural hematoma: Its clinical and radiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Trivedi, Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: A chronic subdural hematoma is an old clot of blood on the surface of the brain between dura and arachnoid membranes. These liquefied clots most often occur in patients aged 60 and older with brain atrophy. When the brain shrinks inside the skull over time, minor head trauma can cause tearing of blood vessels over the brain surface, resulting in a slow accumulation of blood over several days to weeks. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the role of membrane in hematoma evaluation and to correlate its histopathology with clinic-radiological aspects of the condition and overall prognosis of patients. Material and Methods: The study incorporated all cases of chronic SDH admitted to the Neurosurgery department of JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, between November 2011 and November 2013. All such cases were analyzed clinically, radiologically like site, size, thickness in computed tomography, the attenuation value, midline shift and histopathological features were recorded. Criteria for Inclusion: All cases of chronic subdural haematoma irrespective of age and sex were incorporated into the study. Criteria for Exclusion: All cases of acute subdural haematoma and cases of chronic sub dural hematoma which were managed conservatively irrespective of age and sex were excluded from the study Results: In our series of cases, the most common histopathological type of membrane was the inflammatory membrane (Type II) seen in 42.30% of cases followed by hemorrhagic inflammatory membrane (Type III) seen in 34.62% of cases while scar inflammatory type of membrane (Type IV) was seen in 23.08% of cases. No case with noninflammatory type (Type I) was encountered. PMID:26889276

  3. Lymphoma diagnosis in histopathology using a multi-stage visual learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, Noel; Moradi, Mehdi; Matasar, Matt; Sveda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Smith, John R.

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a multi-stage image enhancement, segmentation, and classification approach for lymphoma recognition in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides of excised human lymph node tissue. In the first stage, the original histology slide undergoes various image enhancement and segmentation operations, creating an additional 5 images for every slide. These new images emphasize unique aspects of the original slide, including dominant staining, staining segmentations, non-cellular groupings, and cellular groupings. For the resulting 6 total images, a collection of visual features are extracted from 3 different spatial configurations. Visual features include the first fully connected layer (4096 dimensions) of the Caffe convolutional neural network trained from ImageNet data. In total, over 200 resultant visual descriptors are extracted for each slide. Non-linear SVMs are trained over each of the over 200 descriptors, which are then input to a forward stepwise ensemble selection that optimizes a late fusion sum of logistically normalized model outputs using local hill climbing. The approach is evaluated on a public NIH dataset containing 374 images representing 3 lymphoma conditions: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Results demonstrate a 38.4% reduction in residual error over the current state-of-art on this dataset.

  4. Histopathological evaluation of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens in chronic inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Seldenrijk, C A; Morson, B C; Meuwissen, S G; Schipper, N W; Lindeman, J; Meijer, C J

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective blind evaluation of multiple colonic mucosal biopsy specimens, 45 clinically well defined patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (21 Crohn's disease and 24 ulcerative colitis) and 16 control subjects (seven normal subjects and nine patients with diverticular disease) were studied to identify reproducible histopathological features which could distinguish chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD) from non-CIBD and Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. Using kappa statistics 16 of 41 histological features were sufficiently reproducible for further stepwise discriminant analysis to differentiate between CIBD and non-CIBD, and between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Using the combination of three features (an increase of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria, the presence of branching of crypts, and neutrophils in the crypt epithelium) we were able to distinguish CIBD from non-CIBD in 89% of the cases with high probability (p greater than 0.85). To separate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis three features (an excess of histiocytes in combination with a villous or irregular aspect of the mucosal surface and granulomas) had a high predictive value. Using these features 70% of Crohn's disease patients and 75% of ulcerative colitis patients were correctly classified with a high probability (p greater than 0.85). These findings indicate that the pathologist is dependent on the presence of only a few histological features for a reliable classification of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:1773958

  5. Clinical and histopathological characterization of a large animal (ovine) model of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abdalmula, A; Washington, E A; House, J V; Dooley, L M; Blacklaws, B A; Ghosh, P; Bailey, S R; Kimpton, W G

    2014-05-15

    Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) is the most studied and used rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model in animals, as it shares many pathological and immunological features of the human disease. The aim of this study was to characterize clinical and immunological aspects of the ovine CIA model, and develop lameness and histopathological scoring systems, in order to validate this model for use in therapeutic trials. Sheep were sensitized to bovine type II collagen (BCII), arthritis was induced by injection of bovine collagen type II into the hock joint and the response was followed for two weeks. Clinical signs of lameness and swelling were evident in all sheep and gross thickening of the synovium surrounding the tibiotarsal joint and erosion on the cartilage surface in the arthritic joints. Leucocyte cell counts were increased in synovial fluid and there was synovial hyperplasia, thickening of the intimal layer, inflammation and marked angiogenesis in the synovial tissue. There was a large influx of monocytes and lymphocytes into the synovial tissue, and increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in arthritic intima, angiogenesis and upregulation of VCAM-1. CIA in sheep appears to be an excellent large animal model of RA and has the potential for testing biological therapeutics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  7. Effects of specific treatment on parasitological and histopathological parameters in mice infected with different Trypanosoma cruzi clonal genotypes.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M J O; Bahia, M T; Veloso, V M; Carneiro, C M; Machado-Coelho, G L L; Alves, C F; Martins, H R; Cruz, R E; Tafuri, W L; Lana, M

    2004-06-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the effect of specific treatment on parasitological and histopathological parameters in mice experimentally infected with different Trypanosoma cruzi clonal genotypes. Twenty cloned stocks were selected, representative of the whole phylogenetic diversity of the protozoan and belonging to the clonal genotypes 19 and 20 (T. cruzi I) and 39 and 32 (T. cruzi II). The stocks were inoculated in 40 BALB/c mice divided into four groups: (i) treated with benznidazole, (ii) treated with itraconazole and (iii and iv) untreated control groups (NT) for each drug, respectively. Seven parameters related to parasitaemia curves and histopathological lesions were analysed. Four during the acute phase (AP) and three during both the AP and chronic phase (CP) of infection. Statistical comparison between benznidazole-treated and NT groups for the biological parameters showed significant differences for all genotypes. Benznidazole treatment led to lower patent period, maximum of parasitaemia, day of maximum parasitaemia and area under the parasitaemia curve for all genotypes analysed. Percentage of positive haemoculture during AP and CP was lower for genotypes 19 and 32. Tissue parasitism (TP) and inflammatory process (IP) during AP were lower for genotypes 19 and 32, respectively. In general, itraconazole treatment induced a smaller reduction in these same parameters between treated and NT animals in relation to benznidazole treatment. Our results indicate that phylogenetic divergence among T. cruzi clonal genotypes must be taken in account in chemotherapy and studies dealing with all aspects of the parasite and the disease.

  8. How to adjust endoscopic findings to histopathological findings of the stomach: a "histopathology-oriented" correspondence method helps to understand endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasuko; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Dohi, Osamu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Majima, Atsushi; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Yagi, Nobuaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Harada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hideo; Konishi, Eiichi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2017-09-05

    Endoscopic findings have now become nearly as detailed as histopathological findings. Thus, one-to-one correspondence and precise feedback of histopathological findings is very desirable but may be very difficult to accomplish. We describe a systematic process called the Kyoto One-to-One Correspondence Method (the KOTO Method) that allows detailed adjustments of endoscopic findings to match histopathological findings. By comparing endoscopic and stereoscopic images of the gastric mucosa, we could obtain one-to-one correspondence between endoscopic images and equivalent histology in 44 of 47 fields. The histological structure of gastric cancers of the same histological subtype may not be similar. One-to-one correspondence between endoscopic images and gastric mucosal histology (histopathology-oriented correspondence) will improve endoscopic diagnosis and provide more useful information for pathological diagnosis.

  9. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  10. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  11. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  12. Extra-facial melasma: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C G; Fiss, D V C; Borges da Costa, J A T; de Carvalho, R R; Bauermann, G; Cestari, T F

    2013-09-01

    Extra-facial melasma is a prevalent dermatosis in some populations with special characteristics in relation to its clinical aspects and probable etiopathogenic factors. Few studies have attempted to address this alteration of pigmentation, which has become a challenge in clinical Dermatology. To assess the clinical histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of extra-facial melasma, comparing affected, and unaffected sites. Case-control study with 45 patients in each group (melasma and disease-free volunteers), assessing their clinical characteristics. In 36 patients, biopsies were performed on the lesion and the normal perilesional skin. Specimens were stained with HE and Fontana-Masson, and melanocytes analysed by immunohistochemistry. Objective measurements were accomplished by a specifically designed image analysis software. The melasma group had a mean age ± SD of 56.67 ± 8 years, the majority of them were women (86.7%) and 82.1% of the female cases had reached menopause. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of presence of comorbidities, use of medications or hormone therapies. For extra-facial melasma patients, family history of this dermatose and of previous facial melasma was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The HE staining showed increased rectification and basal hyperpigmentation, solar elastosis, and collagen degeneration in the pigmented area (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in melanin density in melasma biopsies, but the immunohistochemical tests did not detect a difference between the groups in terms of number of melanocytes. Extra-facial melasma appears to be related to menopause, family history, and personal history of facial melasma, in the studied population. Histopathology revealed a pattern similar to what has been described for facial melasma, with signs of solar degeneration, and a similar number of melanocytes, when comparing patients, and controls, suggesting that

  13. Human kidney histopathology in acute obstructive jaundice: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Adam; Taşli, Funda Alkan; Nart, Ahmet; Postaci, Hakan; Aykas, Ahmet; Bati, Hasan; Coşkun, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    Cholemia and bacterial translocation with portal endotoxemia are integral in the pathogenesis of obstructive jaundice (OJ). There is sufficient experimental data about hemodynamic and histopathological consequences of OJ. In contrast, pathological information of renal changes in patients with OJ is still lacking. Therefore; the primary objective of this prospective study is to show the specific histopathological changes in kidneys of patients with short-term biliary tract obstruction receiving a standard perioperative medical treatment protocol. Twenty consecutive patients with biliary obstruction were included in the study. Fluid replacement, prevention of biliary sepsis, and portal endotoxemia were mainstays of the perioperative treatment protocol. Fluid and electrolyte balance was maintained by twice daily body weight calculations, central venous pressure, and mean arterial pressure monitoring. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate estimation by modification of diet in renal disease-7 formula. Kidney biopsy evaluation was focused on tubular changes, thrombotic microangiopathy, endothelial damage, and peritubular capillary (PTC) dilatation with or without C4d staining. Fresh frozen sections were evaluated with immunofluorescence microscopy for glomerular IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q staining. The mean duration of OJ was 15.5 ± 1.4 days. Body weight increased before surgery through volume expansion (P = 0.001). All patients have shown mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 and ≤ 120 mmHg and renal function was very well preserved in all but one subject during the perioperative period. Despite those favorable figures, dilatation of peritubular venules and acute tubular necrosis were shown synchronously in all cases. C4d staining in PTC and arterioles and thrombotic microangiopathy were entirely absent in the study group. Immune complex deposits in PTCs and in glomeruli were not detected. Three patients had isolated glomerular C4d deposition without

  14. The histopathology of lepromatous leprosy in the nose.

    PubMed

    McDougall, A C; Rees, R J; Weddell, A G; Kanan, M W

    1975-04-01

    On the basis of clinical, histological and bacteriological assessments, 31 patients in Central India were selected and classified as having active but early lepromatous leprosy and 4 patients as having early borderline leprosy. From the nose of each patient an average of 4 biopsies were taken from particular sites of the septum and turbinates either by punch biopsy or dissection with a scalpel. The nasal tissues from all the lepromatous patients contained many acid-fast bacilli; no bacilli or abnormalities were seen in nasal tissues from the borderline patients. The histopathology of these highly bacilliferous tissues is described. Bacilli were universally seen in macrophages, but they were also seen in blood monocytes and polymorphs, fibroblasts, squamous and pseudo-columnar epithelium, keratin, peri- and endo-neurial cells of tiny nerve bundles, erectile tissue, vascular plain muscle, perivascular histiocytes and frequently and abundantly in the cytoplasm of endothelial lining cells of lymphatics and of small blood vessels and free within the lumina of these vessels. Five basic mechanisms of escape of bacilli from the submucosa on to the surface, and thus into the external environment, are described. Secondary infection, in the presence of an expansile lepromatous infiltrate, together with simple trauma to the surface epithelium, are the main factors in the discharge of bacilli. These histopathological observations are consistent with the findings from other recent studies on the nose in leprosy regarding (1) the large numbers of morphologically intact and viable Myco. leprae excreted in the nasal mucus of lepromatous patients; (2) the clinical changes observed in the nose of such patients, and (3) the similar nasal involvement and excretion of Myco. leprae from the nose of mice inoculated with leprosy bacilli of human origin. Of particular interest was the frequency and intensity of bacilli within the endothelial lining cells of small blood and lymph vessels and

  15. Primary retroperitoneal seminoma - embryology, histopathology and treatment particularities.

    PubMed

    Gîngu, Constantin Virgil; Mihai, Mihaela; Baston, Cătălin; Crăsneanu, Mugurel Alexandru; Dick, Alexandru Vladimir; Olaru, Vlad; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology. The clinical examination revealed through deep abdominal palpation a mass in the left flank, and normal testes. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the great vessels in the left lumbo-iliac region. The blood work revealed just a low hemoglobin and hematocrit. With the established diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, radical surgical removal was decided. During the surgery, we were required to dissect a large solid encapsulated tumor mass from the aorta and the common iliac artery, starting at the renal pedicle all the way to the left iliac bifurcation. The surgical access was obtained through a transperitoneal left subcostal incision prolonged pararectally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed a seminoma of the usual type. After the histological findings, the patient's tumor markers were investigated (LDH - lactate dehydrogenase, βHCG - beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, αFP - alpha-fetoprotein), all values being within normal ranges. In addition, the left testicle was thoroughly reexamined, clinically, through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and no abnormalities were observed. After the surgery, the patient followed three courses of chemotherapy (BEP - Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin). The CT scan done 24 months after surgery found no signs of local or distant tumor recurrence. The patient entered a follow-up schedule

  16. [Parasitic diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic: epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Usubalieva, Zh M; Toĭgombaeva, V C; Nogoĭbaeva, K A; Mergenov, A E

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the epidemiological situation associated with intestinal helminthic and protozoan diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic in the past 17 years (1991-2007). The analysis suggests that parasitic diseases are of wide spread in the republic. In the structure of infectious diseases, parasitic diseases account for 45%. Children less than 14 years of age are a risk group, whose proportion is 80%. Enteric nosological entities are prevalent in the structure of parasitic diseases. There has been a long-term trend for a rise in the incidence of echinococcosis and ascariasis and for a decrease in that of enterobiasis and hymenolepiasis.

  17. Opening a Window into Living Tissue: Histopathologic Features of Confocal Microscopic Findings in Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Tavoloni Braga, Juliana Casagrande; de Paula Ramos Castro, Raquel; Moraes Pinto Blumetti, Tatiana Cristina; Rocha Mendes, Fernanda Berti; Arêas de Souza Lima Beltrame Ferreira, Juliana; Rezze, Gisele Gargantini

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of histopathology and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy correlation has several potential applications. Reflectance confocal microscopy can be performed in all skin tumors, and in this article, the most common histopathologic features of confocal microscopic findings in melanocytic skin tumors and nonmelanocytic skin tumors are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosing porokeratosis of Mibelli every time: a novel biopsy technique to maximize histopathologic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Caitlyn; Reddy, Raveena; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-03-01

    Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare condition with the potential for malignant transformation that presents a clinical and pathologic diagnostic challenge. An improperly oriented biopsy may lead to the wrong histopathologic diagnosis. We report a case of PM that was previously misdiagnosed and describe a biopsy technique for suspected PM that maximizes the potential for histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis.

