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Sample records for ascomycete genus byssochlamys

  1. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

  2. Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Jiří; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-11-01

    Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C. PMID:25164483

  3. Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

  4. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeast genus Zygoascus, with proposal of Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. and related anamorphic varieties.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maudy Th; Robert, V; Poot, G A; Epping, Wendy; de Cock, A W A M

    2005-05-01

    Physiological characters, mating compatibility, PCR-RAPD fingerprints, mol% G + C content, DNA-DNA relatedness, and large-subunit and internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequences of strains assigned to the genus Zygoascus were re-examined. On the basis of those data, and after phylogenetic analyses, an emendation of Zygoascus hellenicus (type material is a cross of CBS 6736(T) x CBS 5839(T)) is proposed, comprising two novel anamorphic varieties, Candida steatolytica var. steatolytica (CBS 6736(T)) and C. steatolytica var. inositophila (CBS 5839(T)). A novel teleomorphic species, Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. (type material is a cross of CBS 4099(T) x CBS 7521(T)) is described, together with two novel anamorphic varieties corresponding to it, Candida hellenica var. hellenica (CBS 4099(T)) and C. hellenica var. acidophila (CBS 7115(T)).

  5. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  6. Influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Simas, Rosineide Costa; Almeida, Carlos A A; Cabral, Elaine C; Rauber, Ricardo H; Mallmann, Carlos A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Rosenthal, Amauri; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2010-08-15

    Although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by Penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during storage and distribution. In this study, the production of patulin by Byssochlamys spp (Byssochlamys nivea FRR 4421, B. nivea ATCC 24008 and Byssochlamys fulva IOC 4518) in cloudy and clarified apple juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages or in polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) and stored at both 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C, was investigated. The three Byssochlamys strains were able to produce patulin in both cloudy and clarified apple juices. Overall, the lower the storage temperature, the lower the patulin levels and mycelium dry weight in the apple juices (p<0.05). The greatest variations in pH and degrees Brix were observed in the juices from which the greatest mycelium dry weights were recovered. The maximum levels of patulin recovered from the juices were ca. 150 microg/kg at 21 degrees C and 220 microg/kg at 30 degrees C. HPLC-UV, HPCL-DAD and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the ability of B. fulva IOC 4518 to produce patulin. Due to the heat resistance of B. nivea and B. fulva and their ability to produce patulin either in PET bottles or in laminated paperboard packages, the control of contamination and the incidence of these fungi should be a matter of concern for food safety. Control measures taken by juice industries must also focus on controlling the ascospores of heat resistant moulds.

  7. Phylogeny of filamentous ascomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbsch, H. T.

    Phylogenetic studies of higher ascomycetes are enhanced by the introduction of molecular markers. Most studies employed sequences of the SSU rRNA gene, but recently data from additional genes (RPB2, LSU rRNA) have become available. Several groups defined by their ascoma-type, such as Pyrenomycetes, are supported while others, like the Discomycetes, appear to be paraphyletic. The Pezizales with operculate asci are basal to other eu-ascomycetes, while other Discomycetes appear to be derived eu-ascomycetes. The re-evaluation of classical characters using molecular data is discussed using three examples. Ascus types are often regarded as being of major importance in ascomycete systematics, but prototunicate asci were found to be of poor taxonomic value, since ascomycetes with prototunicate asci are polyphyletic. The independence of the Agyriales, assumed from their morphological characters, is supported by sequence data but the relationship to supposed sister groups remains dubious. The phylogeny of ascolocularous fungi and their circumscription requires further study. While a circumscription based on bitunicate asci can be rejected, it remains unclear whether fungi with ascolocularous ascoma development represent a monophyletic entity.

  8. Byssochlamys nivea with patulin-producing capability has an isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) with sequence homology to Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum.

    PubMed

    Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann; Engberg, Amy E

    2006-09-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene (idh) for eight strains of Byssochlamys nivea were determined by constructing GenomeWalker libraries. A striking finding was that all eight strains of B. nivea examined had identical nucleotide sequences, including those of the two introns present. The length of intron 2 was nearly three times the size of introns in strains of Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum, but intron 1 was comparable in size to the number of nucleotides present in introns 1 and 2 of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum. A high degree of amino acid homology (88%) existed for the idh genes of the strains of B. nivea when compared with sequences of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum. There were many nucleotide differences present, but they did not affect the amino acid sequence because they were present in the third position. The identity of the B. nivea isolates was confirmed by sequencing the ITS/partial LSU (28 S) rDNA genes. Four B. nivea strains were analysed for production of patulin, a mycotoxin found primarily in apple juice and other fruit products. The B. nivea strains produced patulin in amounts comparable to P. expansum strains. Interest in the genus Byssochlamys is related to the ability of its ascospores to survive pasteurization and cause spoilage of heat-processed fruit products worldwide.

  9. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  10. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  11. Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Solomon P.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

  12. Species diversity of hypogeous ascomycetes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

  13. Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Wieser, M; Morita, H; Sugio, T; Nagasawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107 was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC. The enzyme is a homodimeric flavoenzyme consisting of two 58 kDa subunits. It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of different 4-hydroxybenzylic structures, including the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols such as vanillyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehydes, eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, and 4-alkylphenols to 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alcohols. The latter reaction was S-stereospecific and was used for the synthesis of S-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol and -propanol with enantiomeric excesses of 81.9 and 86.0%, respectively. The catalytic and structural similarities to a Penicillium vanillyl-alcohol oxidase and Pseudomonas 4-alkylphenol methylhydroxylases are discussed. PMID:16232469

  14. Effect of oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure treatments on Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Palou, E; López-Malo, A; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Welti-Chanes, J; Davidson, P M; Swanson, B G

    1998-12-01

    The effect of continuous (689 MPa with holding times of 5, 15 or 25 min) and oscillatory (one, three or five cycles at 689 MPa with holding times of 1 s) high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the viability of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in apple and cranberry juice concentrates adjusted by dilution to water activities (aw) of 0.98 and 0.94 was evaluated at 21 and 60 degrees C. Inactivation of the initial spore inocula was achieved after three or five cycles of oscillatory pressurization at 60 degrees C when the aw was 0.98 in both fruit juices. With aw 0.94, the initial inocula were reduced by less than 1 log-cycle after five pressure cycles. Inactivation was not observed within 25 min with continuous pressurization at 60 degrees C. In treatments at 21 degrees C, no effect on spore viability was observed with continuous or oscillatory treatments. PMID:9871357

  15. Inactivation of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores in strawberry puree by high pressure, power ultrasound and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Evelyn; Silva, F V M

    2015-12-01

    Byssochlamys nivea is a mold that can spoil processed fruit products and produce mycotoxins. In this work, high pressure processing (HPP, 600 MPa) and power ultrasound (24 kHz, 0.33 W/mL; TS) in combination with 75°C for the inactivation of four week old B. nivea ascospores in strawberry puree for up to 30 min was investigated and compared with 75°C thermal processing alone. TS and thermal processing can activate the mold ascospores, but HPP-75°C resulted in 2.0 log reductions after a 20 min process. For a 10 min process, HPP-75°C was better than 85°C alone in reducing B. nivea spores (1.4 vs. 0.2 log reduction), demonstrating that a lower temperature in combination with HPP is more effective for spore inactivation than heat alone at a higher temperature. The ascospore inactivation by HPP-thermal, TS and thermal processing was studied at different temperatures and modeled. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher temperatures for all the technologies tested, indicating the significant role of temperature in spore inactivation, alone or combined with other physical processes. The Weibull model described the spore inactivation by 600 MPa HPP-thermal (38, 50, 60, 75°C) and thermal (85, 90°C) processing, whereas the Lorentzian model was more appropriate for TS treatment (65, 70, 75°C). The models obtained provide a useful tool to design and predict pasteurization processes targeting B. nivea ascospores.

  16. Inactivation of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores in strawberry puree by high pressure, power ultrasound and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Evelyn; Silva, F V M

    2015-12-01

    Byssochlamys nivea is a mold that can spoil processed fruit products and produce mycotoxins. In this work, high pressure processing (HPP, 600 MPa) and power ultrasound (24 kHz, 0.33 W/mL; TS) in combination with 75°C for the inactivation of four week old B. nivea ascospores in strawberry puree for up to 30 min was investigated and compared with 75°C thermal processing alone. TS and thermal processing can activate the mold ascospores, but HPP-75°C resulted in 2.0 log reductions after a 20 min process. For a 10 min process, HPP-75°C was better than 85°C alone in reducing B. nivea spores (1.4 vs. 0.2 log reduction), demonstrating that a lower temperature in combination with HPP is more effective for spore inactivation than heat alone at a higher temperature. The ascospore inactivation by HPP-thermal, TS and thermal processing was studied at different temperatures and modeled. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher temperatures for all the technologies tested, indicating the significant role of temperature in spore inactivation, alone or combined with other physical processes. The Weibull model described the spore inactivation by 600 MPa HPP-thermal (38, 50, 60, 75°C) and thermal (85, 90°C) processing, whereas the Lorentzian model was more appropriate for TS treatment (65, 70, 75°C). The models obtained provide a useful tool to design and predict pasteurization processes targeting B. nivea ascospores. PMID:26280285

  17. The Kinetochore Interaction Network (KIN) of ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation relies on coordinated activity of a large assembly of proteins, the “Kinetochore Interaction Network” (KIN). How conserved the underlying mechanisms driving the epigenetic phenomenon of centromere and kinetochore assembly and maintenance are remains unclear, even though various eukaryotic models have been studied. More than 50 different proteins, many in multiple copies, comprise the KIN or are associated with fungal centromeres and kinetochores. Proteins isolated from immune sera recognized centromeric regions on chromosomes and were thus named centromere proteins (“CENPs”). CENP-A, sometimes called “centromere-specific H3” (CenH3), is incorporated into nucleosomes within or near centromeres. The “constitutive centromere-associated network” (CCAN) assembles on this specialized chromatin, likely based on specific interactions with and requiring presence of CENP-C. The outer kinetochore comprises the Knl1-Mis12-Ndc80 (“KMN”) protein complexes that connect the CCAN to spindles, accomplished by binding and stabilizing microtubules (MTs) and in the process generating load-bearing assemblies for chromatid segregation. In most fungi the Dam1/DASH complex connects the KMN complexes to MTs. Fungi present a rich resource to investigate mechanistic commonalities but also differences in kinetochore architecture. While ascomycetes have sets of CCAN and KMN proteins that are conserved with those of either budding yeast or metazoans, searching other major branches of the fungal kingdom revealed that CCAN proteins are poorly conserved at the primary sequence level. Several conserved binding motifs or domains within KMN complexes have been described recently, and these features of ascomycete KIN proteins are shared with most metazoan proteins. In addition, several ascomycete-specific domains have been identified here. PMID:26908646

  18. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  19. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  20. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  1. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  2. Three new ascomycetes from freshwater in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dian-Ming; Cai, Lei; Hyde, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Three new freshwater ascomycetes, Diaporthe aquatica sp. nov. (Diaporthaceae), Ophioceras aquaticus sp. nov. (Magnaporthaceae) and Togninia aquatica sp. nov. (Togniniaceae), are described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular data (ITS, 18S, 28S rDNA sequences). Diaporthe aquatica is characterized by globose to subglobose, black ascomata with long necks, broadly cylindrical to obclavate asci, and small, ellipsoidal to fusiform, one-septate, hyaline ascospores; it is unusual among Diaporthe species in the fact that it lacks a stroma and has freshwater habitat. Ophioceras aquaticus is characterized by globose ascomata with a long beak, cylindrical, eight-spored asci with J- subapical rings and 3-5-septate filiform ascospores with slightly acute ends. Togninia aquatica is characterized by globose ascomata with long necks, clavate and truncate asci clustered on distinct ascogenous hyphae, and small, reniform, hyaline ascospores. Differences among the new taxa and similar species are discussed. PMID:22684292

  3. Steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cvelbar, Damjana; Zist, Vanja; Kobal, Katja; Zigon, Dušan; Zakelj-Mavrič, Marija

    2013-02-25

    In the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. A major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. Steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi Hortaea werneckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. Dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all three varieties of fungi followed by androstenedione and testosterone. For their protection, fungi use several mechanisms to lower the toxic effects of steroids. The efficiency of biotransformation in detoxification depended on the microorganism and steroid substrate used. Biotransformation was a relatively slow process as it also depended on the growth phase of the fungus. In addition to biotransformation, steroid extrusion out of the cells contributed to the lowering of the active intracellular steroid concentration. Plasma membrane Pdr5 transporter was found to be the most effective, followed by Snq2 transporter and vacuolar transporters Ybt1 and Ycf1. Proteins Aus1 and Dan1 were not found to be involved in steroid import. The research of possible targets of steroid hormone action in fungi suggests that steroid hormones inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and H. werneckii. Results of this inhibition caused changes in the sterol content of the cellular membrane. The presence of steroid hormones most probably causes the degradation of the Tat2 permease and impairment of tryptophan import.

  4. A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eui Cha; Kim, Ki Don; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Ju Cheol; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2007-05-01

    A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kDa peak in a Superdex-200 HR gel-filtration column. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by sialoglycoproteins, but not in by mono- or disaccharides, asialoglycoproteins, or de-O-acetylated glycoprotein. The activity was maximal at pH 6.0-9.1 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis revealed that CML comprises 27% alpha-helix, 12% beta-sheets, 29% beta-turns, and 32% random coils. Its binding specificity and secondary structure are similar to those of a fungal lectin from Arthrobotrys oligospora. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of CML differs greatly from those of other lectins. CML exhibits mitogenic activity against mouse splenocytes. PMID:17306462

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in pentachlorophenol removal and biological control of two Phytophthora species.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Luciano; Scelza, Rosalia; Varlese, Rosaria; Meca, Giuseppe; Testa, Antonino; Rao, Maria A; Cristinzio, Gennaro

    2016-04-01

    Bioremediation and biological-control by fungi have made tremendous strides in numerous biotechnology applications. The aim of this study was to test Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in sensitivity and degradation to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and in biological-control of Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora. B. nivea and S. brumptii were tested in PCP sensitivity and degradation in microbiological media while the experiments of biological-control were carried out in microbiological media and soil. The fungal strains showed low PCP sensitivity at 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) although the hyphal size, fungal mat, patulin, and spore production decreased with increasing PCP concentrations. B. nivea and S. brumptii depleted completely 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) in liquid culture after 28 d of incubation at 28 °C. Electrolyte leakage assays showed that both fungi have low sensitivity to 25 mg PCP L(-1) and produced no toxic compounds for the plant. B. nivea and S. brumptii were able to inhibit the growth of the two plant pathogens in laboratory studies and reduce the mortality of chestnut plants caused by two Phytophthorae in greenhouse experiments. The two fungal strains did not produce volatile organic compounds able to reduce the growth of two plant pathogens tested. PMID:27020163

  6. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Tuovinen, Veera; Resl, Philipp; Vanderpool, Dan; Wolinski, Heimo; Aime, M Catherine; Schneider, Kevin; Stabentheiner, Edith; Toome-Heller, Merje; Thor, Göran; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Johannesson, Hanna; McCutcheon, John P

    2016-07-29

    For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen-one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi. PMID:27445309

  7. Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from forest soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tun, Moe Moe; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2007-02-01

    Two strains (S-34T and S-35) of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were isolated from soil from a mixed deciduous forest in Amphoe Wang Nam Khiao, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA sequences of the two strains were identical and also indicated a close relationship with respect to Kazachstania aquatica, Kazachstania unispora, Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania solicola. The most closely related species, K. aquatica, has 14 nucleotide substitutions and three gaps in 566 nt. The phenotypic characteristics of the two strains were typical of those of members of the genus Kazachstania. These characteristics include the formation of a single globose ascospore in an unconjugated and persistent ascus, multilateral budding, the absence of arthrospores and ballistospores, the fermentation of glucose, the inability to assimilate nitrate, negative diazonium blue B and urease reactions, and the presence of ubiquinone Q-6. The novel strains can be distinguished from K. aquatica on the basis of a number of phenotypic characteristics and represent a novel species in the genus Kazachstania, for which the name Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-34T (=CBS 10361T=NBRC 101968T=BCC 21230T).

  8. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  9. Candida auris sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    A single strain of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain, nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region sequences, and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a new species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Candida ruelliae and Candida haemulonii in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. This strain grew well at 40 degrees C, but showed slow and weak growth at 42 degrees C. The taxonomic description of Candida auris sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM15448T= CBS10913T= DSM21092T).

  10. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  11. The Chemical Diversity of the Ascomycete Fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Mioso, Roberto; Toledo Marante, Francisco Javier; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma

    2015-10-01

    Paecilomyces variotii isolated from a broad range of habitats drives the diversification of new high-value-added secondary metabolites that could potentially play an important role in human and animal health. These metabolites include the anhydride metabolite of the nonadride family, as well as the following compounds: naphthopyranone metabolites, sphingofungins, eicosenoic acids, new branched fatty acids, ascofuranone, polyketides, an anacardic acid analogue, straight-chain peptides, and volatile compounds. These natural products show that P. variotii can provide leading compounds for new drug discoveries, which may include herbicide agents, some of which are important in the agrochemical market. Finally, this review outlines recent developments, trends, and prospects for the chemistry of this ascomycete. PMID:26288080

  12. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  13. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    SciTech Connect

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  14. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants.

  15. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  16. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  17. Lipids stimulate spore germination in the entomopathogenic ascomycete Ascosphaera aggregata.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Buckner, J S

    2004-10-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is solitary and managed on a large scale for pollination of alfalfa seed crops. The bees nest in holes drilled in wood or polystyrene blocks, and their larvae are highly prone to a fungal disease called chalkbrood. The most prevalent form of chalkbrood is caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, but this ascomycete is difficult to culture. Hyphae will grow on standard fungal media, but spore germination is difficult to achieve and highly variable. We found that germination can be enhanced with oils. Lipids derived from plants and bee larvae increased germination from 50% (without oil) to 75-85% (with oil). Percent germination was significantly greater in the presence of lipids but germination was not significantly different when different oils, including mineral oil, were used. A. aggregata spores oriented along the oil-aqueous interface in the broth in a polar fashion, with swelling and germ tube formation always occurring into the aqueous portion of the broth. The other half of the spore tended to attach to a lipid droplet, where it remained, without swelling, during germ tube formation. The physical attachment of spores to the oil-aqueous interface is what most probably stimulates spore germination, as opposed to some nutritional stimulation. However, further research is needed to determine if and where the spores encounter such an interface when germinating in the host gut, where germination normally occurs. PMID:15645171

  18. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne GJ; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad EL; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. Results We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. Conclusion The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope. PMID:18460219

  19. Ogataea allantospora sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from phylloplane.

    PubMed

    Péter, Gábor; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2007-11-01

    Following a two-step enrichment in methanol containing broth, methylotrophic yeast strains were isolated from about 45% of the leaf samples collected from broad leafed deciduous trees and from herbs in Hungary. During the enrichment process protists predating the yeasts were observed. Based on standard phenotypical tests and the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit (26S) rDNA of the yeast strains recovered from the phylloplane, some of them represent previously unknown species. The description of a new methylotrophic yeast species, Ogataea allantospora [type strain: NCAIM Y.01822(T) (CBS 10576, NRRL Y-48267)], isolated from phylloplane is given. The proposed new species is the first member of the genus which forms allantoid ascospores, therefore the emendation of the diagnosis of the genus Ogataea Yamada, Maeda & Mikata is proposed.

  20. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  1. Impact of recent molecular phylogenetic studies on classification of ascomycete yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of concatenated gene sequences as well as whole genome sequences are resolving relationships among the ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina), thus allowing classification of members of this subphylum to be based on phylogeny. In addition, changes implemented in the new Botanical Code [Intern...

  2. Soil Ecology of the Entomopathogenic Ascomycetes: A Critical Examination of What We (Think) We Know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides an in-depth review of what is and is not known about the soil ecology of the entomopathogenic Ascomycetes, particularly the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is subject to a matrix of interlocking abiotic and bi...

  3. Molecular evolution of the fungi: relationship of the Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Chytridiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B H; Taylor, J W; Brownlee, A G; Lee, J; Lu, S D; White, T J

    1992-03-01

    Establishing the phylogeny of fungi and protists often has proved difficult owing to the simple morphologies and convergent characters in these organisms. We used DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among three major classes of organisms considered to be fungi--Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Chytridiomycetes--and to assess the taxonomic position of Neocallimastix, an economically important anaerobic rumen microorganism whose classification is controversial. The Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, two classes of nonflagellated fungi, are the most closely related taxa. Chytridiomycetes, though bearing flagella, group with these higher fungi rather than with the protists. Neocallimastix, a eukaryote lacking mitochondria and variously classified as a protist or as a fungus, shows closest molecular affinities with the Chytridiomycete fungi in the order Spizellomycetales.

  4. Ascomycetes associated with ectomycorrhizas: molecular diversity and ecology with particular reference to the Helotiales.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Pärtel, Kadri; Jairus, Teele; Gates, Genevieve; Põldmaa, Kadri; Tamm, Heidi

    2009-12-01

    Mycorrhizosphere microbes enhance functioning of the plant-soil interface, but little is known of their ecology. This study aims to characterize the ascomycete communities associated with ectomycorrhizas in two Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forests. We hypothesize that both the phyto- and mycobiont, mantle type, soil microbiotope and geographical distance affect the diversity and occurrence of the associated ascomycetes. Using the culture-independent rDNA sequence analysis, we demonstrate a high diversity of these fungi on different hosts and habitats. Plant host has the strongest effect on the occurrence of the dominant species and community composition of ectomycorrhiza-associated fungi. Root endophytes, soil saprobes, myco-, phyto- and entomopathogens contribute to the ectomycorrhiza-associated ascomycete community. Taxonomically these Ascomycota mostly belong to the orders Helotiales, Hypocreales, Chaetothyriales and Sordariales. Members of Helotiales from both Tasmania and the Northern Hemisphere are phylogenetically closely related to root endophytes and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, suggesting their strong ecological and evolutionary links. Ectomycorrhizal mycobionts from Australia and the Northern Hemisphere are taxonomically unrelated to each other and phylogenetically distant to other helotialean root-associated fungi, indicating independent evolution. The ubiquity and diversity of the secondary root-associated fungi should be considered in studies of mycorrhizal communities to avoid overestimating the richness of true symbionts. PMID:19671076

  5. Mitochondrial RNase P RNAs in ascomycete fungi: lineage-specific variations in RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Seif, Elias R; Forget, Lise; Martin, Nancy C; Lang, B Franz

    2003-09-01

    The RNA subunit of mitochondrial RNase P (mtP-RNA) is encoded by a mitochondrial gene (rnpB) in several ascomycete fungi and in the protists Reclinomonas americana and Nephroselmis olivacea. By searching for universally conserved structural elements, we have identified previously unknown rnpB genes in the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of two fission yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus; in the budding yeast Pichia canadensis; and in the archiascomycete Taphrina deformans. The expression of mtP-RNAs of the predicted size was experimentally confirmed in the two fission yeasts, and their precise 5' and 3' ends were determined by sequencing of cDNAs generated from circularized mtP-RNAs. Comparative RNA secondary structure modeling shows that in contrast to mtP-RNAs of the two protists R. americana and N. olivacea, those of ascomycete fungi all have highly reduced secondary structures. In certain budding yeasts, such as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, we find only the two most conserved pairings, P1 and P4. A P18 pairing is conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives, whereas nearly half of the minimum bacterial consensus structure is retained in the RNAs of fission yeasts, Aspergillus nidulans and Taphrina deformans. The evolutionary implications of the reduction of mtP-RNA structures in ascomycetes will be discussed.

  6. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  7. Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-03-15

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

  8. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development.

  9. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  10. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E; Brenner, Michael P; Pringle, Anne

    2008-12-30

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes-shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes-and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.

  11. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  12. Bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Krings, Ulrich; Nanzad, Tsevegsuren; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-06-01

    Submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. Inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-P450-monooxygenase. However, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-Valencene and the flavour-active mono-oxyfunctionalised transformation products, alpha-nootkatol, nootkatone, and valencene-11,12-epoxide accumulated preferably inside the fungal cells. Di- and poly-oxygenated products, such as nootkatone-11,12-epoxide, were found solely in the culture medium, indicating an active transport of these metabolites into the extracellular compartment during (+)-valencene detoxification. These metabolic properties may have contributed to the high tolerance of the fungus towards the exogenous hydrocarbon. PMID:15602686

  13. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Carolyn A; Purvine, Samuel O; Zink, Erika M; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  14. Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

  15. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  16. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S.; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown, but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4+ T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4+ T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogeneticity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  17. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  18. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  19. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M; Almeida, Igor C; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2008-08-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveal a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes, including metabolism, cell recycling, signalling and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae documents that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis, providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics.

  20. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Almeida, Igor C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveals a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes including metabolism, cell recycling, signaling, and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae document that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics. PMID:18419773

  1. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  2. Minutisphaerales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of freshwater ascomycetes including a new family, Minutisphaeraceae, and two new species from North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Shearer, Carol A; Miller, Andrew N; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Akira; Fournier, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Minutisphaera is a recently established genus of freshwater Dothideomycetes characterized by small, globose to subglobose or apothecioid, erumpent to superficial, brown ascomata; fissitunicate, eight-spored, ovoid to obclavate asci; and 1-2-septate, clavate to broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with or without a gelatinous sheath and filamentous appendages. The genus currently contains two species: M. fimbriatispora, the type species, and M. japonica. The higher-level phylogenetic relationship of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes currently is unresolved. To establish the phylogenetic position of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes and evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of newly collected Minutisphaera-like taxa, we sequenced three rDNA regions-18S, ITS1-5.8SITS2 (ITS) and 28S nuc rDNA, and a protein-coding gene, MCM7, for newly collected strains of Minutisphaera. Based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined dataset (18S and 28S) composed of 167 taxa, a more refined dataset (28S and MCM7) comprising 52 taxa and a separate ITS dataset, and an examination of morphology, we describe and illustrate two new species of Minutisphaera. The Minutisphaera clade was strongly supported within the Dothideomycetes with likelihood and Bayesian statistics but did not share phylogenetic affinities with any existing taxonomic group within the Dothideomycetes. We therefore establish a new order, Minutisphaerales, and new family, Minutisphaeraceae, for this monophyletic clade of freshwater ascomycetes. Chemical analysis of the organic extract M. aspera (G427) resulted in isolation and characterization of five known secondary metabolites, of which four were dipeptides (1-4) and one an aromatic polyketide (5). Conversely, two aromatic polyketides (5, 6) were isolated and identified from the organic extract of M. parafimbriatispora (G156-4). The isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against an array of bacteria and

  3. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT2 Regulates Perithecium Size in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-01-01

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae is a plant pathogen that is found worldwide, causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops and ear rot of maize. Ascospores formed in fruiting bodies (i.e., perithecia) are hypothesized to be the primary inocula for FHB disease. Perithecium development is a complex cellular differentiation process controlled by many developmentally regulated genes. In this study, we selected a previously reported putative transcription factor containing the Myb DNA-binding domain MYT2 for an in-depth study on sexual development. The deletion of MYT2 resulted in a larger perithecium, while its overexpression resulted in a smaller perithecium when compared to the wild-type strain. These data suggest that MYT2 regulates perithecium size differentiation. MYT2 overexpression affected pleiotropic phenotypes including vegetative growth, conidia production, virulence, and mycotoxin production. Nuclear localization of the MYT2 protein supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. Transcriptional analyses of trichothecene synthetic genes suggest that MYT2 additionally functions as a suppressor for trichothecene production. This is the first study characterizing a transcription factor required for perithecium size differentiation in G. zeae, and it provides a novel angle for understanding sexual development in filamentous fungi. PMID:22649560

  4. Yeti--a degenerate gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon in the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Hamann, A; Feller, F; Osiewacz, H D

    2000-10-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina a 6,935-bp retrotransposon, Yeti, has been identified and characterized. It is flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contains long terminal repeats (LTRs) 354 bp in length. The LTRs show a high degree of identity to the previously reported repetitive element repa, a sequence suggested to represent a solo-LTR element of an unknown transposon. In the investigated Podospora strains, the number of complete Yeti copies is significantly lower than the number of repa elements, with up to 25 copies. Yeti appears to be inactive: it is highly degenerate and no transcripts of the element have been detected even in Podospora cultures grown under elevated stress conditions. The amino acid sequences deduced from Yeti display significant homology, particularly in the reverse transcriptase region, to those of other fungal retrotransposons, indicating that it is a member of the gypsy family. As suggested by the unusual dinucleotide content, degeneration of Yeti appears to be the result of a molecular mechanism resembling repeat-induced point mutation in Neurospora crassa.

  5. Induction of apoptosis against cancer cell lines by four ascomycetes (endophytes) from Malaysian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hazalin, Nurul Aqmar Mohamad Nor; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Lim, Siong Meng; Cole, Anthony L J; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2012-05-15

    Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 μg/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis.

  6. Sequences of metanicins, 20-residue peptaibols from the ascomycetous fungus CBS 597.80.

    PubMed

    Kimonyo, Anastase; Brückner, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Four linear 20-residue peptaibols, named metanicins (MTCs) A-D, were isolated from submerged cultures of the ascomycetous fungus CBS 597.80. Structure elucidation was performed by a combination of fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), electrospray ionization MS, Edman degradation of isolated fragments, and amino acid analysis by ion-exchange and gas chromatography, and enantioselective HPLC. The sequences of MTC A(B) are (amino acid exchange in B and C in parentheses): Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib(D-Iva)-Gln-Gln-Pheol and of MTC C(D) Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib(D-Iva)-Gln-Gln-Pheol (Ac, acetyl; Aib, α-aminoisobutyric acid; Iva, isovaline; Pheol, L-phenylalaninol). The peptides are related, and some of the sequences are identical, to other 20-residue peptaibols isolated from Trichoderma species. MTCs show moderate activities against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and very low activities against Bacillus subtilis. The producer has originally been identified and deposited as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae CBS 597.80. Although this identification has been withdrawn by Centralbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) in the meantime, the accession number will be retained - independently from any taxonomic revisions. PMID:23681727

  7. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2007-04-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions.

  8. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species—Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  9. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems. PMID:22802654

  10. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  11. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  12. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea.

  13. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  14. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y.; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2016-01-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  15. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease caused by a novel ascomycete, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov.: first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Ling, Ian W H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-01

    No members of the freshwater ascomycetes family Lindgomycetaceae have been associated with human infections. We isolated a mould (HKU35(T)) from the biopsy specimen of a patient with invasive foot infection and underlying immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease. Histology showed florid, suppurative, granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with central microabscess formation surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, scattered giant cells, and a small number of lymphocytes. A Grocott stain revealed fungal elements in the center of the lesion. On Sabouraud glucose agar, HKU35(T) grew as gray and velvety colonies. Among the members of the family Lindgomycetaceae, HKU35(T) was the only strain that grew at 37°C. Microscopically, only sterile mycelia, but no fruiting bodies, were observed. HKU35(T) was susceptible to itrazonazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which was in line with the patient's clinical response to itraconazole treatment. Internal transcribed spacer and partial 18S nuclear rDNA (nrDNA), 28S nrDNA, β-tubulin gene, and EF1α gene sequencing showed that HKU35(T) occupied a unique phylogenetic position, most closely related to but distinct from members of the genera Clohesyomyces and Lindgomyces. We propose a new genus and species, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov., to describe this fungus, which belongs to the family Lindgomycetaceae in the orderPleosporales of class Dothideomycetes. This case also represents the first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae. PMID:25147085

  16. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  17. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa.

  18. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa. PMID:26321732

  19. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA I.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. I. General cultural, ecological, and biochemical considerations. J. Bacteriol. 87:162–170. 1964.—Arguments are presented for excluding Veillonella discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis from the genus, and for restricting it to aerogenic organisms such as V. parvula and V. alcalescens. The genus Veillonella thus would comprise species which are anaerobic and nonmotile; are small, spherical, gram-negative cocci appearing as pairs, masses, and short chains; and are cytochrome-oxidase- and benzidine-negative. Veillonella would be further characterized in that glucose or any other carbohydrate is not fermented; indole is not produced; gelatin is not liquefied; nitrate is reduced; H2S is produced; propionic and acetic acids, CO2, and H2 are produced from lactate during growth; and pyruvic, oxaloacetic, malic, fumaric, and succinic acids are metabolized by resting cells, but citric, isocitric, and malonic acids are not. In addition to the above, a number of cultural, ecological, and biochemical characteristics are described. At present, V. parvula (the type species) and V. alcalescens would be retained as valid species. Errors in the descriptions of V. parvula and V. alcalescens are corrected by amended statements. These species are differentiated serologically. Also, V. alcalescens differs from V. parvula in having an absolute requirement for putrescine or cadaverine and in decomposing H2O2. PMID:14102850

  20. In Vitro Testing of Susceptibilities of Filamentous Ascomycetes to Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B, with Consideration of Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Michael R.; Pasarell, Lester

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of three hundred eighty-one isolates representing two classes, five orders, nine families, 30 genera, and 51 species of ascomycetous fungi to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were tested by using a modification of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A reference method. For those fungi of known phylogenetic relatedness, drug MICs were consistently low for isolates among all clades, except for members of the family Microascaceae. The highest MICs of all drugs tested were consistently for the Microascaceae, supporting the observation of fungal phylogeny and corresponding susceptibility to antifungal drugs. Itraconazole and voriconazole have a broad range of activity against phylogenetically similar agents of hyalohyphomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. PMID:9666022

  1. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, Evgeny; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  2. Primer Sets Developed To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes Are Useful in Differentiating Fusarium Species Associated with Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G. C.; Ball, L. A.; Axelrood, P. E.; Glass, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of Fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in five amplified PCR products from each Fusarium isolate. The primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in Neurospora crassa. Primers previously developed for the intergenic transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA were also used. The degree of interspecific polymorphism observed in the PCR products from the six Fusarium species allowed differentiation by a limited number of amplifications and restriction endonuclease digestions. The level of intraspecific RFLP variation in the five PCR products was low in both Fusarium proliferatum and F. avenaceum but was high in a population sample of F. oxysporum isolates. Clustering of the 35 isolates by statistical analyses gave similar dendrograms for H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin RFLP analysis, but a dendrogram produced by intergenic transcribed spacer analysis varied in the placement of some F. oxysporum isolates. PMID:16534991

  3. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-09-02

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change.

  4. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. PMID:26338189

  5. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  6. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Gacura, Matthew D; Sprockett, Daniel D; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    Fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this study we developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from 40 fungal genomes. The primers were used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communities were up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystem type were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.

  7. Nutritional physiology of a rock-inhabiting, model microcolonial fungus from an ancestral lineage of the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Nai, Corrado; Wong, Helen Y; Pannenbecker, Annette; Broughton, William J; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P; Gueidan, Cécile; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-07-01

    Rock-inhabiting black fungi [also microcolonial or meristematic fungi (MCF)] are a phylogenetically diverse group of melanised ascomycetes with distinctive morphological features that confer extensive stress tolerance and permit survival in hostile environments. The MCF strain A95 Knufia petricola (syn. Sarcinomyces petricola) belongs to an ancestral lineage of the order Chaetothyriales (class Eurotiomycetes). K. petricola strain A95 is a rock-inhabiting MCF and its growth requirements were studied using the 96-well plate-based Biolog System under ∼1070 different conditions (osmotic stress, pH growth optima, growth factor requirements and nutrient catabolism). A95 is an osmotolerant, oligotrophic MCF that grows best around pH 5. Remarkably, A95 shows metabolic activity in the absence of added nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. Correlations could be drawn between the known nutrient requirements of A95 and what probably is available in sub-aerial systems (rock and other material surfaces). Detailed knowledge of A95's metabolic requirements allowed formulation of a synthetic medium that supports strong fungal growth. PMID:23587800

  8. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  9. Abelian duality at higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-07-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  10. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  11. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  12. Quiescence and/or pathogenicity of the ascomycete micro-organism as one of three separate entities in a living animal or human host.

    PubMed

    White, M W

    1978-01-01

    Experimental studies on I.C.R. mice with induced ascitic fluid suggest that the mold micro-organism of the ascomycete family when inoculated in a living host, with a lowered pH, may survive but only initially in a conidial phase as a distinct and separate entity. It may reside quiescently as a sexual conidium within a cell of the reticulo-endothial system or with provocation multiply as the asexual form. Because of their altered physiomorphological status these conidial bodies cannot be identified accurately either by a microscopic study on a cytobiological wet smear basis or by a stained slide, nor be readily recaptured by utilizing the conventional culture techniques. Revised culturing methods utilizing the elements carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, calcium and magnesium in Sabouraud's Agar slant aerobically may help recover the adult micro-organism for positive identification. Sometimes, however, under deteriorating or moribund status of the host the conidia may revert, in ascitic fluid, to the autonomous form spontaneously. The transformation-reformation potential of the ascomycete in vivo, the non-recognizable status of the conidial bodies, and the inability to recapture the adult autonomous form by conventional laboratory means, despite their known presence, suggests a possible relationship of this micro-organism to certain of the acute, chronic inflammatory diseases, pleomorphic tumors, granulomas, and the malignancies. These diseases despite signs of an acute or chronic inflammatory process usually give a "no growth" result. The conidial phase of the ascomycete may very well, I believe, be the malefactor in these conditions that hitherto have defied etiological explanation.

  13. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. PMID:27524652

  14. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

  15. A Fox2-dependent fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway coexists both in peroxisomes and mitochondria of the ascomycete yeast Candida lusitaniae.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frédéric; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  16. Antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin MtDef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Islam, Kazi T; Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Read, Nick D; Shah, Dilip M

    2016-05-01

    Defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. The plant defensin, MtDef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. We have reported that MtDef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. Here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of MtDef4 are conserved in these fungi. We show that N. crassa and F. graminearum respond differently to MtDef4 challenge. Membrane permeabilization is required for the antifungal activity of MtDef4 against F. graminearum but not against N. crassa. We find that MtDef4 is targeted to different subcellular compartments in each fungus. Internalization of MtDef4 in N. crassa is energy-dependent and involves endocytosis. By contrast, MtDef4 appears to translocate into F. graminearum autonomously using a partially energy-dependent pathway. MtDef4 has been shown to bind to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We provide evidence that the plasma membrane localized phospholipase D, involved in the biosynthesis of PA, is needed for entry of this defensin in N. crassa, but not in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a defensin which inhibits the growth of two ascomycete fungi via different mechanisms. PMID:26801962

  17. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Trichosporon Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Wang, Li; Yokoyama, Koji; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) genes of 42 strains representing 23 species of the genus Trichosporon were partially sequenced to determine their molecular phylogenetic relationships. Almost half of the 22 strains investigated (from 11 different species) contained introns in their sequences. Analysis of a 396-bp coding sequence from each strain of Trichosporon under investigation showed a total of 141 (35.6%) variable nucleotide sites. A phylogenetic tree based on the cyt b gene sequences revealed that all species of Trichosporon except Trichosporon domesticum and Trichosporon montevideense had species-specific cyt b genes. Trichosporon sp. strain CBS 5581 was identified as Trichosporon pullulans, and one clinical isolate, IFM 48794, was identified as Trichosporon faecale. Analysis of 132-bp deduced amino acid sequences showed a total of 34 (25.75%) variable amino acid sites. T. domesticum and T. montevideense, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon asteroides, and Trichosporon gracile and Trichosporon guehoae had identical amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree constructed with the ascomycetes Saccharomyces douglasii and Candida glabrata taken as outgroup species and including representative species from closely related genera species of Trichosporon clustered with other basidiomycetous yeasts that contain xylose in their cell wall compositions. These results indicate the effectiveness of mitochondrial cyt b gene sequences for both species identification and the phylogenetic analysis of Trichosporon species. PMID:16207980

  18. Molecular systematics of Woswasia atropurpurea gen. et sp. nov. (Sordariomycetidae), a fungicolous ascomycete with globose ascospores and holoblastic conidiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Réblová, Martina; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The monotypic genus Woswasia is described for wood-inhabiting and mycotrophic fungi classified in the Sordariomycetidae. It is characterized by unicellular, hyaline, globose to ellipsoid, verruculose ascospores; unitunicate long-stipitate asci with an apical annulus staining blue in aqueous cotton blue and perithecia with a long neck immersed in a stroma exhibiting a conspicuous pH-dependent color reaction. In vitro, it produces branched subhyaline to hyaline conidiophores with terminally arranged sympodial conidiogenous cells and holoblastic hyaline conidia. The remarkable morphological similarity of Woswasia to Amplistroma of the Amplistromataceae, although suggestive of a close relationship, was not confirmed by molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis based on two functional ribosomal genes (large and small subunits of the nuclear rDNA) and one protein-coding gene (second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) supports the placement of Woswasia in the Sordariomycetidae incertae sedis. Woswasia atropurpurea, the type and only species of the genus, groups within a large heterogeneous clade containing other small or monotypic genera of wood-inhabiting saprobic fungi, which are distantly related and of which the majority lacks an ordinal or familial affiliation. Within the clade a relationship of Woswasia to the freshwater genus Cyanoannulus is suggested. PMID:23099520

  19. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  20. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  1. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  2. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  3. Genus expansion of HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. D.; Morozov, A. Yu.; Sleptsov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    In the planar limit of the' t Hooft expansion, the Wilson-loop vacuum average in the three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory (in other words, the HOMFLY polynomial) depends very simply on the representation (Young diagram), HR(A|q)|q=1 = (σ1(A)|R|. As a result, the (knot-dependent) Ooguri-Vafa partition function becomes a trivial τ -function of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy. We study higher-genus corrections to this formula for HR in the form of an expansion in powers of z = q - q-1. The expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of cut-and-join operators, i.e., symmetric group characters. Moreover, the z-expansion is naturally written in a product form. The representation in terms of cut-and-join operators relates to the Hurwitz theory and its sophisticated integrability. The obtained relations describe the form of the genus expansion for the HOMFLY polynomials, which for the corresponding matrix model is usually given using Virasoro-like constraints and the topological recursion. The genus expansion differs from the better-studied weak-coupling expansion at a finite number N of colors, which is described in terms of Vassiliev invariants and the Kontsevich integral.

  4. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  5. Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Nahar, L

    2004-06-01

    More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. PMID:15180579

  6. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  7. On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2014-07-01

    Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

  8. Wickerhamomyces edaphicus sp. nov. and Pichia jaroonii sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2009-05-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from soil in a mixed deciduous forest in Amphoe Wang Nam Khiao, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, small-subunit rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the three strains (S-29, S-63 and S-80) were found to represent a single species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, which were named Wickerhamomyces edaphicus sp. nov. The type strain is S-29(T) (BCC 21231(T)=NBRC 101969(T)=CBS 10408(T)). Strain S-75 represented a novel species of the genus Pichia on the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, for which the name Pichia jaroonii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-75(T) (BCC 23061(T), NRBC 102180(T)=CBS 10930(T)).

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233–318 and 180–193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis. PMID:27040368

  10. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  11. The genus Thermotoga: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thermotoga comprises extremely thermophilic (Topt ≥ 70°C) and hyperthermophilic (Topt ≥ 80°C) bacteria that have been extensively studied for insights into the basis for life at elevated temperatures and for biotechnological opportunities (e.g., biohydrogen production, biocatalysis). Over the past decade, genome sequences have become available for a number of Thermotoga species, leading to functional genomics efforts to understand growth physiology as well as genomics-based identification and characterization of novel high temperature biocatalysts. Discussed here are recent developments along these lines for this novel group of microorganisms. PMID:20718299

  12. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  13. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  14. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) ( = CBS 13946(T) = NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain. PMID:25644482

  15. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) ( = CBS 13946(T) = NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain.

  16. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  17. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis.

    PubMed

    Samerpitak, K; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Menken, S B J; de Hoog, G S

    2015-08-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:26093392

  18. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)). PMID:24879649

  19. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  20. Phylogeny of the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Goro; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Tsuchiya, K. Richard; Karabatsos, Nick; Cropp, C. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses. PMID:9420202

  1. NPS6, Encoding a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, Is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes[W

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Krasnoff, Stuart; Gibson, Donna; Haas, Hubertus; Yoshioka, Keiko; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2006-01-01

    NPS6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (Zea mays) pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to H2O2. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, and the Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to H2O2. Introduction of the NPS6 ortholog from the saprobe Neurospora crassa to the Δnps6 strain of C. heterostrophus restored wild-type virulence to maize and tolerance to H2O2, demonstrating functional conservation in filamentous ascomycete phytopathogens and saprobes. Increased sensitivity to iron depletion was identified as a conserved phenotype of Δnps6 strains. Exogenous application of iron enhanced the virulence of Δnps6 strains of C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola to each host. NPS6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores by C. heterostrophus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola. Application of the extracellular siderophore of A. brassicicola restored wild-type virulence of the ΔAbnps6 strain to Arabidopsis. It is proposed that the role of extracellular siderophores in fungal virulence to plants is to supply an essential nutrient, iron, to their producers in planta and not to act as phytotoxins, depriving their hosts of iron. PMID:17056706

  2. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12. PMID:27309377

  3. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor.

  4. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  5. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  6. [Identification of crude drugs from genus Leonurus].

    PubMed

    Chao, Z; He, B; Zhou, X; Ma, L

    1998-12-01

    The structure in cross section of stem and lamina of 9 species and 1 variety from genus Leonurus, whose herb used as Yimu Cao, were reported. Diagnostic characteristics were listed out in a key for identification.

  7. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  8. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  9. Biochemical and physicochemical processes contributing to the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ulrike; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally widespread micropollutants bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac (DF), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), technical nonylphenol (t-NP) and triclosan (TCS) were used to assess the potential of the laccase-producing freshwater ascomycete Phoma sp. strain UHH 5-1-03 for micropollutant removal and to provide quantitative insights into the mechanisms involved. Biotransformation rates observed with whole fungal cells followed the rank order EE2 ≫ BPA > TCS > t-NP > DF > SMX > CBZ. Biosorption onto fungal mycelia was prominent for BPA, EE2, TCS and t-NP and insignificant for CBZ, DF and SMX. Enzymatic removal rates investigated with cell-free, laccase-containing culture supernatants of Phoma sp. followed the rank order EE2 > BPA > DF > t-NP > TCS and were insignificant for SMX and CBZ. Mass spectrometry-assisted investigations addressing metabolite formation from unlabelled and (13)C6-labelled DF and SMX yielded DF metabolites indicating hydroxylation, cyclisation and decarboxylation reactions, as well as oxidative coupling typical for laccase reactions. For SMX, several products characterised by lower molecular masses than the parent compound were found, and indications for deamination and formamide formation were obtained. Summarising, the obtained results suggest that the extracellular laccase of Phoma sp. largely contributes to fungal biotransformation of EE2, BPA, DF, TCS and t-NP, together with cell-associated enzymes such as, e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases suggested by the appearance of hydroxylated metabolites from DF. Laccase does not seem to play any role in the metabolisation of SMX and CBZ, where yet to be identified cell-associated enzymes have to be considered instead. PMID:26536880

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the blowfly genus Chrysomya.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kurahashi, H; Wells, J D

    2011-06-01

    Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a genus of blowfly commonly observed in tropical and subtropical countries of the Old World. Species in this genus are vectors of bacteria, protozoans and helminths, cause myiasis, are predators of other carrion insects, and are important forensic indicators. Hypotheses concerning the evolution of sex determination, larval anatomy and genome size in Chrysomya have been difficult to evaluate because a robust phylogeny of the genus was lacking. Similarly, the monophyly of subgenera was uncertain. The phylogeny of Chrysomya spp. was reconstructed based on 2386 bp of combined mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) genes. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis (BA) differed only slightly in the resulting tree topology. Chrysomya was monophyletic. Monogenic reproduction is almost certainly derived rather than, as has been suggested, primitive within the genus, and tuberculate larvae probably evolved twice. Genome size is more likely to have decreased over evolutionary time rather than, as has been suggested, increased within the genus, but its correlation with developmental time was not observed. The subgenera Microcalliphora, Eucompsomyia and Achoetandrus were recovered as monophyletic.

  11. Matrix models as CFT: Genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    We show how the formulation of the matrix models as conformal field theories on a Riemann surfaces can be used to compute the genus expansion of the observables. Here we consider the simplest example of the Hermitian matrix model, where the classical solution is described by a hyperelliptic Riemann surface. To each branch point of the Riemann surface we associate an operator which represents a twist field dressed by the modes of the twisted boson. The partition function of the matrix model is computed as a correlation function of such dressed twist fields. The perturbative construction of the dressing operators yields a set of Feynman rules for the genus expansion, which involve vertices, propagators and tadpoles. The vertices are universal, the propagators and the tadpoles depend on the Riemann surface. As a demonstration we evaluate the genus-two free energy using the Feynman rules.

  12. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  13. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  14. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  15. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  16. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    PubMed

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. PMID:25572096

  17. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  18. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126

  19. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  20. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  1. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period. PMID:22038004

  2. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  3. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  4. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  5. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  6. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  7. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  8. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  9. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  10. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  11. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  12. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  13. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  14. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  15. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1992-02-27

    It is remarkable that the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known representatives of our own genus, Homo, remain obscure. Advances in techniques for absolute dating and reassessments of the fossils themselves have rendered untenable a simple unilineal model of human evolution, in which Homo habilis succeeded the australopithecines and then evolved via H. erectus into H. sapiens-but no clear alternative consensus has yet emerged. PMID:1538759

  16. On hyperelliptic abelian functions of genus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    The affine ring A of the affine Jacobian variety J(X)∖Θ of a hyperelliptic curve of genus 3 is studied as a D module. A conjecture on the minimal D-free resolution previously proposed is proved in this case. As a by-product a linear basis of A is explicitly constructed in terms of derivatives of Klein's hyperelliptic ℘-functions.

  17. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  18. Planckian vertices on high genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Alessandro

    1993-04-01

    We suggest a method to compute subleading contributions at planckian energies for superstring scattering amplitudes of any genus. In particular, we test the method at one-loop level by comparison with previous results for the Regge trajectory renormalization. Modular invariance of these asymptotic terms is also discussed. Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università, Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Florence, Italy.

  19. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  20. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. PMID:23920228

  1. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  2. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  3. The dddP gene, encoding a novel enzyme that converts dimethylsulfoniopropionate into dimethyl sulfide, is widespread in ocean metagenomes and marine bacteria and also occurs in some Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Todd, J D; Curson, A R J; Dupont, C L; Nicholson, P; Johnston, A W B

    2009-06-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM can produce the gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a widespread secondary metabolite that occurs in many phytoplankton. Roseovarius possesses a novel gene, termed dddP, which when cloned, confers on Escherichia coli the ability to produce DMS. The DddP polypeptide is in the large family of M24 metallopeptidases and is wholly different from two other enzymes, DddD and DddL, which were previously shown to generate DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Close homologues of DddP occur in other alphaproteobacteria and more surprisingly, in some Ascomycete fungi. These were the biotechnologically important Aspergillus oryzae and the plant pathogen, Fusarium graminearum. The dddP gene is abundant in the bacterial metagenomic sequences in the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition. Thus, dddP has several novel features and is widely dispersed, both taxonomically and geographically.

  4. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  5. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  6. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  7. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  8. Double genus expansion for general Ω background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.

  9. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  10. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  11. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  12. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  13. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  14. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  15. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  16. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm.

  17. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

  18. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm. PMID:26003932

  19. On the genus two free energies for semisimple Frobenius manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovin, Boris; Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin

    2012-07-01

    We represent the genus two free energy of an arbitrary semisimple Frobenius manifold as the sum of contributions associated with dual graphs of certain stable algebraic curves of genus two plus the so-called "genus two G-function." Conjecturally, the genus two G-function vanishes for a series of important examples of Frobenius manifolds associated with simple singularities, as well as for ℙ1-orbifolds with positive Euler characteristics. We explain the reasons for the conjecture and prove it in particular cases.

  20. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  1. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  2. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae. PMID:25755622

  3. Defense in the aeolidoidean genus Phyllodesmium (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Kehraus, Stefan; Bleidissel, Sabrina; Preisfeld, Gela; Schillo, Dorothee; Piel, Jörn; Brachmann, Alexander O; Wägele, Heike; König, Gabriele M

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phyllodesmium (Aeolidoidea, Gastropoda) comprises shell-less marine snails, whose defense strategies are not well investigated yet. Here we report results of the first chemical investigation of P. briareum, as well as a re-investigation of P. longicirrum and P. magnum. Briarane diterpenes were isolated from P. briareum, and their origin could be traced to its prey organism Briareum sp. (Octocorallia). Considerable enrichment of the soft coral secondary metabolites in the slug was shown. Re-investigation of P. magnum led to isolation of cembrane diterpenes, 2-phenylethylamide, and furano sesquiterpenes. Sequestration of chemicals seems to have influenced speciation and evolution of Phyllodesmium species. Structural similarity or dissimilarity of particular slug metabolites suggests a closer, or more distant relationship of the respective Phyllodesmium taxa. PMID:25244950

  4. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    PubMed Central

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females. PMID:26462693

  5. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  6. [Bergenia genus - content matters and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Tůmová, Lenka

    2012-10-01

    Bergenia, a genus included in the family Saxifragaceae, is a valuable source of healing matters. About 30 Bergenia species are known all over the world. Scientific research is focused on five species mainly distributed in the mountains of Central and East Asia: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Bergenia stracheyi Engl., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. and Bergenia himalaica Boriss. These taxons belong to the widely used medicinal herbs in the traditional Chinese, Nepalese and Indian medicine, for therapy of cough and pulmonary diseases, to stop bleeding, to increase immunity and to dissolve kidney or bladder stones. Bergenia consists of many different active compounds including bergenin, norbergenin, catechin, gallic acid, arbutin and other polyphenols. In the Czech Republic this species is commonly grown but it is not used for medical therapy. Individual parts of this plant demonstrate an interesting biological activity, and antibacterial, antiviral, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:23256653

  7. The genus Aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers.

  8. The Lichen Genus Sticta in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Sticta (Schreber.) Ach. is one of the common lichen genera in tropical and subtropical regions, but not in the Korean Peninsula. For almost two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been done on this genus. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified on the basis of recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eight species of Sticta, including a newly recorded one are documented. These species include Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach., Sticta gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach., Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr., Sticta sublimbata (J. Steiner) Swinscow & Krog, Sticta weigelii (Ach.) Vain., Sticta wrightii Tuck., and Sticta yatabeana Müll. Arg. Detailed descriptions of S. nylanderiana, S. sublimbata, S. weigelii, and S. yatabeana with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key description of all known Sticta species of the Korean Peninsula is also presented. PMID:24808727

  9. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time.

  10. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  11. Review of the genus Susuacanga (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Botero R, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Susuacanga Martins, 1997 is redescribed. A new combination, S. blancaneaui (Bates, 1880) comb. nov. and a new synonymy, Eburia unicolor Bates, 1870 = S. octoguttata (Germar, 1821) are proposed. The genus is now composed of 12 species. The geographical distribution of S. opaca is expanded to include Belize. Photographs of Susuacanga species are included and a key to differentiate them is provided.

  12. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  13. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  14. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed t...

  15. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  16. Revision of the genus Miridiba Reitter, 1901 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae).

    PubMed

    Coca-Abia, Maria Milagro

    2008-06-01

    The genus Miridiba is here reviewed on the basis of external morphological and genital characters. This genus now contains 27 species, eight of which are new transfers from Holotrichia Hope, 1837; Holotrichia (Pledina) ; Melolontha Fabricius, 1775; and Neodontocnema . A type series of thirteen species is designed. Hippotrichia and Neodontocnema are described in detail.

  17. Three New Records of Lichen Genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum) from South Korea. Brief taxonomic description and comments are provided for the new records. An artificial key is also provided for known species of this genus in South Korea. PMID:23956659

  18. DNA barcoding in the rust genus Chrysomyxa and its implications for the phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Vialle, Agathe; Allaire, Mathieu; Maier, Wolfgang; Hamelin, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Chrysomyxa rusts are fungal pathogens widely present in the boreal forest. Taxonomic delimitation and precise species identification are difficult within this genus because several species display similar morphological features. We applied a DNA barcode system based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NAD6) in 86 strains from 16 different Chrysomyxa species, including members of the Chrysomyxa ledi species complex. The nuclear ITS and 28S loci revealed higher resolving power than the mitochondrial genes. Amplification of the full CO1 barcode region failed due to the presence of introns limiting the dataset obtained with this barcode. In most cases the ITS barcodes were in agreement with taxonomic species based on phenotypic characters. Nevertheless we observed genetically distinct (different DNA barcodes) lineages within Chrysomyxa pyrolae and Chrysomyxa rhododendri, providing some evidence for allopatric speciation within these morphologically defined species. This finding, together with the observed pattern of host specificities of the studied rust fungi, suggest that species diversification within the C. ledi species complex might be governed by a set of factors such as specialisation to certain Ericaceae species as telial hosts and to a lesser extent specialization to different spruce species as aecial hosts. Moreover allopatric speciation by geographic disruption of species also seems to take place. When our data were integrated into a broader phylogenetic framework the Chrysomyxa genus unexpectedly was not resolved as a monophyletic group. Indeed the spruce cone rusts C. pyrolae and C. monesis coalesced with the pine needle rusts belonging to the genus Coleosporium, whereas the microcyclic species Chrysomyxa weirii was embedded within a clade comprising the genus Melampsora. PMID:21659458

  19. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar.

  20. F-theory on genus-one fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Volker; Morrison, David R.

    2014-08-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various SU(5) × U(1) n and E 6 models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a τ -function on the base as well as an SL(2 , ) representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same τ -function and SL(2 , ) representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now.

  1. The Genus Veillonella IV. Serological Groupings, and Genus and Species Emendations

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1965-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. IV. Serological groupings, and genus and species emendations. J. Bacteriol. 90:704–709. 1965.—Seven serological groups of Veillonella were found. The generic and species descriptions are enlarged and corrected. The type species is Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber) Prévot, 1933. The proposed species, subspecies (infraspecific serogroups), and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains are: Veillonella parvula subsp. parvula subsp. nov. (antigenic group VI), ATCC 10790; Veillonella parvula subsp. rodentium subsp. nov. (antigenic group II), ATCC 17743; Veillonella parvula subsp. atypica subsp. nov. (antigenic group V), ATCC 17744; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. alcalescens subsp. nov. (antigenic group IV), ATCC 17745; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. ratti subsp. nov. (antigenic group III), ATCC 17746; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. criceti subsp. nov. (antigenic group I), ATCC 17747; and Veillonella alcalescens subsp. dispar subsp. nov. (antigenic group VII), ATCC 17748. The following species listed in Bergey's Manual (7th ed.) are rejected as members of the genus: V. discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis. PMID:16562069

  2. The Old-World genus Ceratothripoides (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with a new genus for related New-World species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key is provided to five Old World species that comprise the genus Ceratothripoides Bagnall, and the species C. revelatus (Priesner) is recalled from synonymy with C. brunneus Bagnall. Five New World species previously placed in this genus are here allocated to Retanathrips Mound & Nickle gen.n., w...

  3. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  4. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n, and singletons [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. For graphs with 2n − 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n except [0, n], and [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  5. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  6. Genus vaccinium: medicine, cosmetics, and coatings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandy J; Lin, Baochuan; Bongard, Jason E

    2010-06-01

    Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs several of which, including cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry, produce edible fruit. Consumption of the fruit of these plants and juices pressed from it has long been known to have healthful effects. A number of functional compounds have been extracted from the fruits and seeds of these plants. Anthocyanidins and related compounds have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts of the fruits have been applied to the inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation in anti-aging preparations. The oil of the cranberry seed is high in antioxidants and is a source of omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids making it an attractive cosmetics component. The inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis by extracts of these fruits has been described. Extracts of the plants have also been applied to the development of antimicrobial paints and coatings. Here, we provide an overview of the wide range of applications described for various compounds from and preparations of these plants and survey the recent patents related to those applications.

  7. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  8. Large N duality beyond the genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Pasquetti, Sara; Putrov, Pavel

    2010-07-01

    We study non-perturbative aspects of the large N duality between Chern-Simons theory and topological strings, and we find a rich structure of large N phase transitions in the complex plane of the 't Hooft parameter. These transitions are due to large N instanton effects, and they can be regarded as a deformation of the Stokes phenomenon. Moreover, we show that, for generic values of the 't Hooft coupling, instanton effects are not exponentially suppressed at large N and they correct the genus expansion. This phenomenon was first discovered in the context of matrix models, and we interpret it as a generalization of the oscillatory asymptotics along anti-Stokes lines. In the string dual, the instanton effects can be interpreted as corrections to the saddle string geometry due to discretized neighbouring geometries. As a mathematical application, we obtain the 1/ N asymptotics of the partition function of Chern-Simons theory on the lens space L(2, 1), and we test it numerically to high precision in order to exhibit the importance of instanton effects.

  9. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  10. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  11. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Dégallier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: Mecistostethus pilifer Marseul, Mecistostethus loretoensis (Bruch), comb. n., Mecistostethus seagorum sp. n., Mecistostethus carltoni sp. n., Mecistostethus marseuli sp. n., and Mecistostethus flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae), but it is possible that related ants host all the species. PMID:22933855

  12. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498

  13. Genus Caulophyllum: An Overview of Chemistry and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants. PMID:24876877

  14. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  15. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  16. The description of Banacuniculus Buffington, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eucoiline genus Banacuniculus is described to accommodate several species previously placed in Ganaspidium: Banacuniculus hunteri (Crawford), new combination; B. merickeli (Miller), new combination; B. nigrimanus (Kieffer), new combination; B. utilis (Beardsley), new combination; these spec...

  17. Is Stringaspidiotus Macgillivray (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) An Accepted Genus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis) is redescribed and illustrated....

  18. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  19. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  20. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  1. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  2. The huntsman genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Sparianthinae).

    PubMed

    Rheims, Cristina Anne; Alayón, Giraldo

    2014-06-12

    The genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 is revised. Pseudosparianthis variabilis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900, Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks, 1909 and Thelcticopis pestai (Reimoser, 1939) are transferred to the genus; and P. cubana is considered a senior synonym of the type species, Decaphora trabiformis Franganillo, 1931. In addition, the female of T. pestai and the male of P. variabilis are described for the first time; and a new species, Decaphora kohunlich spec. nov., is described from Mexico and Guatemala.

  3. Revision of the genus Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, L M

    1978-09-01

    Only five of the eight species assigned to the genus Paracooperia are considered valid and are redescribed. P. petrowi Memmedov, 1961 and P. indiana Ali and Deshpande, 1970 are considered synonyms of P. nodulosa (Schwartz, 1928) Travassos, 1937 and the synonymy of P. matoffi Le Roux, 1950 with P. nodulosa is confirmed. A key to the species of the genus is given and their hosts and geographical localities are listed.

  4. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  5. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  6. Reclassification of the members of the genus Tetrathiobacter Ghosh et al. 2005 to the genus Advenella Coenye et al. 2005.

    PubMed

    Gibello, A; Vela, A I; Martín, M; Barra-Caracciolo, A; Grenni, P; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2009-08-01

    The taxonomic position of the genera Advenella and Tetrathiobacter was examined. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the two genera are closely related, representing a monophyletic cluster with high sequence similarity (98.1-99.7%) within the family Alcaligenaceae. The phenotypic characteristics of the type strains of Advenella incenata, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis were re-examined using the API 20NE, API ZYM and API 50CH systems. Phylogenetic data together with similarities in phenotypic characteristics, G+C content and cellular acid composition suggest that they should be classified in the same genus. On the basis of the data presented, the two species of the genus Tetrathiobacter should be transferred to the genus Advenella, since this genus has nomenclatural priority. Therefore, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis should be transferred to the genus Advenella as Advenella kashmirensis comb. nov. (type strain WT001T=LMG 22695T=MTCC7002T) and Advenella mimigardefordensis comb. nov. (type strain DPN7T=DSM 17166T=LMG 22922T). Emended descriptions of Advenella incenata and the genus Advenella are also presented.

  7. Proposal of nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium and emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Saitou, Satomi; Tamura, Tomohiko; Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were isolated from various samples collected from mangrove forests in Japan, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the 13 isolates formed a single clade with Lysinimicrobium mangrovi HI08-69T, with a similarity range of 97.6-99.5 %. The peptidoglycan of the isolates was of the A4α type with an interpeptide bridge comprising Ser-Glu and an l-Ser residue at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The predominant menaquinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. These chemotaxonomic characteristics corresponded to those of the genus Lysinimicrobium. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with average nucleotide identity values among the isolates, we concluded that the 13 isolates should be assigned to the following nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium: Lysinimicrobium aestuarii sp. nov. (type strain HI12-104T = NBRC 109392T = DSM 28144T), Lysinimicrobium flavum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-45T = NBRC 109391T = DSM 28150T), Lysinimicrobium gelatinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-44T = NBRC 109390T = DSM 28149T), Lysinimicrobium iriomotense sp. nov. (type strain HI12-143T = NBRC 109399T = DSM 28146T), Lysinimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-123T = NBRC 109395T = DSM 28147T), Lysinimicrobium pelophilum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-111T = NBRC 109393T = DSM 28148T), Lysinimicrobium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain HI12-135T = NBRC 109397T = DSM 28152T), Lysinimicrobium soli sp. nov. (type strain HI12-122T = NBRC 109394T = DSM 28151T) and Lysinimicrobium subtropicum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-128T = NBRC 109396T = DSM 28145T). In addition, an emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium is proposed. PMID:26354549

  8. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  9. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  10. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  11. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  12. Psathyloma, a new genus in Hymenogastraceae described from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Soop, Karl; Dima, Bálint; Szarkándi, János Gergő; Cooper, Jerry; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Psathyloma is described based on collections of agarics from New Zealand. We describe two new species in the genus, Ps. leucocarpum and Ps. catervatim, both of which have been known and tentatively named for a long time awaiting a formal description. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analyses reveal that Psathyloma forms a strongly supported sister clade to Hebeloma, Naucoria and Hymenogaster Morphologically Psathyloma resembles Hebeloma from which it differs mainly by producing smooth basidiospores with a germ pore. The geographical range of the genus has been demonstrated to include several regions in the southern hemisphere. A survey of published environmental sequences reveals that Psathyloma spp. were isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips from Tasmania and Argentina, indicating an ectomycorrhizal association with southern beech.

  13. The genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales): Taxonomic and stratigraphic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritchkova, A. I.; Nosova, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    The history of investigation of the common Jurassic and Cretaceous genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales) represented by needle-shaped, narrow linear or lanceolate leaves bearing several veins and characterized by a single type of epidermis, is considered. An extended diagnosis of the genus and its taxonomic composition with regard to the epidermal characters are reported; the stratigraphic and geographical range of its species and the genus evolution are refined. Three new species Pseudotorellia asiatica N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., P. ketoviana N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., and P. samylinae N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov. described from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) sediments, are proposed as the correlative taxa within the Caspian oil and gas province. The stratotype and reference sections of the Lower Jurassic sediments in the Mangyshlak Mountains are reported for the first time.

  14. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  15. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  16. An updated review on medicinal herb genus Spilanthes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kishan Lal; Jadhav, Shailesh Kumar; Joshi, Veenu

    2011-11-01

    Herbal medicine has been used in medical practice for thousands of years and recognized especially as a valuable and readily available resource for healthcare in Asian nations. India is a vast repository of medicinal plants that can be developed as a safe and economical system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Unfortunately, most of the traditionally used medicinal plants are yet unexplored or have not been fully examined by modern medical science. Therefore, exploring traditionally reported medicinal plants to leverage their potential for the betterment of human health is of great importance. The present review examines a promising medicinal plant genus Spilanthes. In recent years, many new compounds and activities of this plant genus have been established. The present review therefore, aims to compile up-to-date and comprehensive information of genus Spilanthes with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethnomedical uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation. PMID:22088581

  17. Ulopsina, a Remarkable new Ulopine Leafhopper Genus from China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, Chandra A.; Zhang, Yalin

    2012-01-01

    An unusual new cicadellid genus, Ulopsina gen. nov. and two new species, U. sinica sp. nov. and U. szwedoi sp. nov. from China are described, illustrated, and placed in the subfamily Ulopinae. The genus has characters of both the tribes Mesargini and Coloborrhinini, suggesting that the delimitation of these tribes may not be natural. The tribal placement of Ulopsina is uncertain. A checklist of the subfamily Ulopinae from China is also provided, and nine Chinese species designated under the genus Moonia are herein transferred to Mesargus, namely Mesargus albomaculata (Li) comb. nov., M. brevita (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. castanea (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. hei (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. hirsuta (Li) comb. nov., M. hyboma (Cai et Kuoh) comb. nov., M. maculigena (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. serrata (Li and Zhang) comb. nov., and M. spinapenis (Li and Zhang) comb. nov. PMID:22953732

  18. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  19. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002

  20. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  1. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions.

  2. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  3. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  4. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  5. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  6. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  7. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  8. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  9. Notes on the genus Ismarus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Hua-yan; Xu, Zai-fu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genus Ismarus Haliday, 1835, are revised for the first time. Three new species from the Oriental region of China and belonging to Ismarus halidayi-group are described and illustrated: Ismarus longus sp. n., Ismarus nigritrochanter sp. n. and Ismarus parvicellus sp. n. Two species are newly reported for the Chinese fauna: Ismarus dorsiger (Haliday, 1831) and Ismarus halidayi Foerster, 1850. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Hymenopteran Collection of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (SCAU). PMID:21852927

  10. Stapecolis, new genus of Ochlerini (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Thereza De A; Campos, Luiz A; Grazia, Jocelia

    2016-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of the Herrichela clade (Ochlerini) was conducted to solve problems concerning the systematics of the genus Alitocoris Sailer; this recovered monophyletic groups which are considered to be new genera. Stapecolis gen. nov. is here proposed for two species (S. latus sp. nov. and S. bimaculatus sp. nov.) representing one of those monophyletic groups. The new genus is supported by ten synapomorphies, five of them pertaining to the morphology of the pygophore have not been found together in any other genera of Ochlerini. The female genitalia also has characteristics different from closely related genera. PMID:27470743

  11. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  12. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  13. Shape transitions of high-genus fluid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The morphologies of genus-2 to -8 fluid vesicles are studied by using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations with area-difference elasticity. It is revealed that the alignments of the membrane pores alter the vesicle shapes and the types of shape transitions for the genus g ≥ 3 . At a high reduced volume, a stomatocyte with a circular alignment of g + 1 pores continuously transforms into a discocyte with a line of g pores with increasing intrinsic area difference. In contrast, at a low volume, a stomatocyte transforms into a (g+1) -hedral shape and subsequently exhibits a discrete phase transition to a discocyte.

  14. Frigitilla gen. nov., a new genus of Amazonian Mutillidae (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Bartholomay, Pedro R; Williams, Kevin A; Luz, David R; Morato, Elder F

    2015-01-01

    Mutilla frigidula Cresson, 1902 was transferred to Tobantilla by Williams et al. (2011), based on morphological similarities with females of that genus. Discovery of the male of this species indicated significant morphological differences from Tobantilla. We therefore erect the genus, Frigitilla gen. nov., for Mutilla frigidula. Herein, we describe the male of F. frigidula (Cresson, 1902), comb. nov., associate it with its host (Trypoxylon spp.), and discuss its relations to other mutillid genera. The impact of collecting method and specimen age on the integumental coloration of specimens is discussed, emphasizing the need to diagnose species on consistent structural features rather than differences in color pattern.

  15. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  16. Taxonomic Study of the Lichen Genus Lobaria in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Mei-Rong; Wang, Xin Yu; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula, yet until now, no revision study has been done on this genus. After careful examination of specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI), nine distinct species of Lobaria were confirmed. Morphological characteristics such as the presence or absence of isidia, or whether or not the surface was ridged or smooth, and chemical characteristics such as the result of the medulla reaction were of significant importance in the differentiation of species. Here, we provided detailed descriptions together with a key to all the known Korean species. PMID:22783127

  17. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  18. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia. PMID:25947792

  19. New teleomorph combinations in the entomopathogenic genus Metacordyceps.

    PubMed

    Kepler, R M; Sung, G-H; Ban, S; Nakagiri, A; Chen, M-J; Huang, B; Li, Z; Spatafora, J W

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metacordyceps contains arthropod pathogens in Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) that formerly were classified in Cordyceps sensu Kobayasi et Mains. Of the current arthropod pathogenic genera of Hypocreales, the genus Metacordyceps remains one of the most poorly understood and contains a number of teleomorphic morphologies convergent with species of Cordyceps s.s. (Cordycipitaceae) and Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae). Of note, the anamorph genera Metarhizium and Pochonia were found to be associated only with Metacordyceps and demonstrated to be phylogenetically informative for the clade. Several species of Cordyceps considered to have uncertain placements (incertae sedis) in the current taxonomic framework of clavicipitoid fungi were collected during field expeditions mostly in eastern Asia. Species reclassified here in Metacordyceps include Cordyceps atrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps indigotica Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps khaoyaiensis Hywel-Jones, Cordyceps kusanagiensis Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps martialis Speg., Ophiocordyceps owariensis Kobayasi, Cordyceps pseudoatrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu and Ophicordyceps owariensis f. viridescens (Uchiy. & Udagawa) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. Incorporation of these species in a multigene phylogenetic framework of the major clades of clavicipitoid fungi more than doubled the number of species in Metacordyceps and allowed for refinement of morphological concepts for the genus consistent with the phylogenetic structure. Based on these findings we then discuss evolution of this genus, subgeneric relationships, anamorph connections, and suggest additional species that should be confirmed for possible inclusion in Metacordyceps. PMID:22067304

  20. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  1. Revision of the Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) is revised based on females, males being unknown for the genus. The genus is redescribed, its phylogenetic relationships within Eupelminae discussed, and the species keyed, described and illustrated through macrophotography. Nine species are recognized-Macreupelmus auranticrus n. sp., M. aurantispina n. sp., M. brasiliensis Ashmead 1896, M. crassicornis (Cameron 1884), M. dromedarius (Cameron 1884), M. erwini n. sp., M. granulosus n. sp., M. laticlavius n. sp., and M. nigrispina n. sp. Excluded from the genus are Macreupelmus baccharidis Kieffer 1910 (transferred to Brasema Cameron as B. baccharidis (Kieffer) n. comb.), Macreupelmus bekilyi Risbec 1952 (transferred to Reikosiella (Hirticauda Bouček) as Reikosiella (Hirticauda) bekilyi (Risbec) n. comb.), and Macreupelmus pulchriceps Cameron 1905 (transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as E. (Eupelmus) pulchriceps (Cameron) n. comb.). The latter name is recognized as the senior synonym of Cerambycobius cushmani Crawford 1908 n. syn., Cerambycobius townsendi Crawford 1912 n. syn., and Eupelmus cyaniceps amicus Girault 1916 n. syn. Lectotypes are designated for M. brasiliensis, M. dromedarius and E. pulchriceps. PMID:27615911

  2. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  3. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  4. Protoplast culture of several members of the genus Physalis.

    PubMed

    Bapat, V A; Schieder, O

    1981-12-01

    High yields of protoplasts were obtained by enzymic treatment of mesophyll from five different species of the genus Physalis. Subsequent divisions and colony formation were achieved in all the species. However, numerous combinations of phytohormones failed to induce regeneration of shoots from callus tissue developed from protoplasts.

  5. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  6. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins. PMID:26623624

  7. The genus Myrmarachne (Araneae, Salticidae) in Flores, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Edwards, G B

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Myrmarachne are described (Myrmarachne acutidens sp. n., Myrmarachne epigealis sp. n.), and Myrmarachne macrognatha and Myrmarachne melanocephala are redescribed from Flores specimens. The females of Myrmarachne macrognatha are recorded for the first time. PMID:23794886

  8. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  9. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range.

  10. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae) in birds.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Castro, A T; Herrera, S; Ponce, F

    2001-10-01

    In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds. PMID:11685262

  11. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16–19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as “endangered” as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  13. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  14. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  15. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  16. On the equivariant algebraic Jacobian for curves of genus two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athorne, Chris

    2012-04-01

    We present a treatment of the algebraic description of the Jacobian of a generic genus two plane curve which exploits an SL2(k) equivariance and clarifies the structure of Flynn's 72 defining quadratic relations. The treatment is also applied to the Kummer variety.

  17. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  18. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    PubMed Central

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  19. Is the New Primate Genus Rungwecebus a Baboon?

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Dietmar; Arnold, Michael L.; Roos, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus. Methodology/Principal Findings We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are

  20. Lactobacillus phylogenomics--towards a reclassification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Marcus J; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Toole, Paul W

    2008-12-01

    The extremely diverse genus Lactobacillus is the largest among the lactic acid bacteria, with over 145 recognized species. In this work, which to our knowledge is the largest comparative phylogenomics study of a single genus to date, 12 genomes of Lactobacillus strains were subjected to an array of whole-genome and single-marker phylogenetic approaches, to investigate the case for extracting subgeneric groups and to determine whether a single congruent phylogeny could be identified. We conclude that GroEL is a more robust single-gene phylogenetic marker for the genus Lactobacillus than the 16S rRNA gene, when no whole-genome information is available. Significant incongruence was found, both within a set of trees based on 141 core proteins and within those phylogenies based on numbers of orthologues, concatenated RNA polymerase subunits and single gene/protein markers. This is possibly due to different evolutionary rates, hidden paralogies or horizontal gene transfer. Such phylogenetic ambiguities are efficiently visualized with cluster-networks. Although the genus contains some highly unstable taxa, four subgeneric groups were distinguished. Qualitative and quantitative gene analysis of these groups resulted in three findings: there is a relatively small number of group-specific proteins, the majority of which are poorly characterized; major groupings are functionally better distinguishable by absent genes rather than gained/retained genes; and, finally, a gene cluster possibly involved in purine metabolism is uniquely present in four lactobacilli associated with meat. In conclusion, because of either significantly different branching patterns or the availability of too few members, three of the four identified groups could not serve as the basis for identifying candidate novel genera within the current genus. We therefore suggest targeted sequencing of key taxonomic species identified here, which are likely to add sufficient depth for a future reclassification

  1. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided. PMID:27395216

  2. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  3. Genus X. Lechevalieria Labeda, Hatano, Kroppenstedt and Tamura 2001, 1049vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Lechevalieria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Lecehvalieria aerocolonigenes, Lechevalieria flava, Lechevalieria fradiae, and Lechevalieria xinjian...

  4. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  5. Vastarena, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada Abroma pumila Distant (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    In New Caledonia, the species Abroma pumila (Distant, 1892) shows several incompatibilities with the genus type species A. guerinii (Signoret, 1860). A new genus, Vastarena, is proposed. PMID:27615969

  6. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  7. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  8. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  9. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, is described. This genus is characterized by having a fuscina along the dorsal margin of the clypeus. This three-pronged protrusion is unique within Hymenoptera. The genus is also characterized by the possession of a corniculum, and the shared poss...

  10. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  11. Chemical constituents of the ascomycete Daldinia concentrica.

    PubMed

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Masami; Baumgartner, Manuela; Stadler, Marc; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Four compounds, daldinone A (1), daldinone B (2), daldiniapyrone (4-methoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, 3), and daldinialanone (22R-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one, 4), were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of fruit bodies of Daldinia concentrica collected in Europe. In addition, 11 known compounds, 4:5:4':5'-tetrahydroxy-1:1'-binaphthyl (5), 3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-tetralone (6), (+)-orthosporin (7), curuilignan D (8), (22E)-cholesta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (9), 3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-triene (10), concentricol (11), concentricol B (12), concentricol C (13), concentricol D (14), and phenochalasin B (15), were obtained. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were determined by CD spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method, respectively. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the compounds obtained in this investigation is discussed. PMID:12502330

  12. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  13. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis. PMID:25108159

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter.

  15. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

  16. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  17. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  18. Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Hensel, A; Aleksic, S; Meyer, H

    2000-04-01

    In this report we describe a PCR strategy for the unambigous identification of biochemically presumptive typed Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica. A total of 269 isolates belonging to ten species of the genus Yersinia were investigated. In a first PCR only isolates classified as Y. enterocolitica (n = 113) gave rise to a specific amplification resulting in a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. By sequencing the 269 amplicons of a second pan-Yersinia PCR spanning a distinct 16S rRNA gene region, 20 different sequence clusters could be identified within the genus. By this, Y. enterocolitica isolates of American and European origin could be distinguished safely and already described sequence clusters of the species Y. frederiksenii were confirmed. New 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters were detected for the species Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. aldovae, Y. kristensenii, and Y. rohdei.

  19. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  20. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Vinhal da Costa, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Ma R

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods.

  1. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification.

  2. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis.

  3. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  4. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  5. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  6. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification. PMID:26677693

  7. A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of twelve species of Myelochroa from S. Korea, including one new record, Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Myelochroa species are presented. PMID:23323045

  8. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  9. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains of the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493

  10. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  11. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity* §

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny. PMID:18837102

  12. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25674928

  13. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  14. The genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Ian; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Nearns, Eugenio H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The history of the genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae) is discussed. Its taxonomic status in relation to the genera Ergates Audinet-Serville, 1832 and Callergates Lameere, 1904 is clarified. The synonymy of Macrotoma californica White, 1853, Macrotoma spiculigera White, 1853, and Trichocnemis spiculatus LeConte, 1851 is confirmed. A key to all three genera and their species is provided. PMID:21594014

  15. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  16. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  17. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  18. Evolutionary relationships in the medicinally important genus Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Day, Peter D; Berger, Madeleine; Hill, Laurence; Fay, Michael F; Leitch, Andrew R; Leitch, Ilia J; Kelly, Laura J

    2014-11-01

    Fritillaria (Liliaceae) is a genus of approximately 140 species of bulbous perennial plants that includes taxa of both horticultural and medicinal importance. As well as being commercially valuable, Fritillaria species have attracted attention because of their exceptionally large genome sizes, with all values recorded to date in excess of 30Gb. Despite such interest in the genus, phylogenetic relationships between the majority of species have remained untested. Here we present the first phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships to encompass most of the currently recognised species diversity in the genus. Three regions of the plastid genome were sequenced in 117 individuals of Fritillaria, representing 92 species (c. 66% of the genus) and in representatives of nine other genera of Liliaceae. Eleven low-copy nuclear gene regions were also screened in selected species for their potential utility. Phylogenetic analysis of a combined plastid dataset using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference provided support for the monophyly of the majority of currently recognised subgenera. However, subgenus Fritillaria, which is by far the largest of the subgenera and includes the most important species used in traditional Chinese medicine, is found to be polyphyletic. Moreover, several taxa that were represented by multiple individuals show evidence of species non-monophyly. The Japanese endemic subgenus Japonica, which contains the species with the largest recorded genome size for any diploid plant, is resolved as sister to the predominantly Middle Eastern and Central Asian subgenus Rhinopetalum. Whilst relationships between most of the major Fritillaria lineages can now be resolved, our results also highlight the need for data from additional independently evolving loci; an endeavour that may be particularly challenging in light of the huge nuclear genomes found in these plants.

  19. Nematodes of the genus Subulura (Subuluridae) parasitizing Coturnix (Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Barus, V; Sonin, M D

    1980-01-01

    Two nematode species of the genus Subulura, S. skrjabini and S. brumpti, have been recovered from Coturnix coturnix (a detailed redescription of the former is attached). The synonymy, geographic distribution and some morphological and metrical characters of these species are discussed. S. noctuae gallinae Semenov, 1926 and S. strongylina sensu López-Neyra (1945) are tentatively regarded as synonyms of S. differens (Sonsino, 1890).

  20. Mexican species of the genus Stethantyx Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae)

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Six species of the genus Stethantyx Townes are found to occur in Mexico. One species, S. mexicana sp. n., is described as new, and four recently described Neotropical species, S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. heredia Khalaim & Broad, S. osa Khalaim & Broad and S. sanjosea Khalaim & Broad, are new records from Mexico. A key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Mexico is provided. PMID:24363592

  1. Species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences in genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    The genus Saccharum consists of two wild and four cultivated species. Novel interspersed sequences were isolated from cultivated sugar cane S. officinarum. These sequences were accumulated in all four cultivated species and their wild ancestral species S. robustum, but were not detected in the other wild species S. spontaneum and the relative Erianthus arundinaceus. The species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences would correlate to the domestication of sugar canes. PMID:15729004

  2. The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

  3. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W.; Olden, Julian D.; Abbott, Cathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  4. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A

    2016-01-01

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated. PMID:27395665

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  6. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  7. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects. PMID:24797865

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  9. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA.

    PubMed

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-06-01

    About 20 species from Callicarpa have reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses, and several members of this genus are well known in the traditional medical systems of China and South Asia. Ethnomedical reports indicate their use in the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism, fever, headache, indigestion, and other ailments. Several species of Callicarpa have been reported to be used against cancer (e.g., Callicarpa americana root to treat skin cancer and Callicarpa rubella bark to treat tumors of the large intestine). Extracts from about 14 species in this genus have been evaluated for biological activity, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-insect growth, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic activities. In addition to amino acids, benzenoids, simple carbohydrates, and lipids, numerous diterpenes, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been detected in or isolated from the genus Callicarpa. The essential oils of Callicarpa americana have recently been reported to have antialgal and phytotoxic activities, and several isolates from this species (and C. japonica) were identified as contributing to the mosquito bite-deterrent activity that was first indicated by folkloric usage. Recent bioassay-guided investigations of C. americana extracts have resulted in the isolation of several active compounds, mainly of the clerodane diterpene structural type. PMID:19830264

  10. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Minnis, Andrew M; Sung, Gi-Ho; Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer; Devotto, Luis; Humber, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorphic genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic within the Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales), and both B. bassiana and B. brongniartii have been linked developmentally and phylogenetically to Cordyceps species. Despite recent interest in the genetic diversity and molecular ecology of Beauveria, particularly as it relates to their role as pathogens of insects in natural and agricultural environments, the genus has not received critical taxonomic review for several decades. A multilocus phylogeny of Beauveria based on partial sequences of RPB1, RPB2, TEF and the nuclear intergenic region, Bloc, is presented and used to assess diversity within the genus and to evaluate species concepts and their taxonomic status. B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, both which represent species complexes and which heretofore have lacked type specimens, are redescribed and types are proposed. In addition six new species are described including B. varroae and B. kipukae, which form a biphyletic, morphologically cryptic sister lineage to B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, which also is morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from B. bassiana, B. asiatica and B. australis, which are sister lineages to B. brongniartii, and B. sungii, an Asian species that is linked to an undetermined species of Cordyceps. The combination B. amorpha is validly published and an epitype is designated. PMID:21482632

  11. New species of Cordana and epitypification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Gené, Josepa; Mena-Portales, Julio; Cano, Jose; Madrid, Hugo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Two interesting fungi belonging to the genus Cordana have been isolated recently in Spain from plant debris. Both are proposed here as new species, described and illustrated. Cordana mercadiana sp. nov. produces 0-1-septate conidia, with a prominent basal scar. Cordana verruculosa sp. nov. differs from the other species of the genus by its unique combination of aseptate, verruculose and small conidia. Both species are compared morphologically with other species of Cordana and their identities supported by the analysis of rDNA sequences. LSU sequence analysis revealed the congeneric relationship of Cordana and Pseudobotrytis; the members of both genera are in a well supported monophyletic lineage that appears to be related to the Coniochaetales but remains incertae sedis within the Sordariomycetes. To establish nomenclatural stability of the genus Cordana, an isolate of C. pauciseptata is designed here as epitype and the two species of Pseudobotrytis are transferred to Cordana. A dichotomous key is provided to identify the currently accepted species of Cordana.

  12. Origin and radiation of Southern Hemisphere coastal dolphins (genus Cephalorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Pichler, F B; Robineau, D; Goodall, R N; Meÿer, M A; Olivarría, C; Baker, C S

    2001-09-01

    The genus Cephalorhynchus (Gray 1846) consists of four species of small coastal dolphins distributed in cool temperate waters around the Southern Hemisphere. Each species is sympatric with other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae but widely separated from other congeners. To describe the origin and radiation of these species, we examined 442 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 307 individuals from the genus Cephalorhynchus and compared these to sequences from other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae. We investigate the hypotheses that Cephalorhynchus is a monophyletic genus or, alternatively, that the four species have arisen separately from pelagic Lissodelphine species and have converged morphologically. Our results support the monophyly of Cephalorhynchus within the Lissodelphininae and a pattern of radiation by colonization. We confirm a pattern of shallow but diagnosable species clades with Heaviside's dolphin as the basal branch. We further examine the monophyly of maternal haplotypes represented by our large population sample for each species. Based on this phylogeographic pattern, we propose that Cephalorhynchus originated in the waters of South Africa and, following the West Wind Drift, colonized New Zealand and then South America. The Chilean and Commerson's dolphins then speciated along the two coasts of South America, during the glaciation of Tierra del Fuego. Secondary radiations resulted in genetically isolated populations for both the Kerguelen Island Commerson's dolphin and the North Island Hector's dolphin. Our results suggest that coastal, depth-limited odontocetes are prone to population fragmentation, isolation and occasionally long-distance movements, perhaps following periods of climatic change. PMID:11555263

  13. Trends of karyotypic evolution in the genus Hipposideros (Chiroptera: Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Sreepada, K S; Naidu, K N; Gururaj, M E

    1993-01-01

    The karyotypes of Hipposideros speroris, H. pomona, H. lankadiva, H. ceneraceus, H. ater and H. fulvus were analysed using conventional and banding technqiues. All six species exhibited the same 2n (32) and FN (60). The genus is remarkable for its apparent karyotypic stability. These species have only biarmed autosomes, one of which is a submetacentric marker chromosome with an achromatic gap. G-banded autosomes showed that most have remained conservative in the course of evolution of the species. Structural changes seemed to have occurred more frequently in the sex elements of the karyotypes rather than in the autosomes, and non-Robertsonian changes had an appreciable role to play in karyotypic evolution. This trend is probably dictated by the maximization of the biarmed condition which reflects the formation of stabilised linkage groups from the inception of the genus. It is proposed that the ancestral lineage of the genus Hipposideros was derived from a Rhinolophoid ancester whose karyotype was akin to Rhinolophus luctus.

  14. Phylogenetic Placement and Taxonomy of the Genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  15. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  16. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chun; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Zeng, Nian-Kai; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu L

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has never been addressed. We analyzed four DNA regions, the nuclear ribosomal LSU and tef-1α, and the mitochondrial mtSSU and atp6 genes, to investigate the phylogenetic disposition of Veloporphyrellus. Although the monophyly of the genus and its systematic placement within the Boletaceae was well supported, its relationship to other genera was not resolved. Morphologically Veloporphyrellus is distinguished from other boletoid genera by the combination of the pinkish or grayish pink hymenophore, the membranous veil hanging on the pilea margin, the trichoderm-like pileus covering and the smooth basidiospores. Five species, including two new species and two new combinations, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Veloporphyrellus also is provided. PMID:24782497

  17. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects.

  18. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  19. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  20. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Scheets, Kay; Jordan, Ramon; White, K Andrew; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed to be added to this family and would include five members, with Pelargonium line pattern virus recommended as the type species. Viruses assigned to this proposed genus have monopartite genomes encoding five open reading frames (ORFs) that include two 5'-proximal replication proteins, two centrally located movement proteins (MP1 and MP2) and a 3'-proximal CP that, at least for pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), has been shown to act also as suppressor of RNA silencing. Distinguishing characteristics of these viruses include i) production of a single, tricistronic subgenomic RNA for expression of MP and CP genes, ii) presence of a non-AUG start codon (CUG or GUG) initiating the MP2 ORF, iii) absence of AUG codons in any frame between the AUG initiation codons of MP1 and CP genes, and iv) sequence-based phylogenetic clustering of all encoded proteins in separate clades from those of other family members. PMID:26149249

  1. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    PubMed

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  2. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  3. A Descriptive Morphology of the Ant Genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serna, F.; Mackay, W.

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata. PMID:20874568

  4. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Serna, F; Mackay, W

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata.

  5. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  6. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus.

  7. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA⊥

    PubMed Central

    JONES, WILLIAM P.; KINGHORN, A. DOUGLAS

    2009-01-01

    About 20 species from Callicarpa have reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses, and several members of this genus are well known in the traditional medical systems of China and South Asia. Ethnomedical reports indicate their use in the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism, fever, headache, indigestion, and other ailments. Several species of Callicarpa have been reported to be used against cancer (e.g., Callicarpa americana root to treat skin cancer and Callicarpa rubella bark to treat tumors of the large intestine). Extracts from about 14 species in this genus have been evaluated for biological activity, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-insect growth, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic activities. In addition to amino acids, benzenoids, simple carbohydrates, and lipids, numerous diterpenes, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been detected in or isolated from the genus Callicarpa. The essential oils of Callicarpa americana have recently been reported to have antialgal and phytotoxic activities, and several isolates from this species (and C. japonica) were identified as contributing to the mosquito bite-deterrent activity that was first indicated by folkloric usage. Recent bioassay-guided investigations of C. americana extracts have resulted in the isolation of several active compounds, mainly of the clerodane diterpene structural type. PMID:19830264

  8. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  9. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  10. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  11. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus. PMID:24146585

  12. Homology of Melanoma-Inducing Loci in the Genus Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several species of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for specific pigment patterns. Some of these give rise to malignant melanoma following the appropriate crossings. For one of these pattern loci from the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus the melanoma-inducing gene has been cloned and found to encode a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, designated Xmrk. Using molecular probes from this gene in Southern blot analyses on single fish DNA preparations from 600 specimens of different populations of various species of the genus Xiphophorus and their hybrids, either with or without melanoma-predisposing pattern, it was shown that all individuals contain the Xmrk gene as a proto-oncogene. It is located on the sex chromosome. All fish that carry a melanoma-predisposing locus which has been identified by Mendelian genetics contain an additional copy of Xmrk, closely linked to a specific melanophore pattern locus on the sex chromosome. The melanoma-inducing loci of the different species and populations are homologous. The additional copy of Xmrk obviously arose by a gene-duplication event, thereby acquiring the oncogenic potential. The homology of the melanoma-inducing loci points to a similar mechanism of tumor suppression in all feral fish populations of the different species of the genus Xiphophorus. PMID:1981761

  13. A revision of the genus Antepione Packard with description of the new genus Pionenta Ferris (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Clifford D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Based on genitalic studies, the new genus Pionenta is established for two taxa formerly placed under Antepione. The taxa hewesata and ochreata (and previously associated synonyms) are now synonomized as Pionenta ochreata. Three species of Antepione are now recognized: Antepione thisoaria, Antepione imitata, Antepione tiselaaria with the taxa comstocki, constans, and indiscretata synonomized under Antepione imitata. No new species are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, including type specimens. PMID:21594048

  14. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation.

  15. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation. PMID:27440809

  16. Reinstatement of the genus Colopalpus Pritchard and Baker (1958) and re-description of Colopalpus matthyssei Pritchard and Baker (1958), the type species of this genus (Acari, Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pritchard and Baker (1958) erected the genus Colopalpus with Tenuipalpus matthyssei (Pritchard and Baker) a species described from Laguna, The Philippines, as the type species. Meyer (1979) treated the genus as a junior synonym of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu. In this paper, we re-describe the female, male...

  17. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhou, Jizhong; Oren, Aharon; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Genomic information has already been applied to prokaryotic species definition and classification. However, the contribution of the genome sequence to prokaryotic genus delimitation has been less studied. To gain insights into genus definition for the prokaryotes, we attempted to reveal the genus-level genomic differences in the current prokaryotic classification system and to delineate the boundary of a genus on the basis of genomic information. The average nucleotide sequence identity between two genomes can be used for prokaryotic species delineation, but it is not suitable for genus demarcation. We used the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance. A comprehensive genomic survey indicated that the POCP can serve as a robust genomic index for establishing the genus boundary for prokaryotic groups. Basically, two species belonging to the same genus would share at least half of their proteins. In a specific lineage, the genus and family/order ranks showed slight or no overlap in terms of POCP values. A prokaryotic genus can be defined as a group of species with all pairwise POCP values higher than 50%. Integration of whole-genome data into the current taxonomy system can provide comprehensive information for prokaryotic genus definition and delimitation.

  18. The genus Coleodactylus (Sphaerodactylinae, Gekkota) revisited: a molecular phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Geurgas, Silvia Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Moritz, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Nucleotide sequence data from a mitochondrial gene (16S) and two nuclear genes (c-mos, RAG-1) were used to evaluate the monophyly of the genus Coleodactylus, to provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among its species in a cladistic framework, and to estimate the relative timing of species divergences. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets retrieved Coleodactylus as a monophyletic genus, although weakly supported. Species were recovered as two genetically and morphological distinct clades, with C. amazonicus populations forming the sister taxon to the meridionalis group (C. brachystoma, C. meridionalis, C. natalensis, and C. septentrionalis). Within this group, C. septentrionalis was placed as the sister taxon to a clade comprising the rest of the species, C. meridionalis was recovered as the sister species to C. brachystoma, and C. natalensis was found nested within C. meridionalis. Divergence time estimates based on penalized likelihood and Bayesian dating methods do not support the previous hypothesis based on the Quaternary rain forest fragmentation model proposed to explain the diversification of the genus. The basal cladogenic event between major lineages of Coleodactylus was estimated to have occurred in the late Cretaceous (72.6+/-1.77 Mya), approximately at the same point in time than the other genera of Sphaerodactylinae diverged from each other. Within the meridionalis group, the split between C. septentrionalis and C. brachystoma+C. meridionalis was placed in the Eocene (46.4+/-4.22 Mya), and the divergence between C. brachystoma and C. meridionalis was estimated to have occurred in the Oligocene (29.3+/-4.33 Mya). Most intraspecific cladogenesis occurred through Miocene to Pliocene, and only for two conspecific samples and for C. natalensis could a Quaternary differentiation be assumed (1.9+/-1.3 Mya).

  19. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE GENUS KUMANOA (BATRACHOSPERMALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Vis, Morgan L; Necchi, Orlando; Chiasson, Wayne B; Entwisle, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Species belonging to the newly established genus Kumanoa were sampled from locations worldwide. DNA sequence data from the rbcL gene, cox1 barcode region, and universal plastid amplicon (UPA) were collected. The new sequence data for the rbcL were combined with the extensive batrachospermalean rbcL data available in GenBank. Single gene rbcL results showed the genus Kumanoa to be a well-supported clade, and there was high statistical support for many of the terminal nodes. However, with this gene alone, there was very little support for any of the internal nodes. Analysis of the concatenated data set (rbcL, cox1, and UPA) provided higher statistical support across the tree. The taxa K. vittata and K. amazonensis formed a basal grade, and both were on relatively long branches. Three new species are proposed, K. holtonii, K. gudjewga, and K. novaecaledonensis; K. procarpa var. americana is raised to species level. In addition, the synonymy of K. capensis and K. breviarticulata is proposed, with K. capensis having precedence. Five new combinations are made, bringing the total number of accepted species in Kumanoa to 31. The phylogenetic analyses did not reveal any interpretable biogeographic patterns within the genus (e.g., K. spermatiophora from the tropical oceanic island Maui, Hawaii, was sister to K. faroensis from temperate midcontinental Ohio in North America). Previously hypothesized relationships among groups of species were not substantiated in the phylogenetic analyses, and no intrageneric classification is recommended based on current knowledge.

  20. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus Neoerysiphe (Erysiphaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Havrylenko, Maria; Wolcan, Silvia M; Matsuda, Sanae; Niinomi, Seiko

    2008-06-01

    The genus Neoerysiphe belongs to the tribe Golovinomyceteae of the Erysiphaceae together with the genera Arthrocladiella and Golovinomyces. This is a relatively small genus, comprising only six species, and having ca 300 species from six plant families as hosts. To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS regions and the divergent domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA. The 30 ITS sequences from Neoerysiphe are divided into three monophyletic groups that are represented by their host families. Groups 1 and 3 consist of N. galeopsidis from Lamiaceae and N. galii from Rubiaceae, respectively, and the genetic diversity within each group is extremely low. Group 2 is represented by N. cumminsiana from Asteraceae. This group also includes Oidium baccharidis, O. maquii, and Oidium spp. from Galinsoga (Asteraceae) and Aloysia (Verbenaceae), and is further divided into four subgroups. N. galeopsidis is distributed worldwide, but is especially common in western Eurasia from Central Asia to Europe. N. galii is also common in western Eurasia. In contrast, the specimens of group 2 were all collected in the New World, except for one specimen that was collected in Japan; this may indicate a close relationship of group 2 with the New World. Molecular clock calibration demonstrated that Neoerysiphe split from other genera of the Erysiphaceae ca 35-45M years ago (Mya), and that the three groups of Neoerysiphe diverged between 10 and 15Mya, in the Miocene. Aloysia citriodora is a new host for the Erysiphaceae and the fungus on this plant is described as O. aloysiae sp. nov. PMID:18495450

  1. Meloneis Gen. Nov., a New Epipsammic Genus of Rhaphoneidaceae (Bacillariophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Louvrou, Ioanna; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Economou-Amilli, Athena

    2012-01-01

    The diatom family Rhaphoneidaceae is characterized by high generic diversity and low species diversity with most genera known to have long stratigraphic ranges. The genera within this family are neritic marine, and mostly epipsammic. A new modern and epipsammic genus, Meloneis gen. nov., is described herein and is compared to all genera within Rhaphoneidaceae and especially to Rhaphoneis Ehrenberg s.l. Within Meloneis three new species and one variety are distinguished and described herein: M. mimallis sp. nov., M. mimallis var. zephyria var. nov., M. akytos sp. nov., and M. gorgis sp. nov. PMID:22442663

  2. Synonymy and biogeography of the dinoflagellate genus Histioneis (Dinophysiales: Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando

    2007-06-01

    The genus Histioneis (=Parahistioneis) contains an excessive number of poorly described species, often based on the observation of a single specimen and ignoring the intraspecific variability. In order to investigate the validity of the species and to suggest synonyms, the original illustrations of all known species of Histioneis are reproduced and grouped based on the morphological similarity. The scarce records and the uncertainties on the identification at the species level are responsible of the lack of biogeographical information. Large and highly ornamented species tended to appear in tropical waters, whereas smaller and less ornamented species showed a wider distribution and they can also found in temperate waters such as the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Quinone derivatives from the genus Rubia and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kuo; Wang, Penglong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Congmin; Xu, Shixun; Cheng, Yatao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Qiang; Lei, Haimin

    2014-03-01

    The extracts and phytochemicals of the genus Rubia have drawn much attention due to their potent effects; among them, naphthoquinone and cyclopeptide derivatives, with significant biological activities, have great potential to be developed to new drugs. This review updates and compiles a total of 142 quinone derivatives including anthraquinone and naphthoquinone derivatives, occuring in twelve Rubia species. These compounds were listed together with their sources, melting points, bioactivities, as well as 112 corresponding references. Furthermore, the structureactivity relationships of these quinone derivatives were discussed.

  4. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xin; Wu, Ling-Fang; Guo, Hong-Ling; Chen, Wen-Jing; Cui, Ya-Ping; Qi, Qi; Li, Shi; Liang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Shao, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Dan; She, Gai-Mei; You, Yun; Zhang, Lan-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds. PMID:27200104

  5. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  6. Nomenclature of African species of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Margarita; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2013-01-01

    The statuses of proposed nomina of the North African species of the genus Stenodactylus have been revised based on the study of their original descriptions and the examination of their name-bearing types. Important nomenclatural actions proposed include the designation of a lectotype for the nomen Stenodactylus guttatus ensuring continuity of the prevailing usage of S. petrii, and the proposal of maintaining prevailing usage of Stenodactylus sthenodactylus by applying to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature to set aside the existing name-bearing type and replace it with a neotype corresponding with that usage.

  7. Revision of the genus Trypogeus Lacordaire, 1869 (Cerambycidae, Dorcasominae)

    PubMed Central

    Vives, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ten species of the genus Trypogeus Lacordaire are revised. Trypogeus apicalis Fisher, 1936, is proposed as a new synonym of Trypogeus javanicus Aurivillius, 1925. A neotype for Trypogeus sericeus (Gressitt, 1951) and lectotypes for Toxotus fuscus Nonfried, 1894 and Trypogeus javanicus are designated. Trypogeus fuscus auct. nec Nonfried is a misidentification of Philus ophthalmicus Pascoe. All the species are described and keys are given for distinguishing the species. Photographs of the types of all the Trypogeus species are published for the first time. PMID:26019663

  8. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta Wheeler.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Carlos Roberto F; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Diniz, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    We revise the taxonomy of the exclusively Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta (Attini), redescribing the known species (B. brasiliensis and B. conops), and describing two new species, B. delabiei sp. n. (Brazil: Bahia) and B. fernandezi sp. n. (Colombia: Amazonas). We also describe worker sting apparatuses, larvae, males, and ergatoid gynes of all species, except for B. fernandezi, known only from few worker specimens; we provide a key for identifying workers, present distribution maps for all species and summarize the knowledge on the biology of Blepharidatta species. PMID:26623844

  9. On the genus Cosmopelma Simon, 1889 (Araneae, Barychelidae).

    PubMed

    Mori, Andre; Bertani, Rogerio

    2016-07-13

    Among neotropical mygalomorph spider families, Barychelidae is one of the most neglected in taxonomic studies. Most genera have never been revised and only the original descriptions are available. Herein, one of these more obscure genera, Cosmopelma Simon, 1892, with two described species in Brazil and Venezuela, is revised. The type species C. decoratum Simon, 1889 is redescribed, and the male is described for first time. A new species, C. ceplac sp. nov., is described, and new occurrences are presented. Additionally, C. dentatum Fischel, 1927, whose holotype is lost, is considered a nomen dubium. Cosmopelma is an endemic genus, known only from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil.

  10. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of the genus Pinellia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao; Huang, Baokang; Wang, Guowei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2014-03-01

    The genus Pinellia (Araceae), consisting of nine species, is mainly distributed in Eastern Asia. In traditional medicine, some Pinellia species have long been used for the treatment of various ailments, such as cough, vomiting, inflammation, epilepsy, cervical cancer and traumatic injury. Pharmacological studies revealed that Pinellia species possess a wide range of biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-tumor, antiemetic, insecticidal, antitussive, antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities. However, some species also showed significant toxicity such as reproductive toxicity, mucosal irritation and hepatotoxicity. Most of these bioactivities and toxicity can be explained by the presence of various alkaloids and lectins. This review summarizes the ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and toxicity of Pinellia species.

  11. Screening genus Penicillium for producers of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Kristian B R; Mørkeberg, Astrid; Jørgensen, Henning; Frisvad, Jens C; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    For enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material, cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei are most commenly used, but, there is a need for more efficient enzyme cocktails. In this study, the production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes was investigated in 12 filamentous fungi from genus Penicillium and compared with that of T. reesei. Either Solka-Floc cellulose or oat spelt xylan was used as carbon source in shake flask cultivations. All the fungi investigated showed coinduction of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes during growth on cellulose as well as on xylan. The highest filter paper activity was measured after cultivation of Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888 on cellulose.

  12. Revision of the genus Araneibatrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Jiang, Ri-Xin; Steiner, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The genus Araneibatrus Yin & Li, 2010 is placed as a senior subjective synonym of Tribasodellus Nomura & Yin, 2011, syn. n., resulting in A. callissimus (Nomura & Wang, 1991) comb. n. (= Tribasodellus callissimus). A revised diagnosis and a redescription of Araneibatrus are provided, and the generic limits of Araneibatrus are re-evaluated. Four new species collected in limestone caves are described from China and Laos: A. cellulanus sp. n. (China: Guangdong), A. grossepunctatus sp. n. (China: Hunan), A. pubescens sp. n. (China: Yunnan), and A. spinosus sp. n. (Laos: Oudomxay). All six known species are diagnosed, illustrated, keyed, and mapped. PMID:27394561

  13. On the genus Cosmopelma Simon, 1889 (Araneae, Barychelidae).

    PubMed

    Mori, Andre; Bertani, Rogerio

    2016-01-01

    Among neotropical mygalomorph spider families, Barychelidae is one of the most neglected in taxonomic studies. Most genera have never been revised and only the original descriptions are available. Herein, one of these more obscure genera, Cosmopelma Simon, 1892, with two described species in Brazil and Venezuela, is revised. The type species C. decoratum Simon, 1889 is redescribed, and the male is described for first time. A new species, C. ceplac sp. nov., is described, and new occurrences are presented. Additionally, C. dentatum Fischel, 1927, whose holotype is lost, is considered a nomen dubium. Cosmopelma is an endemic genus, known only from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil. PMID:27470741

  14. DNA barcoding, phylogenetic relationships and speciation of snappers (genus Lutjanus).

    PubMed

    Wang, ZhongDuo; Guo, YuSong; Tan, Wei; Li, Lu; Tang, EnPu; Liu, ChuWu; Liu, Yun

    2010-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 13 snapper species from the South China Sea have been established using the combined DNA sequences of three full-length mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and CYTB) and two partial nuclear genes (RAG1, RAG2). The 13 species (genus Lutjanus) were selected after DNA barcoding 72 individuals, representing 20 species. Our study suggests that although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, it may also be useful in the construction of phylogenies by aiding the selection of taxa. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene data has an advantage over an individual dataset because of its higher resolving power.

  15. Iridoid patterns of genus Plantago L. and their systematic significance.

    PubMed

    Taskova, Rilka; Evstatieva, Ljubka; Handjieva, Nedjalka; Popov, Simeon

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of 14 iridoid glucosides in 14 Plantago L. species (44 samples corresponding to 18 taxa) was shown. P. tenuiflora and P. gentianoides were studied for iridoids for the first time. The iridoid patterns showed a good correlation with morphological and other chemical features of the representatives of genus Plantago. The studied species are grouped together according to the iridoid patterns: species containing mainly aucubin (P. major, P. cornuti, P. gentianoides); species containing aucubin and aucubin derivatives (P. subulata, P. media); species containing aucubin and catalpol (P. lanceolata, P. altissima, P. argentea, P. lagopus, P. atrata); species containing aucubin and plantarenaloside (P. afra, P. scabra).

  16. A new genus and species of freshwater crab from Madagascar (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamoidea, Potamonautidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kirstin S; Cumberlidge, Neil; Koppin, Jennifer C

    2014-11-12

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab is described from Madagascar. The new species is morphologically closest to the three species of the genus Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006, but can easily be distinguished by having a completely smooth carapace with an unarmed anterolateral margin and a mandible with a distinctly shortened anterior lobe. This unusual suite of characters is sufficient to warrant the recognition of a new monotypic genus to accommodate this species.

  17. Synopsis of the Argentinian scarab genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Ocampo, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The scarab beetle genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is endemic to Argentina. The genus includes three species: Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Soula, Pseudogeniates intermedius Ohaus, and Pseudogeniates richterianus Ohaus. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, redescribe and diagnose each species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to eco-regions and areas of endemism in Argentina. PMID:23372412

  18. A new species of the genus Amphicteis (Polychaeta: Ampharetidae) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-09-01

    A new species of the ampharetid genus A mphicteis, A. chinensis sp. nov., is described based on material from the East and South China Seas. The new species is distinguished from the other known species of this genus by the presence of a lobebehind the paleae. A key to distinguish all Amphicteis species and the closely related genus Paramphicteis from the Chinese seas is provided.

  19. Synopsis of the Argentinian scarab genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae).

    PubMed

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Ocampo, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The scarab beetle genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is endemic to Argentina. The genus includes three species: Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Soula, Pseudogeniates intermedius Ohaus, and Pseudogeniates richterianus Ohaus. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, redescribe and diagnose each species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to eco-regions and areas of endemism in Argentina.

  20. A new genus and new species of family Antedonidae (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) from southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, Masami; Omori, Akihito

    2015-06-12

    A new genus and new species of antedonid comatulid is described from southern Japan. Belonometra n. gen. has a unique appearance with ten long arms, numerous cirri, and remarkably long and crowded pinnules. The new genus shares some characters with subfamily Heliometrinae. However, the comparative length of pinnules, which is a diagnostic character to determine subfamily Antedonidae, is different. The subfamily into which the new genus should be placed is unclear.

  1. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables. PMID:26235482

  2. Diversity and Karyotypic Evolution in the Genus Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Willam O; Pieczarka, Julio C; Rossi, Rogério V; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Miranda, Cleuton L; da Silva, Cláudia R; Cardoso, Elizandra M; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2015-01-01

    Neacomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises 8 species mainly found in the Amazonian region. We describe 5 new karyotypes from Brazilian Amazonia: 2 cytotypes for N. paracou (2n = 56/FNa = 62-66), 1 for N. dubosti (2n = 64/FNa = 68), and 2 for Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FNa = 64-70), with differences in the 18S rDNA. Telomeric probes did not show ITS. We provide a phylogeny using Cytb, and the analysis suggests that 2n = 56 with a high FNa is ancestral for the genus, as found in N. paracou, being retained by the ancestral forms of the other species, with an increase in 2n occurring independently in N. spinosus and N. dubosti. Alternatively, an increase in 2n may have occurred in the ancestral taxon of the other species, followed by independent 2n-reduction events in Neacomys sp. and in the ancestral species of N. tenuipes, N. guianae, N. musseri, and N. minutus. Finally, a drastic reduction event in the diploid number occurred in the ancestral species of N. musseri and N. minutus which exhibit the lowest 2n of the genus. The karyotypic variations found in both intra- and interspecific samples, associated with the molecular phylogeny, suggest a chromosomal evolution with amplification/deletion of constitutive heterochromatin and rearrangements including fusions, fissions, and pericentric inversions.

  3. New karyotypes of Atlantic tree rats, genus Phyllomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Naiara Pereira; Loss, Ana Carolina; Cordeiro-Junior, Dirceu A; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Leite, Yuri L R; Svartman, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Phyllomys (Echimyidae, Rodentia) is a genus of Neotropical rodents with available cytogenetic data restricted to six out of 13 species, mainly based on simple staining methods, without detailed analyses. In this work, we present new karyotypes for Phyllomys lamarum (diploid number 2n = 56, fundamental number or number of autosomal arms FN = 102) and Phyllomys sp. (2n = 74, FN = 140) from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. We provide the first GTG- and CBG-banding patterns, silver-staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric and 45S rDNA probes of Phyllomys. In addition to examining their chromosomes and phenotypic characters, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the specimens analyzed to confirm their taxonomic identification. The comparison of the distinctive chromosome complements of our specimens with those of other species of Phyllomys already published allowed us to conclude that chromosome data may be very useful for the taxonomy of the genus, as no two species analyzed presented the same diploid and fundamental numbers (2n and FN).

  4. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  5. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  6. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  7. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Brinker, Anita M.; Ma, Jun; Lipsky, Peter E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the genus Tripterygium, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of Tripterygium extracts and of the main bioactive constituent, the diterpene triepoxide triptolide (1), to treat a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related conditions. The main mode of action of the Tripterygium extracts and triptolide (1) is the inhibition of expression of proinflammatory genes such as those for interleukin-2 (IL-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The efficacy and safety of certain types of Tripterygium extracts were confirmed in human clinical trials in the US and abroad. Over 300 compounds have been identified in the genus Tripterygium, and many of these have been evaluated for biological activity. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully mimicked by any individual constituent. This review discusses the biochemical composition and biological and pharmacological activities of Tripterygium extracts, and their main bioactive components. PMID:17250858

  8. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  9. A Revision of the Neotropical Caddisfly Genus Rhyacopsyche (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasmund, A. M.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Neotropical genus Rhyacopsyche, Müller 1879, was last reviewed in 1971 when 5 species were known. Since that time, the genus has gradually grown to 13 species. Recent material collected throughout South America has uncovered at least 22 new species. Taxonomic knowledge of the caddisflies of this region is not only useful for understanding local aquatic ecosystems, but essential in establishing biomonitoring programs. Hydroptilids, or microcaddisflies, are among the smallest Trichoptera and are therefore often unintentionally ignored in collection surveys. Relatively little is known of Rhyacopsyche. Larvae construct silken cases, sometimes using sand particles, and attach themselves to the side of rocks by silken threads which are at least as long as the case, and sometimes twice as long. The attached final-instar larvae float freely, either singly or in clusters, in fast flowing water. Identification is dependent on male genitalia and is facilitated by standard genitalic preparations for Trichoptera. Detailed illustrations have been produced for all species as well as diagnoses, descriptions and a taxonomic key. A preliminary assignment of newly described species to three currently recognized groups is proposed.

  10. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  11. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables.

  12. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  13. Species limits in the Andean toad genus Osornophryne (Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Páez-Moscoso, Diego J; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2012-12-01

    As Darwin observed, the differentiation among varieties, subspecies, and species seems, often times, arbitrary. Nowadays, however, novel tools provide the possibility of testing hypotheses of species. Using the Andean toad genus Osornophryne, we address the following questions: (1) How many species are within the genus? (2) Are morphological and molecular traits congruent when delimiting species? (3) Which morphological traits are the most divergent among species? We use recently developed methods for testing species boundaries and relationships using a multilocus data set consisting of two mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S; 1647bp aligned matrix), one exon (RAG-1; 923 aligned matrix), and one intron (RPL3Int5; 1410bp aligned matrix). As another line of evidence for species delimitation, we integrated analyses of 12 morphometric variables and 10 discrete traits commonly used in amphibian systematics. The molecular and morphological approaches support the validity of most of the described species in Osornophryne. We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves further study. We highlight the importance of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species.

  14. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae) over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl), which connected to the C(1) position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review. PMID:22853440

  15. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  16. Re-Establishment of the Genus Ania Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yan, Hai-Fei; Niu, Miao; Tu, Tie-Yao; Li, Shi-Jin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established. PMID:25047255

  17. First record of the genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae) from the United States.

    PubMed

    Macgown, Joe A; Schiefer, Terence L; Branstetter, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of the Neotropical genus Leptanilloides, L. chihuahuaensis sp. n., based on male specimens from the Davis Mountains in western Texas. Known males of species of Leptanilloides are compared with L. chihuahuaensis. This is the first report of the genus from the United States and the Nearctic region. Previously, the Leptanilloides genus-group was only known to occur from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil; and thus, this record from Texas represents a remarkable extension of the known range of the genus. PMID:26623775

  18. Proof of a conjecture on the genus two free energy associated to the An singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yulong; Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin; Zhou, Chunhui

    2014-02-01

    In a recent paper Dubrovin et al. (1998), it is proved that the genus two free energy of an arbitrary semisimple Frobenius manifold can be represented as a sum of contributions associated with dual graphs of certain stable algebraic curves of genus two plus the so called genus two G-function, and for a certain class of Frobenius manifolds it is conjectured that the associated genus two G-functions vanish. In this paper, we prove this conjecture for the Frobenius manifolds associated with simple singularities of type A.

  19. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus. PMID:21325481

  20. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-06-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus.

  1. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  2. Conservation of meningococcal antigens in the genus Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Donati, Claudio

    2013-06-11

    Neisseria meningitidis, one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis, is a member of the genus Neisseria, which includes species that colonize the mucosae of many animals. Three meningococcal proteins, factor H-binding protein (fHbp), neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA), and N. meningitidis adhesin A (NadA), have been described as antigens protective against N. meningitidis of serogroup B, and they have been employed as vaccine components in preclinical and clinical studies. In the vaccine formulation, fHbp and NHBA were fused to the GNA2091 and GNA1030 proteins, respectively, to enhance protein stability and immunogenicity. To determine the possible impact of vaccination on commensal neisseriae, we determined the presence, distribution, and conservation of these antigens in the available genome sequences of the genus Neisseria, finding that fHbp, NHBA, and NadA were conserved only in species colonizing humans, while GNA1030 and GNA2091 were conserved in many human and nonhuman neisseriae. Sequence analysis showed that homologous recombination contributed to shape the evolution and distribution of both NHBA and fHbp, three major variants of which have been defined. fHbp variant 3 was probably the ancestral form of meningococcal fHbp, while fHbp variant 1 from N. cinerea was introduced into N. meningitidis by a recombination event. fHbp variant 2 was the result of a recombination event inserting a stretch of 483 bp from variant 1 into the variant 3 background. These data indicate that a high rate of exchange of genetic material between neisseriae that colonize the human upper respiratory tract exists. IMPORTANCE The upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals is a complex ecosystem colonized by many bacterial species. Among these, there are representatives of the genus Neisseria, including Neisseria meningitidis, a major cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. Given the close relationship between commensal and pathogenic species, a protein

  3. First record of the genus Kuwaita (Annelida: Lumbrineridae) in Europe with the description of a new species and new ultramorphological data for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias, Andrés; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2014-11-21

    A new species of the genus Kuwaita Mohammad, 1973, collected intertidally from a northern Spain estuary (Bay of Biscay), is described. Kuwaita hanneloreae sp. nov. constitutes the first evidence of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: prostomium with three small antennae protruding from nuchal fold, lack of eyes; simple multidentate hooded hooks with long hood in anterior chaetigers, and short hood in posterior ones with well defined proximal and distal teeth with several teeth between them; posterior chaetigers with very small nephridial papillae; branchiae reduced to little knobs in posterior parapodia; maxillary apparatus with five pairs of maxillae, MIII bidentate with distal tooth bigger than proximal one. We present brief notes on its ecology and remarks on the presence and ultrastructure of a notopodial sense organ newly recorded for the genus. Furthermore, an updated key of the genus Kuwaita is included.

  4. First record of the genus Kuwaita (Annelida: Lumbrineridae) in Europe with the description of a new species and new ultramorphological data for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias, Andrés; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Kuwaita Mohammad, 1973, collected intertidally from a northern Spain estuary (Bay of Biscay), is described. Kuwaita hanneloreae sp. nov. constitutes the first evidence of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: prostomium with three small antennae protruding from nuchal fold, lack of eyes; simple multidentate hooded hooks with long hood in anterior chaetigers, and short hood in posterior ones with well defined proximal and distal teeth with several teeth between them; posterior chaetigers with very small nephridial papillae; branchiae reduced to little knobs in posterior parapodia; maxillary apparatus with five pairs of maxillae, MIII bidentate with distal tooth bigger than proximal one. We present brief notes on its ecology and remarks on the presence and ultrastructure of a notopodial sense organ newly recorded for the genus. Furthermore, an updated key of the genus Kuwaita is included. PMID:25543924

  5. Descriptions of four kleptoparasitic spiders of the genus Mysmenopsis (Araneae, Mysmenidae) and their potential host spider species in the genus Linothele (Araneae, Dipluridae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2015-06-12

    Four new species of the genus Mysmenopsis are described: M. onorei n. sp., M. otonga n. sp., M. fernandoi n. sp. and M. chiquita n. sp. All species were collected in diplurid webs and are therefore assumed to be kleptoparasitic. Five potential host species of the genus Linothele (Dipluridae) that were collected with the symbionts are also described: Linothele yanachanka n. sp., L. pukachumpi n. sp., L. zaia n. sp., L. tsachilas n. sp. and L. quori n. sp.

  6. Two new species of the genus Temnaspis Lacordaire, 1845, (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea: Megalopodidae) from China and Myanmar, with notes on the biology of the genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiqin; Liang, Zongli; Liang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Temnaspis Lacordaire, 1845, family Megalopodidae, are described from China and Myanmar: Temnaspis puae Li & H.B. Liang, sp. nov., Temnaspis syringa Li & H.B. Liang, sp. nov. Biological notes are provided for Temnaspis syringa. Temnaspis flavicornis Jacoby, 1892 is redescribed and a lectotype designated. A key to species of the genus Temnaspis with black elytra in China and adjacent areas is provided. PMID:25112760

  7. New primate genus from the Miocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Marcelo F; Tauber, Adán A; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Swisher, Carl C; Palacios, María E

    2006-04-01

    Killikaike blakei is a new genus and species of anthropoid from the late Early Miocene of southeastern Argentina based on the most pristine fossil platyrrhine skull and dentition known so far. It is part of the New World platyrrhine clade (Family Cebidae; Subfamily Cebinae) including modern squirrel (Saimiri) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus) and their fossil relatives known from Early to Middle Miocene and subrecent periods. Living cebines are relatively large-brained, adroit predatory foragers and live within complex social groups, and wild capuchins exhibit a wide range of behaviors associated with enhanced intelligence. We show that K. blakei lacks diagnostic derived characteristics of the lower face and premolar dentition that are shared by modern cebines, but its strongly vaulted frontal bone and capacious anterior cranial fossa indicate the early evolution of an enlarged forebrain.

  8. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  9. Polyploidization facilitates biotechnological in vitro techniques in the genus Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Dagmar; Ondřej, Vladan; Doležalová, Ivana; Navrátilová, Božena; Lebeda, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Prezygotic interspecific crossability barrier in the genus Cucumis is related to the ploidy level of the species (cucumber (C. sativus), x = 7; muskmelon (C. melo) and wild Cucumis species, x = 12). Polyploidization of maternal plants helps hybridization among other Cucumis species by overcoming prezygotic genetic barriers. The main objective of this paper is to compare the results of several methods supporting interspecific crosses in cucumber without and with polyploidization (comparison between diploid (2x) and mixoploid (2x/4x) cucumber maternal plants). Mixoploid plants were obtained after in vivo and in vitro polyploidization by colchicine and oryzalin. Ploidy level was estimated by flow cytometry. Embryo rescue, in vitro pollination, and isolation of mesophyll protoplast were tested and compared. Positive effect of polyploidization was observed during all experiments presented by higher regeneration capacity of cultivated mixoploid cucumber embryos, ovules, and protoplasts. Nevertheless, the hybrid character of putative hybrid accessions obtained after cross in vivo and in vitro pollination was not confirmed. PMID:21234406

  10. Korean species of the genus Neoperla Needham, 1905 (Plecoptera: Perlidae).

    PubMed

    Murányi, Dávid; Li, Weihai; Jeon, Mi Jeong; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Seo, Hong Yul

    2015-01-10

    Two new species of the perlid genus Neoperla, N. adamantea Murányi & Li, sp. n. and N. goguryeo Murányi & Li, sp. n. are described from both sexes, collected in the Kumgang and Myohyang Mountains of North Korea by personnel of the Hungarian Natural History Museum during the 1970's. Two additional species, N. coreensis Ra, Kim, Kang & Ham, 1994 and N. ussurica Sivec & Zhiltzova, 1996 are redescribed from North Korean specimens. Neoperla quadrata Wu & Claassen, 1934 is redescribed on the basis of the holotype from Sichuan Province, China, and the Korean occurrence of this species requires confirmation. Korean and global distributions of the five Neoperla species reported from the peninsula are depicted on maps.

  11. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopus glaucus = Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopus therondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopus grossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinus grossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopus glaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopus grossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopus torvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopus atrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopus henoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti. PMID:25685017

  12. Development of SSR markers for the genus Patellifolia (Chenopodiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Marion; Bülow, Lorenz; Schubert, Jörg; Frese, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to promote studies on the patterns of genetic diversity within Patellifolia patellaris (Chenopodiaceae) and the relationship between the three species of the genus Patellifolia. Methods and Results: The genomic sequence from P. procumbens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 3648 SSRs were identified. A subset of 53 SSR markers was validated, of which 25 proved to be polymorphic in the three species except for the P. webbiana–specific marker JKIPat16. The number of alleles ranged from 85 in P. patellaris, 187 in P. procumbens, and 202 in P. webbiana. Conclusions: The set of 25 new markers will facilitate studies of the relationships between the three Patellifolia species and of the spatial and temporal distribution of genetic diversity within the species. PMID:27610279

  13. Interspecific plastidial recombination in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

    PubMed

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Ruggiero, Maria Valeria

    2015-12-01

    Plastids are usually uni-parentally inherited and genetic recombination between these organelles is seldom observed. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia, a globally relevant marine diatom, features bi-parental plastid inheritance in the course of sexual reproduction. This observation inspired the recombination detection we pursued in this paper over a ~1,400-nucleotide-long region of the plastidial rbcL, a marker used in both molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic studies in diatoms. Among all the rbcL-sequences available in web-databases for Pseudo-nitzschia, 42 haplotypes were identified and grouped in five clusters by Bayesian phylogeny. Signs of hybridization were evident in four of five clusters, at both intra- and interspecific levels, suggesting that, in diatoms, (i) plastidial recombination is not absent and (ii) hybridization can play a role in speciation of Pseudo-nitzschia spp.

  14. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  15. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-08-04

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  16. Summing up all genus free energy of ABJM matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2011-08-01

    The localization technique allows us to compute the free energy of the U( N) k × U( N)- k Chern-Simons-matter theory dual to type IIA strings on AdS 4 × CP 3 from weak to strong 't Hooft coupling λ = N/ k at finite N, as demonstrated by Drukker, Mariño, and Putrov. In this note we study further the free energy at large 't Hooft coupling with the aim of testing AdS/CFT at the quantum gravity level and, in particular, sum up allthe1/ N corrections, apart from the worldsheet instanton contributions. The all genus partition function takes a remarkably simple form — the Airy function, {text{Ai}}left( {{{left( {{{{π {k^2}}} left/ {{sqrt {2} }} right.}} right)}^{{{2} left/ {3} right.}}}{λ_{text{ren}}}} right) , with the renormalized 't Hooft coupling λren.

  17. Molecular systematics and global phylogeography of angel sharks (genus Squatina).

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; von Rintelen, Thomas; Cliff, Geremy; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Angel sharks of the genus Squatina represent a group comprising 22 extant benthic species inhabiting continental shelves and upper slopes. In the present study, a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of 17 Squatina species based on two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rRNA) is provided. The phylogenetic reconstructions are used to test biogeographic patterns. In addition, a molecular clock analysis is conducted to estimate divergence times of the emerged clades. All analyses show Squatina to be monophyletic. Four geographic clades are recognized, of which the Europe-North Africa-Asia clade is probably a result of the Tethys Sea closure. A second sister group relationship emerged in the analyses, including S. californica (eastern North Pacific) and S. dumeril (western North Atlantic), probably related to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus. The molecular clock analysis show that both lineage divergences coincide with the estimated time of these two geological events. PMID:19647086

  18. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    PubMed

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  19. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  20. Carajathemis simone, new genus and species from Brazil (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Angelo B M

    2012-12-01

    Carajathemis simone n. gen., n.sp. from the state of Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated based on 22 specimens collected in a "canga" (laterite) lake within the forest at the Flona de Carajás, Parauapebas Municipality. The new libellulid genus fits in the subfamily Sympetrinae and the male keys out to Erythemis in Garrison et al. (2006). The new taxon has a combination of characters that makes it different from all genera of Sympetrinae including Erythemis. The species is remarkable by its large size, pleural striping and especially by the complex and strongly dimorphic leg armature. It seems to be restricted to shallow, rainfall-dependent, iron-rich lakes. PMID:23207706

  1. [Karyogenomics of species of the genus Linum L].

    PubMed

    Muravenko, O V; Bol'sheva, N L; Iurkevich, O Iu; Nosova, I V; Rachinskaia, O A; Samatadze, T E; Zelenin, A V

    2010-10-01

    Using the molecular cytogenetic and RAPD methods of analysis, we studied genomes of 22 cultivated flax varieties and 24 wild species from six sections of the genus Linum L. The chromosome numbers were exactly determined in the karyotypes of all studied species, and all individual chromosomes were identified by the C/DAPI-banding pattern and localization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA. B chromosomes were identified and studied for the first time in species of the section Syllinum Griseb. According to the data obtained, the species studied were divided into eight groups on the basis of similarity of their karyotypes, which corresponded in general to their clustering based on the RAPD results. The systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the flax species were verified. PMID:21254551

  2. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Danielle T.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic) proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling. PMID:27478692

  3. Revision of the Genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood &Birchfield, 1957 (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, D. R.; Raski, D. J.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1969-01-01

    In the present study, evaluations of the nominal species and descriptions (H. parvus, H. intermedius, H. insignis, H. microdoratus and H. brevicaudatus) are made of five new species. H. squamosus is proposed as a species inquirenda; H. mangiferae is judged a valid species. H. litchi and H. birchfieldi are synonymized with H. mangiferae and H. ureshinoensis with H. kanayaensis. H. strictathecatus is considered a valid species. A key to the species of the genus is given. The limitation of use of male diagnostic characters in a mixture of populations of Hemicriconemoides with some other criconematids is discussed. The life cycle of H. chitwoodi has four complete molts; one in the egg, three in soil, two of which have spines. The adult female has a sheath cuticle from an incomplete fifth molt. PMID:19325667

  4. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals.

  5. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae).

    PubMed

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopusglaucus = Exaesiopusglaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopustherondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopusgrossipesberberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopusgrossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinusgrossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopusgrossipesberberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopusglaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopusgrossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopusglaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopustorvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopusatrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopushenoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti. PMID:25685017

  6. Development of SSR markers for the genus Patellifolia (Chenopodiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Marion; Bülow, Lorenz; Schubert, Jörg; Frese, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to promote studies on the patterns of genetic diversity within Patellifolia patellaris (Chenopodiaceae) and the relationship between the three species of the genus Patellifolia. Methods and Results: The genomic sequence from P. procumbens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 3648 SSRs were identified. A subset of 53 SSR markers was validated, of which 25 proved to be polymorphic in the three species except for the P. webbiana–specific marker JKIPat16. The number of alleles ranged from 85 in P. patellaris, 187 in P. procumbens, and 202 in P. webbiana. Conclusions: The set of 25 new markers will facilitate studies of the relationships between the three Patellifolia species and of the spatial and temporal distribution of genetic diversity within the species.

  7. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Danielle T; Tavormina, Patricia L; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic) proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling. PMID:27478692

  8. Carajathemis simone, new genus and species from Brazil (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Angelo B M

    2012-12-01

    Carajathemis simone n. gen., n.sp. from the state of Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated based on 22 specimens collected in a "canga" (laterite) lake within the forest at the Flona de Carajás, Parauapebas Municipality. The new libellulid genus fits in the subfamily Sympetrinae and the male keys out to Erythemis in Garrison et al. (2006). The new taxon has a combination of characters that makes it different from all genera of Sympetrinae including Erythemis. The species is remarkable by its large size, pleural striping and especially by the complex and strongly dimorphic leg armature. It seems to be restricted to shallow, rainfall-dependent, iron-rich lakes.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of the remarkable genus Bondarzewia (Basidiomycota, Russulales)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Chen, Jia-Jia; Wang, Min; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Bondarzewia is a conspicuous and widely distributed mushroom genus, but little is known about its origin and biogeography. Here, we investigated the systematics and biogeography of Bondarzewia species using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis. Four genetic markers, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large nuclear ribosomal RNA subunit (nLSU), elongation factor 1-α (tef1) and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Bondarzewia. We performed Bayesian evolutionary analysis on the gene datasets of the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). From the results, we inferred that the maximum crown age of Bondarzewia is approximately 25.5 million-years-ago (Mya) and that tropical East Asia is likely to be its ancestral area, with three possible expansions leading to its distribution in North America, Europe and Oceania. PMID:27680391

  10. Oxidative stress and species of genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Duletic-Lausevic, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a factor in the aging process and in a series of serious disorders, arises when the reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are produced in excess and the capacity of cellular antioxidant defense is insufficient to detoxify and remove them. An internal antioxidant system is not always active enough to protect the human body from oxidative stress and, therefore, it needs the help of either synthetic or natural antioxidants. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the substitution of synthetic antioxidants, which could have toxic and mutagen effects, with natural antioxidants. Recent studies revealed that besides their high nutritional value, mushrooms have great potential as antioxidant agents. Species of the genus Ganoderma, especially G. lucidum, are well-known medicinal mushrooms that traditionally are used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases and possess appreciable antioxidant potential. PMID:23510281

  11. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum – Saint John’s wort – has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined. PMID:27200032

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of the genus Hafnia.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L; Khashe, Shideh; Probert, Will

    2002-07-01

    The present study characterised 73 Hafnia alvei isolates and five Escherichia isolates (originally identified as H. alvei) isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Branch (ICDDRB) in Bangladesh. Based upon the hydrolysis of arbutin and aesculin and the fermentation of salicin and D-arabinose, four distinct biotypes could be recognised among the 73 H. alvei isolates tested; biotype 1 (D-(-)-arabinose-positive only) accounted for 75% of all isolates analysed. Hydrolysis of aglycone compounds such as arbutin, salicin and aesculin appeared to be associated with expression of beta-glucosidase activity. ICDDRB isolates, when compared with type or reference strains of H. alvei, were shown not to belong to the genus Hafnia based upon resistance to Hafnia-specific bacteriophage 1672, possession of the phoE gene, expression of glutamate decarboxylase activity and significant 16S rDNA sequence divergence (approximately 8%) from the type strain, ATCC 13337T. True H. alvei strains, implicated in outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease in Canada, lacked the eaeA gene in contrast to ICDDRB isolates. Twenty-two H. alvei isolates were selected for further study. Based upon partial 16S rDNA sequencing, these 22 isolates fell into two genomic groups (genomospecies), identical to DNA groups previously established by DNA hybridisation studies. Markers such as motility, biotype, or enzymic or carbohydrate fermentation patterns did not correlate totally with DNA grouping, although malonate utilisation appeared to be the single best discriminatory phenotype. The results indicate that the genus Hafnia is heterogeneous and there do not appear to be any laboratory data available specifically linking these organisms to gastro-enteritis.

  13. Substrates specialization in lipid compounds and hydrocarbons of Marinobacter genus.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patricia; Vieira, Christophe; Grimaud, Régis; Militon, Cécile; Cuny, Philippe; Lima, Oscar; Guasco, Sophie; Brussaard, Corina P D; Michotey, Valérie

    2015-10-01

    The impact of petroleum contamination and of burrowing macrofauna on abundances of Marinobacter and denitrifiers was tested in marine sediment mesocoms after 3 months incubation. Quantification of this genus by qPCR with a new primer set showed that the main factor favoring Marinobacter abundance was hydrocarbon amendment followed by macrofauna presence. In parallel, proportion of nosZ-harboring bacteria increased in the presence of marcrofauna. Quantitative finding were explained by physiological data from a set of 34 strains and by genomic analysis of 16 genomes spanning 15 different Marinobacter-validated species (Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Marinobacter daeopensis, Marinobacter santoriniensis, Marinobacter pelagius, Marinobacter flavimaris, Marinobacter adhaerens, Marinobacter xestospongiae, Marinobacter algicola, Marinobacter vinifirmus, Marinobacter maritimus, Marinobacter psychrophilus, Marinobacter lipoliticus, Marinobacter manganoxydans, Marinobacter excellens, Marinobacter nanhaiticus) and 4 potential novel ones. Among the 105 organic electron donors tested in physiological analysis, Marinobacter pattern appeared narrow for almost all kinds of organic compounds except lipid ones. Strains of this set could oxidize a very large spectrum of lipids belonging to glycerolipids, branched, fatty acyls, and aromatic hydrocarbon classes. Physiological data were comforted by genomic analysis, and genes of alkane 1-monooxygenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and flavin-binding monooxygenase were detected in most genomes. Denitrification was assessed for several strains belonging to M. hydrocarbonoclasticus, M. vinifirmus, Marinobacter maritinus, and M. pelagius species indicating the possibility to use nitrate as alternative electron acceptor. Higher occurrence of Marinobacter in the presence of petroleum appeared to be the result of a broader physiological trait allowing this genus to use lipids including hydrocarbon as principal electron donors.

  14. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Victor T.; Reveillaud, Julie; Zettler, Erik; Mincer, Tracy J.; Murphy, Leslie; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish), yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large-scale analyses of publically available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology. PMID:25431569

  15. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum - Saint John's wort - has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined. PMID:27200032

  16. Variation in enamel thickness within the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Olejniczak, Anthony J; Zermeno, John P; Tafforeau, Paul; Skinner, Matthew M; Hoffmann, Almut; Radovčić, Jakov; Toussaint, Michel; Kruszynski, Robert; Menter, Colin; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Glasmacher, Ulrich A; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann; Stringer, Chris; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    Recent humans and their fossil relatives are classified as having thick molar enamel, one of very few dental traits that distinguish hominins from living African apes. However, little is known about enamel thickness in the earliest members of the genus Homo, and recent studies of later Homo report considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. In order to assess taxonomic, geographic, and temporal trends in enamel thickness, we applied micro-computed tomographic imaging to 150 fossil Homo teeth spanning two million years. Early Homo postcanine teeth from Africa and Asia show highly variable average and relative enamel thickness (AET and RET) values. Three molars from South Africa exceed Homo AET and RET ranges, resembling the hyper thick Paranthropus condition. Most later Homo groups (archaic European and north African Homo, and fossil and recent Homo sapiens) possess absolutely and relatively thick enamel across the entire dentition. In contrast, Neanderthals show relatively thin enamel in their incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, although incisor AET values are similar to H. sapiens. Comparisons of recent and fossil H. sapiens reveal that dental size reduction has led to a disproportionate decrease in coronal dentine compared with enamel (although both are reduced), leading to relatively thicker enamel in recent humans. General characterizations of hominins as having 'thick enamel' thus oversimplify a surprisingly variable craniodental trait with limited taxonomic utility within a genus. Moreover, estimates of dental attrition rates employed in paleodemographic reconstruction may be biased when this variation is not considered. Additional research is necessary to reconstruct hominin dietary ecology since thick enamel is not a prerequisite for hard-object feeding, and it is present in most later Homo species despite advances in technology and food processing. PMID:22361504

  17. A revision of the genus Atelecrinus PH Carpenter (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Messing, Charles G

    2013-01-01

    The unusual bathyal comatulid crinoid genus Atelecrinus is widespread in the Atlantic and tropical Pacific Oceans and currently includes three recognized species. A re-assessment based on examination of new and existing specimens requires establishment of two new genera and five new species, and returns three junior synonyms to species-level status. Paratelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus wyvilli PH Carpenter, A. conifer AH Clark, A. cubensis PH Carpenter, P. orthotriremis, new species, P. amenouzume new species, P. laticonulus new species and P. telo new species. Adelatelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus sulcatus AH Clark and Adelatelecrinus vallatus new species. Atelecrinus retains A. balanoides PH Carpenter and A. helgae AH Clark, which restricts the genus to the Atlantic. In both Paratelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus, the basals articulate with the centrodorsal via ligament bundles anchored in deep ringlike interradial pits that project into the centrodorsal cavity, whereas in Atelecrinus the centrodorsal rim has shallow interradial concavities and attaches to the basals via a tight junction with no obvious ligament bundles. The spoon-shaped aboral fossa in the basals of Paratelecrinus appears to be unique among articulate crinoids and differs from the smooth fossa found in both Atelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus. New material extends the range of the family to the Indian Ocean. A few species are now known from enough specimens to identify some ontogenetic and distributional variations. Proximal ray morphology varies substantially with size in P. cubensis and P. orthotriremis. A. balanoides generally occurs in deeper water in the Lesser Antilles than in the Bahamas and Strait of Florida, while P. orthotriremis occurs in shallower water in the Lesser Antilles and deeper in the Bahamas.

  18. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Reveillaud, Julie; Zettler, Erik; Mincer, Tracy J; Murphy, Leslie; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish), yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large-scale analyses of publically available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology. PMID:25431569

  19. On the genus Paralobella (Collembola: Neanuridae: Lobellini) with description of a new Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongzheng; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    Remarks on the genus Paralobella Cassagnau & Deharveng, 1984 and a key to world species is provided. P. breviseta sp. nov. is described from Eastern China, it is distinguished from all known members of the genus by its biggest size, digitate body dorsolateral and lateral tubercles and very short setae on dorso-internal tubercles. PMID:27395557

  20. Three new species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur (Lepidostomatidae: Trichoptera) from India.

    PubMed

    Parey, Sajad H; Morse, John C; Pandher, Manpreet S

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur are described and illustrated from the Indian Himalaya: Lepidostoma trilobatum sp. nov., L. lidderwatense sp. nov., and L. sainii sp. nov., all belonging to the Lepidostoma ferox Branch. With these new additions, the genus Lepidostoma is now represented by 50 species in India and over 450 species globally. PMID:27395712

  1. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia.  PMID:25283909

  2. Two new species of the genus Trouessartia (Acari, Trouessartiidae) from laughingthrushes (Passeriformes, Leiothrichidae)

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Cobzaru, Ioana; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costică

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from laughingthrushes (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae) captured in Meghalaya (India): Trouessartia cyanouropterae sp. n. from Actinodura cyanouroptera (Hodgson) and Trouessartia alcippeae sp. n. from Alcippe nipalensis (Hodgson). It is the first time when species of the genus Trouessartia are described from leiothrichids. PMID:27110158

  3. A new genus and species in the tribe Empoascini (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Si-Han; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    One new leafhopper genus, Circinans, is described with a new species Circinans striata sp. n. as the type species from southern China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of this new species are given and differences between the new genus and closely related genera are discussed.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leontopodium (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on AFLP data

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, STEFAN; TREMETSBERGER, KARIN; GUO, YAN-PING; KOHL, GUDRUN; SAMUEL, MARY R.; STUESSY, TOD F.; STUPPNER, HERMANN

    2012-01-01

    The genus Leontopodium comprises 30–41 species. The centre of diversity is the Sino-Himalayan region in south-western China, where about 15 species occur. The two species native to Europe, L. alpinum (known as the common ‘Edelweiss’) and L. nivale, are part of the cultural heritage of the people living there. Despite its importance, very little is known about the systematics of the genus. Because recent molecular studies have shown that species within this genus are closely related and difficult to distinguish with rDNA and cpDNA data, we used AFLPs to obtain a more detailed understanding of the phylogeny of the genus. Our main aims were as follows: (1) to clarify species relationships within the genus; and (2) to reveal information about the biogeography of the genus. We used AFLPs with six primer combinations to investigate 216 individuals in 38 populations of 16 different species. With AFLPs, we were able to recognize 10 different groups, all of which had strong bootstrap support. These results were also congruent with the morphology-based taxonomy of the genus. Most private and rare fragments were found in the Yunnan region (south-western China) relative to Europe and Mongolia/central China, suggesting a long-lasting in situ history of populations in the centre of diversity of the genus. Our results illustrate the utility of AFLPs to resolve phylogenetic relationships between these closely related species. PMID:23258943

  5. A new genus of predatory katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Amazonian Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Most of the predatory katydids Listroscelidini species known were described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Here a new genus and species from the Amazonian Rainforest is described. Based on its morphological characteristics, this new genus represents an intermediate form between two closely related genera, Listroscelis Serville and Monocerophora Walker. PMID:27615994

  6. The South American Dung Beetle Genus Ennearabdus Lansberge (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini)

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American endemic dung beetle genus Ennearabdus Lansberge is revised. Description, diagnosis and illustrations are presented for the only known species of the genus, E. lobocephalus (Harold). A lectotype is designated for Onthophagus lobocephalus Harold, the type species of Ennearabdus. The biology, biogeography, conservation status, and distribution based on the predictive distribution model of E. lobocephalus are also discussed. PMID:20673117

  7. A new species of the rare African wool carder bee genus Anthidioma (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of the genus Anthidioma Pasteels (Megachilidae: Anthidiini) is described and figured from a female collected in the Obib Dunes in Namibia. Anthidioma obibense, new species, is differentieated from the only other species of the genus, A. chalicodomoides, on the basis of its integumenta...

  8. A new genus and species in the tribe Empoascini (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Si-han; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new leafhopper genus, Circinans, is described with a new species Circinans striata sp. n. as the type species from southern China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of this new species are given and differences between the new genus and closely related genera are discussed. PMID:24693215

  9. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  10. Pseudohampsonella: A New Genus of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from China, and Three New Species

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Alexey V.; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Pseudohampsonella gen. n. (type-species: Pseudohampsonella erlanga Solovyev & Saldaitis), and three new species, Pseudohampsonella erlanga sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (from Sichuan Province, China), Pseudohampsonella hoenei sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China), and Pseudohampsonella argenta sp. n. Solovyev & Saldaitis (Yunnan Province, China) are described. The taxonomic position of the genus is discussed. PMID:25373193

  11. Revision of the Genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen. nov. for C. jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture. With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores, the genus was re-examined using this and...

  12. Lolodorfus, a new genus of net-winged beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae: Dexorinae) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bocakova, Milada

    2014-06-04

    A new genus Lolodorfus is proposed within the subfamily Dexorinae and Lolodorfus flavus sp. nov. from Cameroon is described. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are given. The genus Mimolibnetis Pic, 1936 is transferred to the Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989, and consequently the subfamily Mimolibnetinae Kazantsev, 2013 is considered to be a younger synonym of Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989.

  13. New genus and new species of Neoibidionini from the Neotropical region (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    One new genus and six new species are described from the Neotropical region: Heterachthes hildebranti, H. skillmani, and H. noguerai, from Mexico; Compsibidion morrisi, from Bolivia; Tropidion wappesi, from Bolivia; and Biraidion, new genus, type species B. martinsi sp. nov., from Bolivia. Biraidion, Compsibidion morrisi, and Tropidion wappesi are included in previous keys. PMID:27470731

  14. Uncovering the diversity of the neotropical genus Elaphopsocus ('Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae): from one to ten species.

    PubMed

    Román-Palacios, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2016-01-01

    For 75 years, the genus Elaphopsocus was considered a monotypic lineage of neotropical psocids. As a result of recent work in South America, this genus presently includes seven species from Brazil and Colombia. We here describe three new species from the East Colombian high Andes. PMID:27615980

  15. The correct name of the type species of the genus Methanocorpusculum. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2015-06-01

    We propose that Methanocorpusculum parvum with type strain XII must remain the nomenclatural type of the genus Methanocorpusculum, in spite of the fact that the description of Methanogenium aggregans with type strain MSt, later transferred to the genus Methanocorpusculum as comb. nov. and then proposed as a heterotypic synonym of Methanocorpusculum parvum, was published before Methanocorpusculum parvum strain XII.

  16. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): Diversity, distribution, and world invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Raoiella is most well known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This pa...

  17. New genus and new species of Neoibidionini from the Neotropical region (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    One new genus and six new species are described from the Neotropical region: Heterachthes hildebranti, H. skillmani, and H. noguerai, from Mexico; Compsibidion morrisi, from Bolivia; Tropidion wappesi, from Bolivia; and Biraidion, new genus, type species B. martinsi sp. nov., from Bolivia. Biraidion, Compsibidion morrisi, and Tropidion wappesi are included in previous keys.

  18. A new genus of mimetic longhorned beetle from St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Rhinotragini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species originally described as Fortuneleptura romei Touroult 2011 (Lepturinae) is placed in a new genus, Iyanola Lingafelter & Ivie (Cerambycinae: Rhinotragini). Along with the new genus description, the species is redescribed and additional collection data is recorded. A key to the genera and ...

  19. Review of the genus Chrysoscota in Cambodia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysoscota Hampson, 1900 in Cambodia is reviewed, with description of a new species, Chrysoscota kimsuni Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to sciences, and C. cotriangulata Holloway, 2001 is reported as new for the country. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia are provided for both species, with a checklist of the genus Chrysoscota. PMID:27615854

  20. Uncovering the diversity of the neotropical genus Elaphopsocus ('Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae): from one to ten species.

    PubMed

    Román-Palacios, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2016-09-09

    For 75 years, the genus Elaphopsocus was considered a monotypic lineage of neotropical psocids. As a result of recent work in South America, this genus presently includes seven species from Brazil and Colombia. We here describe three new species from the East Colombian high Andes.

  1. A new sharpshooter genus for Sphinctogonia lingula Yang & Li (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini) from China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ze-Hong; Yang, Mao-Fa; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Sphinctogoniella, is described to accommodate Sphinctogonia lingula Yang & Li, 2002, its type species from China. Sphinctogoniella lingula (Yang & Li, 2002), comb. n. is re-described and illustrated. Differences between the new genus and Sphinctogonia Breddin, 1901 are tabulated.

  2. A study on the apterous genus Clytomelegena Pic, 1928 (Coleoptera, Disteniidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Meiying; Murzin, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    The genus Noeconia Murzin, 1988 is synonymized with Clytomelegena Pic, 1928. Clytomelegena kabakovi (Murzin, 1988), comb. n. is newly recorded from China (Guangxi Prov.). And Laos (Attapeu Prov.) is a new locality of this genus. Both sexes are apterous. Photographs and genitalic descriptions of Clytomelegena kabakovi are presented for the first time.

  3. A New Click Beetle Genus from Southern Chile: Llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini)

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Elizabeth T.

    2008-01-01

    Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

  4. A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thaumatovalva, new genus, is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum, new species, from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana, new species (type species), from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai ...

  5. [Evaluation of the Autoscan-4 System for the identification of strains of the genus Salmonella].

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Echeita, A

    1991-06-01

    A study was performed to compare the Autoscan-4 with conventional biochemical methods to identify isolates of the Salmonella genus. The Autoscan-4 yielded correct identification of the 99% Salmonella isolates at the genus and species level, but failed to identify 74% Salmonella isolates of the "Arizona" group, making necessary to perform subspecies biochemical reactions.

  6. Ruthmuelleria, a new genus of Carinodulini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Microweiseinae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Slipiński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A new genus of ladybird beetles, Ruthmuelleria, belonging to the pantropical tribe Carinodulini, is described based on a new species R. grootdrifensis from South Africa. The genus is diagnosed by the unique 8-segmented antennae and posteriorly-directed metaventral postcoxal lines. A key to the genera and discussion of diagnostic characters of Carinodulini are also included. PMID:24872056

  7. Evaluation of Lespedeza Germplasm Genetic Diversity and Its Phylogenetic Relationship with the Genus Kummerowia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the genus Lespedeza is not well known and the phylogenetic relationship of Lespedeza with the genus Kummerowia is unclear. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago, cowpea and soybea...

  8. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Daucus (Apiaceae) determined by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae) comprises species from around the world, covering a wide climatic range, and showing great morphological plasticity. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genome size variability in the collection o...

  9. A new genus and species of Cicadellini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ze-Hong; Yang, Mao-Fa

    2015-11-05

    The leafhopper genus Atkinsoniella was originally established by Distant (1908) for two species with A. decisa as type species. So far, 75 valid species are known worldwide and of these, 63 are from China (Yang et al. 2011). Because Atkinsoniella is a very large and morphologically heterogeneous genus it is desirable to recognize smaller groups of species with distinctive characteristics.

  10. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  11. Genus Two Partition and Correlation Functions for Fermionic Vertex Operator Superalgebras I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, Michael P.; Zuevsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    We define the partition and n-point correlation functions for a vertex operator superalgebra on a genus two Riemann surface formed by sewing two tori together. For the free fermion vertex operator superalgebra we obtain a closed formula for the genus two continuous orbifold partition function in terms of an infinite dimensional determinant with entries arising from torus Szegő kernels. We prove that the partition function is holomorphic in the sewing parameters on a given suitable domain and describe its modular properties. Using the bosonized formalism, a new genus two Jacobi product identity is described for the Riemann theta series. We compute and discuss the modular properties of the generating function for all n-point functions in terms of a genus two Szegő kernel determinant. We also show that the Virasoro vector one point function satisfies a genus two Ward identity.

  12. Towards a phylogeny of the genus Vibrio based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, M; Lane, D; Stackebrandt, E

    1992-01-01

    The inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus Vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16S rRNAs of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. The results of immunological and 5S rRNA studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family Enterobacteriaceae. With regard to the intrageneric structure, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio proteolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus form the core of the genus, while Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, Vibrio diazotrophicus, and Vibrio hollisae are placed on the outskirts of the genus. Variable regions around positions 80, 180, and 450 could be used as target sites for genus- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes and polymerase chain reaction primers to be used in molecular identification.

  13. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): diversity, distribution, and world invasions.

    PubMed

    Dowling, A P G; Ochoa, R; Beard, J J; Welbourn, W C; Ueckermann, E A

    2012-08-01

    The genus Raoiella is best known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This paper attempts to address some of the basic historical questions regarding the palm mite as well as the genus. Molecular characters from COI and 28S regions were used to produce a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus in an effort to understand its geographic origin. It also uses COI barcode data to delimit several potentially new species discovered by the authors in Australia. Results show a basal split between R. indica and all other Raoiella species, which indicates Africa or the Middle East as the most probable origin of the genus. Additionally, COI data suggests that at least eight new species are represented among the 20 Australian populations included in this study.

  14. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): diversity, distribution, and world invasions.

    PubMed

    Dowling, A P G; Ochoa, R; Beard, J J; Welbourn, W C; Ueckermann, E A

    2012-08-01

    The genus Raoiella is best known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This paper attempts to address some of the basic historical questions regarding the palm mite as well as the genus. Molecular characters from COI and 28S regions were used to produce a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus in an effort to understand its geographic origin. It also uses COI barcode data to delimit several potentially new species discovered by the authors in Australia. Results show a basal split between R. indica and all other Raoiella species, which indicates Africa or the Middle East as the most probable origin of the genus. Additionally, COI data suggests that at least eight new species are represented among the 20 Australian populations included in this study. PMID:21913003

  15. Revisiting species delimitation within the genus Oxystele using DNA barcoding approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Bank, Herman; Herbert, Dai; Greenfield, