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Sample records for ascaris lumbricoides case

  1. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  2. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  3. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    PubMed

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  4. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  5. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides. PMID:22348306

  6. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  8. [Elimination of juvenile stages of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758) by mouth. Report of a case and some epidemiological considerations].

    PubMed

    Neira O, Patricia; Pino Q, Gloria; Muñoz S, Nelson; Tobar C, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Ascariosis is a parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large geohelmint endemic in our country. At present, ascariosis is a rare infection in Chile. We present a case of an adult, resident of the Villa Alemana municipality, Valparaiso Region, who spontaneously expelled two juvenile nematodes by mouth. We review the manifestations produced by the larval and adult stages of this parasite including their diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological considerations.

  9. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  10. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  11. The "crowding effect" phenomenon in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Monzon, R B; Cabrera, B D; Cruz, A C; Baltazar, J C

    1990-12-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides worm populations were studied from 150 Filipino children (0-14 years) dewormed with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) or oxantel-pyrantel pamoate (Quantrel). Populations were classified according to intensity of infection: very light, light, moderate or heavy. A total of 2072 adult worms were sexed (939 males and 1133 females) and weighed. Descriptive statistics on the weights obtained from each sex were derived and one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the mean weights among the 4 intensity classes. Linear regression analysis (individual worm weight versus total worm burden) was also employed to equalize the possible influence of host factors. Statistical analysis revealed that mean weights of both sexes were significantly different and decreased as worm burden increased. This strongly suggests that the "crowding effect" phenomenon may also apply to Ascaris lumbricoides, and not only to tapeworms, as reported in the literature. PMID:2098920

  12. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  13. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient’s clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms. PMID:22509089

  14. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  15. Chronic intussusception in children caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Harry; Palčevski, Goran; Saina, Giordano; Peršić, Mladen

    2011-05-01

    Chronic intussusception (CI) is defined as an intussusception lasting for 14 days or more. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, sometimes an abdominal mass is palpable and there is a marked weight loss. Diagnosis is based on typical features revealed by ultrasound or barium enema and CT investigations. Therapy is surgical with obligatory exclusion of possible underlying lesions. We report a case of a 3.5-year-old girl with chronic intussusception. Laboratory blood findings revealed sideropenic anemia and stools positive for Ascaris lumbricoides. Anti-parasitic therapy with mebendazole was repeatedly administered with early improvements but soon after symptoms relapsed. During surgery an ileocolic chronic intussusception extending to hepatic flexure was found. Postoperative control examinations proved complete healing. We suspected that Ascaris lumbricoides infestation was an etiologic factor for the development of chronic intussusception in the child.

  16. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  17. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up. PMID:27604675

  18. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  19. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  20. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection. PMID:27066982

  1. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  2. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    PubMed

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  4. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  5. Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Isabel; Giusti, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    A. lumbricoides is the largest of the common nematode parasites of man and has been associated with intestinal pathology, respiratory symptoms and malnutrition in children from endemic areas. Current anthelmintic treatments have proven to be safe. However, a reduced efficacy of single dose drugs has been reported. In veterinary practice, anthelmintic drug resistance is an irreversible problem. Thus, research and development of sensitive tools for early detection of drug resistance as well as new anthelmintic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we summarized data providing information about current drug therapy against A. lumbricoides and other intestinal helminths, new drugs in experimental trials, future drugs perspectives and the identification of immunogenic parasite molecules that may be suitable vaccine targets. In addition to the WHO recommended drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate), new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. Also, some new drugs for veterinary use, monepantel and cyclooctadepsipeptides (e.g., PF1022A), will probably expand future drug spectrum for human treatments. The development of genomic technology has provided a great amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data that may lead to the identification of new drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. On the other hand, the identification of nematode antigens involved in different parasite vital functions as well as immunomodulatory molecules in animals and humans may contribute to future studies of new therapeutic approaches.

  6. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  7. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  8. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  9. Acute abdomen secondary to ascaris lumbricoides infestation of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Scott M; Chokshi, R J; Edavettal, M; Tarasov, E

    2005-06-01

    Ascariasis is a helminthic infection commonly found in tropical climates. It often propagates in communities of low socioeconomic status secondary to contamination of the soil and water supply with human feces. We present a case report of a 42-year-old Asian-Indian female presenting with a long-standing history of severe recurrent postprandial epigastric pain, requiring multiple hospital admissions. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and nuclear biliary scan were negative. She underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy that suggested ischemia. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and mesenteric angiography were inconclusive. As conservative treatment had been unsuccessful, a small bowel series was performed. The radiographs demonstrated characteristic findings of Ascaris lumbricoides infestation. Although the prevalence, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of an acute abdomen secondary to Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is commonly seen in developing countries, clinicians in developed countries may not consider this entity when faced with a patient with similar symptoms. We frequently care for immigrants from developing countries and our own citizens who visit the countries where ascariasis is endemic. Therefore, heightened awareness of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (ALI) presenting as an acute abdomen is necessary. The diagnosis requires an experienced radiologist and knowledge by the clinician of treatment options and of when a surgeon should be involved.

  10. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  11. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  12. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  13. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  14. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  15. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  16. Cellular responses and cytokine profiles in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infected patients.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Stefan M; Massara, Cristiano L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Soboslay, Peter T; Carvalho, Omar S; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    The impact of intestinal helminth infection, i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, on cellular responsiveness and cytokine production was investigated in young adults. Ascaris-specific cellular responsiveness was higher in parasite-free endemic controls than in patients infected with T. trichiura, or A. lumbricoides, or patients co-infected with both parasites. Also, mitogen-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was higher in negative endemic controls than in infected individuals. Ascaris antigen-specific production of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IFN-gamma was low in singly Ascaris as well as in co-infected patients, whereas secretion of IL-10 and IL-13 was elevated and similarly high in all patient groups. The detection of Trichuris-specific and Ascaris-specific IgG4 revealed significantly higher serum antibody levels in Trichuris or Ascaris patients when compared to endemic controls (P < 0.05), whereas parasite-specific IgE antibody levels were similarly high in infected individuals and in endemic controls. In summary, chronically infected Ascaris and Trichuris patients with a high parasite load presented reduced cellular reactivity and lower type 1 TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses when compared with endemic controls, whereas type 2 IL-10 and IL-13 productions were similar in all groups from the endemic area. The former may support parasite persistence, whereas substantial type 2 cytokine release may promote protective immunity, suggesting an adaptation of the host to control the parasite burden while minimizing immune-mediated host self-damage.

  17. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  18. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  19. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  20. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    PubMed

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all bimonthly visits), subjects more than 5 years of age, treated with levamisole had a significant increase in their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.02), whereas there was no effect of anti-helminthic treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age. The demonstration of a clear negative interaction between Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  1. The role of dogs in transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides for humans.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A

    2010-04-01

    The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.

  2. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  3. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  4. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin <12microg/l was associated with higher egg counts than serum ferritin >or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  5. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout the entire spacer. A nuclear run-on experiment in vitro confirms the drop of polymerase I concentration down-stream of this site. The termination site for polymerase I transcription of the rDNA operon in A. lumbricoides is therefore unique, and located at the very end of the 26S rRNA gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2390973

  6. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression.

  7. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression. PMID:20441516

  8. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    PubMed

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  9. The pharmacology of the cholinoceptor in muscle preparations of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum

    PubMed Central

    Natoff, I. L.

    1969-01-01

    1. The preparation of a muscle strip of Ascaris lumbricoides for the study of the effect of drugs in vitro is described. 2. Stimulant drugs which are classified as nicotine-like in mammalian pharmacology increased the isometric tension of this preparation. These drugs were, in descending order of potency: dimethylphenylpiperazinium, nicotine, acetylcholine, carbachol, decamethonium and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide. 3. Muscarine-like drugs (oxotremorine, methacholine, pilocarpine) had no activity. 4. Potassium and barium ions stimulated the tissue, while the anti-cholinesterases, dichlorvos and eserine, increased the resting tension of the preparation and potentiated the responses to acetylcholine. 5. Adrenaline neither stimulated the tissue nor affected the responses to nicotine-like drugs. 6. The relative potency of several blocking agents which antagonize the responses to nicotine-like drugs was assayed. These blocking agents were, in descending order of potency: mecamylamine, (+)-tubocurarine, hexamethonium, atropine and piperazine. Acetylcholine, dimethylphenylpiperazinium and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide apparently act on a common receptor, for each blocking agent had a similar molar inhibitory concentration against these stimulants. 7. It is concluded that the cholinoceptor in muscle preparations of Ascaris lumbricoides is pharmacologically similar to that of the mammalian autonomic ganglion. PMID:4390485

  10. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  11. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  12. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  13. Co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides modulates protective immune responses against Giardia duodenalis in school Venezuelan rural children.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (p<0.0001) in the moderately infected group. In the A. lumbricoides lightly parasitized children, G. duodenalis infection was associated to a significant increase (p<0.005) of the levels of G. duodenalis IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-6, IgE, IgG and skin test hyper reactivity. In contrast, there was no effect of G. duodenalis infection in the elevation of these parameters among the A. lumbricoides moderately parasitized group, being those levels similarly lower as those observed in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between the levels of anti G duodenalis antibodies, skin test hyper-reactivity and cytokines with the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection (p>0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.

  14. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  15. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  17. Confirmation of the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Plasmodium falciparum infection: results of a randomized trial in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2007-12-01

    A controlled randomized trial of anti-helminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Plasmodium falciparum, and Schistosoma mansoni. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 107 subjects, whereas 105 were controls. Levamisole was highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all visits), whereas it had no effect on schistosomiasis. Subjects 5-14 years of age, treated with levamisole, had a significant increase of their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.003). There was no effect of the treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age, nor on adults > 15 years of age. This study confirms the results of a randomized trial, which showed a negative interaction in those > 5 years of age between Ascaris and malaria parasite density in another Malagasy population, submitted to a higher malaria transmission.

  18. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  19. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (p<0.0001) and skin test positivity for A. lumbricoides (p<0.0001). The percentage of FEV1 predictive values correlated inversely (p<0.0001) with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (p<0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in urban children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with elevated anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE levels (p=0. 0089), skin hyper reactivity towards this aero allergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that the IgE response against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic

  20. [Anthelmintics as a risk factor in intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children].

    PubMed

    Vásquez Tsuji, O; Gutiérrez Castrellón, P; Yamazaki Nakashimada, M A; Arredondo Suárez, J C; Campos Riveral, T; Martínez Barbosa, I

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n = 66) of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n = 133) children with no complications. A comparative analysis of clinical data of both groups was made by means of chi square with Yates correction and a stratified analysis by means of chi square. Possible confusing elements were overcrowding, age and the use of antiparasitic drugs. The calculus of risk factors for intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides was done by means of contingency tables of 2 x 2 and odds ratio with an IC of 95%. The significant risk factors were included in a model of logistics regression with an impact variable consting in the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction in order to establish a multivariate model of predictive risk at level of significance of p < 0.05. Twenty-seven patients (40.90%) in group A (n = 66) were given anthelmintics medications prior to the intestinal obstruction: mebendazol, 14 (51-85%); two, albedazol (7.4%); eight, a non-specified anthelmintic (29.6%). In addition, an anthelmintic medication without a specified time of ingestion: two with mebendazol and one with piperazine (11.3%). In the case of mebendazol, the drug most frequently associated with intestinal obstruction, seven patients received it on the same day of the obstruction; five patients received it between one and seven days prior to the obstruction; two received it seven days prior to the complication. In the control group, only 7% had taken the anthelmintic one to seven days before the diagnosis of uncomplicated intestinal ascariasis diagnosis was made. With the step

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  2. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  3. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  4. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P < 0.05). The tumor inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth.

  5. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Garn, Joshua V.; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Simiyu, Elses W.; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18–0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors.

  8. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  9. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, H; Dekaminsky, R; Niwas, S; Soto, R; Jolly, P

    2001-04-01

    Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9) and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4) respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001), level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01), reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02), households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002), and the location of households (p=0.03). Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively), ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively) and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR)=22.2), children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8), and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0) were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively).

  10. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  11. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  12. Analysis of clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices in hospitalized children with Ascaris lumbricoides infection from the northeastern region of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Kaczmarski, Maciej G; Sawicka-Zukowska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Majewska, Anna; Plewa, Katarzyna; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Debkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common soil-transmitted helminth infection in the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices of ascariasis in hospitalized children from the northeastern region of Poland. Patients in the Pediatric Ward hospitalized in the Regional Hospital in Dabrowa Białostocka in the period of 2005-2007 were included in this retrospective study. The intestinal stage of ascariasis was diagnosed on the basis of positive coprological survey performed using the decantation technique. A total of 938 patients were included in the study, 1801 stool samples were evaluated, and A. lumbricoides-positive tests were obtained from 252 children. Ascaris-positive young children (< or = 3 yrs) accounted for 3.0% of all hospitalized children, Ascaris-positive preschool-aged children (4-7 yrs) accounted for 8.1% and school-aged children (8-18 yrs) for 15.8%. Seasonal patterns were observed in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides (maximum in August-December). There was no relationship between BMI z-score, hemoglobin levels and prevalence of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Significant predictors of intestinal stage ascariasis in a multivariate logistic regression model were: abdominal pain as a reason for hospital admission (OR-2.19; 95% CI 1.62-2.95; p < 0.001) and age from 4 to 7 years (OR-2.0; 95% CI 1.41-2.80; p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of ascariasis was not higher in the group of patients with atopic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) and co-existing ascariasis did not affect the eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. Ascariasis is still a current pediatric clinical problem characterized by non-specific clinical manifestations, which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of children's diseases.

  13. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Nsojo, Anthony; Mangu, Chacha; Riess, Helene; Geldmacher, Christof; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Mhina, Seif; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. Methodology Cross-sectional survey data of 6,366 study participants in the Mbeya region of South-Western Tanzania were used to analyze associations between remotely sensed environmental data and A. lumbricoides infection. Non-linear associations were accounted for by using fractional polynomial regression, and socio-demographic and sanitary data were included as potential confounders. Principal Findings The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 6.8%. Our final multivariable model revealed a significant non-linear association between rainfall and A. lumbricoides infection with peak prevalences at 1740 mm of mean annual rainfall. Mean annual land surface temperature during the day was linearly modeled and negatively associated with A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78–0.97). Furthermore, age, which also showed a significant non-linear association (infection maximum at 7.7 years), socio-economic status (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.68–0.97), and latrine coverage around the house (OR = 0.80, CI = 0.67–0.96) remained in the final model. Conclusions A. lumbricoides infection was associated with environmental, socio-demographic and sanitary factors both in uni- and multivariable analysis. Non-linear analysis with fractional polynomials can improve model fit, resulting in a better understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and helminth infection, and more precise predictions of high prevalence areas

  14. The risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children as an environmental health indicator to guide preventive activities in Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Cifuentes, Enrique; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Romieu, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an environmental health indicator for use as a basis for developing preventive measures against Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children from the rural municipalities of Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and September 1998 among 1171 children under 14 years of age living in 588 dwellings selected from 11 communities. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to identify risk factors for infection (socioeconomic, sanitation and hygiene variables) and collected stool samples from each child for parasitological tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 12.2%. The results showed the protective effects of availability of water in the washbasin and better hygiene, sanitation and socioeconomic status; the interactive effect of crowding was five times larger in households without water in the washbasin than in those having water. There was a statistically significant association between infection and children's age. CONCLUSION: The environmental health indicator, which incorporated the most significant biological, environmental and social factors associated with the risk of A. lumbricoides infection in children from these communities, should contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this population. PMID:11884972

  15. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.

  16. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-08-01

    The 13q33-34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy.

  17. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-01-01

    The 13q33–34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy. PMID:19604268

  18. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food), as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non-atopic children [adjusted OR

  19. The strength of the antibody response to the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides inversely correlates with levels of B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between BAFF and specific antibodies against Ascaris and mites in 448 controls and 448 asthmatics. Soluble BAFF was measured by ELISA and BAFF mRNA by qPCR. Surface expression of BAFF and its receptor (BAFF-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Individuals with specific IgE levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had lower levels of soluble BAFF; those with specific IgG levels to Ascaris >75th percentile had reduced BAFF mRNA. Total IgE and specific IgE to mites were not related to BAFF levels. There were no differences in soluble BAFF or mRNA levels between asthmatics and controls. There was an inverse relationship between the cell-surface expression of BAFF-R on CD19+ B cells and BAFF levels at the transcriptional and protein level. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in BAFF levels are related to the strength of the antibody response to Ascaris. PMID:24906685

  20. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  2. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  3. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  4. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Chimpanzee- and Gibbon-Derived Ascaris Isolated from a Zoological Garden in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts. PMID:24358225

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  6. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  7. Immunoblot for the detection of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in patients with visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Obwaller, Andreas; Auer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome caused by Toxocara canis larvae was first described in the 1950s. The role of other nematode larvae, i.e. the pig roundworm Ascaris suum as a causative agent of visceral larva migrans-associated symptoms like general malaise, cough, liver dysfunction, hypereosinophilia with hepatomegaly and/or pneumonia, was discussed controversially during the last decades. Recent serological screening studies for specific A. suum antibodies carried out in the Netherlands and Sweden yielded remarkable high seroprevalences, while a number of case reports from Japan report pulmonal, hepatic and cerebral symptoms caused by A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected raw meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We present here a sensitive and specific larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen-based immunoblot (As-IB) for the serodiagnosis of A. suum-infected patients suffering from symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome. In total, 34 sera from patients with hypereosinophilia and other clinical symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome tested negative for Toxocara sp. antibodies but positive in our newly established As-IB, 30 sera from healthy volunteers, 53 sera from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed toxocarosis and other helminthoses as well as 3 sera from patients with intestinal ascariosis due to Ascaris lumbricoides were included in the study. When evaluated with 30 sera from healthy volunteers and 53 sera from patients suffering from different helminthoses, the calculated specificity of our new As-IB is 95%. Problems hampering the establishment of simple serological screening tests for specific A. suum antibodies, like extensive antigenic similarities between the nematodes Ascaris and Toxocara or the absence of suitable experimental animals, are discussed. We assume that specific serological testing for antibodies of A. suum is very important for the treatment of individual patients on one hand and seroepidemiological

  8. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  9. Gastro-intestinal ascariasis--an unusual autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Wasti, Harihar; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms' propensity to produce large number of eggs that are resistant to extremes of environmental conditions have made them one of the highly prevalent and geographically well distributed nematodes among poor socio-economic regions throughout the world. We present an unusual case of fatal gastro-intestinal ascariasis where general neglect, and firm and prolonged reliance on traditional healing methods led to aggregation of roundworms to such an extent that otherwise seems improbable in modern times and, hence, is worth reporting.

  10. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal findings We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. Conclusion/Significance IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission. PMID:26991326

  11. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  12. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  13. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past.

    PubMed

    Nejsum, P; Betson, M; Bendall, R P; Thamsborg, S M; Stothard, J R

    2012-06-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.

  14. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  15. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  16. Dose-dependent impact of larval Ascaris suum on host body weight in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R; Behnke, J M; Stafford, P; Holland, C V

    2009-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are important helminth parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. Although it is now well established that the presence of mature adult worms in the host intestine contributes to significant nutritional morbidity, the impact of larval migratory ascariasis is far less well understood. The development of a mouse model to explore susceptibility and resistance to larval ascariasis in the lungs provided an opportunity to observe the impact of larval migration on host growth during the course of infection. Changes in body weight were monitored in two strains of inbred mice, the susceptible C57BL/6j and the resistant CBA/Ca. Groups of mice received one of four doses: 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 fully embryonated A. suum ova. Infected mice underwent post-mortem on days 6, 7 and 8 post-infection. Control mice received a placebo dose of intubation medium and underwent post-mortem on day 7 post-infection. Mice were weighed pre-infection (day 0) and post-infection on the day of post-mortem. At post-mortem, the lungs of each mouse were removed for enumeration of Ascaris larval burdens by means of the modified Baermann method. Control mice of each strain showed an increase in weight from pre-infection to post-infection day. Within the C57BL/6j strain, mice infected with higher doses of Ascaris eggs experienced a reduction in body weight; for those given 3000 eggs this was on all three post-mortem days, and for those given 1000, on days 7 and 8. For CBA/Ca mice, only mice receiving the 3000 dose demonstrated a reduction in body weight. These findings suggest that larval migratory ascariasis has a significant negative impact upon host growth and that this is related to infective dose and larval burden.

  17. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  18. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  19. Gastrointestinal helminthiasis presenting with acute diarrhoea and constipation: report of two cases with a second pathology.

    PubMed

    Sobani, Z A; Shakoor, S; Malik, F N; Malik, E Z; Beg, M A

    2010-08-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthiasis in developing countries contributes to malnutrition and anemia. Diagnosis and treatment of helminthiasis, especially with low worm load is an unmet public health need in such settings. The infection may sometimes become manifest when a second pathology leads to purgation of the gastrointestinal tract. Two cases of helminthiasis are presented in which the infections only became amenable to diagnosis due to acute diarrhoea caused by giardiasis and lactulose administration. In the first case, acute giardiasis revealed Ascaris lumbricoides infestation, and in the second case primary helminthiasis (strongyloidiasis) was revealed by lactulose, and also led to Vibrio cholera bacteremia. These cases highlight the need to diagnose helminth infestations especially with low worm burdens by means of public health surveillance programmes. These cases highlight the need to diagnose helminth infestations especially with low worm burdens by means of public health surveillance programmes.

  20. Destruction of Ascaris ova by accelerated electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capizzi, S.; Chevallier, A.; Schwartzbrod, J.

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of radiation treatment to destroy Ascaris ova viability and found that no ova were viable after exposure to 0.75 kGy (D 90 at 0.39 kGy). Although the outer coat of the Ascaris ovum had a protective effect at low doses (0.20 kGy) no difference in ova viability was observed at 0.30 kGy. As the doses commonly used for sanitary treatment of wastewater are much higher, Ascaris ova should be effectively eliminated from sludge by the 10 kGy dose required by EPA regulations ( U.S. EPA, 1993 Federal Register 58, 9248-9415).

  1. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary.

  2. Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs by ammonia.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Nelson, Kara L

    2005-10-15

    Uncharged ammonia is known to cause inactivation of a number of wastewater pathogens, but its effect on Ascaris eggs has never been isolated or quantified. The objectives of this research were to determine the conditions under which ammonia inactivates eggs of the swine Ascaris species, Ascaris suum, and to quantify the impact of ammonia on the U.S. EPA's requirements for alkaline treatment to produce Class A sludge. Eggs were incubated in controlled, laboratory solutions such that the effects of ammonia concentration and speciation, pH, and temperature could be separated. With a 24-h incubation, the inactivation at all pH levels (range 7-11) was not statistically different in the absence of ammonia. The presence of ammonia (0-1000 ppm as N) significantly increased Ascaris egg inactivation at pH 9 and 11, and the ovicidal effect was directly related to the concentration of the uncharged NH3 species. Increasing temperatures (32-52 degrees C) caused increased inactivation at all pH levels and ammonia concentrations. The current EPA treatment requirements to produce Class A biosolids by alkaline treatment have temperature, pH, and time requirements, but do not account for the effectof differences in ammonia concentration on inactivation. To illustrate the potential savings in temperature and pH that could be achieved when accounting for ammonia inactivation, the combinations of ammonia concentration, temperature, and pH neededto achieve 99% inactivation after 72 h were determined. The presence of ammonia at concentrations encountered in sludges and feces (up to 8000 ppm as N) allowed for 99% egg inactivation to be achieved at temperatures up to 14 degrees C lower than ammonia-free controls. Thus, environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonia may significantly increase the rate of Ascaris egg inactivation during alkaline stabilization.

  3. A Real-Time PCR Method for Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Pecson, Brian M.; Barrios, José Antonio; Johnson, David R.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications. PMID:17056687

  4. Ascaris cholecystitis and cholangitis: an experience in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Lwin, M; Tint, K S

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-seven cases of ascaris cholecystitis and cholangitis were managed in a surgical unit of a general hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, from January 1989 to March 1990. Nineteen women and eight men with a mean age of 42 years were studied. Main clinical manifestations were right hypochondrial pain, fever, chills, rigors, nausea, vomiting and jaundice. Diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasonograms in all cases. Laparotomy was performed in all cases because of failure to respond to initial conservative treatment. Live and dead ascarids were found in the gall bladder and biliary ductal system. Cholecystectomy, bile duct exploration, worm extraction and T-tube drainage were done in all cases. There were no deaths. Two patients developed minor wound sepsis. During the follow-up period ranging from 3 to 12 months, there was no recurrence of symptoms in all patients. All patients were given antihelminthics before discharge and three weeks later.

  5. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs.

  6. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  7. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  8. A case of acute pancreatitis secondary to spinal cord injury. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Sun, Yun; Lu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Pinjie; Yin, Lu; Li, Hui; Hua, Tianfeng; Zheng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. Alcohol consumption and gallstones are the main etiology of AP. Hypertriglyceridemia, idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, anatomic alterations and ascaris lumbricoides can also give rise to AP. Although spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause AP, however, the case of induced by cervical spine surgery has not been reported. A 61-year-old man with quadriplegic and respiratory distress received cervical spine surgery for spinal cervical spondylosis and multi-stage longitudinal ligament. He was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after tracheotomy for progressive dyspnea, one day after the cervical spine surgery. The patient was diagnosed with AP, in the absence of any identifiable causes of pancreatitis. He was treated with intravenous fluids, no oral feeding, enteral and parenteral nutrition, antibiotic and mechanical ventilation. The patient's condition gradually improved after the treatment. This case describes a case of postoperative cervical spondylosis that led to AP. In this report, we highlight the importance of early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate treatment. We conclude that the outcome can be favorable, if the treatment is appropriate. PMID:26707037

  9. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  10. Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sanglas, Laura; Aviles, Francesc X.; Huber, Robert; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Arolas, Joan L.

    2009-01-01

    Roundworms of the genus Ascaris are common parasites of the human gastrointestinal tract. A battery of selective inhibitors protects them from host enzymes and the immune system. Here, a metallocarboxypeptidase (MCP) inhibitor, ACI, was identified in protein extracts from Ascaris by intensity-fading MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The 67-residue amino acid sequence of ACI showed no significant homology with any known protein. Heterologous overexpression and purification of ACI rendered a functional molecule with nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constants against MCPs, which denoted a preference for digestive and mast cell A/B-type MCPs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry located ACI in the body wall, intestine, female reproductive tract, and fertilized eggs of Ascaris, in accordance with its target specificity. The crystal structure of the complex of ACI with human carboxypeptidase A1, one of its potential targets in vivo, revealed a protein with a fold consisting of two tandem homologous domains, each containing a β-ribbon and two disulfide bonds. These domains are connected by an α-helical segment and a fifth disulfide bond. Binding and inhibition are exerted by the C-terminal tail, which enters the funnel-like active-site cavity of the enzyme and approaches the catalytic zinc ion. The findings reported provide a basis for the biological function of ACI, which may be essential for parasitic survival during infection. PMID:19179285

  11. Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite.

    PubMed

    Sanglas, Laura; Aviles, Francesc X; Huber, Robert; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Arolas, Joan L

    2009-02-10

    Roundworms of the genus Ascaris are common parasites of the human gastrointestinal tract. A battery of selective inhibitors protects them from host enzymes and the immune system. Here, a metallocarboxypeptidase (MCP) inhibitor, ACI, was identified in protein extracts from Ascaris by intensity-fading MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The 67-residue amino acid sequence of ACI showed no significant homology with any known protein. Heterologous overexpression and purification of ACI rendered a functional molecule with nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constants against MCPs, which denoted a preference for digestive and mast cell A/B-type MCPs. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry located ACI in the body wall, intestine, female reproductive tract, and fertilized eggs of Ascaris, in accordance with its target specificity. The crystal structure of the complex of ACI with human carboxypeptidase A1, one of its potential targets in vivo, revealed a protein with a fold consisting of two tandem homologous domains, each containing a beta-ribbon and two disulfide bonds. These domains are connected by an alpha-helical segment and a fifth disulfide bond. Binding and inhibition are exerted by the C-terminal tail, which enters the funnel-like active-site cavity of the enzyme and approaches the catalytic zinc ion. The findings reported provide a basis for the biological function of ACI, which may be essential for parasitic survival during infection.

  12. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.

  13. Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Ascaris Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from Joseon Tomb

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples. PMID:25925186

  14. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples. PMID:25925186

  15. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  16. [Case of polyparasitism with long-term abdominal pain in a patient].

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nihal; Koçman, Nazmiye Ulkü

    2013-01-01

    It is known that infections caused by intestinal protozoa and helminths affect over 3.5 million people worldwide. In this case report, a patient with complaints of stomach ache for a long time who received thermal treatment is presented. During this thermal treatment, diarrhoea occurred and multiparasitism was diagnosed with two helminths; pseudoparasitism and multiprotozoa, simultaneously. Stool samples were collected from the patient on three consecutive days and one day after the treatment. All of the samples were prepared with formalin-ether sedimentation techniques after macroscopic and direct microscopic investigation. Cellophane-tape method for Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. and Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining method for coccidian parasites were used. At least four preparations were performed for each sample and serum physiologic, lugol' solution and trichrome stain were used for microscopic investigations.The motile segment she brought was investigated microscopically with Indian ink and identified as Taenia saginata. Under direct microscopy, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Fasciola hepatica were seen. By formalin-ether sedimentation techniques, Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola hepatica, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli were identified. In recent years, intestinal parasitism is rarely seen in our city; therefore, multiparasitism in an adult and immunocompetent patient is interesting. PMID:23955918

  17. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum. PMID:19780821

  18. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  19. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  20. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  1. Ascaris suum Infection in Calves I. Clinical Signs

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

    1970-01-01

    Clinical signs consistent with those of atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) were induced in calves sensitized with infective Ascaris suum eggs at seven to 20 weeks of age and challenged at three-week intervals one or more times. These signs usually appeared on the sixth or seventh day postinfection and reached maximum severity between the tenth and 13th days following infection. Prominent signs were: dyspnea, often with expiratory grunt, coughing, mouth breathing and emphysema as well as increased respiration and heart rates. In general, the intensity of signs was dependent upon dose size, although a single small dose resulted in acute signs and death in one calf. Intermittent coughing and vesicular sounds were induced in calves given A. suum eggs continually over prolonged periods. No respiratory abnormalities resulted from challenge with Toxocara canis after sensitization with A. suum. Antihistamine therapy did not alter the clinical signs in A. suum infected calves. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4394225

  2. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  3. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  4. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil. PMID:22944771

  5. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    PubMed Central

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis. PMID:26504510

  6. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil.

  7. SjAPI, the First Functionally Characterized Ascaris-Type Protease Inhibitor from Animal Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Background Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Principal Findings Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI), Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2), Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI), and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI). The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues “AAV” and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of

  8. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  9. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  10. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  11. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

  12. Modeling the die-off of E. coli and Ascaris in wastewater-irrigated vegetables: implications for microbial health risk reduction associated with irrigation cessation.

    PubMed

    Seidu, Razak; Sjølander, Ingrid; Abubakari, Amina; Amoah, Dennis; Larbi, John A; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the die-off of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Ascaris suum on lettuce (Great Lakes 118) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) in wastewater-irrigated fields using comparative mathematical die-off models. The study revealed that none of the survival curves of E. coli and A. suum was best fitted with the log-linear model, indicating that the classical first-order kinetic approach is inadequate in many cases. The biphasic die-off model best described the die-off of E. coli on lettuce (kmax1 = 2.62 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.22 day(-1)) and cabbage (kmax1 = 1.06 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.53 day(-1)). The die-off of A. suum on lettuce was best described by the biphasic model (kmax1 = 0.48 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.01 day(-1)) and best described by log linear + tail (kmax = 0.44) on cabbage. A comparative health risk assessment associated with the consumption of lettuce showed significant underestimation of the number of days of irrigation cessation required to achieve E. coli O157:H7 and Ascaris tolerable annual infection risk when using biphasic die-off rates compared with other die-off rates. The study stresses the need to test different die-off models as inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) particularly for interventions associated with health risk reduction. PMID:24037151

  13. Asymptomatic intraperitoneal ascariasis: Importance of diagnostic laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Santhosh; Sharma, Aditya P; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Nath, Devajit; Mathur, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris from intestine into peritoneal cavity is rare and usually presents as acute abdomen. We report a case of 41-year-old male who was admitted for laparoscopic mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse. During the initial laparoscopy, purulent fluid was seen in pelvis. A complete diagnostic laparoscopy was done. An omental nodule was found, which was excised and extracted in a bag. On histopathology, the omental nodule revealed gravid Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:25013334

  14. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1) dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  15. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1) dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.

  16. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 – 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 – 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g-1 dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  17. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating.

  18. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  19. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  20. Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongle; Zhang, Rui; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-02-01

    A novel, aerobic, heterotrophic, orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated JLT2000(T), was isolated from surface water of the South China Sea. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JLT2000 T: were C12 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JLT2000(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JLT2000(T) formed a branch within the genus Marivirga, but was clearly separated from the two established species of this genus, Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JLT2000(T) with the type strains of these two species was 95.8 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Strain JLT2000(T) had a shorter cell length and wider growth range in different temperatures and salinities than those of Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). In addition, strain JLT2000(T) could utilize more carbon sources and hydrolyse more polymers than Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain JLT2000(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marivirga, for which the name Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2000(T) ( = JCM 18012(T) = CGMCC 1.10832(T)).

  1. Characterization of the major phosphofructokinase-dephosphorylating protein phosphatases from Ascaris suum muscle.

    PubMed

    Daum, G; Schmid, B; MacKintosh, C; Cohen, P; Hofer, H W

    1992-07-13

    In contrast to the mammalian enzyme, PFK from the nematode Ascaris suum is activated following phosphorylation (Daum et al. (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 215-221) catalyzed by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Thalhofer et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 952-957). In the present report, we describe the characterization of the major PFK dephosphorylating phosphatases from Ascaris muscle. Two of these phosphatases exhibit apparent M(r) values of 174,000 and 126,000, respectively, and are dissociated to active 33 kDa proteins by ethanol precipitation. Denaturing electrophoresis of each of the enzyme preparations showed two bands of M(r) 33,000 and 63,000. The enzymes are classified as type 2A phosphatases according to their inhibition by subnanomolar concentrations of okadaic acid, the lack of inhibition by heat-stable phosphatase inhibitors 1 and 2, and their preference for the alpha- rather than for the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. Like other type 2A phosphatases, they exhibit broad substrate specificities, are activated by divalent cations and polycations, and inhibited by fluoride, inorganic phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In addition, we have found that PFK is also dephosphorylated by an unusual protein phosphatase. This exhibits kinetic properties similar to type 2A protein phosphatases, but has a distinctly lower sensitivity towards inhibition by okadaic acid (IC50 approx. 20 nM). Partial purification of the enzyme provided evidence that it is composed of a 30 kDa catalytic subunit and probably two other subunits (molecular masses 66 and 72 kDa). The dephosphorylation of PFK by protein phosphatases is strongly inhibited by heparin. This effect, however, is substrate-specific and does not occur with Ascaris phosphorylase a. PMID:1321672

  2. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  3. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  4. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. PMID:25486916

  5. Role of posttranslational modifications in C. elegans and ascaris spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Miao, Long; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Generally, spermatogenesis and sperm function involve widespread posttranslational modification of regulatory proteins in many different species. Nematode spermatogenesis has been studied in detail, mostly by genetic/molecular genetic techniques in the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and by biochemistry/cell biology in the pig parasite Ascaris suum. Like other nematodes, both of these species produce sperm that use a form of amoeboid motility termed crawling, and many aspects of spermatogenesis are likely to be similar in both species. Consequently, work in these two nematode species has been largely complementary. Work in C. elegans has identified a number of spermatogenesis-defective genes and, so far, 12 encode enzymes that are implicated as catalysts of posttranslational protein modification. Crawling motility involves extension of a single pseudopod and this process is powered by a unique cytoskeleton composed of Major Sperm Protein (MSP) and accessory proteins, instead of the more widely observed actin. In Ascaris, pseudopod extension and crawling motility can be reconstituted in vitro, and biochemical studies have begun to reveal how posttranslational protein modifications, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and proteolysis, participate in these processes. PMID:25030766

  6. Volvulus du grêle sur paquet d’ascaris: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de volvulus nécrosé de l'intestin grêle dû à des ascaris adultes chez un enfant de 7 ans. A l'admission, l'enfant présentait le tableau d'occlusion intestinale qui évoluait depuis deux jours avec altération de l'état général. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation retrouvait des niveaux hydroaériques de type grêlique et un aspect tigré évoquant le diagnostic d'une occlusion intestinale haute sur masse abdominale. Après la réanimation, le traitement chirurgical consistait en une laparotomie qui avait retrouvé un volvulus nécrosé de l'iléon terminale contenant des ascaris adultes. Une résection du grêle sur environ un mètre emportant le segment nécrosé suivie d'une iléostomie était réalisée. L'évolution a été favorable, l'anastomose iléo-colique fut réalisée quatre semaines plus tard. Au recul de deux ans l'enfant est indemne de tout symptôme. PMID:27795803

  7. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  8. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  9. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode. PMID:26708339

  10. Interactions between the nematode parasite of pigs, Ascaris suum, and the earthworm Aporrectodea longa.

    PubMed

    Kraglund, H O; Grønvold, J; Roepstorff, A; Rawat, H

    1998-01-01

    Pig faeces in which Ascaris suum eggs had been embryonating for 57 days were placed in buckets of soil containing either 30 or no earth-worms (Aporrectodea longa). When present, earthworms consumed the faeces and transported the eggs down into the soil, without inflicting any visible damage on the eggs. In later experiments 10 earthworms from the above experiment were fed to each of ten pigs, and another 40 earthworms were dissected. None of the 10 pigs became infected with A. suum through consumption of earthworms, and none of the dissected earthworms were found to contain A. suum larvae. This experiment indicates that A. longa did not act as a paratenic host for A. suum but shows that earthworms are very efficient in transporting A. suum eggs from faeces deposited on the soil surface into the soil. PMID:9926459

  11. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode.

  12. The efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against Ascaris, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) in the presence and absence of riboflavin against various protozoa and helminth organisms was investigated in this study. Assays were conducted in transparent 12 well microtitre plates containing a suspension of test organisms in the presence or absence of 250 μM riboflavin. Plates were exposed to simulated sunlight at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) (watts per square metre) delivered from a SUNTEST™ CPS+ solar simulator. Aliquots of the test suspensions were taken at set time points and the viability of the test organisms was determined by either culture, microscopy or flow cytometry where applicable. With Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba and Giardia exposure to SODIS at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) for up to 6h resulted in significant inactivation of these organisms. The addition of riboflavin to this system significantly increased the level of inactivation observed with cysts of A. castellanii. With Cryptosporidium oocysts and Ascaris ova exposure to SODIS in the presence and absence of riboflavin for 6-8h resulted in a negligible reduction in viability of both organisms. In this present study we have been able to show that SODIS is effective against a variety of previously untested waterborne organisms and with A. castellanii cysts the addition of micro-molar concentrations of riboflavin can enhance cyst inactivation. However, care must be taken as Ascaris larvae continue to develop inside the ova after exposure to SODIS and Cryptosporidium remain impermeable to propidium iodide staining indicating they may still be infectious.

  13. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  14. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  15. Actions of cholinergic drugs in the nematode Ascaris suum. Complex pharmacology of muscle and motorneurons

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cholinergic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine, and pilocarpine produced depolarizations and contractions of muscle of the nematode Ascaris suum. Dose-dependent depolarization and contraction by ACh were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude by 100 microM d- tubocurarine (dTC), a nicotinic antagonist, but only about fivefold by 100 microM N-methyl-scopolamine (NMS), a muscarinic antagonist. NMS itself depolarized both normal and synaptically isolated muscle cells. The muscle depolarizing action of pilocarpine was not consistently antagonized by either NMS or dTC. ACh receptors were detected on motorneuron classes DE1, DE2, DI, and VI as ACh-induced reductions in input resistance. These input resistance changes were reversed by washing in drug-free saline or by application of dTC. NMS applied alone lowered input resistance in DE1, but not in DE2, DI, or VI motorneurons. In contrast to the effect of ACh, the action of NMS in DE1 was not reversed by dTC, suggesting that NMS-sensitive sites may not respond to ACh. Excitatory synaptic responses in muscle evoked by depolarizing current injections into DE1 and DE2 motorneurons were antagonized by dTC; however, NMS antagonized the synaptic output of only the DE1 and DE3 classes of motorneurons, an effect that was more likely to have been produced by motorneuron conduction failure than by pharmacological blockade of receptor. The concentration of NMS required to produce these changes in muscle polarization and contraction, ACh antagonism, input resistance reduction, and synaptic antagonism was 100 microM, or more than five orders of magnitude higher than the binding affinity for [3H]NMS in larval Ascaris homogenates and adult Caenorhabditis elegans (Segerberg, M. A. 1989. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI). These results describe a nicotinic- like pharmacology, but muscle and motorneurons also have unusual responses to muscarinic agents. PMID:8455017

  16. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  17. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host’s homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  18. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  19. Effect of temperature on embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs in an environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Park, Ki Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The influence of temperature on the development and embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs was studied using coarse sand medium in an environmental chamber with 50% humidity. The time required for development and embryonation of eggs was examined under 3 different temperature conditions, 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. A. suum eggs did not develop over 1 month at the temperature of 5°C. However, other temperature conditions, 25°C and 35°C, induced egg development to the 8-cell-stage at days 5-6 after incubation. All eggs examined developed to the 8-cell stage at day 6 after incubation in the sand medium at 25°C. The higher temperature, 35°C, slightly accelerated the A. suum egg development compared to 25°C, and the development to the 8-cell stage occurred within day 5 after incubation. The formation of larvae in A. suum eggs at temperatures of 35° and 25°C appeared at days 17 and 19 after incubation, respectively. These findings show that 35° condition shortens the time for the development of A. suum eggs to the 8-cell-stage in comparison to 25°C, and suggest the possibility of accelerated transmission of this parasite, resulting from global warming and ecosystem changes.

  20. Slow active potentials in ventral inhibitory motor neurons of the nematode Ascaris.

    PubMed

    Angstadt, J D; Stretton, A O

    1989-12-01

    The ability of ventral inhibitory motor neurons of the nematode Ascaris to generate slow depolarizing potentials was investigated using intracellular recording and current injection. In quiescent cells, regenerative depolarizations with peak amplitudes of approximately 20 mV and durations of several 100 ms were evoked in response to brief depolarizing current pulses. Repetitive slow potentials were produced in response to sustained depolarizing currents in a threshold-dependent manner. Repetitive slow potentials also occurred spontaneously, exhibiting cycle periods of about 700 ms. The ability of inhibitory motor neurons to generate slow potentials was blocked by addition of Co++, Cd++, or other Ca-channel blockers to the saline but not by TTX or substitution of Na+ with Tris. The amplitude and duration of slow potentials were increased in the presence of Ba++, Sr++, and TEA. Spontaneous slow potentials exhibited characteristics expected of intrinsically generated oscillations, including frequency modulation by injection of prolonged offset currents, phase resetting by brief current pulses, and suppression by strong hyperpolarization. Slow potentials appear to be generated in the ventral nerve cord processes and/or cell body of the motor neuron, and they produce rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in ventral muscle cells. Slow potentials may therefore contribute to locomotory or other motor behaviors of the animal. PMID:2607486

  1. Fate of the pathogen indicators phage ΦX174 and Ascaris suum eggs during the production of struvite fertilizer from source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Decrey, Loïc; Udert, Kai M; Tilley, Elizabeth; Pecson, Brian M; Kohn, Tamar

    2011-10-15

    Human urine has the potential to be a sustainable, locally and continuously available source of nutrients for agriculture. Phosphate can be efficiently recovered from human urine in the form of the mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). However, struvite formation may be coupled with the precipitation of other constituents present in urine including pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. To determine if struvite fertilizer presents a microbiological health risk to producers and end users, we characterized the fate of a human virus surrogate (phage ΦX174) and the eggs of the helminth Ascaris suum during a low-cost struvite recovery process. While the concentration of phages was similar in both the struvite and the urine, Ascaris eggs accumulated within the solid during the precipitation and filtration process. Subsequent air-drying of the struvite filter cake partially inactivated both microorganisms; however, viable Ascaris eggs and infective phages were still detected after several days of drying. The infectivity of both viruses and eggs was affected by the specific struvite drying conditions: higher inactivation generally occurred with increased air temperature and decreased relative humidity. On a log-log scale, phage inactivation increased linearly with decreasing moisture content of the struvite, while Ascaris inactivation occurred only after achieving a minimum moisture threshold. Sunlight exposure did not directly affect the infectivity of phages or Ascaris eggs in struvite cakes, though the resultant rise in temperature accelerated the drying of the struvite cake, which contributed to inactivation.

  2. A Globin Domain in a Neuronal Transmembrane Receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P.; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  3. Mechanisms of microenvironmental pH regulation in the cuticle of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Sims, S M; Magas, L T; Barsuhn, C L; Ho, N F; Geary, T G; Thompson, D P

    1992-07-01

    The excretion kinetics of various organic acids by Ascaris suum were quantified to determine if the excretion of these metabolic end-products could generate and maintain a microclimate pH within the aqueous compartment of the cuticle. Ligated and nonligated A. suum were incubated in media buffered with 0.25 or 2.5 mM Hepes (initial pH 7.5) or 0.5 or 5 mM glycine (initial pH 3.25). The concentration of organic acids and the pH of the media were followed for 24 h. Several volatile fatty acids, including acetic, 2-methylbutyric, 2-methylvaleric, n-valeric, and n-butyric, were excreted at relatively high rates. Propionic, n-caproic, 2-methylcaproic, tiglic acid, and the non-volatile organic acids, lactic and succinic, were excreted more slowly. The organic acids were excreted at a constant rate and in apparently fixed molar concentration ratios. The accumulation of organic acids was associated with changes in pH of the medium until a limiting constant pH, in the vicinity of the pKa of the volatile fatty acids, was reached. The rate of organic acid excretion was not affected by initial medium pH, buffer capacity, or parasite ligation. The rate of pH change induced by the excretion of organic acids was also insensitive to whether ligated or nonligated A. suum were used, but was dependent on the initial buffer capacity of the medium. These results suggest that A. suum excrete the end-products of carbohydrate metabolism across the cuticle. The presence of organic acids in the aqueous pores of the cuticle creates and maintains a microclimate pH of about 5.0 +/- 0.3. This pH will influence the transport properties of weak acids and bases and should be considered in the design of delivery systems for anthelmintics. PMID:1501633

  4. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using sequential solar driven photo-Fenton and free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; González, Liliana; Sanchez-Salas, Jose Luis; Castillo, Jordana H

    2012-03-01

    Sequential helminth egg inactivation using a solar driven advanced oxidation process (AOP) followed by chlorine was achieved. The photo-assisted Fenton process was tested alone under different H(2)O(2) and/or Fe(II) concentrations to assess its ability to inactivate Ascaris suum eggs. The effect of free chlorine alone was also tested. The lowest egg inactivation results were found using Fe(II) or H(2)O(2) separately (5 and 140 mmol L(-1), respectively) in dark conditions, which showed about 28% inactivation of helminth eggs. By combining Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) at the same concentrations described earlier, 55% of helminth egg inactivation was achieved. By increasing the reagent's concentration two-fold, 83% egg inactivation was achieved after 120 min of reaction time. Process efficiency was enhanced by solar excitation. Using solar disinfection only, the A. suum eggs inactivation reached was the lowest observed (58% egg inactivation after 120 min (120 kJ L(-1))), compared with tests using the photo-Fenton process. The use of the photo-Fenton reaction enhanced the process up to over 99% of egg inactivation after 120 kJ L(-1) when the highest Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) concentration was tested. Practically no effect on the helminth eggs was observed with free chlorine alone after 550 mg min L(-1) was used. Egg inactivation in the range of 25-30% was obtained for sequential processes (AOP then chlorine) using about 150 mg min L(-1).

  5. Derquantel and Abamectin: Effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Trailovic, Sasa M.; Robertson, Alan P.; Thompson, David P.; Woods, Debra J.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    StartectR is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin + derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin + derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration responses was statistically greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: 1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; 2) on L-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1 - 30 μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28 μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3 μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30 minutes with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and L-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36 μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur. PMID:23523993

  6. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks.

    PubMed

    Mejer, H; Roepstorff, A

    2006-09-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered at week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum-specific antibodies. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated by regular examination of soil samples and in late June and late November using parasite naïve tracer pigs. Paddock contamination was high but eggs developed slowly resulting in a low initial transmission to the experimental pigs. By week 5 p.p. transmission had increased and the numbers of infective eggs in the soil increased during the study. The results indicate a continuous uptake of infective eggs, but visceral larval migration was reduced with time, probably due to the development of a pre-hepatic barrier. Nevertheless, a rather large population of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher 'life-time worm burden' may be of significant economic importance. PMID:16740179

  7. Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  8. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  9. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  10. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  11. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  12. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced. PMID:26302902

  13. Biliary ascariasis: radiological clue to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Bansal, Satish; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Navneet

    2015-03-01

    Ascariasis is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is the most common helminthic infection seen worldwide. Ascariasis is an endemic disease in our country. This is due to the prevailing poor sanitary conditions and low level of education. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We report a case of biliary ascariasis in a young labourer who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:26634136

  14. Voltage-activated currents in somatic muscle of the nematode parasite Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Martin, R J; Thorn, P; Gration, K A; Harrow, I D

    1992-12-01

    1. Voltage-activated currents in cell bodies of the somatic muscle cells of Ascaris suum were studied using a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Cells recorded from had resting membrane potentials around -35 mV and had input conductances in the range 1-10 microS. 2. In cells bathed in artificial perienteric fluid, depolarizing steps from a holding potential of -35 mV elicited outward currents at a threshold of -15 mV. These currents had inwardly directed inflections on the rising phase, suggesting the presence of more than one current. Hyperpolarizing steps did not activate current. 3. Tetraethylammonium (TEA+, 69 mmol l-1) blocked the outward currents and allowed a voltage-dependent inactivating Ca2+ current to be observed. The peak current-voltage relationship was U-shaped with a threshold around -15 mV and peak at +5 mV. The reversal potential of the Ca2+ current was estimated by extrapolation to be +45 mV. 4. The permeability of the voltage-activated outward currents was studied by examining reversal potentials of tail currents. The reversal potentials were linearly dependent on the logarithm of the extracellular potassium concentration if extracellular [K+] was greater than 10 mmol l-1. The Na+/K+ permeability ratio of the currents was 0.04. 5. Inactivation, seen as a decline following the peak of the K+ current, was produced by maintained depolarization. The recovery from inactivation was complex and could be described by the sum of two exponentials with time constants of 0.67 s and 20.1 s. Steady-state inactivation of the K+ currents was observed at a range of holding potentials. Only a proportion (34%) of the total K+ current was inactivated by holding potentials more positive than -20 mV. 6. Extracellular application of 5 mmol l-1 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) selectively abolished an early fast component of the K+ current (the peak). The 4-AP-sensitive current decayed quickly with a time constant of around 10 ms; a Boltzmann fit to its activation curve

  15. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  16. Different Neuropeptides are Expressed in Different Functional Subsets of Cholinergic Excitatory Motorneurons in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are 2 subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and 6 novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the 6 afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:25812635

  17. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  18. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

  19. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity. PMID:27094225

  20. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity.

  1. The effect of opiates and opiate antagonists on heat latency response in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Stephen C; Nieto, Fernando; Henry, Sherwyn; Sarfo, Jennifer

    2007-04-10

    The effects of the opiates morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), the mu opioid receptor specific antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Om-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP), and the general opiate antagonist naloxone on the latency of response to thermal stimulation were determined in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Thermal detection and avoidance behaviors of the worms were evaluated with a tail flick analgesia meter using a modification of a technique employed for nociception experiments in rodents. Morphine and M6G were shown to have a dose dependent analgesic effect on A. suum's latency of response to heat with morphine being the most potent. The analgesic effect of morphine was reversed by naloxone but not CTOP. Neither naloxone nor CTOP was able to block the analgesia of M6G. CTOP but not naloxone had significant analgesic effects on its own. These findings are generally consistent with previous results on the effects of opiates and nitric oxide release from A. suum tissue. Apparently these nematodes possess opioid receptors that effect nociception.

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  3. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. )

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  4. [Report on 16 cases of small intestine ascariasis diagnosed by capsule endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Li, Rong-Zhi; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2013-06-01

    The clinical data and capsule endoscopy image of 16 adult patients with small intestine ascariasis were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively from June 2006 to June 2012 in West China Hospital. Among the 16 patients, 15 cases manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding, 15 cases showed anemia (3 severe, 10 moderate, and 2 mild), 2 had hypoalbuminemia, 1 had peripheral blood eosinophilia. All the cases were found to be fecal occult blood positive, but no Ascaris eggs found in the feces. Capsule endoscopy showed they were infected with Ascaris worms. The worms were found in the proximal small intestine in 14 patients and 2 in the distal intestine. Mucosal erythema and erosions around the worm were observed in 3 cases, and 7 cases were found with active bleeding or old haemorrhage in small intestine.

  5. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-06-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  6. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    PubMed

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse. PMID:26370295

  7. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  8. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P.; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  9. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  10. A catalytic triad is responsible for acid-base chemistry in the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Karsten, William E; Liu, Dali; Rao, G S Jagannatha; Harris, Ben G; Cook, Paul F

    2005-03-01

    The pH dependence of kinetic parameters of several active site mutants of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme was investigated to determine the role of amino acid residues likely involved in catalysis on the basis of three-dimensional structures of malic enzyme. Lysine 199 is positioned to act as the general base that accepts a proton from the 2-hydroxyl of malate during the hydride transfer step. The pH dependence of V/K(malate) for the K199R mutant enzyme reveals a pK of 5.3 for an enzymatic group required to be unprotonated for activity and a second pK of 6.3 that leads to a 10-fold loss in activity above the pK of 6.3 to a new constant value up to pH 10. The V profile for K199R is pH independent from pH 5.5 to pH 10 and decreases below a pK of 4.9. Tyrosine 126 is positioned to act as the general acid that donates a proton to the enolpyruvate intermediate to form pyruvate. The pH dependence of V/K(malate) for the Y126F mutant is qualitatively similar to K199R, with a requirement for a group to be unprotonated for activity with a pK of 5.6 and a partial activity loss of about 3-fold above a pK of 6.7 to a new constant value. The Y126F mutant enzyme is about 60000-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to K199R, the V rate profile for Y126F also shows a partial activity loss above pH 6.6. The wild-type pH profiles were reinvestigated in light of the discovery of the partial activity change for the mutant enzymes. The wild-type V/K(malate) pH-rate profile exhibits the requirement for a group to be unprotonated for catalysis with a pK of 5.6 and also shows the partial activity loss above a pK of 6.4. The wild-type V pH-rate profile decreases below a pK of 5.2 and is pH independent from pH 5.5 to pH 10. Aspartate 294 is within hydrogen-bonding distance to K199 in the open and closed forms of malic enzyme. D294A is about 13000-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme, and the pH-rate profile for V/K(malate) indicates the mutant is only active above p

  11. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. PMID:24295958

  12. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  13. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + diethylcarbamazine. The Kato-Katz method was used for qualitative and quantitative parasitological diagnosis. The chi2 test was used to determine the significance of cure rates, repeated measures analysis of variance for the comparison of mean log egg counts, the Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparison tests, and logistic regression for the comparison of infection rates at days 180 and 360 after treatment. FINDINGS: Albendazole, ivermectin and the drug combinations gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates for ascariasis than diethylcarbamazine. For trichuriasis, albendazole + ivermectin gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates than the other treatments: the infection rates were lower 180 and 360 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Because of the superiority of albendazole + ivermectin against both lymphatic filariasis and trichuriasis, this combination appears to be a suitable tool for the integrated or combined control of both public health problems. PMID:12640474

  14. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using hydrogen peroxide and a Fenton type nanocatalyst (FeOx/C) synthesized by a novel hybrid production process.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ariadna A; Schouwenaars, Rafael; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ramírez-Zamora, Rosa María

    2013-09-01

    Inactivation tests of Ascaris eggs (Ae) were performed using hydrogen peroxide and a Fenton type nanocatalyst supported on activated carbon (AC) (FeOx/C). Blank inactivation tests were also carried out using H2O2 and H2O2/AC as oxidation systems. The FeOx/C nanocatalyst was synthesized through a novel hybrid method developed in this work. The method is based on the incipient impregnation technique, using isopropyl alcohol as dissolvent and chelating agent of the iron salt and the ultrasonic method. The supported nanocatalyst contained 2.61% w/w of total iron and the support 0.2% w/w. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) images permitted verification of the presence of finely dispersed FeOx nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 19 to 63 nm. SEM-EDS analysis and TEM images also showed good dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles, most probably maghemite; γ-Fe2O3, able to produce hydroperoxyl radical as reported in the literature. The FeOx/C nanocatalyst-H2O2 system showed an average Ae inactivation efficiency of 4.46% Ae/mg H2O2. This value is significantly higher than the result obtained using the support-H2O2 system and H2O2 alone and it is also better than data reported for the classical Fenton process (homogeneous phase) with or without UV light. PMID:23981871

  15. Oral immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of transgenic rice plants producing a vaccine candidate antigen (As16) of Ascaris suum fused with cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Suzuki, Seiko; Nozoye, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Takashi; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Takaiwa, Fumio; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    Cereal crops such as maize and rice are considered attractive for vaccine production and oral delivery. Here, we evaluated the rice Oryza sativa for production of As16-an antigen protective against the roundworm Ascaris suum. The antigen was produced as a chimeric protein fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and its expression level in the endosperm reached 50 microg/g seed. Feeding the transgenic (Tg) rice seeds to mice elicited an As16-specific serum antibody response when administered in combination with cholera toxin (CT) as the mucosal adjuvant. Although omitting the adjuvant from the vaccine formulation resulted in failure to develop the specific immune response, subcutaneous booster immunization with bacterially expressed As16 induced the antibody response, indicating priming capability of the Tg rice. Tg rice/CT-fed mice orally administered A. suum eggs had a lower lung worm burden than control mice. This suggests that the rice-delivered antigen functions as a prophylactic edible vaccine for controlling parasitic infection in animals.

  16. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  17. IgE and IgG1 antibody production by a soluble product of Ascaris suum in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, B E

    1979-01-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ascaris suum cultured to the fourth stage in a chemically defined culture medium produced a substance, the 'ACF antigen', which was allergenic in the guinea-pig. When three different concentrations (3.1, 31 and 62 micrograms) of the ACF antigen were given intraperitoneally, only the highest concentration induced a primary IgE specific antibody response (1:100 titre) as determined with the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Upon secondary exposure all concentrations demonstrated a strong IgE response (1:50,000 peak titre) with very little IgG1 activity (1:100). The secondary IgE responses began to rise on the fourth day, peaked on the sixth day and returned to relatively low levels by the fourteenth day (1:100). The intramuscular administration of the ACF antigen did not induce the extremely high titres of IgE as found with the intraperitoneal injection, but rather a low level response (1:500 peak) which did not differ greatly from the IgG1 response. PMID:521052

  18. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  19. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Wruck, Colin D; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript (As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10(-9) M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Wruck, Colin D; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript (As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10(-9) M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26174364

  1. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (p<0.05) of morphological abnormalities was stated in developing embryos of T. canis (49–69%) than in A. suum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (p<0.05) incidence of embryonic malformations(embryopathies) in T. canis, as compared with A. suum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs. PMID:25281819

  2. The PCome of Ascaris suum as a model system for intestinal nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins and first characterization of the PC-epitope structures.

    PubMed

    Timm, Thomas; Grabitzki, Julia; Severcan, Cinar; Muratoglu, Suzan; Ewald, Lisa; Yilmaz, Yavuz; Lochnit, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    In multicellular parasites (e.g., nematodes and protozoa), proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC). PC can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host's immune system. This immunomodulation allows long-term persistence but also prevents severe pathology due to downregulation of cellular immune responses. PC-containing antigens have been found to interfere with key proliferative signaling pathways in B and T cells, development of dendritic cells and macrophages, and mast cell degranulation. These effects contribute to the observed modulated cytokine levels and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast to glycosphingolipids, little is known about the PC-epitopes of proteins. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins from nematodes have been identified. In this project, PC-substituted proteins and glycolipids in Ascaris suum have been localized by immunohistochemistry in specific tissues of the body wall, intestine, and reproductive tract. Subsequently, we investigated the PCome of A. suum by 2D gel-based proteomics and detection by Western blotting using the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15. By peptide-mass-fingerprint matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we could identify 59 PC-substituted proteins, which are in involved multiple cellular processes. In addition to membrane proteins like vitellogenin-6, we found proteins with structural (e.g., tubulins) and metabolic (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) functions or which can act in the defense against the host's immune response (e.g., serpins). Initial characterization of the PC-epitopes revealed a predominant linkage of PC to the proteins via N-glycans. Our data form the basis for more detailed investigations of the PC-epitope structures as a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation.

  3. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  4. Optimization of the synthesis process of an iron oxide nanocatalyst supported on activated carbon for the inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales-Pérez, Ariadna A; Maravilla, Pablo; Solís-López, Myriam; Schouwenaars, Rafael; Durán-Moreno, Alfonso; Ramírez-Zamora, Rosa-María

    2016-01-01

    An experimental design methodology was used to optimize the synthesis of an iron-supported nanocatalyst as well as the inactivation process of Ascaris eggs (Ae) using this material. A factor screening design was used for identifying the significant experimental factors for nanocatalyst support (supported %Fe, (w/w), temperature and time of calcination) and for the inactivation process called the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction (H2O2 dose, mass ratio Fe/H2O2, pH and reaction time). The optimization of the significant factors was carried out using a face-centered central composite design. The optimal operating conditions for both processes were estimated with a statistical model and implemented experimentally with five replicates. The predicted value of the Ae inactivation rate was close to the laboratory results. At the optimal operating conditions of the nanocatalyst production and Ae inactivation process, the Ascaris ova showed genomic damage to the point that no cell reparation was possible showing that this advanced oxidation process was highly efficient for inactivating this pathogen.

  5. Interaction of carvacrol with the Ascaris suum nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, potential mechanism of antinematodal action

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Djordje S.; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Essential plant oils (or their active principles) are safe to use and a potentially attractive alternative to current antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, we tested the effects of carvacrol on the isolated tissues of Ascaris suum and investigated potential interactions with other antiparasitic drugs. We used somatic muscle flaps for contraction assays, as well as for electrophysiological investigations. Carvacrol 300 μM highly significantly inhibited contractions caused by 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM of ACh (p=0.0023, p=0.0002, p=0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001). The control EC50 for acetylcholine was 8.87 μM (log EC50=0.95±0.26), while Rmax was 2.53±0.24 g. The EC50 of acetylcholine in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol was 27.71 μM (log EC50=1.44±0.28) and the Rmax decreased to 1.63±0.32 g. Furthermore, carvacrol highly significant potentiates inhibitory effect of GABA and piperazine on the contractions induced by ACh. However, carvacrol (100 and 300 μM), did not produce any changes in the membrane potential or conductance of the A. suum muscle cell. While, 300 μM of carvacrol showed a significant inhibitory effect on ACh-induced depolarization response. The mean control depolarization was 13.58±0.66 mV and decreased in presence of carvacrol to 4.50±1.02 mV (p<0.0001). Mean control Δg was 0.168±0.017 μS, while in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol, Δg significantly decreased to 0.060±0.018 ΔS (p=0.0017). The inhibitory effect on contractions may be the explanation of the antinematodal potential of carvacrol. Moreover, inhibition of depolarizations caused by ACh and reduction of conductance changes directly points to an interaction with the nAChR in A. suum. PMID:25944741

  6. Activation and cooperative multi-ion block of single nicotinic-acetylcholine channel currents of Ascaris muscle by the tetrahydropyrimidine anthelmintic, morantel.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. M.; Martin, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have investigated activation and block, by the tetrahydropyrimidine anthelmintic, morantel, of nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) currents in membrane vesicles isolated from somatic muscle cells of the nematode parasite Ascaris suum. Standard single-channel recording techniques were employed. Morantel in the pipette (6 nM to 600 microM), activated single nicotinic AChR currents. 2. Kinetic properties of the main-conductance state of morantel-activated currents were investigated in detail throughout the concentration range, 0.6 microM to 600 microM. Open-time distributions were best fitted by a single exponential. Mean open-times were slightly voltage-dependent, increasing from 0.9 ms at +75 mV to 1.74 ms at -75 mV in the presence of 0.6 microM morantel. At low concentrations, closed-time distributions were best fitted by the sum of two or three exponential components. 3. As the concentration of morantel was increased (100-600 microM), fast-flickering open channel-block was observed at positive potentials, even though morantel, a cation, was only present at the extracellular surface of the membrane. The block rate was dependent on morantel concentration and both block rate and duration of block increased as the potential became less positive. A simple channel-block mechanism did not explain properties of this block. 4. At negative potentials, as the morantel concentration increased, a complex block was observed. With increases in morantel concentration two additional gap components appeared in closed-time distributions: one was short with a duration (approximately 13 ms) independent of morantel concentration; the other was long with a duration that increased with morantel concentration (up to many minutes). In combination, these two components produced a marked reduction in probability of channel opening (Po) with increasing morantel concentration. The relationship between the degrees of block and morantel concentration had a Hill coefficient of 1

  7. Effects of geohelminth infection and age on the associations between allergen-specific IgE, skin test reactivity and wheeze: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, A-L; Vaca, M; Oviedo, G; Workman, L J; Chico, M E; Platts-Mills, T A E; Rodrigues, L C; Barreto, M L; Cooper, P J

    2013-01-01

    Background Most childhood asthma in poor populations in Latin America is not associated with aeroallergen sensitization, an observation that could be explained by the attenuation of atopy by chronic helminth infections or effects of age. Objective To explore the effects of geohelminth infections and age on atopy, wheeze, and the association between atopy and wheeze. Methods A case-control study was done in 376 subjects (149 cases and 227 controls) aged 7–19 years living in rural communities in Ecuador. Wheeze cases, identified from a large cross-sectional survey, had recent wheeze and controls were a random sample of those without wheeze. Atopy was measured by the presence of allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) responses to house dust mite and cockroach. Geohelminth infections were measured in stools and anti-Ascaris IgE in plasma. Results The fraction of recent wheeze attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE was 45.9%, while those for SPT and asIgE were 10.0% and 10.5% respectively. The association between atopy and wheeze was greater in adolescents than children. Although Anti-Ascaris IgE was strongly associated with wheeze (adj. OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.33–3.78, P = 0.003) and with asIgE (adj. OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.49–11.45, P < 0.001), the association with wheeze was independent of asIgE. There was some evidence that the association between atopy and wheeze was greater in uninfected subjects compared with those with active geohelminth infections. Conclusions and clinical relevance Atopy to house dust mite and cockroach explained few wheeze cases in our study population, while the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE was an important risk factor. Our data provided only limited evidence that active geohelminth infections attenuated the association between atopy and wheeze in endemic areas or that age modified this association. The role of allergic sensitization to Ascaris in the development of wheeze, independent of atopy, requires further investigation. PMID

  8. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    PubMed

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana.

  9. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    PubMed

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana. PMID:11818981

  10. Intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rawat, Deepti; Kakkar, Manish; Uppal, Beena; Sharma, V K

    2002-12-01

    The parasitic causes of diarrhea in children in Delhi were determined by the direct smear technique; stool specimens of 127 children were examined for intestinal parasites. In 59 cases (46.5%) intestinal helminths and protozoa were demonstrated. Ascaris lumbricoides was observed in 1 (0.8%) case, while Trichuris trichiura was the finding in 3 (2.4%). Protozoal parasites included Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica in 14 (11%) cases each, Balantidium coli in 3 (2.4%) cases and Cryptosporidium spp in 24 (18.9%) patients. Mixed infection was not seen in any of the cases. Intestinal parasites may increase susceptibility to infection with other intestinal pathogens and therefore with the help of a simple technique, like direct fecal smear examination. rapid diagnosis can be made and specific therapy instituted. PMID:12757217

  11. The detection of circulating antibody in human toxocara infections using the indirect fluorescent antibody test

    PubMed Central

    Bisseru, B.; Woodruff, A. W.

    1968-01-01

    The indirect fluorescent antibody test has been used to detect Toxocara antibodies quantitatively in human sera. The results obtained correlate well with those obtained with the toxocara skin test. Cross reactions have been found with Ascaris lumbricoides and about one in five normal sera give a significant fluorescent reaction. The specificity of the test has been established by Ascaris adsorption studies and by a lack of cross reaction with sera from other helminthic infections. The test may be especially easy to use and therefore particularly valuable in regions where A. lumbricoides infection is relatively rare. Images PMID:4880409

  12. Intestinal parasite infections in the inhabitants along the Hantan River, Chorwon-gun.

    PubMed

    Park, M S; Kim, S W; Yang, Y S; Park, C H; Lee, W T; Kim, C U; Lee, E M; Lee, S U; Huh, S

    1993-12-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in inhabitants at the reaches of the Hantan River, Chorwon-gun, Korea, was observed from August 12 to September 14, 1993. Of 465 people observed by cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether concentration method, 2 Ascaris lumbricoides (unfertilized), 1 Trichuris trichiura, 39 Clonorchis sinensis and 16 Metagonimus egg positive cases were found. After treatment, the Metagonimus egg positive cases passed out flukes of Metagonimus Miyata type. Of 68 fish caught in the Hantan River, 14 (20.6%) were infected with metacercariae of Metagonimus, while no metacercaria of C. sinensis was found. At this area, soil-transmitted nematodes are very low, but clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis are prevalent by modernate endemicity.

  13. Three Independent Techniques Localize Expression of Transcript afp-11 and Its Bioactive Peptide Products to the Paired AVK Neurons in Ascaris suum: In Situ Hybridization, Immunocytochemistry, and Single Cell Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum. AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide. PMID:23509978

  14. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation.

  15. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  16. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  18. The role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Robertson, Ian D; Irwin, Peter; Mencke, Norbert; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2002-11-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses and the role of dogs in the mechanical transmission of human Ascaris infection was examined in three tea estates in Assam, India. Nearly all (99%) dogs harbored one or more zoonotic species of gastrointestinal parasites, with hookworm infection being most common (94%). Parasitic stages presumed to be host-specific for humans such as Ascaris spp. (31%), Trichuris trichiura (25%), and Isospora belli (2%) were also recovered from dog feces. A polymerase chain reaction-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to differentiate the species of Ascaris eggs in dog feces. The results of this study demonstrate the role of the dog as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoides in communities where promiscuous defecation by humans occurs. PMID:12479559

  19. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

  20. Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, Stephen J; Crump, John A; Johnstone, Maree C; Krause, Kurt L; Hill, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths. PMID:26572870

  1. [Research progress in soil-transmitted helminth infection control among children at home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Liu, Cheng-fang; Zhang, Lin-xiu; Zhou, Huan; Chen, Ying-dan

    2015-08-01

    Children are the vulnerable group for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Being infected with STHs for long term would affect the children' s nutritious status, health development and cognitive ability. This paper reviews the prevalence and influencing factors of the infections of STHs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria and hookworm) for children at home and abroad, as well as the impact of STH infections on children's health, cognitive ability and school performance, and the related interventions and their effects. PMID:26767274

  2. Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View

    PubMed Central

    Sowerby, Stephen J.; Crump, John A.; Johnstone, Maree C.; Krause, Kurt L.; Hill, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths. PMID:26572870

  3. Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, Stephen J; Crump, John A; Johnstone, Maree C; Krause, Kurt L; Hill, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths.

  4. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  5. [Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the city of Eirunepé, Amazon].

    PubMed

    Araujo, Claudio Fernández; Fernández, Claudia Leite

    2005-01-01

    Samples of 413 patient were analyzed and positivity was found in 64.4% (266) of the exams. The intestinal parasites most prevalent were: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.6%); Trichuris trichiura (18.6%); Ancylostomides (9.9%); Strongyloides stercoralis (1%), Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%); Entamoeba histolytica (13.3%) and Giardia lamblia (1%). The presence of varied degrees of anemia were detected in 39.8% of the exams.

  6. The Case for CASES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    In this article the Community Annual Energy Storage System ( CASES), a "thermal utility" plan for heating and cooling communities by storing summer heat and winter cold for use in the opposite season, is described. (MDR)

  7. Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

  8. Spatial analysis of the distribution of intestinal nematode infections in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Kabatereine, N. B.; Tukahebwa, E. M.; Kazibwe, F.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial epidemiology of intestinal nematodes in Uganda was investigated using generalized additive models and geostatistical methods. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was unevenly distributed in the country with prevalence greatest in southwest Uganda whereas hookworm was more homogeneously distributed. A. lumbricoides and T. Trichiura prevalence were nonlinearly related to satellite sensor-based estimates of land surface temperature; hookworm was nonlinearly associated with rainfall. Semivariogram analysis indicated that T. trichiura prevalence exhibited no spatial structure and that A. lumbricoides exhibited some spatial dependency at small spatial distances, once large-scale, mainly environmental, trends had been removed. In contrast, there was much more spatial structure in hookworm prevalence although the underlying factors are at present unclear. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to parasite spatial epidemiology and the prediction of infection distributions. PMID:15635963

  9. Control of Schistosoma mekongi in Cambodia: results of eight years of control activities in the two endemic provinces.

    PubMed

    Sinuon, M; Tsuyuoka, R; Socheat, D; Odermatt, P; Ohmae, H; Matsuda, H; Montresor, A; Palmer, K

    2007-01-01

    In Cambodia, schistosomiasis is transmitted in the provinces of Kratie and Stung Treng where approximately 80000 individuals are estimated to be at risk of infection. The baseline prevalence of infection was estimated to be between 73% and 88%, and cases of severe morbidity (hepatosplenomegaly, puberty retardation) and mortality were very common. In 1994, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia started schistosomiasis control applying universal chemotherapy with praziquantel (40mg/kg). The coverage of the programme was between 62% and 86% for 8 years. This simple control measure resulted in the control of the disease: no cases were reported in 2004 and only three cases were reported in 2005. In addition, there are no longer reports of cases of severe morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Since the beginning of the control programme, a single dose of mebendazole (500mg) has been combined with praziquantel during the mass chemotherapy; as a result the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms dropped from 74.5% to 10% and from 86% to 40% respectively. The experience in Cambodia demonstrates that, with political commitment, control of parasitic diseases is achievable even in a situation of minimal resources. The programme represents a successful model for other developing countries.

  10. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  11. Health Status of Immigrant Children and Environmental Survey of Child Daycare Centers in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sagnuankiat, Surapol; Wanichsuwan, Molee; Bhunnachet, Ekaporn; Jungarat, Nahathai; Panraksa, Kanitha; Komalamisra, Chalit; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pubampen, Somchit; Adisakwattana, Poom; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-02-01

    Samut Sakhon is a Thai province popular among immigrants attracted to work in factories and the Thai food industry, especially people from Myanmar. Poor personal-hygiene behaviors, crowded accommodation and limited sanitation, result in health problems among immigrant workers. Various infectious diseases among this group are seen and managed by Samut Sakhon General Hospital. The impact of intestinal parasitic infections on public health is well known; they can spread from infected immigrant areas to uninfected areas via close contact and fecal-oral transmission from contaminated food and water. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among 372 immigrant children at 8 child-daycare centers during their parents' work time, by physical examination, fecal examination, and examination of the environment around the centers. Physical examinations were generally unremarkable, except that head-lice and fingernail examinations were positive in two cases (0.8 %). The results showed intestinal parasitic infections to be highly prevalent, at 71.0 %. These infections comprised both helminths and protozoa: Trichuris trichiura (50.8 %), Enterobius vermicularis (25.2 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.3 %), hookworm (11.6 %), Giardia lamblia (10.2 %), Endolimax nana (3.5 %), Entamoeba coli (2.7 %), and Blastocystis hominis (0.5 %). The environmental survey found a small number of houseflies near the accommodation to be positive for helminthic eggs (0.2 %), including A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, hookworms, Taenia spp., and minute intestinal flukes. Regarding the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children, it has been conjectured whether they were infected, along with their parents, during their daily lives before or after settling in Thailand. Intestinal parasites among immigrant children may involve a significant epidemiological impact, since immigrant children can serve as carriers and transmitters of disease

  12. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  13. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. III. Pemba Island (Zanzibar-Tanzania)].

    PubMed

    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Stefanini, A

    1987-04-01

    The authors carried out a coprological survey in Pemba Island, analysing, by modified Ritchie technique, 413 stools samples. The specimens were collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random in a number equal to 2% of the whole population. The examined subjects were divided in 3 age groups, 211 were males, 202 females. The following results were obtained (in order of prevalence): a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli 35.6%, Giardia intestinalis 5.6%, Endolimax nana 4.3%, E. histolytica 3.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 2.9%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 4.3%, E. hartmanni 0.7%; b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura 87.9%, Ancylostomatidae 67.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 39.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 18.9%, Schistosoma haematobium 1.9%, S. mansoni 0.2%, S. fuelleborni 0.2%, Enterobius vermicularis 0.2%. The high moisture of soil and the rain distribution during the year could be favouring the high prevalence of T. trichiura and Ancylostomatidae. The case of schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni reported, seems to be imported from the Mainland, while the case of S. fuelleborni could be autochtonous. Totally, 392 subjects (94.4%) were found positive for pathogenic species (Helminths and Protozoa). PMID:3508507

  14. [Intestinal parasites in inhabitants of Wrocław and Wałbrzych].

    PubMed

    Lonc, E; Okulewicz, A; Kopczyńska-Maślej, J; Zaródzka, Z

    1999-01-01

    In the period 1990-1997 several thousand patients from Wrocław and Wałbrzych hospitals as well as inhabitants of Wrocław city were examined for intestinal parasites. The presence of parasites was noted in 12.3% of 2173 patients from the District Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław, 3.2% of 599 from Wałbrzych Hospital and 39.3% (mostly Enterobius vermicularis) of 746 ambulatory examined persons in the Private Analytical Laboratory in Wrocław. Among the intestinal protozoa the most frequent was Giardia intestinalis (from 5.7 to 18.1%) and Entamoeba coli (0.5-0.6%); the remaining amoebas (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, E. polecki and Endolimax nana) as well as Chilomonas mesnili was present only in single cases. Enterobiosis was observed in nearly half of the total number of examined children (1808); the most rarely found helminths were Opisorchis felineus (! Adult patient), Strongyloides stercoralis (2) and Trichuris trichiura (8); Taenia saginata was found in 56 patients, which constituted 1.6% of the total number of examined cases and Ascaris lumbricoides in 40 (1.2%). PMID:16883717

  15. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces. PMID:17628910

  16. Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhea in community and hospital patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Oyofo, Buhari A; Subekti, Decy; Tjaniadi, Periska; Machpud, Nunung; Komalarini, S; Setiawan, B; Simanjuntak, C; Punjabi, Narain; Corwin, Andrew L; Wasfy, Momtaz; Campbell, James R; Lesmana, Murad

    2002-10-11

    The prevalence of bacteria, parasite and viral pathogens in 3875 patients with diarrhea in community and hospital settings from March 1997 through August 1999 in Jakarta, Indonesia was determined using routine bacteriology and molecular assay techniques. Bacterial pathogens isolated from hospital patients were, in decreasing frequency, Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, while S. flexneri, V. cholerae O1, Salmonella spp. and C. jejuni were isolated from the community patients. V. cholerae O1 was isolated more frequently (P<0.005) from the hospital patients than the community patients. Overall, bacterial pathogens were isolated from 538 of 3875 (14%) enrolled cases of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were detected in 218 (18%) of 1244 rectal swabs. A small percentage of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (1%) and of Clostridium difficile (1.3%) was detected. Parasitic examination of 389 samples resulted in 43 (11%) positives comprising Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%), Blastocystis hominis (5.7%), Giardia lamblia (0.8%), Trichuris trichiura (2.1%) and Endolimax nana (0.5%). Rotavirus (37.5%), adenovirus (3.3%) and Norwalk-like virus (17.6%) were also detected. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among some isolates. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to quinolones, with the exception of some isolates of C. jejuni which were resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and norfloxacin. Data obtained from this community- and hospital-based study will enable the Indonesian Ministry of Health to plan relevant studies on diarrheal diseases in the archipelago. PMID:12381465

  17. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  18. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.

  19. Detection of selected intestinal helminths and protozoa at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Basuni, M; Mohamed, Z; Ahmad, M; Zakaria, N Z; Noordin, R

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of a number of important human infections in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected helminths and protozoan infections among patients admitted with gastrointestinal disorders at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR. In addition microscopic examination was also performed following direct smear, zinc sulphate concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques; and the presence of protozoan parasites was confirmed using trichrome and acid-fast stains. Of the 225 faecal samples analysed, 26.2% were positive for intestinal parasites by the multiplex real-time PCR, while 5.3% were positive by microscopy. As compared to microscopy, the multiplex real-time PCR detected 5.8 and 4.5 times more positives for the selected helminth and protozoan infections respectively. Among the selected helminths detected in this study, hookworm was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, while Ascaris lumbricoides was detected the most by microscopy. Meanwhile, among the selected protozoa detected in this study, Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, however microscopy detected equal number of cases with E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. This study showed that real-time PCR can be used to obtain a more accurate prevalence data on intestinal helminths and protozoa.

  20. The presence of intestinal parasites in selected vegetables from open markets in south western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, D O; Alli, O A T; Ogunleye, V F; Olusoga-Ogbolu, F F; Olaosun, Il

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infection worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of food-borne illness linked to fresh vegetables which is a major way in the transmission of intestinal parasites. The study was carried out to determine the level of parasitological contamination of vegetables sold at selected markets in south western Nigeria. A total of 120 samples from different vegetables were randomly sampled from major selected open markets in 3 cities. The vegetables were analysed using macroscopic, sedimentation and magnesium sulphate floatation techniques. Eighty-two (68.3%) of the vegetables were positive for intestinal parasites from which water leaf (Talinium triangulare) and 'soko' (Celosis) recorded the highest (100%) parasitic contamination. Parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (16.7%), hookworm (18.3%), Taenia spp (4.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (45.8%), Balantidium coli (0.8%). Vegetables in each of these cities had almost the same high rate of parasitic contamination; Ibadan (70%), Ilorin (70%) and Lagos (65%). This study further emphasised the role of vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites in developing countries. Therefore, vegetable farmers should therefore be enlightened on the modern use of night soil as fertilizer and the treatment of irrigation water or municipal waste water before use. There is also dire need for the improvement of sanitary facilities in our markets and vegetable vendors should also be included in the screening of food handlers. PMID:20499624

  1. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

  2. [Distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the environmental-food and medicine analysis laboratory of Sivas municipality during the years 1993-2006].

    PubMed

    Ataş, Ahmet Duran; Alim, Ahmet; Ataş, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the distribution and prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients who presented at the environmental-food and medicine analysis laboratory of the Sivas municipality, Sivas, from January 1993-December 2006. A total of 732 stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using native-Lugol and formol ethyl ether methods. Also, 186 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Out of a total of 918 total specimens, intestinal parasites were found in 85 (9.3%) females and 178 (19.4%) males. Parasites were found in 188 (25.7%) of the stool specimens, coming from 54 (7.4%) females and 134 (18.3%) males. Of the 75 positive cellophane tape specimens, 31 (16.7%) were females and 44 (23.7%), male. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated according to years, sex and ages in which cases were seen. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 101 (13.8%) Entamoeba coli, 27 (3.7%) Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 91 (12.4%) Giardia intestinalis, 30 (4.1%) Taenia saginata, 13 (1.8%) Hymenolepis nana, 7 (1%) Ascaris lumbricoides, 2 (0.3%) Trichuris trichiura and 1 (0.1%) Dicrocoelium dentriticum. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 64 (34.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and 11 (5.9%) Taenia saginata. PMID:18351554

  3. Making our case(s).

    PubMed

    Fitchett, George

    2011-01-01

    Health care chaplaincy needs to develop a body of published case studies. Chaplains need these case studies to provide a foundation for further research about the efficacy of chaplains' spiritual care. Case studies can also play an important role in training new chaplains and in continuing education for experienced chaplains, not to mention educating health care colleagues and the public about the work of health care chaplains. Guidelines for writing case studies are described, herein, as is a project in which three experienced oncology chaplains worked together to write case studies about their work. Steps that chaplains, and professional chaplain organizations, can take to further the writing and publishing of case studies are described.

  4. [A Case Strongly Suspected of Being Pulmonary Toxocariasis Showing Multiple Pulmonary Nodules with a Disappearing and Reappearing Halo Sign].

    PubMed

    Takakura, Akira; Harada, Shinya; Katono, Ken; Igawa, Satoshi; Katagiri, Masato; Yanase, Nobuo; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    We report herein on a case strongly suspected of being pulmonary toxocariasis. A 22-year-old Indonesian man referred to our hospital presented with abnormal chest shadows upon medical examination. He had no symptoms. He did not have any pets nor did he eat raw beef or chicken. Hematological examination revealed eosinophilia and elevation of IgE. Chest computed tomography revealed 3 pulmonary nodules with the halo sign. We suspected a parasite infection and performed antiparasite antibody testing. Ascaris suum was slightly positive on the screening test. As specific antibody against the larval excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis, measured at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, was positive (level 3 up to 8). Subsequently, the abnormal chest shadows disappeared. However, two months later, 2 pulmonary nodules with the halo sign reappeared in other places. Diagnostic therapy with albendazole was performed for 8 weeks. Mild hepatic impairment emerged during therapy, but it was within the allowed range. Thereafter, the results improved for the imaging findings, eosinophilia, serum IgE level, and specific antibody. The antibody level became negative two months after the treatment had ended. We should consider toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of migratory nodular shadows with the halo sign on chest computed tomography, and immunoserological testing is useful for the diagnosis. PMID:26552124

  5. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  6. Making a Case for Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Gail; Neureither, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the process of a reform effort in biology instruction. Describes the use of a case study about cholera epidemics and explains how it enables critical objectives in the science curriculum to be addressed. (DDR)

  7. Survey for soil-transmitted helminths in Asahan Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Imai, J; Sakamoto, O; Munthe, F E; Sinulingga, S

    1985-09-01

    The survey on soil-transmitted helminthiasis was carried out in the three villages of Asahan Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia, between October 1981 and December 1982. The prevalence rates of geohelminthiasis proved to be extremely high (average 97%) in the three villages and more than 70% harboured three or more helminths, especially Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were detected in 61.1% and 52.2% of 835 fecal specimens, respectively. The effects of two anthelmintics, Combantrin and Trivexan, were essentially the same against A. lumbricoides and hookworm, although Trivexan was better than Combantrin against T. trichiura. The kinetic changes of parasitic infection in community after mass treatment were examined. Ten months after the first drug treatment, the incidence of Ascariasis or trichuriasis reverted nearly to pre-treatment level, while hookworm infection rate remained significantly low. Four months after the second mass treatment, the reinfection rate of A. lumbricoides was most prevalent followed by trichuriasis and hookworm infection. The reinfection rate (63.6%) of A. lumbricoides in children was about six times higher than that (10.4%) in adults at four month after the mass treatment. This study indicates that mass treatment with Trivexan at two month intervals for children and four month intervals for adults is necessary for the effective helminth control scheme in highly endemic areas of North Sumatra.

  8. Impact of community-directed treatment on soil transmitted helminth infections in children aged 12 to 59 months in Mazabuka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Halwindi, Hikabasa; Magnussen, Pascal; Siziya, Seter; Handema, Ray; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Olsen, Annette

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of adding community-directed treatment (ComDT) to the routine health facility (HF)-based treatment on prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections among children aged 12 to 59 months. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected children of this age group from the intervention area (HF+ComDT area) and the comparison area (HF area) at baseline (n=986), 12 months (n=796) and 18 months (n=788) follow-up. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly higher in the HF+ComDT as compared to the HF area at baseline (P=0·048), but not at 12 and 18 months follow-up. At baseline the HF+ComDT area had significantly higher intensities of A. lumbricoides compared to the HF area (P<0·001), but not at 12 and 18 months follow-ups. Prevalence and intensity of hookworm did not differ significantly between treatment arms at any time. Analysis of trends showed a significant decrease in prevalence of A. lumbricoides and hookworm in the HF+ComDT area (P<0·001), of hookworm in the HF area (P<0·05), but not of A. lumbricoides in the HF area. It is concluded that the ComDT approach generally enhanced the treatment effect among under-five year children and that this alternative approach may also have advantages in other geographical settings.

  9. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  10. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  11. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  12. Minimum effective doses of mebendazole in treatment of soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Nontasut, P; Waikagul, J; Muennoo, C; Sanguankait, S; Nuamtanong, S; Maipanich, W

    1997-06-01

    Three hundred and fifteen primary school children infected with soil-transmitted helminths were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were treated with 25, 50 and 75 mg mebendazole (MBZ) single dose. One group was given MBZ conventional dose of 100 mg twice daily for 3 days and another group was given albendazole (ABZ) standard dose of 400 mg single dose. Every trial lower MBZ dose 75 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg regimen were highly effective against Ascaris lumbricoides but only moderately effective against Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus.

  13. Anaemia among young male workers in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Curtale, F; Abdel-Fattah, M; el-Shazly, M; Shamy, M Y; el-Sahn, F

    2000-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, we investigated exposure to and the presence of factors associated with anaemia, such as socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, intestinal parasitic infections and lead among 355 young male workers (7-19 years of age) employed in private workshops. Of the total study sample, 44.5% (158 participants) were found to be anaemic. The major risk factors for anaemia were multiple parasitic infection, high intensity of parasitic (Ascaris lumbricoides) infection and drinking tea soon after a meal. A significantly lower prevalence of anaemia was noted after Ramadan; it appeared to be the main factor associated with the presence or absence of anaemia and warrants further attention.

  14. V-shaped pits in regions of ancient Baekje kingdom paleoparasitologically confirmed as likely human-waste reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2014-10-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  15. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:22662605

  16. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  17. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  18. V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  19. Corruption case.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    A Federal jury in Puerto Rico found three defendants guilty of participating in the theft of $2.2 million in Federal funds from the San Juan AIDS Institute. The key figure in the case is [name removed], a consultant to the institute. He was convicted of 12 counts of money laundering and faces up to 25 years in prison. Two other administrative officials were also convicted in the case. Four others have pleaded guilty, and three more await trial. Rep. Jose Granados Navado was among those implicated; he received $100,000 for his campaign for mayor of San Juan in 1988 from the institute=s medical director. U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) has called for an audit of all Ryan White CARE Act funds since this scandal was uncovered. PMID:11366596

  20. Casing pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.E.; Bass, R.E.

    1987-09-29

    A natural gas operated pump is described for use in the casing of an oil well, comprising: a tubular pump body having an open lower end for admitting well fluids to the interior of the pump body and an open upper end, wherein a downwardly facing seating surface is formed on the inner periphery of the pump body adjacent the upper end thereof; means for forming a seal between the pump body and the casing of the well; a rod extending longitudinally through the seating surface formed in the pump body and protruding from the upper end of the pump body; a valve member mounted on the rod below the seating surface and shaped to mate with the seating surface; and means for vertically positioning the rod in proportion to fluid pressure within the pump body.

  1. Corruption case.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    A Federal jury in Puerto Rico found three defendants guilty of participating in the theft of $2.2 million in Federal funds from the San Juan AIDS Institute. The key figure in the case is [name removed], a consultant to the institute. He was convicted of 12 counts of money laundering and faces up to 25 years in prison. Two other administrative officials were also convicted in the case. Four others have pleaded guilty, and three more await trial. Rep. Jose Granados Navado was among those implicated; he received $100,000 for his campaign for mayor of San Juan in 1988 from the institute=s medical director. U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) has called for an audit of all Ryan White CARE Act funds since this scandal was uncovered.

  2. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  3. [Intestinal parasitosis in pre-school children from Tarapoto].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Calderón, J

    1991-01-01

    We examined stool specimens from 110 children (Pre Scholar) from the suburb "9 de Abril" Tarapoto (Perú). The diagnostic techniques were: direct smear, Faust floaty concentration, Willis floating and Graham's tape. 98 percent had intestinal parasitosis, without sexual differences. The most common parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides 68%, Trichuris trichiura 44%, Enterobius vermicularis 28%, Hymenolepis nana 21% and Strongyloides stercoralis 16%. Monoparasitosis was present in 44% and biparasitosis 42%. The most frequent association was Ascaris-Trichuris. The clinical findings were hyporexia, borborygms, bruxismo, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 60% received irregular treatment and without laboratory stool tests. In this suburb there's not garbage dump, drainage and the drinkable water is very contaminated; the deficient hygiene worsen the soul contamination. We consider that the elimination of these situations and health education are better than the medicine use.

  4. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene. PMID:25626125

  5. Aspects of intestinal parasitism in villagers from rural peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Bidinger, P D; Crompton, D W; Arnold, S

    1981-10-01

    In 1977, a parasitological survey was undertaken of stool samples collected from 335 people from 5 villages in semi-arid regions of peninsular India. Stools, which were collected from various individuals in a stratified sample of 40 matched households from each village, were examined by standard diagnostic procedures. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and protozoan cysts, which were identified on morphological grounds as belonging to Entamoeba spp., were most common. Other protozoan cysts were considered to be those of Balantidium coli, and eggs of hookworm and Hymenolepis nana were also observed in some of the stool specimens. The prevalence of parasitic infections varied between villages. The village with the highest prevalence of Ascaris (70%) appeared to have the greatest demands made on its meager drinking-water supply. This village is located in a dry, windy and dusty region and it is speculated that, in addition to well-established transmission mechanisms, the villagers may be exposed, perhaps through contamination of uncovered drinking-water wells and inhalation, to wind-borne Ascaris eggs. In 1967, a WHO Expert Committee Report on the Control of Ascariasis pointed out that information on the frequency of dust-borne infection with Ascaris in man was inadequate. PMID:7329725

  6. Case management.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, A H; Propotnik, T

    1997-03-01

    Providing cost-effective high quality healthcare services ranks as the number one concern for anyone involved with the healthcare delivery system. While quality of care should always be the number one priority, controlling healthcare costs receives most of the attention. With limited healthcare dollars and providers assuming more of the financial risk for services rendered, a whole assortment of cost-containment strategies are being introduced in an effort to maintain some semblance of financial viability. Healthcare providers can approach cost control from two different angles. On the fixed-cost operational overhead side, traditional cost-containment techniques have focused on downsizing, maximizing productivity, staffing redesign, improved purchasing contracts, standardization, inventory control, and other more individualized restructured service models. On the variable-cost clinical side, cost control has been approached by introducing a variety of cost-containment strategies designed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of provider performance. While many of these strategies, previously discussed in the Journal of Healthcare Resource Management have stressed the importance of education, guidelines, pathways, and other clinical "tools for improvement," the success of many of these tools resides in the ability to provide real-time intervention. Real-time intervention rather than the more passive retrospective variance analysis has the greatest potential for producing cost savings by actually making a recommendation that prevents the unwanted event from occurring. In many institutions, the case manager bears the responsibility for monitoring and managing these programs. This article describes various case management models currently used by different institutions.

  7. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shelkey, Julia; Huang, Christina; Karpa, Kelly; Singh, Harjit; Silvis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Context: The past 2 decades have shown a dramatic increase in the number of pelvic and hip injuries in female athletes. Accurate diagnosis of hip pain in active women has proven to be a challenge, as there is an extensive differential including both musculoskeletal and visceral problems. While the incidence of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is not known, this condition may manifest as chronic hip pain in this patient population. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was undertaken for articles published in English from 1980 to 2012. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Diagnosis was established using magnetic resonance imaging. Both women were evaluated and treated by interventional radiology with gonadal vein embolization. Initial evaluation and subsequent follow-up was completed in the Sports Medicine Clinic to monitor chronic hip pain symptoms. Both patients experienced significant alleviation of chronic hip pain symptoms within several months after gonadal vein embolization, allowing for a return to the previous level of activity. Conclusion: Although PCS most commonly presents as pelvic pain, it is important to consider this condition in athletes with persistent hip pain. PCS may also present with the primary symptom of hip pain as in the 2 case reports described. With more awareness of this condition and appropriate diagnosis, PCS as an unusual etiology of chronic hip pain may be effectively treated with gonadal vein embolization. PMID:24587865

  8. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  9. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  10. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.

  11. Intestinal parasites in the Camiri, Gutierrez and Boyuibe areas, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Cancrini, G; Bartoloni, A; Nuñez, L; Paradisi, F

    1988-01-01

    A parasitological study was carried out on 381 apparently healthy subjects from Camiri, Boyuibe, Gutierrez. Intestinal parasites and non-pathogenic protozoa were present in 78.7% of the population sampled; multiple infections were observed in 67.7% of the parasitized individuals. The protozoon most commonly found was Entamoeba coli (in 40.7% of specimens), followed by Giardia intestinalis (30.7%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (10%), Chilomastix mesnili (8.7%). Other protozoon parasites also present were Enteromonas hominis (3.4%), Retortamonas intestinalis (2.4%), Cryptosporidium (2.1%), Endolimax nana (2.1%), Balantidium coli (1.8%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.8%). The helminths observed were hookworms (28.6%), Trichuris trichiura (19.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (9.7%), Hymenolepis nana (8.7%), Trichostrongylus (5.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.8%), Taenia (5 cases) and Enterobius (6 cases). Prevalence for nematodes is probably underestimated in the 3-9 years age group because of a mebendazole treatment given 5 weeks before the survey, under a Program of P D C of the Ministry of Health. The sample from Camiri was found to be the most parasitized (84.1%). An extraordinarily high infection rate was found in two urban institutions, as well as in Itanambicua, a rural community close to Camiri. No significant differences were observed in parasitic prevalence between rural and urban environments. Exposure to contamination with human and animal faeces, overcrowding and poor sanitation habits are some of the factors responsible for the parasitic situation evidenced. PMID:3271990

  12. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  13. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  14. Application of the Fenton process in the elimination of helminth eggs.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Megchún, Sandra Isabel; Nájera-Aguilar, Hugo Alejandro; González-Hilerio, Magaly; Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Javier; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Rubén Fernando; Rojas-Valencia, María Neftalí

    2014-12-01

    This study relates to a method for evaluating the degradation efficiency of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs through a Fenton reaction, using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 100, 250, and 500 mg/L, ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) at 458 mg/L Fe(2+) and pH values of 3, 4.5, and 6. The experiments were conducted according to a 3(2) experimental design, with 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 (H2O2/Fe(2+)) molar ratios. The oxidation and flocculation stages were performed at 130 rpm during 2 hours and at 25-30 rpm during 20 min, respectively. As a result of the Fenton reaction, an average of 91.2% Ascaris lumbricoides egg degradation was achieved at pH 6 using a 500 mg/L dose of H2O2 and a 3:1 (H2O2/Fe(2+)) molar ratio. Thus, this process is an alternative for eliminating parasites that are resistant to conventional disinfection processes and significantly reduces the human health hazard they represent.

  15. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  16. Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christine L.; Hansen, Jacqueline J.; Margolin, Aaron B.; Balkin, Helene; Batzer, Glenda; Widmer, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matrix. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella were undetectable following 2 hours of lime stabilization, demonstrating a 7-log reduction. Adenovirus, MS-2 and rotavirus were below detectable levels following 2 h of liming, demonstrating a 4-log reduction. G. lamblia cysts were also inactivated. A. lumbricoides ova remained viable following 72 hours of liming as did C. parvum oocysts. While this study confirmed that Ascaris ova are resistant to liming, their scarcity in sludge and low recovery efficiencies limit their use as indicator. The persistence of C. parvum oocysts after exposure to lime, suggests that this parasite would be a better choice as indicator for evaluating biosolids intended for land application. The studies done with adenovirus Type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific bacteriophage provided preliminary data demonstrating similar inactivation rates. Monitoring anthropogenic viruses is a time consuming, labor intensive and expensive process. If further studies could demonstrate that phage could be used as an indicator of other enteric viruses, enhanced monitoring could result in greater acceptance of land application of biosolids while demonstrating no increased public health threat. PMID:17431316

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of infection. Meanwhile, the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had the highest ova or oocyst counts and variety of gastrointestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance. PMID:22308652

  18. Wastewater quality and the risk of intestinal nematode infection in sewage farming families in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Ensink, Jeroen H.J.; Blumenthal, Ursula J.; Brooker, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The use of sewage or wastewater in agriculture is becoming increasingly common as a result of global water scarcity. Intestinal nematode infections have been identified as the main health risk associated with this practise. To protect consumer and farmer health the WHO has set an intestinal nematode water quality standard. However because of a lack of well designed studies the validity of this guideline is questioned. This paper presents the findings of a study on the risk of intestinal nematode infections in farming families occupationally exposed to untreated and partially treated wastewater in Hyderabad, India. The study found an increased risk of hookworm (OR: 3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.5), Ascaris lumbricoides (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 2.0-14) and Trichuris trichiura (OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.8-18) infection when untreated wastewater (150 intestinal nematode ova/L) was used for crop production. The use of partially treated wastewater (28 intestinal nematode ova/L) was only associated with an increased risk (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6) of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. The findings of the study suggest that the current WHO intestinal nematode guideline of 1 ova/L is sufficient to protect farmer health. PMID:18840745

  19. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  20. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  1. Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-06-24

    Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca.

  2. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children's anaemia risk in northern Angola.

    PubMed

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Langa, Antonio; Pedro, João Mário; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Vaz Nery, Susana

    2013-05-01

    Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i) quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in anaemia endemicity; and (ii) develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15), S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86%) were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  3. Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-06-24

    Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

  4. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area. PMID:25183071

  5. Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children from Papua New Guinea: associations with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined the prevalence and intensity of Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children 5 years of age or under living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea. Of 179 samples, 27% of the children tested positive for Strongyloides, with 81% of these children being a year or less in age. Overall, 68% of the children had one or more infections including Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus) as well as Strongyloides. Egg counts in the stools ranged from 100 to 98,300 eggs/ml for Strongyloides, 100 to 59,200 eggs/ml for Ascaris and 100 to 3400 eggs/ml for hookworm. There were significant associations between Strongyloides intensity and weight for age and weight for height such that children with higher intensities had, on average, lower z-scores. Relationships between the prevalence of helminth infections and socioeconomic factors were also observed. Logistic regression models showed that children living farther away from Kanabea (more than 2 hours' walking distance), in smaller households (5 or less people) and with uneducated mothers best predict children with Strongyloides. Two of these variables also predicted the presence of hookworm: maternal education and household size. However, in contrast to Strongyloides, a larger household size (6 or more people) was significantly associated with the presence of hookworm. House type was associated with the prevalence of Ascaris, with children living in houses with tin roofs being less likely to have Ascaris than those living in traditional houses. In addition, maternal education was associated with Ascaris intensity in those children with infection, such that the mean intensities were greater in children of uneducated mothers.

  6. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  7. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care.

  8. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  9. Parasitic infections in young Jamaicans in different ecological zones of the island.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, S C; Campbell, M; Fox, K; Bennett, F; Gibbs, W N; Greene, M

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented for the first country wide prospective study on gastrointestinal tract parasitic infections done in Jamaica. Samples from 2,947 young Jamaicans drawn from all ecological zones and from all parochial divisions of the island were analyzed. Pica was practised by 8.6%. Generally, prevalence of organisms was as follows: Trichuris trichiura (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (9.5%), hookworm (2.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.3%), Giardia lamblia (6.3%) and Entamoeba coli (7.7%). Several other spp. of protozoans were recorded. Prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Necator americanus was significantly greater in upland than in lowland (both urban and rural), while the situation was reversed for G. lamblia-infections. Greatest variations were age-related. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura reached peak prevalence of 15.3 and 20.5% respectively in 5-9-year-olds, while hookworm peaked later at 15-19 years of age. Suggestions are made for a national and even regional antihelminthic program for the mass treatment of pre- and primary school age children. PMID:1750103

  10. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  11. Mathematics Case Methods Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview and analysis of the Mathematics Case Methods Project, which uses cases in order to examine and reflect upon teaching. Focuses on a special kind of teacher knowledge, coined pedagogical-content knowledge. (ASK)

  12. Coassociations between IL10 polymorphisms, IL-10 production, helminth infection, and asthma/wheeze in an urban tropical population in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Lemaire, Denise C.; dos Santos Costa, Ryan; Amorim, Leila D.; Vergara, Candelaria; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Foster, Cassandra; Campbell, Monica; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Helminth infections are associated with protection against allergies. It is postulated that IL-10 production after helminth infection suppresses skin hypersensitivity and increases IgG4 production, protecting against allergies. Objective We aimed to determine whether IL10 polymorphisms are associated with helminth infection and the risk of wheeze and allergy. Methods Twelve IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 1353 children aged 4 to 11 years living in a poor urban area in Salvador, Brazil. Wheezing status, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection, IL-10 production by peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with A lumbricoides extract, serum total IgE levels, specific IgE levels, skin prick test responses to common aeroallergens, and IgG4 and IgE anti–A lumbricoides antibody levels were measured in all children. Association tests were performed by using logistic or linear regression when appropriate, including sex, age, helminth infection, and principal components for ancestry informative markers as covariates by using PLINK. Results Allele G of marker rs3024496 was associated with the decreased production of IL-10 by peripheral blood leukocytes in response to A lumbricoides stimulation. Allele C of marker rs3024498 was negatively associated with helminth infection or its markers. Marker rs3024492 was positively associated with the risk of atopic wheeze, total IgE levels, and skin prick test responses to cockroach. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IL10 polymorphisms might play a role in the production of IL-10, helminth infection, and allergy. We hypothesize that polymorphisms related to protection against helminths, which would offer an evolutionary advantage to subjects in the past, might be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. PMID:23273955

  13. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Luoba, Alfred I; Wenzel Geissler, P; Estambale, Benson; Ouma, John H; Alusala, Dorcas; Ayah, Rosemary; Mwaniki, David; Magnussen, Pascal; Friis, Henrik

    2005-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were

  14. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Luoba, Alfred I; Wenzel Geissler, P; Estambale, Benson; Ouma, John H; Alusala, Dorcas; Ayah, Rosemary; Mwaniki, David; Magnussen, Pascal; Friis, Henrik

    2005-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were

  15. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  16. Diagrammatic reasoning and cases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; McCartney, R.

    1996-12-31

    We believe that many problem domains that lend themselves to a case-based reasoning solution can benefit from an diagrammatic implementation and propose a diagrammatic case-based solution to what we term the n-queens best solution problem where the best solution is defined as that which solves the problem moving the fewest queens. A working system, based on a novel combination of diagrammatic and case-based reasoning, is described.

  17. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  18. [Case and studies].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  19. "Tuberculosis Case Management" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to practice acquired skills in a simulated…

  20. Work Sharing Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maureen E.; And Others

    Designed to provide private sector employers with the practical information necessary to select and then to design and implement work sharing arrangements, this book presents case studies of some 36 work sharing programs. Topics covered in the case studies include the circumstances leading to adoption of the program, details of compensation and…

  1. Case Study: Challenging Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study involving organizational change and its effect on employees. Presents three responses to the case study: "Paradox of Ordering Change: I Insist That We Work as a Team" (Paaige K. Turner); "Managing Change Is Managing Meaning" (Greg Hearn and Abraham Ninan); and "The Psychodynamics of an Organizational Change Initiative"…

  2. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. PMID:27338694

  3. [Qualitative case study].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised.

  4. SETDA Case Studies 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) published a series of case studies from 28 states to showcase examples of how ARRA EETT ("American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enhancing Education Through Technology") grant funds have impacted teaching and learning. SETDA collected data for the case studies through a variety…

  5. A Case of Hyperlexis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a protracted case involving a varsity basketball coach's refusal to select a problem parent's son, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decided the suit was frivolous and ordered the parent to pay $2,500 in court fees. This case illustrates the intersection of three American excesses--litigiousness, athletics, and divorce. (MLH)

  6. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengfang; Luo, Renfu; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Bai, Yunli; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott; Smith, Scott; Wang, Guofei; Wang, Jujun

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in remote and poor rural areas is still high among children, the most vulnerable to infection. There is concern that STH infections may detrimentally affect children’s healthy development, including their cognitive ability, nutritional status, and school performance. Medical studies have not yet identified the exact nature of the impact STH infections have on children. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between STH infections and developmental outcomes among a primary school-aged population in rural China. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a large-scale survey in Guizhou province in southwest China in May 2013. A total of 2,179 children aged 9-11 years living in seven nationally-designated poverty counties in rural China served as our study sample. Overall, 42 percent of the sample’s elementary school-aged children were infected with one or more of the three types of STH—Ascaris lumbricoides (ascaris), Trichuris trichuria (whipworm) and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that infection with one or more STHs is associated with worse cognitive ability, worse nutritional status, and worse school performance than no infection. This study also presents evidence that children with Trichuris infection, either infection with Trichuris only or co-infected with Trichuris and Ascaris, experience worse cognitive, nutritional and schooling outcomes than their uninfected peers or children infected with only Ascaris. Conclusions/Significance We find that STH infection still poses a significant health challenge among children living in poor, rural, ethnic areas of southwest China. Given the important linkages we find between STH infection and a number of important child health and educational outcomes, we believe that our results will contribute positively to

  7. CASE: Software design technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanov, G.N.

    1994-05-01

    CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) is a set of methodologies for software design, development, and maintenance supported by a complex of interconnected automation tools. CASE is a set of tools for the programmer, analyst, and developer for the automation of software design and development. Today, CASE has become an independent discipline in software engineering that has given rise to a powerful CASE industry made up of hundreds of firms and companies of various kinds. They include companies that develop tools for software analysis and design and have a wide network of distributors and dealers, firms that develop specialized tools for narrow subject areas or for individual stages of the software life cycle, firms that organize seminars and courses for specialists, consulting firms, which demonstrate the practical power of CASE toolkits for specific applications, and companies specializing in the publication of periodicals and bulletins on CASE. The principal purchasers of CASE toolkits abroad are military organizations, data-processing centers, and commercial software developers.

  8. MIDAS case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  9. Tungiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valentín, Sheila M; Sánchez, Jorge L; Hillyer, George V; Velez, Rafael

    2007-12-01

    This is a case report of a patient who developed a nodule in one foot, which upon biopsy, was diagnosed as tungiasis, a cutaneous infestation caused by a human flea. The natural life cycle, clinical and pathological expressions are discussed.

  10. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  11. Case File: The Spazzoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools Case file: The Spazzzoids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... your classroom activities. More Related Links Healthy Schools File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. Mumps Cases and Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cigarettes, might increase spread of the virus. MMR vaccine prevents most, but not all, cases of mumps ... is 78% (range: 49% to 92%) effective. The MMR vaccine protects against currently circulating mumps strains. Outbreaks can ...

  14. CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  15. [Emphysematous pyelonephritis. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Cherif, Lotfi; Khiari, Karima; Ben Abdallah, Néjib; Kourda, Nédia; Kaaroud, Hayet; Ali, Inçaf Hadj; Lakhoua, Youssef; Ben Hmida, Fethi; El Younsi, Fethi; Friaa, Slaheddine; Sfaxi, Mohamed; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Jilani, Sarrah; Ayed, Mohsen; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2005-10-01

    The emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare and severe renal infection characterized by the presence of gas in renal parenchyma and its perirenal spaces. We report two cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis in two diabetic women (53 and 50 years old respectively). In the first case, the treatment was based on nephrectomy because of the presence of a septic shock and three risk factors, which are acute renal failure, hematuria and thrombopenia. In the second case, the treatment was only medical. The evolution was favorable in the two cases. We insist in this article that this diagnosis should be considered in every female diabetic patient having severe acute pyelonephritis resistant to a well-conducted medical treatment.

  16. PARAPHILLIA : A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, A.A.; Valdiya, P.S.; Chaudhury, S.

    2001-01-01

    A case of paraphilia presenting with multiple sexual deviations is reported. The disorder occurred against a background of disordered childhood and was later associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:21407845

  17. Congenital brachymetatarsia: three cases.

    PubMed

    Ferrández, L; Yubero, J; Usabiaga, J; Ramos, L

    1993-01-01

    We report on three cases with congenital brachymetatarsia, one with bilateral affectation, together with the results of a lengthening of the short metatarsal bones by progressive axial distraction using an external minifixator. The method proved to be easy to implement, permitting immediate functionality of the ankle and early load bearing. The immediate results (cosmetic) and later findings (functional) were excellent in all three cases. PMID:8314189

  18. Autoerotic deaths: four cases.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C T; Cadden, G A; Margolius, K A

    1994-07-01

    We describe the circumstances and post mortem medical findings of 4 unusual fatalities where death occurred during autoerotic practice. Three cases occurred in young to middle-aged men--hanging, electrocution and inhalation of a zucchini. The manner of death in each was accidental. The fourth case was an elderly man who died of ischemic heart disease, apparently whilst masturbating with a vacuum cleaner and a hair dryer.

  19. Case Management Directors

    PubMed Central

    Bankston White, Cheri; Birmingham, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Case management directors are in a dynamic position to affect the transition of care of patients across the continuum, work with all levels of providers, and support the financial well-being of a hospital. Most importantly, they can drive good patient outcomes. Although the position is critical on many different levels, there is little to help guide a new director in attending to all the “moving parts” of such a complex role. This is Part 2 of a two-part article written for case management directors, particularly new ones. Part 1 covered the first 4 of 7 tracks: (1) Staffing and Human Resources, (2) Compliance and Accreditation, (3) Discharge Planning and (4) Utilization Review and Revenue Cycle. Part 2 addresses (5) Internal Departmental Relationships (Organizational), (6) External Relationships (Community Agency), and (7) Quality and Program Outcomes. This article attempts to answer the following questions: Are case management directors prepared for an expanded role that affects departments and organizations outside of their own?How does a case management director manage the transition of care of patients while managing required relationships outside the department?How does the director manage program outcomes in such a complex department? Primary Practice Setting: The information is most meaningful to those case management directors who work in either stand-alone hospitals or integrated health systems and have frontline case managers (CMs) reporting to them. Findings/Conclusions: Part 1 found that case management directors would benefit from further research and documentation of “best practices” related to their role, particularly in the areas of leadership and management. The same conclusion applies to Part 2, which addresses the director's responsibilities outside her immediate department. Leadership and management skills apply as well to building strong, productive relationships across a broad spectrum of external organizations

  20. Case Management Directors

    PubMed Central

    Bankston-White, Cheri; Birmingham, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Case management directors are in a dynamic position to affect the transition of care for patients across the continuum, work with all levels of providers, and support the financial well-being of a hospital. Most importantly, they can drive good patient outcomes. Although the position is critical on many different levels, there is little to help guide a new director in attending to all the “moving parts” of such a complex role. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide case management directors, particularly new ones, with a framework for understanding and fulfilling their role. We have divided the guide into seven tracks of responsibility. Part 1 discusses the first four tracks: (1) staffing and human resources, (2) compliance and accreditation, (3) discharge planning, and (4) utilization review and revenue cycle. Part 2 addresses (5) internal departmental relationships (organizational), (6) external relationships (Community agency), and (7) quality and program outcomes. Primary Practice Setting: The information is most meaningful to those case management directors who work in either stand-alone hospitals or integrated health systems, and have frontline case managers reporting to them. Findings/Conclusions: Case management directors would benefit from further research and documentation of “best practices” related to their role, particularly in the areas of leadership and management. New directors would benefit from mentoring and networking with one another. Implications for Case Management: As new regulations and models of care bring increased emphasis and focus to transitions of care, the role of the case management director continues to evolve, growing in importance and complexity. The growing financial impact of readmissions also brings added scrutiny and increased pressure to get the transitions of care right the first time. To operate most effectively, case management directors must understand the full range of their

  1. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  2. Prevalence of helminthic infections and risk factors in villagers of Nanglae Sub-District, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruankham, Watcharapong; Bunchu, Nophawan; Koychusakun, Patchara

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to survey the prevalence of helminthic infections in people living in Nanglae Sub-District of Chiang Rai Province, Thailand from January to March 2013, and to determine factors that correlated with these infections. Two hundred and sixty-three fecal samples were examined for helminth eggs by the use of Kato's thick smear technique. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and correlations (Odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]). The percentage of overall helminthic infections was 11.8%, comprising 6.1% Taenia spp., 4.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.4% flukes producing opisthorchiid-like eggs. In addition, the prevalence of helminthic infection correlated significantly with the consumption of raw meat (OR = 2.270, 95% CI = 1.047-4.923) and raising dogs in the house (OR = 2.444, 95% CI = 1.080-5.534). PMID:24851562

  3. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. PMID:26980233

  4. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary schoolchildren in Derna District, Libya.

    PubMed

    Sadaga, Gazala A; Kassem, Hamed H

    2007-04-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites and some hygienic factors was evaluated in primary schoolchildren in Derna District. A total of 1039 stool specimens were examined by direct smear and formaline-ether concentration methods. The results showed that 31% of the children were infected with at least one or two parasites. These parasites were Giardia lamblia (12.7%), Blastocystis hominis (6.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/ Entamoeba dispar (6.6%), Entamoeba coli (3.2%), E. hartmanni (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.1%). A significant difference was between infection rate and parent's education (P = 0.000), socio-economic status of the family (P = 0.000), family size and number of rooms in houses (P = 0.000). Also, there was a significant differences between infection rate and source of water for human consumption (P = 0.05).

  6. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication—hepatolithiasis. A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications. Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  7. Occurrence, removal and accumulation in sludge of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in a full-scale anaerobic pond in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Konaté, Yacouba; Maiga, Amadou Hama; Basset, Didier; Picot, Bernadette; Casellas, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigates the occurrence, removal, and accumulation of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in a large anaerobic pond treating municipal wastewater of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). With a hydraulic retention time of 6.5 days, the anaerobic pond achieved 100% removal of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts most of the time, except during the hot period. The average residual concentrations of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in the effluent were respectively 0.45 eggs/L (minimum 0 and maximum 3), and 5.4 cysts/L (minimum 0 and maximum 26). Protozoan cysts accumulation in sludge averaged 1,613 cysts/g total solids. Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana were the main helminth species found in the sludge. After 7 years of operation, the sludge in the pond still contained a high level of viable helminth eggs evaluated at 42%.

  8. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  9. Cross-reactivity between antigens of Anisakis simplex s.l. and other ascarid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maldonado J; Martín, Hita L; Díaz, Sáez V; Mañas, Almendros I; Valero, López A; Campos, Bueno M

    2004-06-01

    A study of the cross-reactivity among somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of the third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex s.l. and somatic antigens of other ascarid nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Toxocara canis, Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and H. fabri) was carried out by immunoblotting. It was revealed a high degree of cross-reactivity among ascarids in the 30 and > 212 kDa range by using sera against somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of A. simplex s.l. It has been revealed also specific components of the Anisakis genus (< 7.2, 9, 19 and 25 kDa) that will be interesting in diagnosis. PMID:15224584

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary schoolchildren in Derna District, Libya.

    PubMed

    Sadaga, Gazala A; Kassem, Hamed H

    2007-04-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites and some hygienic factors was evaluated in primary schoolchildren in Derna District. A total of 1039 stool specimens were examined by direct smear and formaline-ether concentration methods. The results showed that 31% of the children were infected with at least one or two parasites. These parasites were Giardia lamblia (12.7%), Blastocystis hominis (6.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/ Entamoeba dispar (6.6%), Entamoeba coli (3.2%), E. hartmanni (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.1%). A significant difference was between infection rate and parent's education (P = 0.000), socio-economic status of the family (P = 0.000), family size and number of rooms in houses (P = 0.000). Also, there was a significant differences between infection rate and source of water for human consumption (P = 0.05). PMID:17580578

  11. Intestinal parasites of man in Bukidnon, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; de Veyra, V U; Cala, E M; Cross, J H

    1981-03-01

    A total of 831 fecal specimens from Malay-balay, Mindanao, Philippines were examined for schistosomiasis and common intestinal parasites. Schistosoma japonicum eggs were found in 16% of the samples. Infections were more common in males (20%) than in females (12%). Age-wise, infections were infrequently diagnosed in children less than 10 years and infections in older age groups varied from 12-27%. Hookworm, chiefly Necator americanus, was the most common parasite found (44%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (32%) Trichuris trichiura was found in only 12%. Enterobius vermicularis and eggs of Taenia sp., echinostome, heterophyid and dicrocoelid trematodes were identified in less than 1% of the samples. Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichomonas hominis and Chilomastix mesnili were also found to parasitize man in this region of Mindanao. PMID:7256354

  12. Intestinal and blood parasites of man in Bireuen and Takengon, Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stafford, E E; Joesoef, A

    1976-12-01

    A survey for blood and intestinal parasites was carried out in Aceh Province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 348 stool specimens were obtained from 167 males and 181 females ranging in age from 6 months to 70 years. Over 98% of the population sampled were found infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Entamoeba coli, in that order, were the most common parasites detected. Other intestinal parasites found less frequently were Entamoeba histolytica, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Giardia lamblia, Brugia malayi microfilaraemias were detected in 2% of those examined and only in the coastal villages of Cot Ketapang and Rusip Dayah. No malaria was found. PMID:1030850

  13. [Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers in food sector in Van region].

    PubMed

    Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Körkoca, Hanifi; Ciçek, Mutalip; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2007-01-01

    Stool and cellophane tape specimens were taken for parasitological examination from 739 people who work in food sector and applied to the public health lab of the Van Health Administration for porter examination. Parasites were determined at 131 people (17.71%) of 739 worker whom samples were investigated. Ninety-five people had one, 30 people had two, 5 people had three and one person had four parasite species. Parasites determined in the study were 19.08% helminthes and 80.91% protozoon. In this study, 1.21% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.81% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.67% Hymenolepis nana, 0.40% Trichuris trichiura, 0.27% Taenia saginata, 4.87% Blastocystis hominis, 3.24% Entamoeba coli, 2.84% Giardia intestinalis, 2.02% Iodamoeba bütschlii, 0.67% Endolimax nana, 0.27% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.27% Chilomastix mesnili, 0.13% Entamoeba hartmanni were found. PMID:18224624

  14. Intestinal and blood parasites in the North Lore District, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; Masri, S; Stafford, E E; Putrali, J

    1977-06-01

    Over 1,000 stool specimens from residents of the Napu and Besoa Valleys, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia were examined. Schistosoma japonicum was detected in 31% of Napu Valley residents while in only 2% of the Besoa Valley residents. Hookworm infections were the most frequently encountered helminth parasitisms in both valleys. Other helminth parasites encountered were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Physaloptera sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., echinostome and heterophyid trematodes. Intestinal protozoa endemic to the area were: Entamoeba histolytica, E. coli, E. hartmanni, Iodamoebe bütschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix mesnili and Trichomonas hominis. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for malaria parasitaemias in 5% of 1353 specimens examined and Brugia malayi microfilaraemias were detected in 10% of 972 specimens examined. PMID:335530

  15. Intestinal parasites of man in Northern Bohol, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; Banzon, T; De Veyra, V; Daña, E; Cross, J H

    1980-12-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites with emphasis on Oriental schistosomiasis was conducted in the townships of Trinidad and Talibon, Bohol Province, Philippines and approximately 1,700 stool samples were examined. Schistosoma japonicum is still endemic to these areas of northern Bohol but infection rates were much lower than expected, 5% rather than 30%. Soil-transmitted helminths were the most common parasitic infections. Hookworms were found in 71% of the samples tested, most infections were due to Necator americanus 97% and Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for only 3%. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were diagnosed in 58% and 45% respectively of the fecal samples examined. Other helminths and protozoan parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyoides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili. PMID:7221688

  16. [Distribution of intestinal parasites among patients who presented at the Department of Parasitology of the Erciyes University Medical School.].

    PubMed

    Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Sahın, Izzet

    2005-01-01

    In this study carried out from 2000-2004, a total of 34,883 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 9,879 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 9,704 (27.8%) of the specimens. The parasites that were found and their prevalence is as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 6,723 (19.3%); Entamoeba coli, 1,007 (2.9%); Giardia intestinalis, 892 (2.6%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 798 (2.3%); Endolimax nana, 486 (1.4%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 252 (0.7%); Enterobius vermicularis, 242 (0.7%); Iodamoeba bütschlii, 109 (0.3%); Taenia saginata, 92 (0.3%); Chilomastix mesnili, 67 (0.2%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 55 (0.2%); and Hymenolepis nana, 40 (0.1%). PMID:17124684

  17. Human intestinal parasites in Karakuak, West Flores, Indonesia and the effect of treatment with mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate.

    PubMed

    Purnomo; Partono, F; Soewarta, A

    1980-09-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites and mass-treatment with a combination of mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate were conducted in Karakuak, West Flores in 1977. A total of 198 stool specimens from 104 males and 94 females ranging in age from less than 1 to 70 years were examined and 72% harbored one or more intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides (43%) and Entamoeba histolytica (21%) were the most common, followed by Entamoeba coli (19%), hookworm (18%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (8%), Giardia lamblia (5%) and Trichuris trichiura (4%). Other intestinal parasites infrequently found were: Entamoeba hartmanni (2%), Chilomastix mesnili (2%), Endolimax nana (1%), Enterobius vermicularis (1%) and a heterophyid sp. (1%). A combination of mebendazole base at 200 mg/day and pyrantel pamoate salt at 60 mg/day for three consecutive days was 100% effective. PMID:7444573

  18. Molecular and biological diagnostic tests for monitoring benzimidazole resistance in human soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Kaplan, Ray M; Prichard, Roger K

    2013-06-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates.

  19. Intestinal parasites of man in Northern Bohol, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; Banzon, T; De Veyra, V; Daña, E; Cross, J H

    1980-12-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites with emphasis on Oriental schistosomiasis was conducted in the townships of Trinidad and Talibon, Bohol Province, Philippines and approximately 1,700 stool samples were examined. Schistosoma japonicum is still endemic to these areas of northern Bohol but infection rates were much lower than expected, 5% rather than 30%. Soil-transmitted helminths were the most common parasitic infections. Hookworms were found in 71% of the samples tested, most infections were due to Necator americanus 97% and Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for only 3%. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were diagnosed in 58% and 45% respectively of the fecal samples examined. Other helminths and protozoan parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyoides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili.

  20. Mebendazole in the treatment of helminthiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Mebendazole, a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic, was used to treat patients with nematode infections--ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm. The dosage for adults was 100 mg twice daily for 3 days and for children, 50 mg twice daily for 3 days. Pretreatment and post-treatment egg counts on stool specimens showed that after mebendazole there was a reduction of over 99% in egg count per gram of stool in all three types of infection. The overall cure rates for the infections were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides, 86.8% (59/68); Trichuris trichiura, 86.0% (37/43); and hookworm, 85.7% (24/28). The drug was equally effective in light and heavy infections. No important side effect was noted with this drug. It is suggested that mebendazole is the drug of choice for trichuriasis and mixed nematode infection. PMID:974969

  1. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  2. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  3. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. PMID:26597072

  4. [Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luiz Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage collection and adequate isolation of solid waste. The differences were statistically significant when other socioeconomic, cultural, demographic, and environmental risks factors were considered in the analysis. Similar results were also observed for epidemiological indicators, diarrhea incidence, and nutritional status.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of artemisia pallens wall.

    PubMed

    Nakhare, S; Garg, S C

    1991-01-01

    Helminthic infections are now being recognized as the cause of much chronic ill health and sluggishness among the tropical people. More than half of the world populations suffers from worm infections of one type or the other. Traditional system of medicine reports the efficacy of chenopodiul oil, Embelia ribes (Via-Varang), Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain and Biper betle (Pan) oils etc. for eliminating helminthes. The present study reports the strong anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of Artemisia pallens Wall. Against Pheritima posthuma (earth worm), Taenia solium (tape worm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (round worm). The helminthes have been found to be more susceptible to the oil than to piperazine phosphate of similar concentration. Artemisia pallens has been ascribed to possess anthelmintic and stomachic properties in indigenous system of medicine. The present screening not only confirms the correct usage of the plant by the rurals but also enhances the creditability of ethnobotanical explorations.

  6. Cost containment in a school deworming programme targeting over 2.7 million children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Antonio; Cong, Dai Tran; Le Anh, Tuan; Ehrhardt, Alexander; Mondadori, Elisa; Thi, Thach Dang; Le Khanh, Thuan; Albonico, Marco; Palmer, Kevin L

    2007-05-01

    Vietnam is one of the countries in the world most affected by soil-transmitted helminthiases. Large areas of the country, such as the Northern Uplands and the North and Central Coast, are reported as having infection rates of 75-85% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 38-40% for Trichuris trichiura and 27-28% for hookworm infections. Periodical deworming of schoolchildren is therefore strongly recommended. Managers of the Helminth Control Programme decided to apply a number of measures to improve cost efficiency in order to deworm as many schoolchildren as possible with the limited financial resources available. This low-cost intervention targeted over 2.7 million schoolchildren. Coverage was estimated at over 95% and the cost for each treated child was US$ 0.03, which represents a saving of approximately 50% of costs presently reported in the literature. This article describes the measures applied that resulted in cost containment but maintained high treatment coverage.

  7. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  8. Parasitic infestations requiring surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Afua A J; Nouri, Abdellatif; Hassan, Hussam S; Hashish, Amel A

    2012-05-01

    Parasitic infestation is common in developing countries especially in Africa. Children are often more vulnerable to these infections. Many health problems result from these infestations, including malnutrition, iron-deficiency anemia, surgical morbidities, and even impaired cognitive function and educational achievement. Surgical intervention may be needed to treat serious complications caused by some of these parasites. Amoebic colitis and liver abscess caused by protozoan infections; intestinal obstruction, biliary infestation with cholangitis and liver abscess, and pancreatitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; biliary obstruction caused by Faschiola; hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis are examples. Expenditure of medical care of affected children may cause a great burden on many African governments, which are already suffering from economic instability. The clinical presentation, investigation, and management of some parasitic infestations of surgical relevance in African children are discussed in this article.

  9. First World War German soldier intestinal worms: an original study of a trench latrine in France.

    PubMed

    Le Bailly, M; Landolt, M; Bouchet, F

    2012-12-01

    For the first time in the study of ancient parasites, analyses were carried out on samples taken from a First World War settlement in France (Geispolsheim, region of Alsace). Microscopic examination of sediment samples revealed the presence of 3 common human parasites, i.e., Trichuris trichiura , Ascaris lumbricoides , and Taenia sp. A review of paleoparasitological studies in Europe shows that these 3 parasites have infected humanity for centuries. Despite this recurrence, literature shows that knowledge regarding many helminths was limited, and their life cycles were only relatively recently elucidated. Finally, the present study provides additional information about the health of the German soldiers and the sanitary conditions in the trenches during the first modern world conflict.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1993-01-01

    About a third of the population in the cities of developing countries live in slums and shanty towns. By the year 2000 it is estimated that this number will grow to 2200 million, and by 2025 about 57% of the population in developing countries will be in urban areas. The prevalence of infections caused by Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis and the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections may increase among the rural populations who are migrating to these urban and suburban settings owing to the favourable conditions for transmission. Urgent consideration should therefore be given to improving sanitation in deprived urban areas and to treating periodically these populations to reduce the worm burden, especially in school-age children.

  11. Control of helminth contamination of raw vegetables by washing.

    PubMed

    Avcioğlu, Hamza; Soykan, Emel; Tarakci, Umit

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the control of helminth egg contamination of raw vegetables by washing. A total of 199 unwashed and 199 washed lettuce, parsley, carrots, dill, rocket, and green-peppers, provided by a catering service in Bursa, Turkey, between March and June 2009, were subjected to helminth egg count under light microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in six (3.0%) unwashed samples and not in any washed samples (p<0.01). Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara spp. were detected in four (2.0%) and two (1.0%) unwashed vegetables, respectively, mostly among leafy vegetables such as lettuce and parsley. Our data confirm that washing procedures before consumption of raw vegetables regardless of the providers' sanitation should be performed to avoid transmission of helminths. PMID:20569015

  12. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  13. Intestinal parasites in pediatric patients with diarrhoeal diseases in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Chavalittamrong, B; Jirapinyo, P

    1984-09-01

    Stool examinations of 147 pediatric patients with diarrhoeal disease were carried out at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok by using the direct-smear technique. Stool of 27 patients (18.4%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Children under one year of age were free of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Parasites were equally prevalent in males and females and without any age group predilection. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were Entamoeba histolytica 6.8%, Giardia lamblia 6.1%, others were Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Balantidium coli. Although the incidence of parasitism was not high as to be the main causatic agent of pediatric diarrhoea, the intestinal parasites may increase susceptibility to infection with other intestinal pathogens. The diagnosis of intestinal parasitoses can be determined by a simple direct faecal-smear technique and so that specific therapy can be instituted without delay in management of parasite-related diarrhoeas. PMID:6523173

  14. Parasitic contamination of stored water used for drinking/cooking in Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, P R; Bhat, R V

    1995-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the parasitic contamination of water in Hyderabad city, India. A total of 232 samples of water were collected from different places; social welfare hostels, small restaurants, different households, public places like railway stations, bus depots, street food vendors, hand washings from the food handlers, and vegetable washings from vegetable vendors. Of these 232 samples 61 samples indicated the presence of pathogenic parasites which include protozoans (cysts of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, adult stages of G. lamblia, Balantidium coli) and nematode eggs, (Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura), rhabditiform and filariform larvae and adult stages of Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. The source of the samples in all places was the water stored in overhead tanks and various other containers. Hand washings from food handlers also showed the presence of pathogenic parasites although the original water used for such washings were free from contamination. PMID:9139396

  15. Parasitic Prevalence in a Suburban School of Famaillá, Tucumán, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Julián; Oquilla, Juana; Lazarte, Silvia G.; Gonzalez, Silvia N.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Enterobius vermicularis was the most prevalent intestinal helminth (27.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (20.8%), Trichuris trichiura (12.8%), and others (5.4%). Most of the patients had polyparasitism (62.4%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infections. These results show high rates of parasitism in the school children of Famaillá, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area. PMID:23724325

  16. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among pregnant women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). There were no associations found between being infected in pregnancy and anaemia. PMID:26288929

  18. Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of parasites among children in Khan Younis governorate, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Astal, Z

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites was determined for 1,370 children in Khan Younis Governorate, Gaza Strip. The age of the children ranged from 6 to 11 years. For stool samples, inspection, direct smear microscopy, flotation and sedimentation techniques were used. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 34.2%. Different types of intestinal parasites were detected during this survey: Ascaris lumbricoides seemed to be the most common parasite (12.8%), whereas Giardia lamblia had a prevalence of 8.0%, Entamoeba histolytica 7.0%, Entamoeba coli 3.6%, Trichuris trichiura 1.6% and Hymenolepis nana 1.0%. The prevalence of enterobiasis was determined using a scotch tape preparation. A total of 20.9% of the children examined were infected and there was sex variation in the prevalence of enterobiasis. PMID:15517386

  19. VMP casing tieback

    SciTech Connect

    Beynet, P.A.; Jansen, M.B.; Lucksinger, J.E.

    1981-10-06

    Special J-slot connectors have been devised for connecting concentric riser pipes and casing from a structure at the surface of a body of water to corresponding concentric casings set in the sea floor. This can be called a ''tieback tool'' for sealingly securing a first tubular member suspended from a vessel floating on a body of water to a casing hung in the wellbore in the bottom of the body of water. Special multiple axially aligned J-slot means are also provided together with means to assure proper ''makeup'' of the J-slots. Means are also provided for proper alignment of circumferentially spaced J-slot connectors. Special self-emergizing seals are also disclosed.

  20. Actinomyces lymphadenitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an unusual case of lymphadenopathy associated with Actinomyces infection is reported. In the literature, there are only two cases presented with histopathologic features. A forty-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with painless mass on the neck. Clinical examination revealed a firm mass on the right submandibular region. The patient had no malignancy history. A cystic mass radiologically compatible with abscess was detected adjacent to the submandibular gland. Sialadenitis and lymphadenitis were considered but the mass was refractory to the antibiotherapy. The mass and the right submandibular gland were excised. Histopathologic evaluation of the lymph node revealed characteristic sulfur granules of Actinomyces.

  1. Melioidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barman, Purabi; Sidhwa, Harish; Shirkhande, Pinak A

    2011-04-01

    Burkhloderia pseudomallei has recently gained importance as an emerging pathogen in India. It causes various clinical manifestations like pneumoniae, septicaemia, arthritis, abscess etc. Cases have been reported from Southeast Asia mainly Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, etc. In India, few cases have been reported mainly from the southern part of the country. Patient was a 65-year-old male and presented with fever 1 month back, cough and breathlessness for same period, swelling on both ankles from 7 days. B. pseudomallei was isolated from endotracheal secretions, blood cultures, leg wound. He was successfully treated with Imipenem and Doxycycline and put on maintenance therapy now, and is currently doing well.

  2. Case study: mariner's TB.

    PubMed

    McLain, E H

    1989-08-01

    Mycobacterium marinum causes tuberculosis in fish and shellfish and cutaneous lesions in humans. It is transmitted from fish to humans by inoculation. The case presented involved a nodule on the wrist and was misdiagnosed as arthritis; the nodule was excised. Symptoms of tuberculosis persisted over a 2-year period. This case study can be generalized to a population of workers in the seafood industry, water hobbyists, and fish and shellfish enthusiasts. Education and research is needed to inform and protect populations at high risk for this disease.

  3. Lumbosacral angiolipoma: case report.

    PubMed

    do Souto, Antonio Aversa; Domingues, Flavio S; Chimelli, Leila; Lemos, Armando M

    2003-06-01

    We present a case of a 46-year old woman with a ventral epidural angiolipoma at the lumbosacral level with erosion of the sacrum. About ninety cases of spinal angiolipomas have been previously described in the literature, most of them situated on the thoracic region, dorsal to the dural sac. Angiolipomas can be radically excised with a good prognosis even in the presence of bone erosion. We did not find any other angiolipoma at the sacral level surgically explored in the review of the literature.

  4. Oral Myiasis : Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

  5. An unexpected tetanus case.

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Onder; Egeli, Demet; Kahyaoglu, Bulent; Bahar, Mois; Etienne, Mill; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    1 million cases of tetanus are estimated to occur worldwide each year, with more than 200 000 deaths. Tetanus is a life-threatening but preventable disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani-a Gram-positive bacillus found in high concentrations in soil and animal excrement. Tetanus is almost completely preventable by active immunisation, but very rarely unexpected cases can occur in individuals who have been previously vaccinated. We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 22-year-old woman that arose despite the protective antitoxin antibody in her serum. The patient received all her vaccinations in the USA; her last vaccination was 6 years ago. The case was unusual because the patient had received all standard vaccinations, had no defined port of entry at disease onset, and had symptoms lasting for 6 months. Tetanus can present with unusual clinical forms; therefore, the diagnosis and management of this rare but difficult disease should be updated. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of C tetani infections. PMID:27301930

  6. The Directed Case Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.; Curtin, Leslie Nesbitt

    2000-01-01

    Provides an example of a directed case on human anatomy and physiology. Uses brief real life newspaper articles and clinical descriptions of medical reference texts to describe an actual, fictitious, or composite event. Includes interrelated human anatomy and physiology topics in the scenario. (YDS)

  7. Creating Caddisfly Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The larval stage of a northern casemaker caddisfly provides a creative hands-on activity for students while also introducing them to aquatic insect development and adaptations to stream life. This project is an opportunity to study the role of this invertebrate in the food web of a stream. Using cardboard tubes to fashion a case for a generic…

  8. Geothermal Case Studies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Young, Katherine

    2014-09-30

    database.) In fiscal year 2015, NREL is working with universities to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough dataset to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  9. The Levittown Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes previous decisions in New York State courts on "Levittown v. Nyquist," a case challenging the constitutionality of the state's public school finance system. Discusses the recent New York Court of Appeals decision reversing earlier courts and holding that the finance system provides equal protection and is not unconstitutional. (RW)

  10. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  11. Unionfining: Technical case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.A.; Skripek, M.

    1994-12-31

    Hydrotreating improves the quality of FCC feeds by reducing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, asphaltenes, and polynuclear aromatic content. Four case studies presented in this paper show the benefits of hydrotreating FCC feeds: higher conversion and gasoline yield, better quality products, and lower SO{sub x} emissions.

  12. A case of pseudocyanosis.

    PubMed

    Ekanayaka, Ruvan A I

    2014-01-01

    Cyanosis is an ominous physical sign indicating significant cardiac or respiratory disease. However, bluish discolouration mimicking cyanosis could occur in methaemoglobinaemia. The clinical implications being very different, it is important that the aetiology of bluish discolouration of tissues is correctly identified. A case is reported where the antianginal agent nicorandil was identified as the most likely cause for methaemoglobinaemia. PMID:24614772

  13. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  14. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  15. [Thoracic actinomycosis: three cases].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Msougar, Y; Ouadnouni, Y; Bouchikh, M; Benosmane, A

    2007-09-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare condition which, in the thoracic localisation, can mimic cancer or tuberculosis. We report a series of three case of thoracic actinomycosis treated in the Ibn Sina University Thoracic Surgery Unit in Rabat, Morocco. CASE N degrees 1: This 45-year-old patient presented a tumefaction on the left anterior aspect of the chest. Physical examination identified a parietal mass with fistulisation to the skin. Radiography demonstrated a left pulmonary mass. Transparietal puncture led to the pathological diagnosis of actinomycosis. The patient was given medical treatment and improved clinically and radiographically. CASE N degrees 2: This 68-year-old patient presented repeated episodes of hemoptysis. The chest x-ray revealed atelectasia of the middle lobe and bronchial fibroscopy demonstrated the presence of a bud in the middle lobar bronchus. Biopsies were negative. The patient underwent surgery and the histology examination of the operative specimen revealed pulmonary actinomycosis. The patient recovered well clinically and radiographically with antibiotic therapy. CASE N degrees 3: This 56-year-old patient presented cough and hemoptysis. Physical examination revealed a left condensation and destruction of the left lung was noted on the chest x-ray. Left pleuropulmonectomy was performed. Histological analysis of the surgical specimen identified associated Aspergillus and Actinomyces. The outcome was favorable with medical treatment. The purpose of this work was to recall the radiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic, outcome aspects of this condition and to relate the problems of differential diagnosis when can suggest other diseases. PMID:17978739

  16. 1987 CASE Recognition Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 CASE Recognition Awards are presented for: general excellence in programs; student recruitment marketing improvement; video public service announcements, news, and commercial spots; total publications; magazines of the decade; improvement in periodicals; photocommunications via print; designer of the year and series; and imagination in…

  17. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  18. Case Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guceri, Meral; Akin, Ann Riddell

    1998-01-01

    Case studies have been welcomed by English-as-a-foreign-language professionals, especially by those involved in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the Departmental English courses at Baskent University English Language School and the English Support Unit (ELSU) of Bilkent University School of English Language in Turkey. This article…

  19. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  20. Identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs using a digital image system.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Velásquez, G; Torner, F; Arambula, F; Barrios, J A; Velasco, M

    2016-07-01

    A system was developed to identify and quantify up to seven species of helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides -fertile and unfertile eggs-, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Schistosoma mansoni) in wastewater using different image processing tools and pattern recognition algorithms. The system was developed in three stages. Version one was used to explore the viability of the concept of identifying helminth eggs through an image processing system, while versions 2 and 3 were used to improve its efficiency. The system development was based on the analysis of different properties of helminth eggs in order to discriminate them from other objects in samples processed using the conventional United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) technique to quantify helminth eggs. The system was tested, in its three stages, considering two parameters: specificity (capacity to discriminate between species of helminth eggs and other objects) and sensitivity (capacity to correctly classify and identify the different species of helminth eggs). The final version showed a specificity of 99% while the sensitivity varied between 80 and 90%, depending on the total suspended solids content of the wastewater samples. To achieve such values in samples with total suspended solids (TSS) above 150 mg/L, it is recommended to dilute the concentrated sediment just before taking the images under the microscope. The system allows the helminth eggs most commonly found in wastewater to be reliably and uniformly detected and quantified. In addition, it provides the total number of eggs as well as the individual number by species, and for Ascaris lumbricoides it differentiates whether or not the egg is fertile. The system only requires basically trained technicians to prepare the samples, as for visual identification there is no need for highly trained personnel. The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute. This

  1. The Right Tool for the Job: Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Areas Co-endemic for Other Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Periago, Maria V.; Diniz, Renata C.; Pinto, Simone A.; Yakovleva, Anna; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Diemert, David J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the recent increased use of the McMaster (MM) fecal egg counting method for assessing benzimidazole drug efficacy for treating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, the aim of the current study was to determine the operational value of including the MM method alongside the Kato-Katz (KK) fecal thick smear to increase the diagnostic sensitivity when STHs are co-endemic with trematode helminths (e.g., Schistosoma mansoni). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-aged children aged 4-18 years in the northeastern region of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil), where Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni are co-endemic. One fecal sample from each participant was collected and transported to the field laboratory for analysis. Coprological diagnosis was performed on each fecal sample by three different methods: Formalin-Ether Sedimentation (FES), KK and the MM technique. The diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of each technique was calculated using the combination of all three techniques as the composite standard. In order to determine the agreement between the three techniques Fleiss´ kappa was used. Both the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) were calculated using the two quantification techniques (i.e., the MM and KK). Results Fecal samples from 1260 children were analyzed. The KK had higher diagnostic sensitivity than the MM for the detection of both A. lumbricoides (KK 97.3%, MM 69.5%) and hookworm (KK 95.1%, MM 80.8%). The CR of a single dose of mebendazole varied significantly between the KK and MM for both A. lumbricoides (p = 0.016) and hookworm (p = 0.000), with lower rates obtained with the KK. On the other hand, the FECR was very similar between both techniques for both A. lumbricoides and hookworm. Conclusion The MM did not add any diagnostic value over the KK in areas where both STHs and trematodes were co-endemic. The lower sensitivity

  2. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  3. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  4. Case Studies in Wilderness Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Melissa; Tarter, Shana Lee

    Five case studies explore issues in wilderness medicine, with emphasis on evacuation decision making. The cases describe medical problems encountered during wilderness trips involving college or high school students. In each case, the situation and facts of the case are outlined, including the patient's medical history and vital signs, and at…

  5. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Chul; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rapunzel syndrome is very rare gastric foreign bodies that occur in children. It is a severe condition of a gastric trichobezoar with a long tail that passes into the small intestine. Here, we present the case of an 8-year-old girl with Rapunzel syndrome due to a very large (7 × 7 × 30 cm) gastric trichobezoar. The patient had trichotillomania and trichophagia for 1 year prior to presentation. Ideally, small bezoars are removed through a minimally invasive method, such as endoscopic fragmentation. However, large trichobezoars, including those in Rapunzel syndrome, can only be managed with open surgical extraction, despite the large scars that may result. We report a case of Rapunzel syndrome with a large bezoar that was surgically removed after it was endoscopically cauterized with argon plasma. Endoscopic precutting was used to effectively reduce the size of the bezoar. PMID:27258502

  6. [Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025

  7. Why Medical Case Reports?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Medicine is built up of single cases. Individual patients—single cases—are the essence of what medicine deals with. Every patient is important, and every case can be a lesson. Clinician, researcher, and epidemiologist Alvan Feinstein said, “In caring for patients, clinicians constantly perform experiments. During a single week of active practice, a busy clinician conducts more experiments than most of his laboratory colleagues do in a year.”1 Medicine stretches between the intertwined poles of being developed in the laboratories of the pharmaceutical industry and in the clinical practice of the “clinical champions”—the innovative clinician, therapist, nurse, or midwife. While the laboratory testing route (pharmacology, quality assessment, phase I-IV trials) is well established, what about the significant clinical observations? How can they be presented scientifically? PMID:24278793

  8. Kleptomania: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, Bharat; Chan, Lai Gwen; Dhaval, Dani

    2014-01-01

    Kleptomania is an enigmatic condition and is among the very few psychiatric disorders in which crime is medicalised and used as a legal defence. The scientific literature on kleptomania is scarce. Early literature and recent studies have shown a female preponderance, with an early age of onset of stealing in people with comorbid personality disorder(s). In a retrospective review of the case notes of theft offenders who had forensic psychiatric evaluations performed in a one-year period in 2010 at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, we found three patients who were diagnosed with kleptomania. In this report, we describe the pertinent clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, as well as the diagnostic issues of kleptomania in relation to the three cases. PMID:25630329

  9. Odontoameloblastoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Odontoameloblastoma (OA) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements. Till date, very few cases have fulfilled the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumors. It is characterized by slow, progressively growing lesion with growth pattern similar to solid multi-cystic ameloblastoma. The majority of the tumors are associated with unerupted teeth and commonly seen in males. It is usually asymptomatic and may occur in either maxilla or mandible, but shows a slight predilection for mandible. As this tumor is extremely rare, there exists controversy regarding its treatment. Here, we present a case of OA in 17-year-old female patient resembling a fibro-osseous lesion and a brief review of the related literature. PMID:26604505

  10. Odontoameloblastoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Odontoameloblastoma (OA) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements. Till date, very few cases have fulfilled the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumors. It is characterized by slow, progressively growing lesion with growth pattern similar to solid multi-cystic ameloblastoma. The majority of the tumors are associated with unerupted teeth and commonly seen in males. It is usually asymptomatic and may occur in either maxilla or mandible, but shows a slight predilection for mandible. As this tumor is extremely rare, there exists controversy regarding its treatment. Here, we present a case of OA in 17-year-old female patient resembling a fibro-osseous lesion and a brief review of the related literature.

  11. [Vertebral hydatidosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Santelices, J P; Cuzmar, D; Aldunate, J T; Plaza-Guzmán, N; Lizama-Calvo, P

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis caused by echinococcus granulosus may affect any organ in the body, with the lungs and the liver as the most commonly affected organs. Vertebral compromise resulting from echinococcus granulosus has a low prevalence and accounts for less than 1% of bone compromise. We report the case of a 50 year-old female who presented at the Trauma Service with progressive low back pain with 5 months of duration that irradiated to the right lower limb, and led to neurologic compromise of the limb. Imaging studies showed spondylodiscitis at T12-L1, confirmed by a biopsy. Treatment of this condition is both orthopedic and surgical. The recurrence rate is high, between 30 and 40%. The objective of describing this case is to propose the differential diagnosis of a vertebral mass of unknown origin and provide details as to how to manage this condition. PMID:27012085

  12. [Gangrenous cystitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Bonera, A; Antoci, G; Bianchi, P; Alberti, P

    1996-12-01

    A rare case of gangrenous cystitis is described. The questions of the incidence of this pathology are discussed, considering its rareness after the antibiotics age. The etiology of this disease is probably multifactorial and it is never possible to identify a unique cause. The gangrenous cystitis doesn't present with any typical symptomatology, out with urinary troubles common to many urologic diseases. Surgery is often performed in emergency without a preoperative defined diagnosis. Surgical treatment has changed with time from a simple bladder cavity draining to the resection of the necrotized bladder wall. In our case a total cystectomy with uretero-ileocutaneostomy, in two times, was performed. This procedure allowed the patient a good quality of life (1 year of follow-up).

  13. Peripheral ameloblastoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Clauser, L; Denes, S; Consorti, G

    2011-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign tumour of the odontogenic tissues which may be aggressive in the involved area with a high rate of recurrence if not adequately removed, and represents 1% of all tumours of the mouth, generally appearing in the bones of the jaw. Although it is fairly rare, tumours with such histopathology have been described in the soft tissue and are named peripheral or extraosseus ameloblastoma. Potential cells of origin are ondontogenic residue of the dental lamina, pluripotent cells in the basal layer of the epithelial mucosa, and pluripotent cells of the minor salivary glands. Seven cases of extraosseus ameloblastoma in the extragengival area, unrelated to dental germs, have been described, six of which in the buccal mucosa and one in the mouth floor. We report a case of extraossous, extragengival ameloblastoma which originated in the subzygomatic area.

  14. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described.

  15. Klinefelter syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    CAPASSO, F.; PANETTA, F.; IERARDO, G.; PARISELLA, V.; POLIMENI, A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. The aim of this work is to describe the problems of child dentistry affected by Klinefelter's syndrome. Methodos. Through the presentation of a clinical case that was followed by a Pediatric Dentistry, University Sapienza of Rome. Result. Interceptive therapy aims to eliminate the functional interference that occurs during growth. Conclusion. For this reason it’s a must for the dentist to carefully monitor the oral health of the small patient immediately. PMID:23285366

  16. OMC Compressor Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes efforts expended in the development of an all-composite compressor case. Two pre-production units have been built, one utilizing V-CAP and one utilizing AFR-700B resin systems. Both units have been rig tested at elevated temperatures well above design limit loads. This report discusses the manufacturing processes, test results, and Finite Element Analysis performed. The V-CAP unit was funded by NASA-Lewis Research Center in 1994 under contract number NAS3- 27442 for Development of an All-Composite OMC Compressor Case. This contract was followed by an Air Force study in 1996 to build and identical unit using the AFR-700B resin system in place of the V-CAP system. The second compressor case was funded under U.S. Air Force contract F33615-93-D-5326, Advanced Materials for Aerospace Structures Special Studies (AMAS3), Delivery Order 0021 entitled "Advanced Polymeric Composite Materials and Structures Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines.' Initial studies using the V-CAP resin system were undertaken in 1993 under a NASA Lewis contract (NAS3-26829). A first prototype unit was developed in a joint program between Textron-Lycoming (now Allied Signal) and Brunswick (now Lincoln Composites). This unit included composite end closures using low density, high temperature molded end closures. The units was similar in size and shape to a titanium case currently used on the PT-21 0 engine and was funded as part of the integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (EHPTET) initiative of DOD and NASA.

  17. Unusual case of hyponatraemia

    PubMed Central

    Hannaway, Ryan Karlus; Cowie, Fiona; Jude, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality, encountered in up to 30% of inpatients. Inappropriate management can have serious implications for patients; including demyelinating disease, coma and death. We have used a case report to identify the common problems, and provide useful strategies in management for which these can be avoided. The aim was to provide a framework which clinicians can adopt, in order to improve clinical practice and provide optimum outcome for the patient. PMID:22854232

  18. Lupus myocarditis: case report

    SciTech Connect

    LaManna, M.M.; Lumia, F.J.; Gordon, C.I.; Sumathisena; Maranhao, V.

    1988-03-01

    Although gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga) accumulates in both neoplastic and inflammatory tissues, indium-111 (/sup 111/In) labeled leukocytes are seen only in inflammatory cells. Indium-111-labeled leukocytes therefore are a useful agent in the noninvasive differentiation of inflammatory tissue from neoplastic tissue. This case is an interesting example of the use of /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes to make that differentiation.

  19. Proliferating pilomatricoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Rogerio Nabor; Pontello Junior, Rubens; Belinetti, Francine Milenkovich; Cilião, Caroline; Vasconcellos, Vanessa Regina Bulla; Grimaldi, Dora Maria

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating pilomatricoma is proliferative, rare tumor variant of pilomatricoma. It is a benign neoplasm of hair matrix that can have potentially involve local recurrence. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented an asymptomatic nodule on the scalp. Histological exam demonstrated a basaloid epithelium at the periphery, filled with eosinophilic cornified material containing shadow cells. The tumor was excised and there was no evidence of recurrence one year later. PMID:26312685

  20. [Retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Debbagh, A; Louahlia, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    Concerning two cases of liposarcomas developing in the retroperitoneal space, the characteristics of these rare tumors are reviewed. They are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors. Often, they are uncovered by palpable abdominal mass or when they compress adjoining organs. Computed tomography has proved valuable in the diagnosis of these lesions. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice. Recurrences are frequent and prognosis is poor. PMID:7486852

  1. [Obstructive anuria. Thirty cases].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Debbagh, A; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    The authors report 30 cases of obstructive anuria during the last fifteen years. The anuria was secondary to lithiasis in 60 per cent, in 26.6 per cent to pelvic cancer and in 13.4 per cent to retroperitoneal fibrosis. The diagnosis was facilitated by ultrasonography. Emergency treatment of obstructive anuria is based on urinary diversion by ureteral stent or by percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound control. Later the treatment depend of etiology. PMID:7486853

  2. Psoriasiform Keratosis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Sousa, Brena Andrade; do Nascimento, Carla do Socorro Silva; Moutinho, Ana Thais Machado; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasiform Keratosis is a rare clinic entity. The etiopathogenesis remains unknown and the disease is characterized by a solitary, scaly or keratotic papule, or plaque mainly located on the extremities. Histopathological features closely resemble those of psoriasis. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman presenting a solitary and asymptomatic keratotic plaque, located on the back of the left leg, unresponsive to topical corticosteroids. We performed an excisional biopsy and histopathology was consistent with psoriasiform keratosis. PMID:24770510

  3. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Ludmila de Sousa Ursino; Sherlock, Jonnia; Portugal, Fedro Menezes; Mota, Lívia de Souza; Fakhouri, Ricardo; da Silva, Samuel Freire

    2014-01-01

    Ostraceous psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis, characterized by lesions with firmly adhered thick scales, in various colors, with surfaces resembling oysters shells. The protracted course of clinical presentation allied with peculiar lesions and histopathological examination permit the diagnosis. Lesions are usually resistant to topical medications, requiring systemic treatment. It is important that dermatologists are able to diagnose the unusual forms of psoriasis to avoid iatrogeny. We report the case of a patient with ostraceous psoriasis treated with methotrexate. PMID:25184935

  4. [Brucella spondylodiscitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, César Ribeiro; Ferreira, Celso Ribeiro; Tatagiba, Thiago Andrade; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2002-01-01

    Vertebral localization of Brucellosis has a low occurrence nowadays. Because of its rarity, it is essential to pay attention to structural modifications of the vertebral segment caused by bacterial spondylodiscitis. Based on a clinical case, with radiological, anatomicopathological and labatorial aspects related to the diagnostic and also the treatment of this disease, the authors underscore the importance and serious consequences arising from a late diagnostic definition.

  5. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia case series

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mehtab; Prasad, Manish; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2015-01-01

    To present three cases who presented with neonatal hiccups and who were later diagnosed with nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Case series. We present three babies who presented in neonatal life with hiccups who later were diagnosed with NKH. Two babies presented on the 2nd day of life with hypotonia, poor feeding, and abnormal movements including jitteriness, hiccups, and twitching. The third baby only had transient hiccups lasting for a couple of days in the 1st week of life but later presented at 3 months of age with poor feeding, drowsiness, and jerky movements. All three cases needed extensive investigations before reaching the diagnosis including metabolic screen, lumbar puncture, electroencephalography, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. The first two babies needed intubation on their 2nd day of life because of apneas in whom later, the care was withdrawn after reaching the diagnosis of NKH because of poor prognosis. The third baby was discharged home on oral dextromethorphan and ketogenic diet. We discuss the importance of early recognition of symptoms (frequent hiccups) and investigation needed to reach the diagnosis early as it helps in making decision to either carry on treatment or withdraw care because of poor prognosis. It also helps in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis can be offered at the subsequent pregnancy. PMID:26962342

  6. Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoli; Sun, Hongmei; Liu, Fei; Feng, Yanling; Zhao, Hanqing; Xue, Guanhua; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cases of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae have increased rapidly since 2000, especially in Asia. Patients infected with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae usually present with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia. The aim of this study was to identify indicators for whether children at an early stage of M pneumoniae infection develop mild or severe pneumonia. Case Summary: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 2 pediatric cases caused by macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae, but with markedly different severity of pneumonia. First, we compared the clinical courses of the patients, then isolated the pathogens and tested their response to macrolides, then finally, carried out whole genome sequencing of these isolates. Despite the difference in clinical presentation of the infection, both isolates exhibited a high level of resistance to macrolide antibiotics. Analysis of clinical data showed that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in blood samples of the patients in the early stages of disease varied greatly. Genome sequence analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms mainly focused on adhesin P1, which is involved in the pathogenicity of M pneumoniae. Conclusion: The differences of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the early stage of M pneumoniae pneumonia and mutations in P1 protein may help us to distinguish between severe or mild disease after infection with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae. These findings could lead to the development of screening assays that will allow us to distinguish severe or mild M pneumoniae pneumonia early. PMID:27661056

  7. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Shum, Jennifer Wei Huen; Fan, Michelle Ching Yim; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chlorpromazine is known to cause ocular pigmentary deposits. However, delayed presentation after cessation of chlorpromazine has not been reported. There are also no reports on whether newer generation of anti-psychotic agents contribute to ocular toxicity. We describe a case of ocular toxicity related to anti-psychotic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anterior segment pigmentary deposits associated with olanzapine use, 2 years after the cessation of chlorpromazine. We report a case of ocular toxicity in a patient with history of chlorpromazine usage of 100 mg per day for 13 years and subsequently switched to olanzapine 5 mg for 2 years. There were no signs of ocular toxicity while the patient was on chlorpromazine. However, when the patient switched to olanzapine, she developed the ocular side effect as described for chlorpromazine-induced ocular toxicity, with pigmentary depositions on both corneas and the anterior lens surface and decrease in vision. Olanzapine, a newer anti-psychotic agent, may play a role in the ocular pigmentary deposition, either directly causing pigmentary deposition itself or accentuating the effect of chlorpromazine as the 2 drugs act on the same receptors, although further studies are required to support this hypothesis. As patients with psychiatric conditions may not voluntarily complain of visual symptoms, ocular screening could be considered in these patients receiving chronic anti-psychotic treatment, so that any ocular toxicity could be diagnosed in a timely manner. PMID:27082594

  8. Prevalence of helminthic infections among inhabitants of Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  9. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. PMID:25291044

  10. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  11. SR proteins are required for nematode trans-splicing in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J R; Bruzik, J P

    1999-01-01

    SR (ser/arg) proteins have been shown to play roles in numerous aspects of pre-mRNA splicing, including modulation of alternative splicing, commitment of substrates to the splicing pathway, and splice site communication. The last of these, splice site communication, is particularly relevant to trans-splicing in which the 5' and 3' exons originate on separate molecules. The participation of SR proteins in naturally occurring, spliced leader RNA-dependent transsplicing has not been examined. Here, we have isolated SR proteins from an organism that performs both trans- and cis-splicing, the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. To examine their activity in in vitro splicing reactions, we have also developed and characterized an SR protein-depleted whole-cell extract. When tested in this extract, the nematode SR proteins are required for both trans- and cis-splicing. In addition, the state of phosphorylation of the nematode SR proteins is critical to their activity in vitro. Interestingly, mammalian (HeLa) and A. lumbricoides SR proteins exhibit equivalent activities in cis-splicing, while the nematode SR proteins are much more active in trans-splicing. Thus, it appears that SR proteins purified from an organism that naturally trans-splices its pre-mRNAs promote this reaction to a greater extent than do their mammalian counterparts. PMID:10411135

  12. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings.

  14. Short Report: Quantitative Evaluation of a Handheld Light Microscope for Field Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Stothard, J. Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91–1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  15. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  16. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  18. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Ward, Michael P; Chen, Yue; Lynn, Henry; Wang, Decheng; Chen, Gengxin; He, Zonggui; Sun, Liqian; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People's Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level), 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%), and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%), respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies. PMID:26618320

  19. Governance, organization, accountability and sustainability of a region-wide school-based deworming program in Loreto, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ferruci, Hugo Rodriguez; Razuri, H; Casapia, M; Rahme, E; Silva, H; Ault, S; Blouin, B; Mofid, L S; Montresor, A; Gyorkos, T W

    2016-07-01

    Chau Cuica was the name given by the regional government of Loreto in Peru for its school-based deworming program which was initiated in 2012 with a donation of mebendazole from an international non-governmental organization. Embedded in the program from the start was a sentinel surveillance component which consisted of 16 sentinel schools representing Loreto's seven provinces. Coverage rates varied between 35% and 61% over the first two years of the program (and seven deworming cycles). Initial prevalences of soil-transmitted helminth infections were high, with 82.4% of schoolchildren having at least one infection and prevalences of both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections both exceeding 60%. After two years, these prevalences had dropped to 56% for any STH infection, 38% for A. lumbricoides and 34% for T. trichiura. Importantly, the proportions of children with moderate and heavy infections also dropped. Both the regional Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education were jointly charged to implement this deworming program. The program's costs were estimated to be approximately 22 cents (USD) per child per deworming cycle. The responsibility for the surveillance component was initially undertaken by research partners from a local NGO and a Canadian university, which transferred gradually over the course of the deworming program to being entirely the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. This regional deworming program may serve as a model for other jurisdictions that are planning a school-based deworming program with an integrated surveillance component to monitor impact. PMID:27048990

  20. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  1. Cross-sectional parasitological survey for helminth infections among fish farmers in Nghe An province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annette; Thuan, Le Khanh; Murrell, K Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders; Johansen, Maria Vang; De, Nguyen Van

    2006-12-01

    A total of 964 adult fish farmers in five eastern districts in Nghe An province, Vietnam were investigated in late 2004 for food-borne trematodes and other helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from single stool samples. Eggs of fish-borne trematodes and of Fasciolopsis buski were found in 0.6 and 0.7% of farmers, respectively. Infection prevalences with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, were 34.8, 50.7 and 51.3%, respectively, and 81.8% were infected with at least one of the three STHs. While A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were more prevalent in the eastern districts compared to the more western districts, the opposite was true for hookworm infections. The widespread prevalence of STH infections in fish farmers suggests that control of these infections in school-age children only may be inadequate. Identification of the human behavioural factors and environmental features responsible for the distribution and frequency of STHs among adults is needed as well as a sensitive diagnostic test of fish-borne trematodes at species level. PMID:17141724

  2. Governance, organization, accountability and sustainability of a region-wide school-based deworming program in Loreto, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ferruci, Hugo Rodriguez; Razuri, H; Casapia, M; Rahme, E; Silva, H; Ault, S; Blouin, B; Mofid, L S; Montresor, A; Gyorkos, T W

    2016-07-01

    Chau Cuica was the name given by the regional government of Loreto in Peru for its school-based deworming program which was initiated in 2012 with a donation of mebendazole from an international non-governmental organization. Embedded in the program from the start was a sentinel surveillance component which consisted of 16 sentinel schools representing Loreto's seven provinces. Coverage rates varied between 35% and 61% over the first two years of the program (and seven deworming cycles). Initial prevalences of soil-transmitted helminth infections were high, with 82.4% of schoolchildren having at least one infection and prevalences of both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections both exceeding 60%. After two years, these prevalences had dropped to 56% for any STH infection, 38% for A. lumbricoides and 34% for T. trichiura. Importantly, the proportions of children with moderate and heavy infections also dropped. Both the regional Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education were jointly charged to implement this deworming program. The program's costs were estimated to be approximately 22 cents (USD) per child per deworming cycle. The responsibility for the surveillance component was initially undertaken by research partners from a local NGO and a Canadian university, which transferred gradually over the course of the deworming program to being entirely the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. This regional deworming program may serve as a model for other jurisdictions that are planning a school-based deworming program with an integrated surveillance component to monitor impact.

  3. Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Aaron D.; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth–giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager–horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

  4. The pattern of parasitic infection in human gut at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiamiwe, B A

    1977-03-01

    In a survey of 6213 persons conducted between January 1973 to December 1974, at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, the most common helminths were Necator americanus (16.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (19l5%) and Trichuris trichiur (5-9%). Dicrocoelium hospes (0-06%) was also recorded and this may become an important liver parasite of man in Nigeria. Its snail vectors are believed to be species of Limicolaria and Achatina which are widely dispersed in Nigeria. Entamoeba coli and E. histolytica showed peaks during the "fly seasons", indicating that the housefly, as well as water, may be an important source of contamination. Trichomonas hominis showed peaks in the rainy seasons, and this suggests that in Benin City transmission is chiefly via contaminated domestic water-supply. The incidence of A. lumbricoides and N. americanus was high throughout the rainy and dry seasons, indicating poor disposal of human excreta and a continuous pattern of infection. The type of food and method of cooking prevented or reduced the incidence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, Diphyllobothrium latum and Fasciola gigantica. PMID:849017

  5. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  7. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  8. [Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

    2013-02-01

    Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

  9. [Case management: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2013-08-01

    While the case management approach has been increasingly applied to healthcare worldwide in recent years, significant differences in application exist among discrete medical systems. This paper applies a methodology outlined by Walker and Avant to analyze the case management concept. This methodology is designed to assist medical staff to understand a concept in order to better achieve concept goals. The case management approach works to leverage organizational strategies to resolve case-specific circumstances and issues in order to accomplish organizational goals. Defining attributes of case management include: (1) highly complex cases; (2) the use of multidisciplinary professional teams to resolve case problems in the most cost-effective manner; (3) the use of case managers to manage the effective integration and operation of the multidisciplinary team; and (4) helping cases improve and make effective use of medical system resources.

  10. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  11. A comparative study of intestinal helminths in pre-school-age urban and rural children in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Kow, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged between 1 month and 10 years from one rural coastal locality, two rural upland localities and two urban localities in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea were examined between September 1980 and September 1982. Hookworm (predominantly Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura increased in prevalence with age. The prevalence of Strongyloides fuelleborni subspecies kellyi, where present, was either highest in the < 1 year age group or similar in all age groups. N. americanus prevalence was between 59% and 83% in the 3 year age group except at the coastal locality, where it was 15%. A. lumbricoides prevalence in the 3 year age group was very low in one upland locality and between 7% and 41% for the other localities. T. trichiura prevalence in the 3 year age group was between 33% and 55% at the coastal and two urban localities, and very low at the two upland localities. S. f. kellyi prevalence in the < 1 year age group was 48% and 20% respectively at the two upland localities, 2% at one of the urban localities and not detected at the other localities. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected at both urban localities, but not at the coastal locality or at the upland locality where testing was done. Many children had infections of more than one species, and there was a significant association of A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura at the coastal and two urban localities. The presence of S. f. kellyi at one of the urban localities raises the possibility that this once isolated species may now be spreading as infected people visit and settle in the towns. Between 68% and 93% of children in the 3 year age group and between 65% and 100% in the 5 year age group were infected with at least one helminth species.

  12. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Okoyo, Collins; Cano, Jorge; Mwanje, Mariam T.; Sultani, Hadley; Alusala, Dorcas; Turner, Hugo C.; Teti, Caroline; Garn, Josh; Freeman, Matthew C.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Roy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD) programme in Kenya. Materials and Methods Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county) levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels. Principal Findings The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores. Conclusions

  13. The Case: Generalisation, Theory and Phronesis in Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Arguments for the value of case study are vitiated by assumptions about the need for generalisation in the warrant of social scientific inquiry--and little generalisation is legitimate from case study, although an argument exists for the role of the case in the establishment of a form of generalisation in a certain kind of theory, a line of…

  14. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Haddad, Natacha de Carvalho Mello; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    Degos disease, also known as malignant atrophic papulosis, is a rare occlusive vasculopathy of unknown etiology characterized by infarcts in the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs. It is characterized by papules, which become umbilicated and evolve with a depressed porcelain-white central area, with an erythematous halo with telangiectasias. Histological findings include wedge-shaped dermoepidermal necrosis and blood vessel thrombosis. Approximately 50-60% of patients with systemic symptoms die within 2-3 years, most due to gastrointestinal perforation. We report a typical case, with lethal outcome, in a 45-year-old woman. PMID:24937836

  15. [Tungiasis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hoon, Kim Sung; Fernández, María Florencia; Buján, María Marta; Cervini, Andrea Bettina; Laffargue, Jorge; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2011-08-01

    Tungiasis, is a cutaneous parasitosis, native of America caused by Tunga penetrans. Infestations usually presents with black papular lesions, either single or multiple, most of them localized on the feet, mainly in the subungual and periungual areas. Diagnosis of tungiasis is based on the characteristic aspect of the lesions in a patient coming from an endemic area. Surgical removal of the flea and application of a topical antibiotic is the standard treatment. We describe a case of a 10-years-old girl, with multiple lesions localized on feet, who was succesfully treated with ivermectin and surgical removal of lesions. PMID:21829863

  16. Gorham's disease: clinical case.

    PubMed

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, André Sá; Amorim, Nelson; Pinto, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Gorham's disease, also known as idiopathic massive osteolysis, is a rare pathological condition characterized by vascular proliferation that results in destruction and reabsorption of the bone matrix, of unknown etiology. It was first described by Jackson in 1838, but it was Gorham and Stout, in 1955, who defined this disease as a specific entity. It has variable clinical presentation and generally has progressive behavior. Controversy continues regarding the treatment and there is no standard treatment. This pathological condition generally presents a favorable prognosis. Here, a case of Gorham's disease with involvement of the left hip is presented, in a male patient without relevant antecedents.

  17. Rheumatoid vasculitis - Case report.

    PubMed

    Pecly, Inah Maria Drummond; Ocampo, Juan Felipe; Ramirez, Guillermo Pandales; de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes; Saud, Claudia Guerra Murad; Arantes, Milton Dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease and its main manifestation is persistent synovitis affecting peripheral joints symmetrically, In spite of its destructive potential, the evolution of RA is highly variable. Some patients may have only a short-term process oligoarticular with minimum lesion, while others suffers a polyarthritis evolving with progressive and continuous involvement of other organ systems such as skin, heart, lungs, muscles and blood vessels rarely leading to rheumatoid vasculitis. The aim of this study was to describe a case of rheumatoid vasculitis a rare and severe condition.

  18. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery. PMID:26454485

  19. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Miot, Hélio Amante; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare and benign form of acquired digital fibromatosis characterized by the expansion of soft tissue around proximal phalanges and interphalangeal joints. The etiology remains unknown, although it is suggested that repetitive mechanic trauma like the interlacing or rubbing of the fingers can lead to skin thickening. We report a case of a young man with skin thickening around interphalangeal joints and compulsive finger manipulation habit. The histopathology disclosed hyperkeratosis, discrete papillomatosis, mild increase of fibroblasts and dermal mucinosis. The lesions regressed partially, after finger manipulation was stopped. PMID:24770524

  20. [Tetragametic chimerism: Case report].

    PubMed

    Loriaux, A; Boulet, S; Delorme, V; Althuser, M; Giroud Lathuile, C; Grego, S; Amblard, F; Dupuis, C; Schaal, J-P; Jouk, P-S

    2011-02-01

    We report the third case of spontaneous monochorionic dizygous pregnancy, discovered on foetal sex discordance. Blood group testing on the female twin revealed a hematopoietic chimera. The mechanism of monochorionic dizygous formation could be the fusion of two independent zygotes at a late morula stage. A single placental mass with vascular anastomosis then develops. Stem cells exchanged during early foetal life can thus lead to chimeras, in similar conditions to stem cell transfusion in adults. Immaturity of the foetal immune system allows cell graft in the other twin's marrow. Assisted reproductive procedures are believed to promote such pregnancies.

  1. Case for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ana Filipa; Ferreira, Olga; Barros, Ana Margarida; Nogueira, Ana; Bettencourt, Herberto; Azevedo, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    Ketron-Goodman disease was formerly considered a disseminated type of pagetoid reticulosis. However, according to the new classification consensus, it should be regarded as aggressive epidermotropic CD8 T-cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous gamma/delta T-lymphoma, or tumor-stage mycosis fungoides, depending on the clinical-histological picture. This case highlights a rare and challenging presentation of Ketron-Goodman disease with an indolent presentation and evolution and good response to a low-grade treatment regimen, not fitting well into the new classification criteria. PMID:24173195

  2. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  3. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor.

  4. Myxofibrosarcoma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Breno Augusto Campos; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Piancastelli, Patricia Mourthe; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Rubem Mateus Campos

    2016-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is recognized as a malignant neoplasm of fibroblastic origin with increased prevalence in the elderly, presenting as nodules or tumors that may extend to the dermis and skeletal muscle, preferably in the lower limbs. Histologically it is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma. Myxofibrosarcoma has a high potential for local recurrence and metastasis, mainly when it presents a high or intermediate histological grade. We report the case of an eighty-four year old patient with a difficult diagnosis of a highly aggressive tumor. PMID:26982788

  5. Autopsy profiles of malpractice cases.

    PubMed

    Pakis, Isil; Yayci, Nesime; Karapirli, Mustafa; Gunce, Elif; Polat, Oguz

    2009-01-01

    Claims for medical malpractice and the number of lawsuits filed thereafter are increasing in Turkey as is the case throughout the world. In the present study all files issued by the associated boards of the Council of Forensic Medicine between 2001 and 2005 were studied and of those, 525 death cases in which there was a medical malpractice claim were included. 303 of the cases (57.7%) were male, 215 (41%) were female, while no gender was mentioned in seven cases (1.3%). The age of the subjects ranged between 0 and 90, with an average of 26.8. 147 cases (28%) were related to Emergency Units. 92% of the cases (482 cases) were resolved in the Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice. 167 of the resolved cases were concluded as medical malpractice.

  6. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  7. BOS MOrth cases prize 2008.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the clinical orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2008 intercollegiate MOrth cases prize. The first case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with an increased overjet treated using a Dynamax functional appliance followed by fixed appliances. The second case involves the management of a class II division I malocclusion complicated by an unerupted maxillary central incisor and a mandibular first molar of poor prognosis. PMID:20805348

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Prison Inmates and Tobacco Farm Workers in Shewa Robit, North-Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    . Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively. Conclusion The results show that IPIs are common health problems in the studied populations. PMID:24926687

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O

    2014-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two

  10. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A

  11. Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early wheezing and asthma are relevant health problems in the tropics. Mite sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of others, inherent in poverty, are unknown. We designed a birth-cohort study in Cartagena (Colombia) to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, parasite infections and poor living conditions. Methods Pregnant women representative of the low-income suburbs of the city were randomly screened for eligibility at delivery; 326 mother-infant pairs were included at baseline and biological samples were collected from birth to 24 months for immunological testing, molecular genetics and gene expression analysis. Pre and post-natal information was collected using questionnaires. Results 94% of families were from the poorest communes of the city, 40% lacked sewage and 11% tap-water. Intestinal parasites were found as early as 3 months; by the second year, 37.9% of children have had parasites and 5.22% detectable eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools (Median 3458 epg, IQR 975-9256). The prevalence of "wheezing ever" was 17.5% at 6 months, 31.1% at 12 months and 38.3% at 24 months; and recurrent wheezing (3 or more episodes) 7.1% at 12 months and 14.2% at 24 months. Maternal rhinitis [aOR 3.03 (95%CI 1.60-5.74), p = 0.001] and male gender [aOR 2.09 (95%CI 1.09 - 4.01), p = 0.026], increased risk for wheezing at 6 months. At 24 months, maternal asthma was the main predisposing factor for wheezing [aOR 3.65 (95%CI 1.23-10.8), p = 0.01]. Clinical symptoms of milk/egg allergy or other food-induced allergies were scarce (1.8%) and no case of atopic eczema was observed. Conclusions Wheezing is the most frequent phenotype during the first 24 months of life and is strongly associated with maternal asthma. At 24 months, the natural history of allergic symptoms is different to the "atopic march" described in some industrialized countries. This cohort

  12. Aglossia: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bommarito, Silvana; Zanato, Luciana Escanoela; Vieira, Marilena Manno; Angelieri, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Aglossia is a rare condition caused by failure of the tongue embryogenesis process (in the fourth to eighth weeks of gestation). The tongue is an organ used in different activities such as sucking, swallowing, chewing, and talking. It is also responsible for shaping palate dental arches (in its absence, they become atrophic). There are few similar cases reported in the literature. Objective To describe a rare case of aglossia and the multidisciplinary professionals working together for 5 years to treat the patient. Resumed Report An 8-year-old girl with aglossia had an assessment comprising: (1) clinical assessment of the stomatognathic system related to resting posture, tonus, and mobility; (2) orthodontic assessment; (3) surface electromyography of the chewing muscles; (4) swallowing videofluoroscopy. Conclusion The authors confirmed the need of multidisciplinary cooperation to improve the patient's quality of life, because agenesia implicates many activities/functions that depend on the tongue to fully work. Multiprofessional cooperation helps the patient learn compensation mechanisms. PMID:26722352

  13. Palinacousis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M C; Tomlinson, F H; Stuart, G G

    1988-06-01

    Palinacousis (auditory perseveration) is a rarely reported symptom of temporal lobe dysfunction. We describe a new case. A 50-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, and global dysphasia, followed by two generalized seizures. Examination was otherwise normal, and computed tomography showed a small area of enhancement near the left sylvian fissure; there was a left temporal focus on the electroencephalogram. Treatment with phenytoin was instituted, and speech improved, with residual fluent dysphasia. Three days postictally, the patient complained of "echoing voices" in her right ear. Words or fragments of sentences recently uttered by the patient or others were perceived to recur unaltered for minutes to hours. Sounds other than speech were also affected. One week later the voices had disappeared, but a ticking sound was present; this also faded subsequently. The palinacousis never recurred; the patient was later found to have a Grade IV astrocytoma of the left temporal lobe, which caused her demise 8 months later. The features of this case are similar to those previously reported and favor an epileptic etiology. Palinacousis should be recognized as a sign of organic temporal lobe disease and not confused with manifestations of psychotic illness. PMID:3419574

  14. [Famous cases for amputation].

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Volker

    2004-01-01

    After a short historical survey 14 cases of celebrated personalities one woman and 13 men, with the grave handicap of amputation are represented. The causes of the lost limbs, once of the nose, were battle injuries (guns) or accidents. In many cases the protheseology followed the amputation, dependent on the technological level of the day. Often medical providing was bad and terrible. The introduction of anaesthesia changed the amputation technique. During different periods from renaissance to the first half of the twentieth century remarkable fates happened. Heroes as the emperor Friedrich III., the knight Goetz von Berlichingen, well known by the spectacle of Goethe, the scientist Tycho Brahe, the merchant and skipper Peter Stuyvesant, the military men Duke Christian II. of Braunschweig-Lueneburg-Wolfenbuettel, William Bayly, Admiral Lord Nelson and Earl Claus Stauffenberg, the actress Sarah Bernhard, the squadron leader of RAF Douglas R. S. Bader and other gave an excellent example for fulfilled life despite handicap. With their artificial legs, arms or hands they rode, fought, shoot, made sports etc. PMID:15633275

  15. [Famous cases for amputation].

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Volker

    2004-01-01

    After a short historical survey 14 cases of celebrated personalities one woman and 13 men, with the grave handicap of amputation are represented. The causes of the lost limbs, once of the nose, were battle injuries (guns) or accidents. In many cases the protheseology followed the amputation, dependent on the technological level of the day. Often medical providing was bad and terrible. The introduction of anaesthesia changed the amputation technique. During different periods from renaissance to the first half of the twentieth century remarkable fates happened. Heroes as the emperor Friedrich III., the knight Goetz von Berlichingen, well known by the spectacle of Goethe, the scientist Tycho Brahe, the merchant and skipper Peter Stuyvesant, the military men Duke Christian II. of Braunschweig-Lueneburg-Wolfenbuettel, William Bayly, Admiral Lord Nelson and Earl Claus Stauffenberg, the actress Sarah Bernhard, the squadron leader of RAF Douglas R. S. Bader and other gave an excellent example for fulfilled life despite handicap. With their artificial legs, arms or hands they rode, fought, shoot, made sports etc.

  16. Histoid leprosy: case report.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Attia, Aballa Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare but well-defined entity with specific clinical, histopathologic, and bacteriologic features. We present a case of histoid leprosy in an 84-year-old Egyptian male in view of the rarity of this condition. The patient presented with erythematous itchy discrete and coalescent papules that were distributed bilaterally and symmetrically on the front and back of the trunk. Before approaching us, he was initially misdiagnosed as a case of pityriasis rosea. There was no mucosal or facial affection and the patient's general examination was normal. Routine hematologic investigations, urine analysis, liver and renal function tests were all normal. Slit skin smear revealed acid-fast bacilli of BI - 6+ and MI - 50-60%. Histopathologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained section revealed atrophic epidermis with flattened rete ridges and dermal infiltration by nodular granulomata formed of spindle shaped histiocytes with pyknotic nuclei oriented in a storiform pattern. Fite's stain for lepra bacilli showed plenty of acid fast bacilli. So, the diagnosis of histoid leprosy was made. Therefore, ROM therapy (rifampicin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg, minocycline 200 mg) was started and followed by multi-drug therapy for 2 years. PMID:23317487

  17. Soil contamination by parasite eggs in rural village in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Saori; Paller, Vachel Gay V; Uga, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are important diseases of humans, which affect about one third of the world's population. Examination of soil can be used to estimate the risk of STH infection in humans. We carried out this survey to clarify the current status of soil contamination by parasite eggs and to assess the risk of STH infection. During survey periods, we examined soil, faeces, and the lifestyle of residents. Six genera and eight species of parasite eggs including Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris trichiura were recovered from 85 out of 120 soil samples (71%). Contamination of soil by parasite eggs had spread widely throughout the village, and 50% of eggs recovered had already developed into fertilized eggs. It is remarkable that Ascaris eggs were recovered from inside the houses. Prevalence of STH in school children was 63%. This may indicate that school or preschool children cause soil contamination. Some of the eggs recovered were not only from humans but also from dogs and cats. From the results obtained, the need for health education with regards to zoonoses was revealed because 77% of fertilized Toxocara spp. eggs were detected. We conclude that the risk of STH infection in residents was extremely high, because the soil in this village was highly contaminated by infective parasite eggs. PMID:24189679

  18. A novel, multi-parallel, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for eight gastrointestinal parasites provides improved diagnostic capabilities to resource-limited at-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J; Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Stool samples from 400 13-month-old children in rural Ecuador were analyzed and the qPCR was compared with a standard direct wet mount slide for stool microscopy, as were 125 8-14-year-old children before and after anthelmintic treatment. The qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites compared with direct microscopy, Ascaris (7.0% versus 5.5%) and for Giardia (31.5% versus 5.8%). Using an enhanced DNA extraction method, we were able to detect T. trichiura DNA. These assays will be useful to refine treatment options for affected populations, ultimately leading to better health outcomes. PMID:23509117

  19. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  20. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.

  1. Species-Specific Associations Between Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Micronutrients in Vietnamese Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Khan, Nguyen Cong; van de Bor, Margot; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-07-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) aged 6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation. Iodine excretion was measured in urine. Associations of single and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association with vitamin A. Trichuris and hookworm infections were associated with lower hemoglobin concentration, but not with plasma ferritin. Trichuris-infected children had zinc deficiency less often than uninfected children. In conclusion, our study shows species-specific associations between STH infections and micronutrient status in children. The different life cycles of STH species might have specific effects on the absorption or loss of specific micronutrients. Tailor-made combinations of deworming and nutritional interventions may be needed to improve child health and nutrition. PMID:27246448

  2. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  3. Case Citations 1991. Eleventh Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A., Ed.

    Case citations from five legal areas--college students, liability on campus, sport law, employment, and employment discrimination--are presented in this document. Each section offers brief summaries of cases and concludes with a table of cases. The first section on college students examines litigation involving student finances, disciplinary…

  4. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  5. The case for cryonics.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2015-08-01

    Cryonics is the low temperature preservation of people who can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine in the hope that future medicine will make it possible to revive them and restore their health. A speculative practice at the outer edge of science, cryonics is often viewed with suspicion. In this paper I defend two theses. I first argue that there is a small, yet non-negligible, chance that cryonics is technically feasible. I make the case for this by reference to what we know about death and cryobiology, and what we can expect of future nanorobotics. I further argue that insofar as the alternatives to cryonics are burial or cremation, and thus certain, irreversible death, even small chances for success can be sufficient to make opting for cryonics a rational choice. Finally, I reply to five objections. PMID:25717141

  6. Iniencephaly: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando R.; Bula-Anichiarico, Doris A.; Calderón-Miranda, Willem G.; Moscote-Salazar, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    The iniencephaly involves a variable defect in the occipital bone, resulting in a large foramen magnum, partial or total absence of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, accompanied by incomplete closure of arcs and/or vertebral bodies, significant shortening of the spinal column and hyperextension of the malformed cervicothoracic spine; the individual's face is deviated upward, the mandibular skin is directly continuous with anterior thorax due to the absence of neck. Its incidence is about 1:1000–1:2000 births, so this is a pretty rare neural tube defect. We present a case of iniencephaly in association with cardiovascular, spinal cord, and intracranial malformations that ended demonstrating the low survival of patients affected with this condition. PMID:26167231

  7. Choroidal osteoma - case reports.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Rahman, N A; Uddin, M S

    2014-07-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a rare disease. In this article four case histories were described. All were female and young patient. One patient had bilateral and other three had unilateral involvement. They had no family history. One patient reported at eye department in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and the other three patients reported in Bangladesh Eye Hospital. Choroidal osteoma is a benign tumor. It is diagnosed by fundoscopy, ocular B-scan ultrasonography, x-ray orbit, FFA, OCT and CT-scan of orbit. Most patients do not require treatment. Hemorrhage on the lesion suggests the presence of sub-retinal neovascularization which are typically treated with laser or intra-vitreal anti-VEGF.

  8. Cutaneous protothecosis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pâmela Craveiro Gomes; Silva, Sabrina Beirão da Costa e; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation test. The finding of morula-like spherules is characteristic of Prototheca sp. Its rarity and non-specific clinical aspect may difficult the disease diagnosis. We report a case of a diabetic patient, in chronic use of systemic corticosteroids, that developed a skin lesion after trauma to the right leg. PMID:24346914

  9. [Pleuropulmonary blastoma, case report].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Juan J; Medín, Martín; Garrido, Patricia; Martínez, Jorge; Teper, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Pleuropulmonary blastoma is a rare lung tumor of childhood that can occur with cystic or solid lesions, as a radiological finding with or without respiratory symptoms. We report the case of a 2 year old toddler in his first pulmonary obstructive episode with suspected toracic malformation of the left upper lobe in his chest x-ray and tomography. Surgery was performed showing cystic malformation of the left upper lobe. We received the pathology report with diagnosis of type I pleuropulmonary blastoma. He began follow-up with Oncology initiating treatment with cyclophosphamide and vincristine, well tolerated. Currently, there is controversy about the management of congenital lung cysts, tilting the balance towards the surgical procedure because of serious difficulties in differentiating benign pulmonary cysts from pleuropulmonary blastoma without histopathologic review.

  10. The case for cryonics.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2015-08-01

    Cryonics is the low temperature preservation of people who can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine in the hope that future medicine will make it possible to revive them and restore their health. A speculative practice at the outer edge of science, cryonics is often viewed with suspicion. In this paper I defend two theses. I first argue that there is a small, yet non-negligible, chance that cryonics is technically feasible. I make the case for this by reference to what we know about death and cryobiology, and what we can expect of future nanorobotics. I further argue that insofar as the alternatives to cryonics are burial or cremation, and thus certain, irreversible death, even small chances for success can be sufficient to make opting for cryonics a rational choice. Finally, I reply to five objections.

  11. OROFACIAL GRANULOMATOSIS: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Brailo, Vlaho; Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Seiwert, Sven; Tomašić, Vedran; Bakale, Iva; Juras, Danica Vidović; Hadžavdić, Suzana Ljubojević

    2015-09-01

    An 18-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine with upper lip swelling. She was in good general health and laboratory tests were within the normal range. Histopathologic diagnosis did not reveal the presence of granulomas. This is consistent with the finding that 30% of patients with orofacial granulomatosis do not have granulomas on their biopsies. The patient was treated with intralesional steroids once a week for three weeks. The lesion subsided, but not completely, and recurred partially after ketchup intake. This case report highlights the fact that in every patient with non-odontogenic facial or oral swelling, systemic diseases such as sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, etc. must be excluded. Furthermore, it is not unusual that in patients with orofacial granulomatosis, noncaseating granulomas are absent in the histopathologic finding. PMID:26666112

  12. [Pycnodysostosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Wakana; Kurita, Tadayoshi; Adachi, Yushi; Suzuki, Yuji; Obata, Yukako; Sato, Shigehito

    2011-04-01

    A 53-year-old man suffered maxillar osteomyelitis and removal of sequester was scheduled under general anesthesia. Pycnodysostosis had been diagnosed in childhood and body height and weight were 148 cm and 40 kg, respectively. He presented facial dysmorphia, hypomobile mandible and narrow oral cavity. At the pre-anesthetic visit, we planned awake fiberscopic intubation before the induction of general anesthesia. On the day of surgery, however, face-mask ventilation was easily established with 100-microg dose of fentanyl. Thus, 70 mg of propofol was administered to achieve hypnosis and naso-tracheal intubation using fibrescope was accomplished. The patient's trachea was easily intubated without a decrease of pulse oximetry values and marked changes in cardiovascular parameters. Pycnodysostosis is a rare clinical entity; however, the airway difficulty was mild in the present case. PMID:21520606

  13. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

  15. Ethical issues in case study publication: "making our case(s)" ethically.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, David B; Fitchett, George

    2011-01-01

    As chaplains develop richly detailed case studies for publication, ethical questions about case study construction and publication are emerging. Concerns about seeking patients' permission to publish material about them suggest additional questions and raise broad confidentiality and privacy issues. Confidentiality-related practices in health care and psychotherapy provide the most extensive guidance for chaplains, but healthcare chaplaincy has roots in religious and professional traditions with distinct notions of confidentiality that deserve consideration. Single case studies do not appear to be "research" requiring informed consent, yet their publication exposes patients to some risk of harm. Obtaining the patient's/"case study subject's" permission to publish, disguising non-essential information, and allowing the patient to review the case study can mitigate the risks. Striking a balance between protecting patients and providing sufficient detail to make case studies useful is a central ethical challenge of case study publication.

  16. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  17. [A hopeless case?].

    PubMed

    Heide, Steffen; Schmidt, Volker; Wiegand, Peter; Kleiber, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    In a hollow covered with earth, a herb gatherer discovered a severely decomposed corpse mutilated by scavenging animals. Only small areas of the skin had remained intact. A conspicuous tattoo could still be distinguished on the left upper arm. Despite concrete evidence of violence (fracture in the occipital bone, subdural hemorrhage with a volume of 20 ml), the exact cause of death could no longer be established. Police enquiries identified a person in whom such a conspicuous tattoo had been photographed in an earlier criminal case. Eventually, the deceased person could be identified by DNA analysis of a stored blood alcohol specimen. Considered together, the autopsy findings and the results of the investigation of traces of blood on the putative tool used in the crime indicated that the man had been struck dead and the body had afterwards been buried in the wood. Although the prospects of success had been initially slight, it was not only possible to identify the victim, but also to reconstruct the crime. PMID:14723123

  18. Explosively separable casing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    1985-02-19

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  19. Patellar osteochondroma: case report.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; de Melo, Mariana Christino; Rocha, Allan Vieira; Dos Santos, Mauro Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to report on a rare case of patellar osteochondroma. A 60-year-old man presented a tumor on his left patella that had developed over a 10-year period, which is a rare occurrence, considering the patient's age and the site at which the tumor appeared. The clinical condition comprised mild pain and the presence of a mass, without limitation of flexion-extension or any neurovascular deficit. The tumor dimensions were 8 cm longitudinally × 6 cm transversally × 3 cm anteroposteriorly. It was hardened and was adhering to the patellar bone plane. On radiographs and tomographic scans, we observed areas of greater density corresponding to bone and other less dense areas that could correspond to slow-growing cartilage, with irregularities on the patellofemoral joint surface. Simple resection of the tumor was performed, and the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a patellar osteochondroma. Osteochondroma, or osteocartilaginous exostosis, includes a large proportion of the benign bone tumors. It results from cell alterations that trigger unregulated production of spongy bone. It is basically treated by means of surgical removal of the tumor mass. This is not essential, but is recommended in order to avoid lesions caused by contiguity and the risk of malignant transformation.

  20. Case consultation: ablatio penis.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1998-01-01

    In male infants, traumatic ablation of the penis, with or without loss of the testicles may occur as a sequel to mutilatory violence, accidental injury, or circumcision error. Post-traumatically, one program of case management is surgical sex reassignment to live as a girl, with female hormonal therapy at the age of puberty. The other program is genital reconstructive surgery to live as a boy, with male hormonal therapy at puberty if the testicles are missing. In both programs, the long term outcome is less than perfect and is contingent on intervening variables that include societal ideology; surgical technology; juvenile and adolescent timing and frequency of hospital admissions construed by the child as nosocomial abuse; development of body image; health and sex education; fertility versus sterility; coitus and orgasm; possible lesbian orientation if living as a girl; and long-term cost accounting, including the psychic cost of being a pawn in possible malpractice litigation on whose disability a very large fortune in compensation may devolve. There is, as yet, no unanimously endorsed set of guidelines for the treatment of genital trauma and mutilation in infancy, and no provision for a statistical depository for outcome data.

  1. The case for iron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.H.; Gordon, R.M.; Fitzwater, S.E. )

    1991-12-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that atmospheric dust loads in these regions are among the lowest in the world. The authors summarize experiments performed in three nutrient-rich areas: The Gulf of Alaska, the Ross Sea, and the equatorial Pacific. In general, populations without added Fe doubled at rates 11-40% of the expected maxima at various temperatures. The additions of nanomole quantities of Fe increased these doubling rates by factors of 2-3. In spite of the lack of Fe, tightly coupled phytoplankton/zooplankton communities seem to inhabit these major nutrient-rich areas. Since Fe is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and nitrate reductase, little chlorophyll is found and NH{sub 3} is the favored N source. Normal rate values of specific productivity indicate that these populations are healthy, but limited by the insufficient Fe supply. When Fe becomes available either artificially in bottle experiments or in the environment as Fe-rich land masses are approached, diatoms quickly bloom, chlorophyll levels increase, and nutrient stocks are rapidly depleted. These combined results indicate that Fe availability is the primary factor controlling phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea.

  2. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  3. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  4. [Broncholithiasis: six cases].

    PubMed

    Ghraïri, H; Ketata, W; Kartas, S; Ayadi, A; Ammar, J; Abid, H; Kilani, T; Hamzaoui, A

    2007-04-01

    Broncholithiasis is an exceptional condition characterized by the presence of stony formations in the bronchial lumen. We report six cases. Mean age was 41 years. Revealing signs were hemoptysis (n=5), cough (n=5), fever (n=1) and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (n=1). Physical examination found sonorous rales in two patients and was normal in four. The chest x-ray showed a parenchymal opacity suggestive of calcification in one patient, atelectasia in two, and alveolar images in three. Bronchial endoscopy demonstrated broncholithiasis in one patient, an endobronchial blood clot in one patient with abundant hemoptysis, an endoluminal bud simulating a tumor in two, an inflammatory aspect in one, and was normal in one. Thoracic computed tomography demonstrated broncholithiasis in three patients. Treatment consisted in lobectomy in five patients. The pathology specimen confirmed broncholithiasis in all five and in one revealed caseofollicular lesions of the hillar nodes. Anti-tuberculosis treatment was prescribed for this patient. Therapeutic abstention with regular surveillance was chosen for one patient with an uncomplicated broncholithiasis. Broncholithiasis is an exceptional condition with potentially serious consequences. Certain diagnosis is based on high-resolution computed tomography and endoscopic findings but can nevertheless be a surgical discovery. PMID:17607213

  5. A report on case reports

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham

    2010-01-01

    Case reports are defined as the scientific documentation of a single clinical observation and have a time-honored and rich tradition in medicine and scientific publication. This article discusses the role and relevance of case reports in the current evidence-based medical literature. It also seeks to help and guide authors to understand how to prepare a reasonable and well-written case report and how they may anticipate concerns that peer reviewers may express when scrutinizing their manuscript. An overview of the Journal of Conservative Dentistry’s review process of a manuscript submission is provided for the benefit of future authors. It is important to be able to read a case report critically and to use the information they contain appropriately. This article also discusses the factors to consider in evaluating individual case reports, and discusses a practical conceptual scheme for evaluating the potential value and educational content of a case report. PMID:21217956

  6. Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Mason, Stanley Leroy

    2010-09-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for electrically insulating an overburden portion of a heater wellbore is described. The system may include a heater wellbore located in a subsurface formation and an electrically insulating casing located in the overburden portion of the heater wellbore. The casing may include at least one non-ferromagnetic material such that ferromagnetic effects are inhibited in the casing.

  7. Commentary on 2 Unusual Cases.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David A

    2016-07-01

    Two cases of unusual situations are discussed: one involving feigned suicide detected as false only after a comparison of surveillance systems, and one involving monozygotic triplets who all developed psychosis with shared delusions. Although these 2 cases involve presentations most of us will never encounter as clinicians, they nevertheless serve to highlight fundamental questions about the nature of psychopathology. Both cases also have compelling parallels in literature and film. PMID:27427847

  8. A case for case: handling letter case selection in written spelling.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Katrina E; Venneri, Annalena

    2003-01-01

    This study reports the unusual writing performance of a 72-year-old woman, Pp, who was unable to maintain her writing within a particular case, and made numerous case mixing errors (e.g. insTEAd). Her oral spelling was flawless, but when tested using a written spelling task (including words and non-words), a picture description task, a sentence writing task and a transcription task (from upper case to lower case, and vice versa), she showed a high proportion of case mixing errors, though spelling per se was correct. The problem, although less severe, was also present when spelling with letter cards. Despite a spared ability to select the correct letters in the stimulus, specify the correct number of letters and place them in the correct order, she had a specific problem in selecting the appropriate case. This impairment is indicative of peripheral dysgraphia. She appeared to have intact orthographic representations, but selection of the appropriate allographic codes for upper and lower case was impaired. Her longitudinal neuropsychological profile and MRI evidence suggest that Pp suffers from mild vascular dementia with more severe impairments in attentional functions. Her writing deficits may be accounted for by a model that incorporates an inhibitory mechanism, which is responsible for maintaining the appropriate case and inhibiting the inappropriate one, subsequent to case selection in writing. Failure of this mechanism would explain the pattern of case mixing shown by Pp.

  9. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as “giant kidney worm’ is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India. PMID:27042466

  10. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sapna; Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati

    2016-02-01

    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as "giant kidney worm' is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India.

  11. [Tuberculous pyopneumothorax: about 18 cases].

    PubMed

    Hicham, Souhi; Hanane, El Ouazzani; Hicham, Janah; Ismaïl, Rhorfi; Ahmed, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous pyopneumothorax is a rare but serious complication of evolutive pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a series of 18 cases with tuberculous pyopneumothorax admitted to the Pneumo-Phthisiology Department of the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital in Rabat between January 2005 and December 2009. Our study included 15 men and 3 women, the average age was 35 ± 7 years. 4 patients were diabetic. Smoking was found in 9 cases. Right-sided pneumothorax was found in 13 cases. Chest radiograph showed cavitary lesions in 15 patients and extensive bilateral lesions in 8 cases. The search for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the fluid from the gastric tube was positive in 16 cases. Chest drainage associated with antituberculosis treatment according to the 2SRHZ/7RH regimen and respiratory kinesitherapy were performed in all cases. The average duration of pleural drainage was 4 weeks. In 3 cases we noted persistent pleural suppuration requiring pleural toilet using thoracoscopy with pleurectomy and limited pulmonary resection to eliminate tuberculous parenchymal lesions and the persistence of a large pleural pocket with restrictive ventilatory defect that required surgery for pleural decortication in two cases. The outcome was favorable with minimal pachypleuritis as sequelae in the remaining cases. Tuberculous pyopneumothorax is a severe form, which is often associated with active cavitary tuberculosis. Evolution is generally progressive despite antituberculosis treatment and thoracic drainage, hence the need for early diagnosis and treatment of all forms of tuberculosis. PMID:27583090

  12. Middle aortic syndrome: an atypical case--a case report.

    PubMed

    Adovasio, R; Canci, U

    2000-06-01

    This case concerns a 61-year-old woman presenting with middle aortic syndrome treated by an aortoaortic thoracoabdominal polytetrafluoroethylene bypass and a right renal Dacron bypass. The case was atypical because of the patient's advanced age at the time of clinical presentation.

  13. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  14. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  15. The case for unification.

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Krishna

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the issue of whether the various subclasses of radio-loud galaxies are intrinsically the same but have been classified differently mainly due to their being viewed from different directions. Evidence for the two key elements of this popular version of the "unified scheme (US)," relativistic jets and nuclear tori, is updated. The case for the torus opening angle increasing with the radio luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is freshly argued. Radio-loud AGN are particularly suited for testing the US, since their structures and polarization properties on different scales, as well as their overall radio sizes, provide useful statistical indicators of the relative orientations of their various subclasses. I summarize recent attempts to bring under a single conceptual framework the USs developed for radio-moderate [Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI)] and radio-powerful (FRII) AGN. By focusing on FRII radio sources, I critically examine the recent claims of conflict with the US, based on the statistics of radio-size measurements for large, presumably orientation-independent, samples with essentially complete optical identifications. Possible ways of reconciling these results, and also the ones based on very-long-baseline radio interferometry polarimetric observations, with the US are pointed out. By incorporating a highly plausible temporal evolution of radio source properties into the US, I outline a scenario that allows the median linear size of quasars to approach, or even exceed, that of radio galaxies, as samples with decreasing radio luminosity are observed. Thus, even though a number of issues remain to be fully resolved, the scope of unified models continues to expand. PMID:11607607

  16. The case for unification.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Krishna

    1995-12-01

    I investigate the issue of whether the various subclasses of radio-loud galaxies are intrinsically the same but have been classified differently mainly due to their being viewed from different directions. Evidence for the two key elements of this popular version of the "unified scheme (US)," relativistic jets and nuclear tori, is updated. The case for the torus opening angle increasing with the radio luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is freshly argued. Radio-loud AGN are particularly suited for testing the US, since their structures and polarization properties on different scales, as well as their overall radio sizes, provide useful statistical indicators of the relative orientations of their various subclasses. I summarize recent attempts to bring under a single conceptual framework the USs developed for radio-moderate [Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI)] and radio-powerful (FRII) AGN. By focusing on FRII radio sources, I critically examine the recent claims of conflict with the US, based on the statistics of radio-size measurements for large, presumably orientation-independent, samples with essentially complete optical identifications. Possible ways of reconciling these results, and also the ones based on very-long-baseline radio interferometry polarimetric observations, with the US are pointed out. By incorporating a highly plausible temporal evolution of radio source properties into the US, I outline a scenario that allows the median linear size of quasars to approach, or even exceed, that of radio galaxies, as samples with decreasing radio luminosity are observed. Thus, even though a number of issues remain to be fully resolved, the scope of unified models continues to expand. PMID:11607607

  17. The case for unification.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Krishna

    1995-12-01

    I investigate the issue of whether the various subclasses of radio-loud galaxies are intrinsically the same but have been classified differently mainly due to their being viewed from different directions. Evidence for the two key elements of this popular version of the "unified scheme (US)," relativistic jets and nuclear tori, is updated. The case for the torus opening angle increasing with the radio luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is freshly argued. Radio-loud AGN are particularly suited for testing the US, since their structures and polarization properties on different scales, as well as their overall radio sizes, provide useful statistical indicators of the relative orientations of their various subclasses. I summarize recent attempts to bring under a single conceptual framework the USs developed for radio-moderate [Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI)] and radio-powerful (FRII) AGN. By focusing on FRII radio sources, I critically examine the recent claims of conflict with the US, based on the statistics of radio-size measurements for large, presumably orientation-independent, samples with essentially complete optical identifications. Possible ways of reconciling these results, and also the ones based on very-long-baseline radio interferometry polarimetric observations, with the US are pointed out. By incorporating a highly plausible temporal evolution of radio source properties into the US, I outline a scenario that allows the median linear size of quasars to approach, or even exceed, that of radio galaxies, as samples with decreasing radio luminosity are observed. Thus, even though a number of issues remain to be fully resolved, the scope of unified models continues to expand.

  18. Case presentation: Jean.

    PubMed

    Libbey, M

    1989-01-01

    This symposium was devoted to the consideration of Dr. Mary Libbey's treatment of a 22-year-old woman. The unfolding of the analysand's symbiotic attachment to her mother, the devastating sequelae of her having been the stable center of a pathological family that devoted itself to the care of a severely handicapped sibling, and her immersion in unresolved mourning form the center of this richly detailed and carefully reported case study. In addition, four verbatim sessions are reported, one from each year of the first two years of treatment, and two from the third year of treatment. Dr. Epstein's discussion, praising Dr. Libbey's therapeutic skill, makes note of the issues in the patient's family of origin that served to prepare her to feel endangered in the treatment. Dr. Epstein's view is that the analyst has created an analytic situation that, because it is minimally impinging, allows the patient to become increasingly aware of her unmet needs in a way that is tolerable and minimally "destabilizing to the symbiotically based organization of her internal self and object world." In the climate of safety created in the treatment, the patient can begin to complete the work of mourning for her sister, friend, and aunt, a process of mourning that would be impossible in the context of her nuclear family, centered as it is on a mother who cannot tolerate separation. Limit-setting in the treatment is seen to be reassuring to the patient, facilitating as it does the analyst's commitment to maintaining the integrity of the analytic situation. Dr. Schafer's discussion, while in agreement with Dr. Epstein in recognizing the excellence of the presentation and the sensitivity and hard work that had gone into both the treatment and the clinical presentation, included some specific and focused observations about the transference and countertransference situations prevailing in this treatment and also some suggestions for creating a more consistently safe analytic atmosphere for

  19. Three Community College Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  20. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…