  19. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  20. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  1. Oncocytic metaplasia in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; Vargas, Pablo Agustín

    2008-03-01

    Oncocytic metaplasia (OM) is not a well-known feature in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH) lesions, although it may be common, as proposed in our previous study about this lesion. In the present paper, we assessed the histopathological and immunohistochemical features of 18 cases of IFH containing OM areas. All the samples were examined on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections and cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, 34betaE12, CK5, CK7, CK8, CK13, CK14 and CK19), CD15, CD20, CD68, CD45Ro, and LCA primary antibodies were used. The vast majority of IFH occurred in women (n=14) and the most common site of presentation was the buccal vestibule. Oncocytic and salivary duct cells showed uniform immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, CK7, CK8 and CK19. CD45Ro+ T-lymphocytes were the most common inflammatory cells surrounding the OM areas followed by CD20+ B-lymphocytes. These findings suggest that oncocytic cells present in IFH might develop from salivary duct epithelium, and T-lymphocytes might play an important role in its etiopathogenesis.

  2. Lichenoid sarcoidosis: a case with clinical and histopathological lichenoid features.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, Maria C; Enguita-Valls, Ana B; de Arriba, Marta González; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Peralto, Jose Luis Rodriguez

    2008-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Cutaneous involvement is about 25% with different clinical expressions, the lichenoid pattern being one of the rarest types of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Lichenoid sarcoidosis clinically manifests with multiple scale papules involving extensive skin areas, especially the trunk, limbs, and face mimicking a lichen planus. Although diverse histologic patterns have been previously related, a lichenoid granulomatous infiltrate involving the dermo-epidermal junction has never been reported in lichenoid sarcoidosis. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with skin-colored pruritic papules, slightly scaling in trunk, extremities, and ears. These symptoms condition continued to expand and worsen for several years. The patient was otherwise in good health with no lymphadenopathies. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed an upper dermal granulomatous infiltrate of epithelioid cells, without necrosis, distributed in a lichenoid pattern with many cytoid bodies. We consider this may be the first case presenting a characteristic microscopic granulomatous lichen-like pattern in the setting of a clinically lichenoid type of sarcoidosis.

  3. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application.

  4. Vertebral body fractures in child abuse. Radiologic-histopathologic correlates.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P K; Marks, S C

    1992-09-01

    Vertebral injuries are rarely reported sequelae of child abuse, and little is known concerning the mechanisms of injury and healing. A preliminary investigation of these issues included correlating radiologic and histologic findings in children with vertebral injuries who died of complications relating to physical abuse. Ten vertebral body fractures from four abused infants and young children were studied radiologically and histopathologically. Infants ranged in age from 7 to 36 months (mean, 21 months). Three patients died of associated head injuries. One child died after abandonment. There were three pure vertebral body compression fractures, two superior end-plate fractures without compression deformity, and five anterosuperior end-plate fractures with associated compression deformity. Vertebral compression was generally mild (less than 25%). Typically, end-plate injuries were manifest histologically by extension of the fracture through the medullary trabeculae into the proliferative zone of the superior end plate. The resultant pattern was analogous to that described in a previous study, and could potentially result in a growth disturbance at the vertebral end plate. Observed radiologic patterns and histologic correlates may help explain previously described findings, such as vertebral notching, in abused infants.

  5. Histopathologic findings in children diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Pedrero-Olivares, I; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Murillo-Márquez, P; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Montijo-Barrios, E; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common cause of food allergy. The challenge test, either open or doubled-blind with a placebo control, is regarded as the criterion standard. Endoscopy and histologic findings are considered a method that can aid in the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in children suspected of cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at our hospital. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on 116 children clinically suspected of presenting with cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Upper endoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsies were performed and the findings were described. Of the 116 patients, 64 (55.17%) were girls and 52 (44.83%) were boys. The rectum was the site with the greatest presence of eosinophils per field in both groups, followed by the duodenum. In general, more than 15 eosinophils were found in 46% of the patients. Between 40 and 45% of the cases had the histologic criterion of more than 15 to 20 eosinophils per field and the rectosigmoid colon was the most affected site. Therefore, panendoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy and eosinophil count are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Nephrotoxicity of Kalach 360 SL: biochemical and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, Latifa; Naifar, Manel; Mzid, Massara; Ben Salem, Mariem; Chtourou, Amel; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebai, Tarek

    2016-11-01

    Kalach 360 SL (KL) is a commercial herbicide which contains 360 g/l of glyphosate used in both agricultural and urban areas throughout the world including Tunisia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of KL on rats' renal system. Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6) received a standard diet and served as control, groups 2 and 3 (n = 12 each) received 0.07 ml (D1: 126 mg/kg), and 0.175 ml (D2: 315 mg/kg) of KL, respectively, for 60 d. The chronic exposure to KL induced a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels. Creatinine clearance decreased in KL-treated groups, compared with controls. Several urine parameters, such as urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality, significantly decreased, while dieresis and urinary Na/K + ratio increased in KL-treated groups. These findings suggested a distal tubular damage caused by tubular necrosis. Moreover, the chronic exposure to KL induced an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in antioxidant status, enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic levels (vitamin C), which led to an oxidative stress. Histopathological studies showed a peritubular inflammatory reaction, nephrose, fragmented glomeruli, necrotic epithelial cells, and tubular dilatation. These results could have significant health implications for animal and human populations. Further data are necessary to investigate the potential consequences of chronic dose exposure during life.

  7. [Endoscopic and histopathological studies of experimental esophageal cancer in beagles].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Sunagawa, M; Nakajima, A; Ochi, K; Habu, H; Hoshi, K

    1985-02-01

    In order to obtain a reliable experimental model simulating human esophageal cancer, endoscopic and histopathological studies were undertaken in the esophageal cancer produced in the beagle dog. Thirty-seven dogs had been given a solution of N-Ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at a concentration of 150 micrograms/ml for 3-9 months. Follow-up studies included serial endoscopy and biopsy, and almost all animals were eventually sacrificed for histological examination. The results were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 5 out of 22 female dogs, while none in male dogs at all. For the induction of squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus, administration in the condition of 150 micrograms/ml (75mg/day) for 6-9 months was most suitable. Almost all of esophageal lesions were protruding and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of the submucosa. The stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus were chronologically followed. Carcinoma had been observed in the stomach about 4 months prior to the appearance of esophageal carcinoma. This experimental model was proved to be useful for studies on histogenesis of human esophageal cancer both light and electron microscopically.

  8. The histopathology of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks.

    PubMed

    Wight, P A; Siller, W G

    1975-09-01

    Studies of the general histopathology of the fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chickens have shown abnormal accumulations of the lipid in a variety of organs but no degenerative or inflammatory reactions. Lipid was found in some skeletal muscles, alimentary tract, autonomic ganglia, central nervous system and pineal gland as well as in the liver, kidney and heart. Small amounts of lipid were sometimes seen in the exocrine pancreas, adrenal medulla and epithelium of the thyroid follicles. Lipid deposits in the liver were primarily associated with the hepatic structural unit. The glycogen content of the hepatic cell was reduced. The lipid-metabolising gastrocnemius muscle contained abnormal amounts of lipid but this did not apply to the carbohydrate-metabolising pectoralis major muscle. The thymus did not contain excessive lipid but was significantly smaller in affected than in control birds of similar ages. There was loss of tinctorial distinction between the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland associated with decreased basophilia of the latter region. Many of these morphological changes can be correlated with previously reported biochemical findings and they are discussed in relation to the hyperlipaemia and hypoglycaemia which characterise the disease.

  9. Histopathological features of Capillaria hepatica infection in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Vasanthi; Turton, John; Stewart, Jacqui; Lui, Kai Chiu; Pilling, Andrew M

    2009-08-01

    Capillaria hepatica is a nematode parasite of wild rodents and other mammals. Adult worms inhabit the liver. Recently, during the necropsy examination of a group of 160 rabbits from a commercial supplier, firm pale or cystic areas (1-5 mm) were noted on the liver in thirteen animals. On further investigation, these animals were found to be infected with C. hepatica. The histopathological features of the infection in the rabbit are described for the first time and diagnostic features recorded. Lesions were identified predominantly in portal tracts consisting of dilated bile ducts with luminal debris, peribiliary inflammatory cell infiltrates, and fibrosis. Large granulomas (macrogranulomas) were evident in portal areas and involved the bile ducts. Macrogranulomas contained collections of characteristic C. hepatica eggs, macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Small granulomas (microgranulomas), characterized by epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils, were also identified. C. hepatica eggs were also observed in the lumina of the bile ducts and gall bladder. No adult C. hepatica worms were identified. Oocysts of Eimeria stiedae were also evident in the biliary epithelium in some animals. The unique characteristics of the C. hepatica life cycle are described, and the differential diagnosis of hepatic capillariasis is discussed.

  10. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  11. Idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis. Histopathologic features and possible pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gravanis, M B; Gaffney, E F

    1983-06-01

    We report the histopathologic findings in two cases of idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis, one involving the insertion of the right pectoralis minor tendon, and the other the left ring finger proximal interphalangeal joint of a 54-year-old male and a 28-year-old female, respectively. At operation, cream cheese-like material was identified in each case. Sections of tendon in the first case showed numerous circumscribed lesions in various stages of evolution. Early lesions consisted of central granular or globular proteinaceous material surrounded by histiocytes, lymphocytes, and foreign-body giant cells, with a peripheral network of small blood vessels. Larger, more mature lesions contained similar proteinaceous material, but had central cavitation, a thinner reactive inflammatory zone, and a fibrous capsule. The largest lesions were cystic, had no proteinaceous material or significant inflammatory zone, and had a thick fibrous capsule. No calcification was identified in the intratendinous lesions. In contrast, the hyperplastic synovium and other peritendinous tissues contained numerous round psammoma-like calcifications. It is concluded that the synovial and peritendinous psammoma-like calcifications in our cases represent a reaction to a primary tendinous lesion, which may be a consequence of ischemia or persistent mild trauma.

  12. Liver biopsy histopathology for diagnosis of Johne's disease in sheep.

    PubMed

    Smith, S L; Wilson, P R; Collett, M G; Heuer, C; West, D M; Stevenson, M; Chambers, J P

    2014-09-01

    Sheep with Johne's disease develop epithelioid macrophage microgranulomas, specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection, in the terminal ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and organs distant to the alimentary tract such as the liver. The objectives of this study were to determine whether liver pathology was present in ewes affected by Map and whether liver cores provide adequate tissue for this potential diagnostic marker. One hundred and twenty-six adult, low body condition ewes were euthanized, necropsied, and underwent simulated liver biopsy. Ileal lesions typical of Map were found in 60 ewes. Hepatic epithelioid microgranulomas were observed in all ewes with Type 3b (n = 40) and 82% (n = 11) with Type 3c ileal lesions. None were found in ewes unaffected by Map or with Type 1, 2, or 3a ileal lesions. Liver biopsy core samples provided adequate tissue for histopathology with a sensitivity and specificity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.99) and 100% (95% CI, 0.95-1), respectively for detection of types 3b and 3c ileal lesions.

  13. Cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in histopathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Lassoued, Wiem; Grama, Kedar; Nath, Sumit K; Zhu, Jianliang; Oueslati, Ridha; Feldman, Michael; Lee, William M F; Roysam, Badrinath

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the use of a computer-assisted technology for objective, cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in specified cell types in histopathology specimens, with the aim of advancing current visual estimation and pixel-level (rather than cell-based) quantification methods. Tissue specimens were multiplex-immunostained to reveal cell structures, cell type markers, and analytes, and imaged with multispectral microscopy. The image data were processed with novel software that automatically delineates and types each cell in the field, measures morphological features, and quantifies analytes in different subcellular compartments of specified cells.The methodology was validated with the use of cell blocks composed of differentially labelled cultured cells mixed in known proportions, and evaluated on human breast carcinoma specimens for quantifying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki67, phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase, and phospho-S6. Automated cell-level analyses closely matched human assessments, but, predictably, differed from pixel-level analyses of the same images. Our method reveals the type, distribution, morphology and biomarker state of each cell in the field, and allows multiple biomarkers to be quantified over specified cell types, regardless of their abundance. It is ideal for studying specimens from patients in clinical trials of targeted therapeutic agents, for investigating minority stromal cell subpopulations, and for phenotypic characterization to personalize therapy and prognosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  14. Cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in histopathology specimens

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Lassoued, Wiem; Grama, Kedar; Nath, Sumit K; Zhu, Jianliang; Oueslati, Ridha; Feldman, Michael; Lee, William M F; Roysam, Badrinath

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate the use of a computer-assisted technology for objective, cell-based quantification of molecular biomarkers in specified cell types in histopathology specimens, with the aim of advancing current visual estimation or pixel-level (rather than cell-based) quantification methods. Methods and results Tissue specimens were multiplex-immunostained to reveal cell structures, cell type markers, and analytes, and imaged with multispectral microscopy. The image data were processed with novel software that automatically delineates and types each cell in the field, measures morphological features, and quantifies analytes in different subcellular compartments of specified cells. The methodology was validated with the use of cell blocks composed of differentially labelled cultured cells mixed in known proportions, and evaluated on human breast carcinoma specimens for quantifying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki67, phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase, and phospho-S6. Automated cell-level analyses closely matched human assessments, but, predictably, differed from pixel-level analyses of the same images. Conclusions Our method reveals the type, distribution, morphology and biomarker state of each cell in the field, and allows multiple biomarkers to be quantified over specified cell types, regardless of abundance. It is ideal for studying specimens from patients in clinical trials of targeted therapeutic agents, for investigating minority stromal cell subpopulations, and for phenotypic characterization to personalize therapy and prognosis. PMID:21771025

  15. Audit of general surgical pathology experience of histopathology trainees.

    PubMed Central

    Tildsley, G J; Dilly, S A

    1991-01-01

    Surgical histopathology is learnt principally by the practical experience of reporting routine cases. This study performed a quantitative audit of the types of specimens reported by trainees at a teaching hospital and a district general hospital. At the teaching hospital all cases are seen by trainees and it was predicted that the distribution of specimens among trainees would be entirely random. Significant variations were found in the number of skin, breast, cervix, prostate, and endometrial cases reported by each trainee. In some cases this related to a trainee having a special interest (skin and breast pathology) or areas requiring special techniques (breast pathology). At the district general hospital the workload was much higher so that juniors did not see all cases and junior trainees were not seeing bronchial, liver, or lymph node biopsy specimens. This type of audit shows that in teaching hospitals specialisation by some trainees (as encouraged by the new MRCPath exam) may be to the detriment of others and that in district general hospitals pressure of work may actually reduce a trainee's exposure to difficult cases. Without systematic audit this would not be recognised and remedied. PMID:2045503

  16. Integrating molecular diagnostics into histopathology training: the Belfast model.

    PubMed

    Flynn, C; James, J; Maxwell, P; McQuaid, S; Ervine, A; Catherwood, M; Loughrey, M B; McGibben, D; Somerville, J; McManus, D T; Gray, M; Herron, B; Salto-Tellez, M

    2014-07-01

    Molecular medicine is transforming modern clinical practice, from diagnostics to therapeutics. Discoveries in research are being incorporated into the clinical setting with increasing rapidity. This transformation is also deeply changing the way we practise pathology. The great advances in cell and molecular biology which have accelerated our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumours have been embraced with variable degrees of enthusiasm by diverse medical professional specialties. While histopathologists have not been prompt to adopt molecular diagnostics to date, the need to incorporate molecular pathology into the training of future histopathologists is imperative. Our goal is to create, within an existing 5-year histopathology training curriculum, the structure for formal substantial teaching of molecular diagnostics. This specialist training has two main goals: (1) to equip future practising histopathologists with basic knowledge of molecular diagnostics and (2) to create the option for those interested in a subspecialty experience in tissue molecular diagnostics to pursue this training. It is our belief that this training will help to maintain in future the role of the pathologist at the centre of patient care as the integrator of clinical, morphological and molecular information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Michael; Buettner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, tumors are classified by histopathological criteria, i.e., based on their specific morphological appearances. Consequently, current therapeutic decisions in oncology are strongly influenced by histology rather than underlying molecular or genomic aberrations. The increase of information on molecular changes however, enabled by the Human Genome Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium as well as the manifold advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing techniques, inaugurated the integration of genomic information into disease classification. Furthermore, in some cases it became evident that former classifications needed major revision and adaption. Such adaptations are often required by understanding the pathogenesis of a disease from a specific molecular alteration, using this molecular driver for targeted and highly effective therapies. Altogether, reclassifications should lead to higher information content of the underlying diagnoses, reflecting their molecular pathogenesis and resulting in optimized and individual therapeutic decisions. The objective of this article is to summarize some particularly important examples of genome-based classification approaches and associated therapeutic concepts. In addition to reviewing disease specific markers, we focus on potentially therapeutic or predictive markers and the relevance of molecular diagnostics in disease monitoring. PMID:24879454

  18. Myrmecia wart inclusions as an incidental histopathologic finding.

    PubMed

    Wititsuwannakul, Jade; Ko, Christine J

    2012-10-01

    Latent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been described for genital (mucosal) and epidermodysplasia verruciformis subtypes. Only rarely has cutaneotropic, non-oncogenic HPV been found by polymerase chain reaction studies in normal skin. We noted myrmecia wart inclusions as an incidental histopathologic finding in four specimens from diverse sites (eyebrow, scalp, forehead, leg). The final diagnoses for these four cases were intradermal nevus, scarring alopecia, benign keratosis and stasis dermatitis. Anti-HPV antibody staining was performed in all cases. This antibody detects HPV-1,6,11,16,18 and 31 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The foci of myrmecia wart inclusions were characterized by smooth to angular cytoplasmic inclusions in the granular layer, spanning one to three rete. The inclusions stained with an anti-HPV antibody in three specimens. This finding of incidental myrmecia wart inclusions in skin biopsies supports latent infection by cutaneotropic, non-carcinogenic HPV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Mitochondrial gene expression, antioxidant responses, and histopathology after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Al Kaddissi, Simone; Legeay, Alexia; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Gonzalez, Patrice; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Simon, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cadmium effects on the transcription of mitochondrial genes of Procambarus clarkii after acute (0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg Cd/L; 4-10 days) and chronic exposures (10 μg Cd/L; 30-60 days). Transcriptional responses of cox1, atp6, and 12S using quantitative real-time RT-PCR were assessed in gills and hepatopancreas. Additionally, the expression levels of genes involved in detoxification and/or oxidative stress responses [mt, sod(Mn)] and enzymatic activities of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GST) were analyzed. The histopathological effects in hepatopancreas of crayfish were evaluated by light microscopy. Relationships between endpoints at different levels of biological organization and Cd bioaccumulation were also examined. Cd induced high levels of bioaccumulation, which was followed by mitochondrial dysfunction and histological alterations in both experiments. Moreover, perturbations in the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress tended to increase with time. Results also showed that molecular responses can vary depending on the intensity and duration of the chemical stress applied to the organisms and that the study of mt gene expression levels seemed to be the best tool to assess Cd intoxication.

  20. Natural sweeteners as fixatives in histopathology: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Ganavi, B. S; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fixation is the essential step in histopathological processing of tissues. Since formalin is a corroborated biohazard, its routine use as a fixative is a major health and safety concern and hence the quest for safer alternatives is envisaged. Natural sweeteners like jaggery and honey have proved to be effective tissue preservatives over 24 h. This pioneer eco-idea needs further research to expand its application. Aim: (1) To evaluate the fixative property of jaggery and honey over 6 months and ascertaining the results using hematoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). (2) To evaluate the compatibility of jaggery and honey fixed tissues for special stains - Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson–Trichrome (MT). Materials and Methods: Equal bits of commercially available animal mucosae were preserved in 30% jaggery, 20% honey, and 10% buffered formalin (control) over 6 months at intervals. Following which, tissues were subjected to routine H and E, special stains - PAS and MT using standard operating procedures established in our group. Results: Formalin, jaggery, and honey yielded satisfactory results post 6 months for H and E and special stains, jaggery was comparable to formalin in tissue preservation. Conclusion: We propose the use of eco-friendly jaggery and honey as alternatives to formalin for long term tissue preservation. PMID:25810637

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF TUMOR HISTOPATHOLOGY VIA SPARSE FEATURE LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nandita; Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to decompose whole slide images (WSI) of histology sections into distinct patches (e.g., viable tumor, necrosis) so that statistics of distinct histopathology can be linked with the outcome. Such an analysis requires a large cohort of histology sections that may originate from different laboratories, which may not use the same protocol in sample preparation. We have evaluated a method based on a variation of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that learns intrinsic features of the image signature in an unsupervised fashion. Computed code, from the learned representation, is then utilized to classify patches from a curated library of images. The system has been evaluated against a dataset of small image blocks of 1k-by-1k that have been extracted from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and clear cell kidney carcinoma (KIRC) from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) archive. The learned model is then projected on each whole slide image (e.g., of size 20k-by-20k pixels or larger) for characterizing and visualizing tumor architecture. In the case of GBM, each WSI is decomposed into necrotic, transition into necrosis, and viable. In the case of the KIRC, each WSI is decomposed into tumor types, stroma, normal, and others. Evaluation of 1400 and 2500 samples of GBM and KIRC indicates a performance of 84% and 81%, respectively. PMID:24319533

  2. Automatic evaluation of skin histopathological images for melanocytic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koosha, Mohaddeseh; Hoseini Alinodehi, S. Pourya; Nicolescu, Mircea; Safaei Naraghi, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Successfully detecting melanocyte cells in the skin epidermis has great significance in skin histopathology. Because of the existence of cells with similar appearance to melanocytes in hematoxylin and eosin (HE) images of the epidermis, detecting melanocytes becomes a challenging task. This paper proposes a novel technique for the detection of melanocytes in HE images of the epidermis, based on the melanocyte color features, in the HSI color domain. Initially, an effective soft morphological filter is applied to the HE images in the HSI color domain to remove noise. Then a novel threshold-based technique is applied to distinguish the candidate melanocytes' nuclei. Similarly, the method is applied to find the candidate surrounding halos of the melanocytes. The candidate nuclei are associated with their surrounding halos using the suggested logical and statistical inferences. Finally, a fuzzy inference system is proposed, based on the HSI color information of a typical melanocyte in the epidermis, to calculate the similarity ratio of each candidate cell to a melanocyte. As our review on the literature shows, this is the first method evaluating epidermis cells for melanocyte similarity ratio. Experimental results on various images with different zooming factors show that the proposed method improves the results of previous works.

  3. The mandate for a proper preservation in histopathological tissues.

    PubMed

    Comănescu, Maria; Arsene, D; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Bussolati, G

    2012-01-01

    A sequence of technically reproducible procedures is mandatory to guarantee a proper preservation of tissues and to build up the basis for sound diagnoses. However, while the goal of these procedures was, until recently, to assure only structural (histological and cytological) preservation, an appropriate preservation of antigenic properties and of nucleic acid integrity is now additionally requested, in order to permit pathologists to provide the biological information necessary for the adoption of personalized therapies. The present review analyses the sequence of technical steps open to critical variations. Passages such as dehydration, paraffin embedding, sectioning and staining are relatively well standardized and allow adoption of dedicated (automatic) apparatuses, while other pre-analytical steps, i.e. time and modalities of transfer of surgical specimens from the surgical theatre to the pathology laboratory (s.c. "ischemia time") and the type and length of fixation are not standardized and are a potential cause of discrepancies in diagnostic results. Our group is involved in European-funded projects tackling these problems with the concrete objective of implementing a model of effective tumors investigations by high performance genetic and molecular methodologies. The problem of the discrepant quality level of histopathological and cytological preparations involved five European countries and exploiting the potential of "virtual slide technology". Concrete issues, techniques and pitfalls, as well as proposed guidelines for processing the tissues are shown in this presentation.

  4. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  5. Carag Bioresorbable Septal Occluder (CBSO) - histopathology of experimental implants.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Matthias; Söderberg, Björn; Schmitt, Boris; Mellmann, Andreas; Bernhard, Jérôme

    2017-05-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate local biological responses of the partially bioresorbable nonmetal frame Carag Bioresorbable Septal Occluder system in an experimental setting. A Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) study was performed with implantation of the device into the interatrial septum of 24 German landrace pigs with follow- up periods of 3, 5, 8 and 15 months (6 animals in each group). One non-implant related death occurred 1 month after implantation. Histology was obtained by sawing and grinding of the hard-resin embedded specimen after formalin fixation. All occlusion devices were found correctly positioned without any residual shunt at the end of the experiments. Complete endothelialisation could be confirmed histologically in all specimen independent of implantation period. There were only few lymphocytic infiltrations locally related to the implant materials. Sporadic macrophages and foreign body giant cells were found adjacent to the textile fabric. Resorption of the biodegradable frame material was seen to proceed with implantation time. This is the first report on histopathology of a septal defect occluder with bioresorbable filament structure in vivo which already is in clinical use. Good biocompatibility was demonstrated with documentation of timely degradation and substitution of the polymer material by fibromuscular cells and extracellular matrix components.

  6. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  7. Exclusive facial porokeratosis: histopathologically showing follicular cornoid lamellae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Porokeratosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders that are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations with a characteristic histological finding of cornoid lamella. Porokeratosis usually affects the trunk or the extremities. Exclusive facial lesions are rare, although 15% of patients with disseminated, superficial, actinic porokeratosis do have facial lesions. Herein, we discuss the case of a 25-year-old woman who noticed the appearance of well-defined, brownish, macular lesions located on both cheeks. She had no other symptoms. A skin examination showed well-demarcated, multiple, brownish macules with raised hyperkeratotic borders on both cheeks and a half-palm-sized, arcuate-shaped lesion formed by grouped macules on the right cheek. No other parts of the body were affected. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the hyperkeratotic margin gave a diagnosis of porokeratosis with follicular involvement of the cornoid lamellae. Topical pimecrolimus was applied twice a day to the lesions, although little improvement was achieved after 2 months. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  9. [Tufting enteropathy: a case report, histopathological methodology, and differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Bosaleh, Andrea; Contreras, Monica; García de Dávila, María Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE), previously known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia, is a rare congenital enteropathy characterized by refractory diarrhea in the neonatal period. It presents clinical and histological heterogeneity and may be associated with birth defects and punctuate keratitis. The causative gene(s) have not yet been identfied making prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Although there are milder phenotypes most require parenteral nutrition for prolonged periods with the risk of complications. TE becomes an indication for intestinal transplantation. We report the case of a 4-month-old male, born full term with a normal weight. The parents consulted because of severe malnutrition and chronic watery diarrhea. Duodenal and rectal biopsy was negative. Because of poor tolerance gastroclysis was changed to parenteral nutrition. The infant had several catheter-related infections and died at 13 months from catheter-associated complications. Histopathological autopsy was performed. The material was fixed in paraffin and studied with routine techniques. PAS and immunohistochemistry for CD10 were performed. We observed villous atrophy with intestinal epithelial dysplasia and disorganization on the surface of epithelial cells resembling tufts in jejunal and ileal tissue. The objective of this study was to present a rare case of neonatal enteropathy, especially TE, describe the methodology used to study the biopsy, and discuss the differential diagnoses. TE is a rare neonatal enteropathy that is difficult to diagnose and manage. Children in whom TE is suspected should be referred to specialized pediatric centers, with the option of intestinal transplantation.

  10. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-05-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature.

  11. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature. PMID:23646307

  12. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    PubMed

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Large scale tissue histopathology image classification, segmentation, and visualization via deep convolutional activation features.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Jia, Zhipeng; Wang, Liang-Bo; Ai, Yuqing; Zhang, Fang; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao

    2017-05-26

    Histopathology image analysis is a gold standard for cancer recognition and diagnosis. Automatic analysis of histopathology images can help pathologists diagnose tumor and cancer subtypes, alleviating the workload of pathologists. There are two basic types of tasks in digital histopathology image analysis: image classification and image segmentation. Typical problems with histopathology images that hamper automatic analysis include complex clinical representations, limited quantities of training images in a dataset, and the extremely large size of singular images (usually up to gigapixels). The property of extremely large size for a single image also makes a histopathology image dataset be considered large-scale, even if the number of images in the dataset is limited. In this paper, we propose leveraging deep convolutional neural network (CNN) activation features to perform classification, segmentation and visualization in large-scale tissue histopathology images. Our framework transfers features extracted from CNNs trained by a large natural image database, ImageNet, to histopathology images. We also explore the characteristics of CNN features by visualizing the response of individual neuron components in the last hidden layer. Some of these characteristics reveal biological insights that have been verified by pathologists. According to our experiments, the framework proposed has shown state-of-the-art performance on a brain tumor dataset from the MICCAI 2014 Brain Tumor Digital Pathology Challenge and a colon cancer histopathology image dataset. The framework proposed is a simple, efficient and effective system for histopathology image automatic analysis. We successfully transfer ImageNet knowledge as deep convolutional activation features to the classification and segmentation of histopathology images with little training data. CNN features are significantly more powerful than expert-designed features.

  14. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  15. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  16. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  17. Metaplastic conus meningioma and its applied aspects

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Srikanth; Pulligopu, Aneel Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cranial meningiomas may present with or without major deficits depending on their location and morphology. Spinal meningiomas account for 25% of all the spinal tumors. Most commonly encountered in the dorsal spine in middle-aged females, these intradural-extramedullary tumors can usually be excised without difficulty. Rarely, they can be encountered in the lumbar spine and may create many tactical problems for the surgical team especially if it is calcified and contains metaplastic bone. We report a 55-year-old patient who presented with backache and investigations revealed a calcified lesion at L1 level that was thought of as an ependymoma initially. Intraoperatively, the lesion was calcified in parts, and the histopathology revealed it to be a metaplastic meningioma with calcification. The patient had a transient hip weakness, which recovered completely later on. Calcification in meningiomas is common. However, frank bony metaplasia is extremely rare. More importantly, the applied aspect of their presence in the region of conus lies in the careful dissection to prevent damage to the surrounding neural structures. Awareness regarding the same may help us preventing complications in the future. PMID:25972958

  18. Metaplastic conus meningioma and its applied aspects.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Srikanth; Pulligopu, Aneel Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cranial meningiomas may present with or without major deficits depending on their location and morphology. Spinal meningiomas account for 25% of all the spinal tumors. Most commonly encountered in the dorsal spine in middle-aged females, these intradural-extramedullary tumors can usually be excised without difficulty. Rarely, they can be encountered in the lumbar spine and may create many tactical problems for the surgical team especially if it is calcified and contains metaplastic bone. We report a 55-year-old patient who presented with backache and investigations revealed a calcified lesion at L1 level that was thought of as an ependymoma initially. Intraoperatively, the lesion was calcified in parts, and the histopathology revealed it to be a metaplastic meningioma with calcification. The patient had a transient hip weakness, which recovered completely later on. Calcification in meningiomas is common. However, frank bony metaplasia is extremely rare. More importantly, the applied aspect of their presence in the region of conus lies in the careful dissection to prevent damage to the surrounding neural structures. Awareness regarding the same may help us preventing complications in the future.

  19. [Some demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Martínez, Elly; Rivas-López, Radamés; Martínez-Escudero, Itzell Sarahid

    2014-02-01

    The determination techniques of chorionic gonadotropin and transvaginal high resolution ultrasound have revolutionized the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Assess demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal over a 6 years period. Descriptive and retrospective study. We reviewed 143 clinical records from March 1, 2006 to January 31, 2013, with diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy discharge. The analyzed variables were: age, history of ectopic pregnancy, method of family planning, pelvic inflammatory disease, smoking, weeks of gestation, clinical picture, localization of ectopic pregnancy, treatment and complications. Were analyzed 143 cases, diagnosed and corroborated with histopathological study, of ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal during the period from 2006 to 2012. The average age at which pregnancies occurred was 32.4 +/- 5.4 years; 89% of patients were over 25 years old. 35% were primigravidous and 51 women had previous caesarean, 31 abortion and 22 childbirth. 10% had history of ectopic pregnancy and 39% had 5 weeks gestation; 72% not used contraceptives, 30% were smokers, and only 2% had suffered pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite the technological advances the correct evaluation of risk factors is essential for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  20. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  1. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  2. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Onyike, Chiadi U

    2016-04-01

    The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research.

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Onyike, Chiadi U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Recent Findings: Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. Summary: There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research. PMID:27042910

  5. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  6. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  7. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  8. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  9. Histopathological study of cutaneous manifestations in HIV and AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Rane, Sharada R; Agrawal, Preeti B; Kadgi, Nalini V; Jadhav, Meenal V; Puranik, Shaila C

    2014-06-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop various skin diseases. These skin manifestations not only act as markers but also reflect the patient's underlying immune status. Investigating CD4 counts is costly and not always possible. Thus, the potential value to be gained by using skin manifestations as predictors of low CD4 counts and disease progression should be explored. The present study attempted to correlate the association of various cutaneous disorders found in HIV patients with CD4 and CD8 counts, the CD4 : CD8 ratio and stage of HIV infection. This was a prospective study involving 61 patients who were HIV-positive and demonstrated skin lesions. Punch biopsies of skin were taken for histopathological diagnosis. CD4 and CD8 T cell counts were performed. The study sample included a majority of male patients, most of whom were aged 21-40 years. Pruritic papular dermatitis was the most common skin manifestation, followed by molluscum contagiosum, eosinophilic folliculitis, and Hansen's disease. Most of the lesions were associated with CD4 counts of <220/μl (n = 38). All skin lesions associated with HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) showed a CD4 : CD8 ratio of <0.50. The study findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between CD4 counts and the occurrence of skin lesions. The majority of lesions were associated with stage 3 or stage 4 infection. Thus, specific cutaneous manifestations can be considered as good clinical indicators for predicting underlying immune status in resource-poor countries. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Clinical and histopathological review of 229 cases of ranula.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yulin; Zhao, Yifang; Chen, Xinming

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between the thrombosis and secretory duct dilation, lesion size, clinical types, nature (primary or recurrent) and duration of illness in the development of ranula. A total of 229 cases of sublingual gland cysts were treated with surgical resection from Jan. 1990 to Feb. 2010. The patients' data were investigated on histopathological findings, size of ranula, the clinical types, nature of ranula (primary or recurrent) and duration of illness. Sections from the paraffin-embedded blocks were HE-stained. CK expression was immunohistochemically detected. Among 229 cases the incidence of venous thrombosis was 58.52%. The incidence of venous thrombosis with or without duct dilation was 73.25% and 26.39% respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.005). The incidence of venous thrombosis of ranulas with diameter larger or less than 3 cm was 72.22% and 46.28% (P<0.005). The incidence of venous thrombosis of oral ranula, plunging ranula and mixed ranula was 49.37%, 77.19% and 85.71% respectively, with a significant difference found between oral and plunging or mixed ranula (P<0.01). The incidence of venous thrombosis in ranula patients with duration of illness longer or less than 3 months was 69.77% and 51.75% (P<0.01). The incidence of venous thrombosis with recurrent and primary ranulas was 51.85% and 64.85%, without a significant difference noted between them (P>0.05). It is concluded that the formation of venous thrombosis was related to the dilation of secretory duct, lesion size, clinical types, duration of lesion but formation of venous thrombosis was not related to the nature (primary or recurrent) of ranulas.

  11. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Buckles, E.L.; Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Gargas, A.; Behr, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  12. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats.

    PubMed

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Gargas, Andrea; Behr, Melissa J

    2009-07-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 microm in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 microm in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 microm wide and 7.5 microm in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  13. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  14. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC): Imaging features with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Andrew D.; Schieda, Nicola; Flood, Trevor A.; Cagiannos, Ilias; Mai, Kien T.; Malone, Shawn; Morash, Christopher; Hakim, Shaheed W.; Breau, Rodney H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a high-grade variant of conventional urothelial cell carcinoma. This study is the first to describe the imaging findings of PUC, which are previously unreported, using clinical and histopathological correlation. Methods: With internal review board approval, we identified 22 consecutive patients with PUC from 2007–2014. Clinical parameters, including age, gender, therapy, surgical margins, and long-term outcome, were recorded. Baseline imaging was reviewed by an abdominal radiologist who evaluated for tumour detectability/location/morphology, local staging, and presence/location of metastases. Pelvic peritoneal spread of tumour (defined as >5mm thick soft tissue spreading along fascial planes) was also evaluated. Followup imaging was reviewed for presence of local recurrence or metastases. Results: Median age at presentation was 74 years (range 51–86), with only three female patients. Imaging features of the primary tumour in this study were not unique for PUC. Muscle-invasive disease was present on pathology in 19/22 (86%) of tumours, with distant metastases in 2/22 (9%) at baseline imaging. Pelvic peritoneal spread of tumour was radiologically present in 4/20 (20%) at baseline. During followup, recurrent/residual tumour was documented in 16/22 (73%) patients and 7/16 (44%) patients eventually developed distant metastases. Median time to disease recurrence in patients who underwent curative surgery was three months (range 0–19). Conclusions: PUC is an aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma with poor prognosis. Pelvic peritoneal spread of tumour as thick sheets extending along fascial planes may represent a characteristic imaging finding of locally advanced PUC. PMID:28163816

  15. Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fónyad, László; Krenács, Tibor; Nagy, Péter; Zalatnai, Attila; Csomor, Judit; Sápi, Zoltán; Pápay, Judit; Schönléber, Júlia; Diczházi, Csaba; Molnár, Béla

    2012-03-31

    Robust hardware and software tools have been developed in digital microscopy during the past years for pathologists. Reports have been advocated the reliability of digital slides in routine diagnostics. We have designed a retrospective, comparative study to evaluate the scanning properties and digital slide based diagnostic accuracy. 8 pathologists reevaluated 306 randomly selected cases from our archives. The slides were scanned with a 20× Plan-Apochromat objective, using a 3-chip Hitachi camera, resulting 0.465 μm/pixel resolution. Slide management was supported with dedicated Data Base and Viewer software tools. Pathologists used their office PCs for evaluation and reached the digital slides via intranet connection. The diagnostic coherency and uncertainty related to digital slides and scanning quality were analyzed. Good to excellent image quality of slides was recorded in 96%. In half of the critical 61 digital slides, poor image quality was related to section folds or floatings. In 88.2% of the studied cases the digital diagnoses were in full agreement with the consensus. Out of the overall 36 incoherent cases, 7 (2.3%) were graded relevant without any recorded uncertainty by the pathologist. Excluding the non-field specific cases from each pathologist's record this ratio was 1.76% of all cases. Our results revealed that: 1) digital slide based histopathological diagnoses can be highly coherent with those using optical microscopy; 2) the competency of pathologists is a factor more important than the quality of digital slide; 3) poor digital slide quality do not endanger patient safety as these errors are recognizable by the pathologist and further actions for correction could be taken. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913324336747310.

  16. Histopathologic and dietary prognostic factors for canine mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shofer, F S; Sonnenschein, E G; Goldschmidt, M H; Laster, L L; Glickman, L T

    1989-01-01

    Histologic and dietary prognostic factors for survival following naturally occurring breast cancer were studied for 145 pet dogs. Information was collected from the dog's owner and veterinarian regarding medical and reproductive history, nutritional status, treatment, tumor recurrence, and length of survival. The usual intake of all dog and table foods consumed 1 year prior to diagnosis was obtained using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A histologic malignancy score was derived based on 7 histopathologic criteria. The mean age of the dogs was 10.4 +/- 2.5 years; 37% had been ovariohysterectomized prior to diagnosis. Product-limit estimates of survival indicated that 6 factors, namely body conformation 1 year prior to diagnosis (p = 0.03), histologic tumor type (p = 0.004), histologic malignancy score (p = 0.02), histologic invasion (p = 0.002), tumor recurrence (p less than 0.0001), and completeness of surgery (p = 0.01) were of prognostic significance. In addition, when dogs were characterized by the percent of total calories they derived from fat and protein, the median survival time for dogs in the low fat group (less than 39%) with protein greater than 27%, 23-27%, and less than 23% was 3 years, 1.2 years, and 6 months, respectively (p = 0.008). For dogs in the high fat group (greater than or equal to 39%), there was no difference in survival for the different intake levels of dietary protein (p = 0.84). When these data were fitted to a proportional hazards model, recurrence, histologic score, tumor type, percent of calories derived from protein, fat group, and a protein-fat group interaction term were statistically significant. Predicted 1 year survival for dogs on a low fat diet with 15%, 25%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein was 17%, 69%, and 93%, respectively.

  17. The association between placental histopathology and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Straughen, Jennifer K; Misra, Dawn P; Divine, George; Shah, Ruchit; Perez, Gabriela; VanHorn, Samantha; Onbreyt, Victoria; Dygulska, Beata; Schmitt, Rebecca; Lederman, Sanford; Narula, Pramod; Salafia, Carolyn M

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has its origins in utero. This study examines the association between evidence of placental histopathology and ASD. Administrative claims data and medical records data were used to identify ASD cases (N = 55) and matched controls (N = 199) born at New York Methodist Hospital between 2007 and 2014 and subsequently seen in affiliated pediatrics clinics. Placentas from all births during this time period were reviewed as part of routine care. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression to account for the matched (gender, gestational age, and birth weight) design. Acute placental inflammation, regardless of type was associated with an increased risk of ASD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.14, 95% CI = 1.39, 6.95). Chronic uteroplacental vasculitis (OR = 7.13; 95% CI = 1.17, 43.38), the fetal inflammatory response in the chorionic plate vessels (OR = 5.12; 95% CI = 2.02, 12.96), and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology (OR = 12.29; 95% CI = 1.37, 110.69) were associated with an increased risk of ASD. Placental villous edema was associated with a decreased risk of ASD (OR = 0.05; 95% CI = 0.0005, 0.42). In subanalyses among male placentas acute inflammation overall, fetal inflammatory response in the chorionic plate vessels, and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology remained significantly associated with an increased risk of ASD whereas placental villous edema remained associated with a decreased risk of ASD. Histologic evidence of placental inflammation and maternal vascular malperfusion pathology are associated with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histopathological incidence of facial canal dehiscence in otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Kariya, Shin; Morita, Norimasa; Nomiya, Rie; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological incidence of facial canal dehiscence in otosclerosis cases compared with non-otosclerotic controls. 133 temporal bones from 84 otosclerosis (35 unilateral otosclerosis, 49 bilateral otosclerosis) cases were compared to 102 age-matched normal temporal bones from 70 subjects (38 unilateral normal cases, 32 bilateral normal cases). Temporal bones were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane at a thickness of 20 μm, and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We evaluated the location and the invasion of otosclerosis to the facial canal and incidence of facial canal dehiscence under light microscopy. Facial canal was subdivided into four portions: (1) the geniculate ganglion, (2) the tensor tympani muscle, (3) the oval window, and (4) mastoid. The incidence of facial canal dehiscence in otosclerosis [66 temporal bones (49.6%)] was significantly lower than normal controls [67 control temporal bones (65.7%)] in the oval window area (P = 0.019). Temporal bones with otosclerotic invasion to the thin bone of the canal were significantly less likely to have dehiscence [10 temporal bones (31.3%)] compared to the otosclerotic bones without invasion [56 temporal bones (55.5%)] (P = 0.025). There was no significant difference in the incidence of facial canal dehiscence between temporal bones with and without otosclerosis in the entire segment of facial nerve. Our findings in this study suggest that otosclerotic lesions have the potential to close dehiscence of the facial canal in the oval window area.

  19. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: Review of clinico-radio-histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Banashree; Jain, Atul; Sen, Debashis; Bala, Sanchaita; Mishra, Pranshu; Sen, Sumit; Biswyas, Projna; Behra, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    We report clinical, radiological, and pathological features of three cases of macrodystrophia lipomatosa, which is characterized by progressive proliferation of all mesenchymal elements, with a disproportionate increase in fibroadipose tissue. The peculiarity in our report is the involvement of contralateral hand and feet in our 1(st) case in contrast to usual presentations of this rare condition, which is often unilateral. In our 2(nd) case, the lateral aspect of foot was involved as against the usual finding of involvement of medial aspect in lower limbs, also another surprising finding in this case is increase in the size of lesion after puberty. Coming to our 3(rd) case, enlargement of almost whole of an upper extremity with profound involvement of middle, ring and little finger along with total sparing of the thumb is in itself an extremely rare occurrence as in upper limb, mainly the lateral aspect of hand and related digits bear the burnt and more over involvement of whole limb is itself an unique phenomenon.

  20. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  1. Reconsideration of discrepancies between clinical and histopathological features in acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mochimaru, H; Fukuda, Y; Azuma, A; Osanai, K; Saito, Y; Mochimaru, T; Gemma, A

    2015-01-05

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a very rare condition, with only one paper published so far discussing histopathological findings at surgical biopsy. In that paper, AEP is considered to be an acute and proliferative stage of DAD accompanied by eosinophilia. However, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute interstitial pneumonia, and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which, unlike AEP are mostly life-threatening diseases, also exhibit DAD. AEP also presents with severe hypoxia but rapidly improves on treatment with corticosteroids alone, without subsequent fibrosis. In contrast, the other above-mentioned diseases with the same histopathology show greatly different clinical courses. The reasons for these differences remain unclear. Here we investigated the histopathology of AEP in 2 surgical lung biopsy and 14 transbronchial lung biopsy cases. Additionally, we determined the presence or absence of different phases of DAD by histopathology in these AEP cases. Characteristic histopathological findings of AEP consist of alveolar edema with infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes and edema of perivascular area and interlobular septa. The alveolar spaces showed fibrinous exudates. There were no hyaline membranes or massive intraluminal fibrosis. These histopathological findings of interstitial edema and fluid exudates are consistent with radiological findings of lung edema and can explain the rapid and complete improvement.Because AEP does not exhibit lung fibrosis histopathologically, it should not to be included in DAD which is associated with lung fibrosis.

  2. Grading keratinocyte atypia in actinic keratosis: a correlation of reflectance confocal microscopy and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Pellacani, G; Ulrich, M; Casari, A; Prow, T W; Cannillo, F; Benati, E; Losi, A; Cesinaro, A M; Longo, C; Argenziano, G; Soyer, H P

    2015-11-01

    Actinic Keratosis (AK) is the clinical manifestation of cutaneous dysplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, with progressive trend towards squamous cell carcinoma. To evaluate the strength of the correlation between keratinocyte atypia, as detected by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) and histopathology, and to develop a more objective atypia grading scale for RCM quantification, through a discrete ranking. A total of 48 AKs and two control areas (photodamaged and non-photodamaged skin) were selected for this study. All these areas were documented by RCM and biopsied for histopathology. One representative image of the epidermis was selected for RCM and for histopathology and used for side-by-side comparison with purpose written software. The assessor chose which of two images displayed more keratinocyte atypia, and an ordered list from the image showing the least to the most keratinocyte atypia was generated. Three evaluations were obtained for RCM and two for histopathology. Good interobserver correlation was obtained for RCM and histopathology grading, with high concordance between RCM and histopathology grading. Expert rater scan consistently distinguish different grades of cytological atypia. Non-invasive RCM data from in vivo imaging can be graded for keratinocyte atypia, comparable to histopathological grading. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Necessity of routine histopathological evaluation subsequent to bladder neck contracture resection

    PubMed Central

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Kucur, Mustafa; Çelik, Esin; Bugday, M. Serdar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bladder neck contracture is a well-known complication following some urologic surgical procedures. Regardless of the surgical procedure, any specimen resected should be submitted for histopathological evaluation worldwide. However, the charges of histopathological evaluation may bring a heavy burden to the hospital and health care system. Also, waiting the period of the pathological evaluation process can be an anxious time for patients. Hence, we aimed to investigate the necessity of routine histopathological evaluation of bladder neck contracture bladder neck contraction specimens. Material and methods Patients undergoing bladder neck contraction resection, from 2010 to 2015 were identified. Patient demographics, type of surgery and histopathological diagnosis and cost of histopathological analyses of the specimens were recorded and analyzed. Results Findings of the histopathologic evaluations of 340 bladder neck specimens were reviewed. Out of these, 294 had underwent transurethral resection of the prostate, 38 open prostatectomy, and 8 radical prostatectomy. Evidence of malignant disease involving prostate cancer was present in only 2 specimens. Both of the specimens had a known preexisting history of malignant disease. The remaining 338 specimens showed chronic inflammation (n = 176), chronic active inflammation (n = 64), adenomatous hyperplasia (n = 78) or cystitis (n = 20). Conclusions Our results indicate that routine histopathological examination of bladder neck contraction specimens is clinically unnecessary. We recommend that the surgeon should decide the need for histological examination on individual basis, depending on known preoperative risk factors. PMID:28127450

  4. Poor correlation between spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis and histopathology in melanoma and nonmelanoma lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terstappen, Karin; Suurküla, Mart; Hallberg, Håkan; Ericson, Marica B.; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2013-06-01

    Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy) is an imaging technique developed for diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions. By image analysis, the displayed images indicate the potential distribution and position of melanin, blood, and collagen within the lesion. A topographic comparison was performed between SIAscopic findings and histopathology. In total, 60 patients with suspicious pigmented skin lesions were included. The lesions were SIAscopically imaged and documented before excision and histopathological preparation. Topographical comparisons between SIAscopy findings and histopathology were made. A sensitivity and specificity of 24% and 84%, respectively, were obtained for invasive melanomas. The positive and negative predicted values were 58% and 54%, respectively. The features indicating dermal melanin, blood displacement and collagen holes did only show "no" to "slight" agreement with histopathology, i.e., κ≤0.21. It was concluded that (i) SIAscopy-based diagnosis has low diagnostic accuracy for melanoma, (ii) single SIAscopic features do not provide reliable diagnostic information relating to the lesions internal structure on histopathology examination and (iii) SIAscopy cannot be used as a guide for localizing the maximum tumor thickness when performing the histopathological examination. The importance of validating new optical tools for tumor diagnostics with histopathological findings was demonstrated.

  5. Histopathological Analysis of 226 Patients With Rosacea According to Rosacea Subtype and Severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Joon Min; Lee, Ye Jin; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo

    2016-05-01

    The histopathological features of rosacea have not been described in detail. To evaluate the histopathological features of rosacea according to clinical characteristics such as subtype and severity. We retrospectively analyzed histopathological findings in 226 patients with rosacea, which included 52 patients with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) and 174 patients with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. The frequency of each histopathological finding was compared between subtypes. Histopathological features were also compared according to the severity, through subgroup analysis within each subtype group. Perivascular and perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltration were common dermal findings in both subtype groups, but the intensity of dermal inflammatory infiltration was higher in PPR than in ETR. Follicular spongiosis and exocytosis of inflammatory cells into hair follicles were noted in both subtypes; but these findings were significantly more common in the PPR subtype. Vascular changes (telangiectasia and proliferation) and solar elastosis were common histopathological findings in both subtypes, with no difference in frequency between subtype groups. Demodex mites were identified in about 40% of patients, and the frequency of demodex mites did not differ between subtype groups. The intensity of perifollicular inflammation and the presence of follicular inflammatory reactions were dependent on the severity of rosacea in both subtype groups. The intensity of inflammatory reactions, especially perifollicular infiltration, was higher in PPR patients than in ETR patients. Rosacea has a spectrum of histopathological features that are related to clinical progression between rosacea subtypes.

  6. Immunological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on cows naturally infected with lumpy skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV) of the family Poxviridae characterized by skin nodules covering all parts of the body. There are many aspects of LSD remaining unknown, thus immunological, hematological, and biochemical parameters were estimated. Materials and Methods: During an outbreak of LSD in Sharkia governorate from Egypt, 211 cows aging (2-4 years) were examined clinically for the presence of LSD lesions during the period from July to November 2014. A total of 134 cows from those showed lesions suspected to be LSD. Results: Recorded clinical signs were pyrexia with the development of skin nodules of varying sizes which ranged from a few to several hundred sometimes coalesced together. Enlargements of the peripheral lymph nodes. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noticed in the histopathological examination. Immunological studies revealed a significant decrease of lymphocyte transformation rate, phagocytic % and killing % which was marked within 2 weeks postinfection. LSD resulted in non-significant in hemogram in 1st-2nd day post-infection while a macrocytic hypochromic anemia within 10-14th days post-infection. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were recorded 1st-2nd day post-infection while at 10-14th showed granulocytic leucocytosis. Biochemical analysis revealed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia especially gamma globulins. There were a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activities, creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen and creatine phosphokinase Conclusion: LSDV infected cows in early stages revealed leucopenia. Immunosuppressive effect was pronounced later. In late stage revealed hemolytic anemia, leucocytosis and increase of serum CK, which could aid in diagnosis. Disturbance in liver and kidney function tests have been occurred. PMID:27047209

  7. Recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins and related risk factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Fernanda; Santamaría, Jesus Rodriguez; Garbers, Luiz Eduardo Fabricio de Melo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The best way to approach surgically removed basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins is a controversial issue. Some authors believe that the more appropriate treatment is an immediate reoperation while others prefer a periodic follow up. The rates of recurrence are variable in literature, between 10% and 67%. OBJECTIVE To define the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive margins after surgery. Secondarily, identify morphological aspects that can suggest a more frequent tumoral recurrence. METHODS This was a retrospective and observational study made by analysis of medical records of 487 patients between January 2003 and December 2009 in Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC-UFPR). From 402 basal cell carcinomas surgically treated, 41 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were evaluated for five years or more. Recurrence rate of these tumors was analyzed in all patients and clinical characteristics such as sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, ulceration, and histological type were evaluated in order to find if they were related to more common tumoral recurrence. RESULTS The rate of positive margins after surgery was 12.18%. There were five cases of tumoral recurrence in the observation group and three cases in the re-excision group. Tumor size, site, histological type, ulceration and type of positive margin did not differ statistically between groups. It was not possible to consider if these factors were important in recurrence rates. STUDY LIMITATIONS Ideally, a prospective study with a larger sample would be more accurate. CONCLUSION The treatment of choice in basal cell carcinoma with positive margins must be individualized to reduce recurrence rates. PMID:28225958

  8. Recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lara, Fernanda; Santamaría, Jesus Rodriguez; Garbers, Luiz Eduardo Fabricio de Melo

    2017-01-01

    The best way to approach surgically removed basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins is a controversial issue. Some authors believe that the more appropriate treatment is an immediate reoperation while others prefer a periodic follow up. The rates of recurrence are variable in literature, between 10% and 67%. To define the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive margins after surgery. Secondarily, identify morphological aspects that can suggest a more frequent tumoral recurrence. This was a retrospective and observational study made by analysis of medical records of 487 patients between January 2003 and December 2009 in Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC-UFPR). From 402 basal cell carcinomas surgically treated, 41 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were evaluated for five years or more. Recurrence rate of these tumors was analyzed in all patients and clinical characteristics such as sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, ulceration, and histological type were evaluated in order to find if they were related to more common tumoral recurrence. The rate of positive margins after surgery was 12.18%. There were five cases of tumoral recurrence in the observation group and three cases in the re-excision group. Tumor size, site, histological type, ulceration and type of positive margin did not differ statistically between groups. It was not possible to consider if these factors were important in recurrence rates. Ideally, a prospective study with a larger sample would be more accurate. The treatment of choice in basal cell carcinoma with positive margins must be individualized to reduce recurrence rates.

  9. Histopathological and radiological reporting in rectal cancer: concepts and controversies, facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, S; Haboubi, N; Moran, B; Brown, G

    2017-01-01

    In rectal cancer patients, the stage of the disease, local spread and distant metastases status drive the treatment decisions to be made. Histopathology remains the gold standard, but preoperative staging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is pivotal for defining surgical planes and finding patients who could potentially benefit from preoperative regimes. Unfortunately, due to a lack of awareness, expertise and practise the quality of rectal cancer MRI and histopathology reporting varies among centres. This paper highlights the most important and frequently occurring radiological and histopathological discrepancies/mistakes to be aware of.

  10. Histopathology and Florbetaben PET in Patients Incorrectly Diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Marwan N; Schäuble, Barbara; Anand, Keshav; Richards, Danielle; Murayama, Shigeo; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Takao, Masaki; Rowe, Christopher C; Masters, Colin L; Barthel, Henryk; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Peters, Oliver; Rasgon, Natalie; Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Sabri, Osama; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Seibyl, John

    2017-01-01

    Of 57 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a phase III study, 13 (23%) had amyloid-β (Aβ) levels on postmortem histopathology that did not explain the dementia. Based on postmortem histopathology, a wide range of different non-AD conditions was identified, including frontotemporal dementia, hippocampal sclerosis, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Of the histopathologically Aβ negative scored cases ante-mortem Florbetaben PET scans were classified as negative for Aβ in 11 patients based on visual analysis and in all 12 quantifiable cases based on composite standardized uptake value ratios. Thus, florbetaben PET can assist physicians in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders by reliably excluding Aβ pathology.

  11. Histopathology of the human inner ear in Alström's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Joseph B; Marshall, Jan D; Bronson, Roderick T

    2015-01-01

    Alström's syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs in greater than 85% of patients. Histopathology of the inner ear abnormalities in the human has not previously been fully described. Histopathology of the inner ear in Alström's syndrome is presented in 2 genetically confirmed cases. The predominant histopathologic correlates of the sensorineural loss were degeneration of the organ of Corti, both inner and outer hair cells, degeneration of spiral ganglion cells, and atrophy of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament.

  12. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  13. Aspects of quantum cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, D. N.

    Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic, except, in a certain frequency sense, conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators in a quantum state of the universe which never jumps or collapses. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets rather than as propensities for potentialities to be actualized, so there is nothing indeterministic in SQM. These frequency-type probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum "probabilities" for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aethemamorphic myth. No fundamental correlation or equivalence is postulated between different perceptions, so SQM, a variant of Everett's "many-worlds" framework, is a "many-perceptions" framework but not a "many-minds" framework. Different detailed SQM theories may be tested against experienced perceptions by the typicalities (defined herein) they predict for these perceptions. One may adopt the Conditional Aesthemic Principle: among the set of all conscious perceptions, our perceptions are likely to be typical.

  14. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  15. [Liver transplantation. Experimental aspects].

    PubMed

    Duca, S

    1981-01-01

    Following an overview of the data published in the specialized literature in connection with liver transplantation the author presents original experimental studies in this field. One of the first aspects considered is the stage of obtaining the graft of liver tissue. The selective perfusion was used, in situ, of the dog liver, and conditions were achieved which were similar to those obtained in other methods of graft preparation. Two washing solutions were used: a simple one, currently used in the practice, and another one which was enriched with various substrates. Biochemical parameters of tissue sampled by bioptic puncture have demonstrated that the first solution induces a lowering of the glycogen contents of hepatocytes, and this alters the biological qualities or the graft. The fact is stressed that the obtention of the hepatic tissue for grafting should be considered in fact as an in situ conservation. With regard to the liver transplantation proper it is shown that the author has performed the sector heterotopic procedure in the rat. Vascular anastomoses have been made with histoacryl-N-blau by the method of prosthesis with lost tubing. Problems raised by the vascular re-connection of the auxilliary hepatic tissue, and those related to the space where this tissue should be placed are also discussed in detail. The survival time was not longer than 30 hours.

  16. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  17. Theoretical Aspect of Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václav, Štefan; Jurko, Jozef; Božek, Pavol; Lecký, Šimon

    2016-09-01

    Assembly plays a decisive role in global production in terms of its share in the total costs of the products assembled and in terms of the number of people working in the field. The author of (1) indicates that the percentage of the workers in assembly out of the total number of the workers in manufacturing in the U.S.A. ranged from 26.3% (bicycles) to 45.6% (automobiles), while the cost of the product assembly represented typically more than 50% of the total costs. Despite the above-mentioned importance of assembly in the industry, the discontinuous production processes have not been paid adequate attention until recently. It was sufficient to manufacture parts and then an operative reasonably and inexpensively assembled each product manually. The authors of this paper would like to emphasise "the method of a systemic approach" which focuses upon identifying the key activities to meet the objective. Harmonious interrelations of the activities are often a source of greater profit than in a system where some activities are of the top level while the others are neglected (2). The aim of this paper is to describe theoretical aspects of all the typical activities of the assembly system.

  18. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  19. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  20. [Psychosomatic aspects of obesity].

    PubMed

    Herpertz, S; Saller, B

    2001-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread in industrial countries and are considered to be serious health problems in these countries. Population-based studies in Germany have shown that between 12 and 18 % of the adult population is obese. Overweight and obesity are accompanied by a large spectrum of health disorders and extreme psychosocial burdens. Besides the hereditary disposition, the life style including both intra- and inter-individual aspects determines the complex etiology of obesity. Within the collective sample of the obese, one sub-sample is the "psychogenic obese" i. e. in which psychiatric disorders lead to a change in both eating and exercise behavior, the result then being a continuous positive energy reserve in the form of overweight and obesity. The paper describes the psychosocial problems of obese persons; especially the controverse question with regard to psychiatric morbidity in general and eating disorders in particular are emphasized. The results of past, mainly behavioral oriented treatment concepts are presented and various concepts beyond single school orientation are discussed. Finally, the problems with psychiatric psychological diagnostics in those obese patients with the request for surgical weight reduction within the context of insurance coverage and the surgeons are presented.

  1. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  2. Aspects of cosmological relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1999-07-01

    The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. New applications of the theory are presented. The author shows that there is no need to assume the existence of galaxy dark matter; the Tully-Fisher law is derived from the theory. A completely new picture of the expanding universe is thus obtained and compared to the FRW one.

  3. Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in several countries. The underlying process is atherosclerosis, a slowly progressing chronic disorder that can lead to intravascular thrombosis. There is overwhelming evidence for the underlying importance of our immune system in atherosclerosis. Monocytes, which comprise part of the innate immune system, can be recruited to inflamed endothelium and this recruitment has been shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerotic disease. Monocytes undergo migration into the vasculature, they differentiate into macrophage phenotypes, which are highly phagocytic and can scavenge modified lipids, leading to foam cell formation and development of the lipid-rich atheroma core. This increased influx leads to a highly inflammatory environment and along with other immune cells can increase the risk in the development of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. The present review provides an overview and description of the immunological aspect of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in atherosclerosis, by defining their interaction with the vascular environment, modified lipids and other cellular exchanges. There is a particular focus on monocytes and macrophages, but shorter descriptions of dendritic cells, lymphocyte populations, neutrophils, mast cells and platelets are also included.

  4. [Ptosis surgery. Current aspects].

    PubMed

    Hintschich, C

    2012-05-01

    Ptosis can be congenital but is more commonly an acquired condition occurring in particular as involutional forms. In addition to the aesthetic aspects ptosis mostly also leads to functional problems. Congenital ptosis in particular carries a high risk of amblyopia in childhood, therefore competent and close-knit pediatric ophthalmological treatment is important. Correction of ptosis is surgical and direct or indirect procedures are available depending on the conditions. Transcutaneous levator surgery has proven to be the universally applicable method for ptosis of all degrees of severity and can be combined with other corrective measures, such as temporal canthopexy or blepharoplasty, particularly for eyelids of elderly patients. In cases of severely impaired levator function and poor Bell phenomenon the indirect frontalis suspension method can be used. Congenital ptosis in childhood should be surgically treated at an early stage because of a substantial risk of amblyopia even if the central visual axis is still clear. The results of ptosis surgery are generally good and serious complications are rare.

  5. Behavioral and Histopathological Alterations Resulting from Mild Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Zhao, Jing; Bockhorst, Kurt; Perez, Alec; Moore, Anthony N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of people who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have an injury that can be classified as mild (often referred to as concussion). Although head CT scans for most subjects who have sustained a mild TBI (mTBI) are negative, these persons may still suffer from neurocognitive and neurobehavioral deficits. In order to expedite pre-clinical research and develop therapies, there is a need for well-characterized animal models of mTBI that reflect the neurological, neurocognitive, and pathological changes seen in human patients. In the present study, we examined the motor, cognitive, and histopathological changes resulting from 1.0 and 1.5 atmosphere (atm) overpressure fluid percussion injury (FPI). Both 1.0 and 1.5 atm FPI injury caused transient suppression of acute neurological functions, but did not result in visible brain contusion. Animals injured with 1.0 atm FPI did not show significant motor, vestibulomotor, or learning and memory deficits. In contrast, 1.5 atm injury caused transient motor disturbances, and resulted in a significant impairment of spatial learning and short-term memory. In addition, 1.5 atm FPI caused a marked reduction in cerebral perfusion at the site of injury that lasted for several hours. Consistent with previous studies, 1.5 atm FPI did not cause visible neuronal loss in the hippocampus or in the neocortex. However, a robust inflammatory response (as indicated by enhanced GFAP and Iba1 immunoreactivity) in the corpus callosum and the thalamus was observed. Examination of fractional anisotropy color maps after diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a significant decrease of FA values in the cingulum, an area found to have increased silver impregnation, suggesting axonal injury. Increased silver impregnation was also observed in the corpus callosum, and internal and external capsules. These findings are consistent with the deficits and pathologies associated with mild TBI in humans, and support the use of mild FPI as

  6. Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. Methods A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006–2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. Results We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17–93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. Conclusions This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of

  7. Hepatic cryoablation-induced acute lung injury: histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Washington, K; Debelak, J P; Gobbell, C; Sztipanovits, D R; Shyr, Y; Olson, S; Chapman, W C

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that hepatic cryoablation (cryo), but not partial hepatectomy, induces a systemic inflammatory response, with distant organ injury and overproduction of NF-kappaB-dependent cytokines. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) levels are markedly increased 1 h and beyond after cryo compared with partial hepatectomy where no elevation occurs. NF-kappaB activation (by electrophoretic mobility shift assay) is strikingly increased in the noncryo liver (but not in the lung) at 30 min and in both the liver and lung tissue 1 h after cryo, returning to the baseline by 2 h and beyond. The current study investigated the histopathologic changes associated with cryoablation-induced acute lung injury. Animals underwent 35% hepatic resection or a similar volume hepatic cryo and were sacrificed at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h. Pulmonary histologic features were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin and immunoperoxidase staining with a macrophage-specific antibody (anti-lysozyme, 1:200 dilution, Dako, Carpinteria, CA). The following features were graded semiquantitatively (0-3): perivascular lymphoid cuffs, airspace edema and hemorrhage, margination of neutrophils within pulmonary vasculature, and the presence of macrophages with foamy cytoplasm in the pulmonary interstitium. Hepatic resection (n = 21) resulted in slight perivascular edema at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h post-resection, but there were no other significant changes. Pulmonary findings after hepatic cryo (n = 22) included prominent perivascular lymphoid cuffs 1 and 2 h following hepatic injury that were not present at any other time point (P 0.01). Marginating PMNs and foamy macrophages were more common after cryo at all time points (P<0.05, cryo vs resection). Severe lung injury, as evidenced by airspace edema and parenchymal hemorrhage, was present in four of six (67%) animals at 24 h (P 0.03). In follow-up studies immediate resection (n = 15) of the cryo

  8. Telepathology and imaging spectroscopy as a new modality in histopathology.

    PubMed

    Vari, S G; Müller, G; Lerner, J M; Naber, R D

    1999-01-01

    future commercial viability. The Interactive Histopathology Consultation Network INTERPATH (PL961121) project integrated of remote control imaging microscopy system, imaging spectroscopy, and communication networks called SPECTROMIC. This telepethology unit will be a useful tool in the Regional and International Integrated Telemedicine Network for Medical Assistance in End Stage Diseases and Organ Transplant, RETRANSPLANT HC 4028 (HC) & IN 4028 (HC).

  9. Piroxicam-induced hepatic and renal histopathological changes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebaid, Hossam; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Danfour, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Amany; Gabry, Mohamed S

    2007-01-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate Piroxicam-induced histopathological changes in livers and kidneys of male albino mice. Methods Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination. Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination. Results Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular inflammations. The glomeruli were shrunk resulting in widening of the urinary space. Oedema and vacuolations were noticed in the tubular cells. There was a positive correlation between these pathological changes and the increased treatment periods. Histochemical staining revealed that glycogen and protein contents had decreased in the hepatocytes. This depletion worsened gradually in liver cells after two, three, and four weeks. Similar depletion of the glycogen content was observed in kidney tissue. However, protein content appeared to be slightly decreased in the kidney tubules and glomeruli. Incensement of coarse chromatin in the nuclei of hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and most inflammatory cells were detected by Fuelgen method. Kidney tissues appeared with a severe decrease in coarse chromatin in the nuclei. Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular inflammations. The

  10. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Michele L; Selby, Joseph V; Katz, Kenneth A; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R; Parise, Monica E; Paddock, Christopher D; Lewin-Smith, Michael R; Kalasinsky, Victor F; Goldstein, Felicia C; Hightower, Allen W; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of life. No common underlying medical

  11. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    EPA Science Inventory

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  12. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    EPA Science Inventory

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  13. Co-existence of various clinical and histopathological features of mycosis fungoides in a young female.

    PubMed

    Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Najafian, Jamshid; Rajabi, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and a rare disorder that typically affects older adults with erythematous scaling patches and plaques. Hypopigmented patches are a rare clinical variant of the disease. Granulomatous mycosis fungoides (GMF) is also a rare type of CTCL. No particular clinical criteria are available for the diagnosis of GMF, because of its variable presentations, and so the detection of GMF is primarily considered as a histopathological diagnosis. Rarely, a co-existence of more than one clinical or histopathological feature of mycosis fungoides may be present. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of MF that shows the simultaneous co-existence of more than one clinical and histopathological variant of MF. We present a 29-year-old female with clinical presentations of both classic and hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF), and also the histopathological features of the classic and granulomatous types of the disease.

  14. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans: histopathologic findings and clinical correlations in 111 cases.

    PubMed

    Brehmer-Andersson, E; Hovmark, A; Asbrink, E

    1998-05-01

    We studied 111 consecutive, untreated and serologically confirmed patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Emphasis was on the histopathologic patterns of erythematous and fibrous lesions, and on an assay used to correlate histopathologic findings with such clinical features as fibrous nodules, ulnar bands and the pain reaction allodynia. There was a significant correlation between allodynia and signs of marked inflammation, but not between allodynia and neural and perineural cell infiltrates or fibrosis. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between serum IgG titers to Borrelia and the density of inflammatory cell infiltrates or the proportion of plasma cells in tissue. Histopathologic examination did not reveal any important differences between fibrous nodules, ulnar bands and sclerodermatous lesions. The histopathologic pattern is not diagnostic per se, but characteristic enough to alert the experienced pathologist.

  15. Multiple sclerosis animal models: a clinical and histopathological perspective.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Markus; Nyamoya, Stella; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Amor, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    There is a broad consensus that multiple sclerosis (MS) represents more than an inflammatory disease: it harbors several characteristic aspects of a classical neurodegenerative disorder, that is, damage to axons, synapses and nerve cell bodies. While we are equipped with appropriate therapeutic options to prevent immune-cell driven relapses, effective therapeutic options to prevent the progressing neurodegeneration are still missing. In this review article, we will discuss to what extent pathology of the progressive disease stage can be modeled in MS animal models. While acute and relapsing-remitting forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which are T cell dependent, are aptly suited to model relapsing-remitting phases of MS, other EAE models, especially the secondary progressive EAE stage in Biozzi ABH mice is better representing the secondary progressive phase of MS, which is refractory to many immune therapies. Besides EAE, the cuprizone model is rapidly gaining popularity to study the formation and progression of demyelinating CNS lesions without T cell involvement. Here, we discuss these two non-popular MS models. It is our aim to point out the pathological hallmarks of MS, and discuss which pathological aspects of the disease can be best studied in the various animal models available. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  16. Computational Aspects of Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannakakis, Mihalis

    Equilibria play a central role in game theory and economics. They characterize the possible outcomes in the interaction of rational, optimizing agents: In a game between rational players that want to optimize their payoffs, the only solutions in which no player has any incentive to switch his strategy are the Nash equilibria. Price equilibria in markets give the prices that allow the market to clear (demand matches supply) while the traders optimize their preferences (utilities). Fundamental theorems of Nash [34] and Arrow-Debreu [2] established the existence of the respective equilibria (under suitable conditions in the market case). The proofs in both cases use a fixed point theorem (relying ultimately on a compactness argument), and are non-constructive, i.e., do not yield an algorithm for constructing an equilibrium. We would clearly like to compute these predicted outcomes. This has led to extensive research since the 60’s in the game theory and mathematical economics literature, with the development of several methods for computation of equilibria, and more generally fixed points. More recently, equilibria problems have been studied intensively in the computer science community, from the point of view of modern computation theory. While we still do not know definitely whether equilibria can be computed in general efficiently or not, these investigations have led to a better understanding of the computational complexity of equilibria, the various issues involved, and the relationship with other open problems in computation. In this talk we will discuss some of these aspects and our current understanding of the relevant problems. We outline below the main points and explain some of the related issues.

  17. Natural Alternatives for Chemicals Used in Histopathology Lab- A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Shivani; Jeddy, Nadeem; Thangavelu, Radhika; Janardhanan, Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Histopathology lab is the place where the specimen gets processed and stained to view under microscope for interpretation. Exposure to the chemicals used in these processes cause various health hazards to the laboratory technicians, pathologists, and scientists working in the laboratory. Hence, there is a dire need to introduce healthy and bio-friendly alternatives in the field. This literature review explores the natural products and their efficiency to be used as alternatives for chemicals in the histopathology lab. PMID:28050388

  18. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-03-01

    Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK-14 expression was observed in all five cases of

  19. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Aim: Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Materials and Method: Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. Results: The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK

  20. Comparison of Quantitative Microbiology and Histopathology in Divided Burn-Wound Biopsy Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Microbiology andWe :TIC Histopathology in Divided Burn-W oi eCTEn Biopsy Specimens JUL 2 4 1987 .e Albert T. McManus, PhD; Seung H. Kim, MD; William...biologic results and histopathologli findings In divided bi- Biopsy specimens for analysis were selected for each patient onopsy specimens from 200...burned patients. Mlcroblologic the basis of their being the first postadmission diagnostic biopsy counts were determined as Iog1, colony-forming units per

  1. Effect of Lean method implementation in the histopathology section of an anatomical pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Grzybicki, D M; Condel, J L; Stewart, W R; Turcsanyi, B D; Mahood, L K; Becich, M J

    2008-11-01

    In the USA, the lack of processes standardisation in histopathology laboratories leads to less than optimal quality, errors, inefficiency and increased costs. The effectiveness of large-scale quality improvement initiatives has been evaluated rarely. To measure the effect of implementation of a Lean quality improvement process on the efficiency and quality of a histopathology laboratory section. A non-concurrent interventional cohort study from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006 was performed, and the Lean process was implemented on 1 January 2004. Also compared was the productivity of the Lean histopathology section to a sister histopathology section that did not implement Lean processes. Pre- and post-Lean specimen turnaround time and productivity ratios (work units/full time equivalents) were measured. For 200 Lean interventions, a 5-part Likert scale was used to assess the impact on error, success and complexity. In the Lean laboratory, the mean monthly productivity ratio increased from 3439 to 4074 work units/full time equivalents (p<0.001) as the mean daily histopathology section specimen turnaround time decreased from 9.7 to 9.0 h (p = 0.01). The Lean histopathology section had a higher productivity ratio compared with a sister histopathology section (1598 work units/full time equivalents, p<0.001) that did not implement Lean processes. The mean impact, success and complexity of interventions were 2.4, 2.7 and 2.5, respectively. The mean number of specific error causes affected by individual interventions was 2.6. It is concluded that Lean process implementation improved efficiency and quality in the histopathology section.

  2. Template reporting matters--a nationwide study on histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Hans Kristian; Casati, Bettina; Dørum, Liv Marit; Bjugn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Complete and accurate histopathology reports are fundamental in providing quality cancer care. The Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society of Pathology have previously developed a national electronic template for histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resection specimens. The present study was undertaken to investigate (1) whether quality routines in Norwegian pathology laboratories might affect completeness of such histopathology reports and (2) whether the national electronic template improves completeness of histopathology reports compared with other modes of reporting. A questionnaire on quality routines was sent to the 21 pathology laboratories in Norway. All histopathology reports on colorectal cancer submitted to the Cancer Registry for a 3-month period in the autumn of 2007 were then evaluated on the mode of reporting and the presence of 11 key parameters. Of the 20 laboratories that handled resection specimens, 16 had written guidelines on histopathology reporting. Of these, 4 used the national electronic template, 5 used checklists, 3 used locally developed electronic templates, whereas the remaining 4 had neither obligatory checklists nor templates. Of the 650 histopathology reports submitted to the Cancer Registry in the 3-month period, the national template had been used in 170 cases (26.2%), checklists/locally developed templates in 112 cases (17.2%), and free text in 368 cases (56.6%). Quality routines in the pathology laboratories clearly governed reporting practice and the completeness of the histopathology reports. Use of the national electronic template significantly improved (P < .05) the presence of the 11 key parameters compared with reporting by checklists, locally developed electronic templates, or free text. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinico-Histopathological Spectrum of Infectious Granulomatous Dermatoses in Western India- A Representative Study from Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Agale, Shubhangi Vinayak; D’Costa, Grace F.; Valand, Arvind G.; Gupta, Vikram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infectious Granulomatous Dermatoses (IGDS) have various aetiological factors with a considerable overlap in the histopathological and clinical features, thus posing a diagnostic dilemma for dermatologists and pathologists. Aim We aimed at determining the histopathological profile of IGDS correlating it with clinical features with an attempt to find the aetiology. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary referral center of Mumbai over two years, out of 1872 skin biopsies received, 239 histopathologically diagnosed cases of IGDS were studied for histopathological features of granuloma. A clinico-histopathological correlation was attempted. Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions of different groups. Results Leprosy (211 cases) and tuberculosis (28 cases) were the commonest histopathologically diagnosed IGDS. Leprosy spectrum included BT (30.33% cases), followed by TT (21.32%), BL and LL and 21.79% cases of lepra reactions. Skin TB biopsies on histopathology showed lupus vulgaris (53.85% cases), scrofuloderma (15.38%), TBVC and papulonecrotic tuberculid (11.54% each). In leprosy maximum clinico-pathological agreement was seen at tuberculoid pole (TT 72.7% and BT 56.6%). Among tuberculosis cases, scrofuloderma (100%) and lupus vulgaris (53.8%) showed maximum agreement. Conclusion Leprosy and skin TB are the commonest IGDS in Mumbai region though difficult to diagnose and subcategorize with certainty during initial stages. Histopathology plays the important role to elucidate the dilemma. This being a single center study, more such studies with a larger sample size are recommended to get more elaborate data and regional prevalence of these IGDS for a better overall approach to prevention, treatment and control. PMID:27190811

  4. Natural Alternatives for Chemicals Used in Histopathology Lab- A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Ananthalakshmi; Ravi, Shivani; Jeddy, Nadeem; Thangavelu, Radhika; Janardhanan, Sunitha

    2016-11-01

    Histopathology lab is the place where the specimen gets processed and stained to view under microscope for interpretation. Exposure to the chemicals used in these processes cause various health hazards to the laboratory technicians, pathologists, and scientists working in the laboratory. Hence, there is a dire need to introduce healthy and bio-friendly alternatives in the field. This literature review explores the natural products and their efficiency to be used as alternatives for chemicals in the histopathology lab.

  5. Repair of bone defect by nano-modified white mineral trioxide aggregates in rabbit: A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Tanideh, Nader; Asatourian, Armen; Janghorban, Kamal; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-09-01

    Many researchers have tried to enhance materials functions in different aspects of science using nano-modification method, and in many cases the results have been encouraging. To evaluate the histopathological responses of the micro-/nano-size cement-type biomaterials derived from calcium silicate-based composition with addition of nano tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) on bone healing response. Ninety mature male rabbits were anesthetized and a bone defect was created in the right mandible. The rabbits were divided into three groups, which were in turn subdivided into five subgroups with six animals each based on the defect filled by: white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), Nano-WMTA, WMTA without 3CaO.Al2O3, Nano-WMTA with 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3, and empty as control. Twenty, forty and sixty days postoperatively the animals were sacrificed and the right mandibles were removed for histopathological evaluations. Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc comparisons based on the LSMeans procedure was used for data analysis. All the experimental materials provoked a moderate to severe inflammatory reaction, which significantly differed from the control group (p< 0.05). Statistical analysis of bone formation and bone regeneration data showed significant differences between groups at 40- and 60- day intervals in all groups. Absence of 3CaO.Al2O3 leads to more inflammation and foreign body reaction than other groups in all time intervals. Both powder nano-modification and addition of 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3 to calcium silicate-based cement enhanced the favorable tissue response and osteogenesis properties of WMTA based materials.

  6. Olmesartan-associated sprue-like enteropathy: a systematic review with emphasis on histopathology.

    PubMed

    Burbure, Nina; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Green, Peter H R; Bhagat, Govind; Lagana, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Sprue-like enteropathy associated with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan was first described in 2012, and a number of cases have since been reported. This syndrome is characterized by severe diarrhea and sprue-like histopathologic findings in the intestine, often with increased subepithelial collagen. The incidence of this adverse drug reaction is not entirely clear, although it is thought to be rare. It is also not well established if other ARBs cause such a syndrome, although case reports suggest they can. The histopathologic features of olmesartan-related injury have only been described in a limited number of cases, and there are no guidelines regarding the histopathologic distinction of olmesartan-associated enteropathy from other causes of sprue (eg, celiac disease, tropical sprue). Herein, we review the histopathologic changes and clinical observations described in recent reports of olmesartan-associated sprue-like enteropathy comprising case series and isolated reports, other relevant literature, and our experience at a referral center specializing in small intestinal disorders. We will review recent literature suggesting other ARBs can be associated with a similar phenotype. Lastly, we will discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis and provide clues to distinguish this entity from other entities which can cause sprue-like histopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between small bowel manometric patterns and full-thickness biopsy histopathology in severe intestinal dysmotility.

    PubMed

    Malagelada, C; Karunaratne, T B; Accarino, A; Cogliandro, R F; Landolfi, S; Gori, A; Boschetti, E; Malagelada, J R; Stanghellini, V; Azpiroz, F; De Giorgio, R

    2017-09-22

    Intestinal manometry is the current standard for direct evaluation of small bowel dysmotility. Patients with abnormal motility can either be diagnosed of pseudo-obstruction when there are radiological findings mimicking mechanical intestinal obstruction or of enteric dysmotility when these findings are absent. The aim of the present study was to prospectively compare small bowel manometric abnormalities with histopathological findings in intestinal full-thickness biopsies in patients with severe dysmotility disorders. We investigated 38 patients with intestinal manometry and a subsequent full-thickness intestinal biopsy. Manometric recordings were read by 4 investigators and a diagnostic consensus was obtained in 35 patients. Histopathological analysis, including specific immunohistochemical techniques of small bowel biopsies was performed and compared to manometric readings. Patients with abnormal intestinal manometry had abnormal histopathological findings in 73% of cases. However, manometric patterns did not match with the specific neuromuscular abnormalities. Among patients with a neuropathic manometry pattern and abnormal histopathology, only 23% had an enteric neuropathy, whereas 62% had neuromuscular inflammation, and 15% an enteric myopathy. On the other hand, patients with a myopathic manometry pattern all had abnormal histopathology, however, none of them with signs of enteric myopathy. Small bowel dysmotility detected by intestinal manometry is often associated with abnormal neuromuscular findings in full-thickness biopsies. However, there is no correlation between the specific manometric patterns and the histopathological findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Value of histopathologic examination of uterine products after first-trimester miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Alsibiani, Sharifa Ali

    2014-01-01

    The main rationale of routine histopathologic examination of products after first-trimester miscarriages is to detect an ectopic pregnancy or a molar pregnancy, which require further management. An alternative approach is to examine the products only when there is a definite indication. As there is no agreement, we aimed to study whether routine histopathological examination of tissues obtained after first-trimester miscarriage is of any clinical value in our populations. Medical records of all (558) patients with a diagnosis of first-trimester miscarriage over 4 years (2007-2010) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Histopathologic examination confirmed products of conception in 537 (96.2%) patients, no products of conception in 17 (3%) patients, molar pregnancy in 2 (0.4%) patients, and decidual tissues without chorionic villi (Arias-Stella reaction) in 2 (0.4%) patients. After clinical correlation, only one unsuspected partial molar pregnancy was diagnosed by histopathology examination. Conclusion is that it does not appear reasonable to perform histopathological examination routinely after all first-trimester miscarriages in our studied population. We recommend that histopathological examination be performed in select instances: when the diagnosis is uncertain, when fewer tissues have been obtained during surgery, when unexpected pathology was seen, when ultrasound suggests a molar pregnancy, or when patients are considered at high risk for trophoblastic disease.

  9. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen.

    PubMed

    Adissu, Hibret A; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice.

  10. Analysis of metaplastic breast carcinoma: FNAC; histopathology and immunohistochemistry are complementary for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Abd El Hafez, Amal; Shawky, Abd El-Aty

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare malignancy comprised of ductal, squamous and/or mesenchymal elements with problematic diagnosis. This study analyses MBC identifying its cytologic and histologic features and emphasizing the combined role of FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in its diagnosis. Cytology and histopathology files search yielded 21 cases identified as MBC from January 2005 to December 2010. FNAC and the histopathology slides were re-examined for the presence and frequency of various elements. Cytological and histopathological diagnoses were made and the cases subtyped according to WHO classification. Cytokeratin and vimenten IHC were used to confirm diagnosis when required. On FNAC, 52.4% were diagnosed as malignant, 9.5% as suspicious for malignancy and 38.1% as benign lesions. Most frequent cytologic findings were squamous and spindle cell elements (52.4% each). Histopathology revealed 76.2% pure epithelial tumors and 23.8% mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological subtype (33.3%). Carcinosarcomas were dimorphic on IHC& spindle cell carcinomas were positive for both cytokeratin and vimentin. Presence of dual components, squamous, spindle elements, mesenchymal fragments and necrosis in moderate to high cellularity breast FNAC provides clues for the diagnosis of MBC. FNAC; histopathology and IHC complement for diagnosis.

  11. The Influence of Clinical Information in the Histopathologic Diagnosis of Melanocytic Skin Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Argenyi, Zsolt; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Cerio, Rino; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Di Blasi, Arturo; Feudale, Elisa A. A.; Giorgio, Caterina M.; Massone, Cesare; Nappi, Oscar; Tomasini, Carlo; Urso, Carmelo; Zalaudek, Iris; Kittler, Harald; Soyer, H. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background We tested the relevance of clinical information in the histopathologic evaluation of melanocytic skin neoplasm (MSN). Methods Histopathologic specimens from 99 clinically atypical MSN were circulated among ten histopathologists; each case had clinical information available in a database with a five-step procedure (no information; age/sex/location; clinical diagnosis; clinical image; dermoscopic image); each step had a histopathologic diagnosis (D1 through D5); each diagnostic step had a level of diagnostic confidence (LDC) ranging from 1 (no diagnostic certainty) to 5 (absolute diagnostic certainty). The comparison of the LDC was employed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Findings In D1 (no information), 36/99 cases (36.3%) had unanimous diagnosis; in D5 (full information available), 51/99 cases (51.5%) had unanimous diagnosis (p for difference between proportions <0.001). The observer agreement expressed as kappa increased significantly from D1 to D5. The mean LDC linearly increased for each observer from D1 through D5 (p for linear trend <0.001). On average, each histopathologist changed his initial diagnosis in 7 cases (range: 2–23). Most diagnostic changes were in D2 (age/sex/location). Interpretation The histopathologic criteria for the diagnosis of MSN can work as such, but the final histopathologic diagnosis is a clinically-aided interpretation. Clinical data sometimes reverse the initial histopathologic evaluation. PMID:19404399

  12. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen

    PubMed Central

    Adissu, Hibret A.; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M.; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A.; Project, Sanger Mouse Genetics; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K.; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice. PMID:24652767

  13. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  14. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already

  15. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; Almeida, Élia Cláudia de Souza; Camilo, Silvia Maria Perrone; Terra-Júnior, Júverson Alves; Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Duque, Ana Cristina da Rocha; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida

    Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. A obesidade mórbida é doença multifatorial cujo tratamento cirúrgico é cada vez mais indicado. Avaliar alterações histopatológicas gástricas em obesos e comparar com os submetidos à bypass gastrojejunal e a mucosa jejunal após a operação. Estudo observacional realizado em hospital público terciário avaliando biópsias endoscópicas de 36 pacientes no pré-operatório e 35 no pós-operatório. No pré-operatório 80,6% apresentaram gastrite crônica, 38,9% em atividade (77,1% e 20,1%, respectivamente, no pós-operatório). O grupo pós-operatório apresentou diminuição significativa na infecção por Helicobacter pylory (p=0,0001). Maior comprimento do coto gástrico e tempo de operação superior a dois anos associaram-se a infecção por Helicobacter pylori. A mucosa jejunal foi normal em 91,4% e

  16. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  17. Unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Sahin, Nurhan; Arabaci, Ebru; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and implications of unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis. METHODS: The demographic and histopathological data of 1621 patients (≥ 16 years-old) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January 1999 and November 2011 were retrospectively assessed. Microscopic findings were used to classify the patients under six categories: appendix vermiformis, phlegmonous appendicitis, gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis, supurative appendicitis, and unusual histopathologic findings. The demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with unusual histopathologic findings were evaluated in detail, and re-analysis of archived resected appendix specimens was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 912 males and 709 females, from 16 to 94 years old, were included in the study and comprised 789 cases of suppurative appendicitis, 370 cases of appendix vermiformis, 243 cases of perforated gangrenous appendicitis, 53 cases of flegmaneous appendicitis, 32 cases of gangrenous appendicitis, and 134 (8.3%) cases of unusual histopathological findings. The unusual histopathological findings included fibrous obliteration (n = 62), enterobius vermicularis (n = 31), eosinophilic infiltration (n = 10), mucinous cystadenoma (n = 8), carcinoid tumor (n = 6), granulomatous inflammation (n = 5), adenocarcinoma (n = 4; one of them mucinous), and mucocele (n = 3), adenomatous polyp (n = 1), taenia sup (n = 1), ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1), appendiceal diverticula (n = 1), and B cell non-hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). None of the 11 patients with subsequent diagnosis of tumor were suspected of cancer prior to the appendectomy. CONCLUSION: Even when the macroscopic appearance of appendectomy specimens is normal, histopathological assessment will allow early diagnosis of many unusual diseases. PMID:23840147

  18. The histopathological spectrum of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and its differentiation from generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kardaun, Sylvia H; Kuiper, Hilde; Fidler, Vaclav; Jonkman, Marcel F

    2010-12-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) represents a severe, acute, pustular skin reaction that is most often induced by drugs. AGEP can be difficult to differentiate from generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) both clinically and histopathologically. We present a systematic description of the histopathological spectrum of AGEP and GPP with a focus on discriminating features. A retrospective, descriptive, comparative histopathological study was completed utilizing step sections of 43 biopsies of 29 cases with a validated diagnosis of probable or definite AGEP and 24 biopsies of 19 cases with an established diagnosis of GPP. In AGEP, biopsies from erythema and pustules showed minor differences, whereas histopathology of the acute stage of GPP showed major differences compared to the chronic stage. Comparing AGEP and GPP, the presence of eosinophils, necrotic keratinocytes, a mixed interstitial and mid-dermal perivascular infiltrate and absence of tortuous or dilated blood vessels were in favor of AGEP. Moreover, chronic GPP was characterized by prominent epidermal psoriatic changes. The frequency of a psoriatic background of AGEP patients in our study was higher than that of psoriasis in the general population. However, histopathology of a subgroup of AGEP patients with a personal history of psoriasis revealed no significant differences from the other AGEP patients. The spectrum of histopathological features of both AGEP and GPP is presented. Despite considerable overlap, subtle consistent histopathological differences and the grade of severity of specific features can help in differentiation. We could neither substantiate earlier reports that follicular pustules exclude AGEP nor did we see vasculitis as a specific feature in AGEP. Our study also supports the concept that AGEP is a separate entity that is distinct from GPP. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Leeftink, A G; Boucherie, R J; Hans, E W; Verdaasdonk, M A M; Vliegen, I M H; van Diest, P J

    2016-09-01

    Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload during their shifts. This points to the need for efficient planning of activities in the histopathology laboratory, to ensure an equal division of workload and low TATs, at minimum costs. The histopathology laboratory of a large academic hospital in The Netherlands was analysed using mathematical modelling. Data were collected from the Laboratory Management System to determine laboratory TATs and workload performance during regular working hours. A mixed integer linear programme (MILP) was developed to model the histopathology processes and to measure the expected performance of possible interventions in terms of TATs and spread of workload. The MILP model predicted that tissue processing at specific moments during the day, combined with earlier starting shifts, can result in up to 25% decrease of TATs, and a more equally spread workload over the day. Mathematical modelling can help to optimally organise the workload in the histopathology laboratory by predicting the performance of possible interventions before actual implementation. The interventions that were predicted by the model to have the highest performance have been implemented in the histopathology laboratory of University Medical Center Utrecht. Further research should be executed to collect empirical evidence and evaluate the actual impact on TAT, quality of work and employee stress levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Routine histopathology of gallbladder after elective cholecystectomy for gallstones: waste of resources or a justified act?

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faisal G; Memon, Ahmer A; Abro, Arshad H; Sasoli, Nazeer A; Ahmad, Lubna

    2013-07-08

    Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators' own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder. This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance. Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis. The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to

  1. Combined Multidimensional Microscopy as a Histopathology Imaging Tool.

    PubMed

    Shami, Gerald J; Cheng, Delfine; Braet, Filip

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we present a highly versatile bioimaging workflow for the multidimensional imaging of biological structures across vastly different length scales. Such an approach allows for the optimised preparation of samples in one go for consecutive X-ray micro-computed tomography, bright-field light microscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy, thus, facilitating the disclosure of combined structural information ranging from the gross tissue or cellular level, down to the nanometre scale. In this current study, we characterize various aspects of the hepatic vasculature, ranging from such large vessels as branches of the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery, down to the smallest sinusoidal capillaries. By employing high-resolution backscattered scanning electron microscopy, we were able to further characterize the subcellular features of a range of hepatic sinusoidal cells including, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, pit cells and Kupffer cells. Above all, we demonstrate the capabilities of a specimen manipulation workflow that can be applied and adapted to a plethora of functional and structural investigations and experimental models. Such an approach harnesses the fundamental advantages inherent to the various imaging modalities presented herein, and when combined, offers information not currently available by any single imaging platform. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 249-256, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  3. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) Related Deaths: Autoptic, Histopathological and Toxicological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P.; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  4. A method for accurate spatial registration of PET images and histopathology slices.

    PubMed

    Puri, Tanuj; Chalkidou, Anastasia; Henley-Smith, Rhonda; Roy, Arunabha; Barber, Paul R; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Oakley, Richard; Simo, Ricard; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; McGurk, Mark; Odell, Edward W; O'Doherty, Michael J; Marsden, Paul K

    2015-12-01

    Accurate alignment between histopathology slices and positron emission tomography (PET) images is important for radiopharmaceutical validation studies. Limited data is available on the registration accuracy that can be achieved between PET and histopathology slices acquired under routine pathology conditions where slices may be non-parallel, non-contiguously cut and of standard block size. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a method for aligning PET images and histopathology slices acquired from patients with laryngeal cancer and to assess the registration accuracy obtained under these conditions. Six subjects with laryngeal cancer underwent a (64)Cu-copper-II-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) PET computed tomography (CT) scan prior to total laryngectomy. Sea urchin spines were inserted into the pathology specimen to act as fiducial markers. The specimen was fixed in formalin, as per standard histopathology operating procedures, and was then CT scanned and cut into millimetre-thick tissue slices. A subset of the tissue slices that included both tumour and fiducial markers was taken and embedded in paraffin blocks. Subsequently, microtome sectioning and haematoxylin and eosin staining were performed to produce 5-μm-thick tissue sections for microscopic digitisation. A series of rigid registration procedures was performed between the different imaging modalities (PET; in vivo CT-i.e. the CT component of the PET-CT; ex vivo CT; histology slices) with the ex vivo CT serving as the reference image. In vivo and ex vivo CTs were registered using landmark-based registration. Histopathology and ex vivo CT images were aligned using the sea urchin spines with additional anatomical landmarks where available. Registration errors were estimated using a leave-one-out strategy for in vivo to ex vivo CT and were estimated from the RMS landmark accuracy for histopathology to ex vivo CT. The mean ± SD accuracy for registration of the in vivo to ex

  5. Histopathological heterogeneity of in-stent restenosis in four coronary endarterectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Akira; Shimabukuro, Michio; Tabata, Minoru; Fukuda, Daiju; Uematsu, Etsuko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Here, we histopathologically compare four patients undergoing coronary artery bypass with coronary endarterectomy and onlay patch grafting for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after the implantation of a bare-metal stent (BMS), sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), or paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in an everolimus-eluting stent (EES). Heterogeneity of ISR was noted histopathologically. In ISR for BMS, restenosis is likely caused by so-called neoatherosclerosis that occurred which altered the healing process of BMS implantation. Two ISR cases for SES showed a histopathological heterogeneity: one showed nodular calcified thrombus around stent strut protruding into the lumen, and the other showed concentric neointima composed of CD68-positive foam cell proliferation. In the ISR lesion for PES in EES, infiltrations with foam cells macrophages, particularly numerous eosinophilic cell infiltrations, suggest a peristent strut hypersensitivity reaction. We found a remarkable histopathological heterogeneity of ISR. The study using coronary endarterectomy specimens can give us pivotal information about the histopathological heterogeneity of ISR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell segmentation in histopathological images with deep learning algorithms by utilizing spatial relationships.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nuh; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2017-02-28

    In many computerized methods for cell detection, segmentation, and classification in digital histopathology that have recently emerged, the task of cell segmentation remains a chief problem for image processing in designing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In research and diagnostic studies on cancer, pathologists can use CAD systems as second readers to analyze high-resolution histopathological images. Since cell detection and segmentation are critical for cancer grade assessments, cellular and extracellular structures should primarily be extracted from histopathological images. In response, we sought to identify a useful cell segmentation approach with histopathological images that uses not only prominent deep learning algorithms (i.e., convolutional neural networks, stacked autoencoders, and deep belief networks), but also spatial relationships, information of which is critical for achieving better cell segmentation results. To that end, we collected cellular and extracellular samples from histopathological images by windowing in small patches with various sizes. In experiments, the segmentation accuracies of the methods used improved as the window sizes increased due to the addition of local spatial and contextual information. Once we compared the effects of training sample size and influence of window size, results revealed that the deep learning algorithms, especially convolutional neural networks and partly stacked autoencoders, performed better than conventional methods in cell segmentation.

  7. Comparing histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging based mesorectal fascia status in patients with rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Usman; Khan, Rizwanullah; Mehmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-04-01

    To compare mesorectal fascia status on histopathological findings with MRI based radiological mesorectal fascia status in patients with rectal carcinoma taking histopathology finding as gold standard. Analytical study. Department of Pathology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from January 2011 to April 2012. Biopsy proven cases of rectal adenocarcinoma undergoing abdominoperineal resection were included in this study. Microscopic examination of slides was done to determine mesorectal fascia status as involved or otherwise without knowing the results of mesorectal fascia status on MRI. Mesorectal fascia status of MRI was determined by a radiologist who was not aware of the histopathological assessment of mesorectal fascia. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for age. Frequency and percentage were calculated for gender and mesorectal fascia status. 2 x 2 table was generated to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of MRI for mesorectal fascia involvement taking histopathology as gold standard. The sensitivity of MRI to detect mesorectal fascia involvement was 23.07% and specificity was 70.5%. Positive predictive value of MRI was 10% and negative predictive value was 54.54%. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for mesorectal fascia involvement was calculated as 50%. MRI findings regarding mesorectal fascia status as involved or otherwise are not helpful when compared with histopathological findings which is the gold standard.

  8. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Seema N; Panchal, Nirav S

    2015-01-01

    Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques.

  9. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. When to suspect tinea; a histopathologic study of 103 cases of PAS-positive tinea.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Valdebran, Manuel; Gad, AbdAllah; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-10-01

    The histopathologic features of tinea vary widely and its diagnosis could be easily missed if the index of suspicion is not high. We aimed in this study to detect histopathologic features that could be a clue for diagnosis We retrospectively reviewed 103 cases of tinea, confirmed by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. For each case, gender, biopsy site, and pre-biopsy suspicion were recorded. The presence or absence of 17 microscopic features was noted. Concordance between pre-biopsy and histopathologic diagnosis was noted in 57.28% of cases, suggesting that the diagnosis is often not suspected clinically. Among the histopathologic features studied, a compact stratum corneum (either uniform or forming a layer beneath a basket weave stratum corneum), parakeratosis, mild spongiosis and neutrophils in the stratum corneum and within the blood vessels were the most frequent features noted. This study suggests histopathologic clues that should prompt the pathologist to order a PAS stain, especially when diagnosis is not suspected clinically. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf.

  12. Histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Manuel Lora; Young, Eric D; Bush, James; McKenzie, Katelyn; Hunt, Edgar; Tonkovic-Capin, Viseslav; Jacobs, Melissa; Kucenic, Michael; Fraga, Garth R

    2017-09-01

    Dermatopathology is considered the gold standard for melanoma diagnosis, but a subset of cases is difficult to diagnose by histopathology. The goals of this study were to measure the accuracy of histopathologic features in difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic tumors and the interobserver agreement of those features. This is a case-control study of histopathologic features of melanoma in 100 difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic neoplasms (40 melanomas and 60 nevi). Slides were blindly evaluated by 5 dermatopathologists. Frequencies, predictive values, and interobserver agreement were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most influential features in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry, single-cell melanocytosis, solar elastosis, pagetoid melanocytosis, and broad surface diameter were most influential in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry and single-cell melanocytosis were most predictive of melanoma. Fleiss kappa was <0.6 for interobserver agreement in 9/10 histopathologic features of melanoma. This study is limited by the small sample size, selection bias, and binary classification of melanocytic lesions. Our results indicate histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions vary in accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  14. Tolerance of Micronized Mineral Pigments for Intrastromal Keratopigmentation: A Histopathology and Immunopathology Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Amesty, Maria A; Rodriguez, Alejandra E; Hernández, Enrique; De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    To study the tolerance and biocompatibility of mineral pigments for corneal pigmentation histopathologically and immunologically in an experimental animal model. Manual intralamellar keratopigmentation was performed in 28 New Zealand white rabbits using micronized mineral pigments. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the surgery to determine the level of pigment diffusion, the level of inflammation, and the presence/absence of neovascularization. An immunological analysis was also performed. No pigment diffusion or changes in color, inflammation, or neovascularization were detected in the treated eyes. Histopathological examination corroborated clinical results regarding inflammation. Pigmented corneas showed a good cosmetic appearance without signs of ocular toxicity. From the immunological perspective, the pigments do not generate an inflammatory response in the rabbit cornea or in vitro. Micronized mineral pigments could be a valid alternative treatment for corneal pigmentation. Manual intralamellar keratopigmentation technique presented good cosmetic appearance without adverse effects in the treated eyes.

  15. [Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency: a histopathologic study of 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guang-yu; Cheng, Zhao-ming; Liu, Kai-shan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of histopathological changes in the liver of patients with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). Liver specimens from 10 cases of NICCD were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (EnVision method). SLC25A13 mutation analysis was performed to correlate with histopathology. Most specimens showed varying degrees of fat deposition in hepatocytes, necrotic inflammation, cholestasis and fibrosis (so-called tetralogy). The combination of the above four histological changes was highly characteristic for NICCD. With the progression of the disease, hepatic fibrosis deteriorated and ultimately led to cirrhosis. NICCD should be suspected in the presence of cholestasis during infancy. A liver biopsy must be performed to rule out other liver diseases. The tetralogy of the hepatic histopathological changes has a highly diagnostic value for NICCD, which is also practical for accurately assessing the degree of inflammation and fibrosis, and similarly the progression of hepatic cirrhosis.

  16. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides With Lichen Sclerosus-Like Clinical and Histopathological Features.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Burak; Kempf, Werner; Seckin, Dilek; Ergun, Tulin; Yucelten, Deniz; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) simulates a variety of dermatologic disorders histopathologically and clinically, well deserving the designation of a great mimicker. Interstitial MF is a rare, but well-recognized histopathological variant resembling the interstitial form of granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of morphea. From a clinical standpoint, MF can have a wide array of manifestations, including an anecdotal presentation with lesions clinically suggestive of lichen sclerosus (LS). We herein report a 25-year-old man with a history of patch-stage MF who later developed widespread LS-like lesions histopathologically consistent with interstitial MF. In some biopsies, additional features resembling LS were discerned. We think that our case might represent a unique variant of interstitial MF presenting with LS-like lesions. The diagnostic challenge arising from this uncommon presentation is discussed together with review of the literature.

  17. Computer-aided prognosis on breast cancer with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Li, Yan; Xu, Jun; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lin-Wei; Liu, Wen-Lou; Liu, Juan

    2017-03-01

    With the advance of digital pathology, image analysis has begun to show its advantages in information analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images. Generally, histological features in hematoxylin and eosin images are measured to evaluate tumor grade and prognosis for breast cancer. This review summarized recent works in image analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images for breast cancer prognosis. First, prognostic factors for breast cancer based on hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images were summarized. Then, usual procedures of image analysis for breast cancer prognosis were systematically reviewed, including image acquisition, image preprocessing, image detection and segmentation, and feature extraction. Finally, the prognostic value of image features and image feature-based prognostic models was evaluated. Moreover, we discussed the issues of current analysis, and some directions for future research.

  18. Histopathology of hepatitis C in children, a systematic review: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Guido, Maria; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C in children is usually considered a clinically mild and slowly progressive disease. Few pediatric studies focused on histopathology of children with hepatitis C are available. Those available show, overall, a wide spectrum of findings ranging from normal liver to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the studies that explored histopathology in children with hepatitis C. Factors affecting the presence and the degree of necroinflammation, fibrosis and steatosis and the risk of progression to advanced liver disease were extensively evaluated. Insights on the possible role of histopathology findings in the decision-making process of whether or not to treat children with hepatitis C are provided.

  19. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  20. Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

    1971-01-01

    This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)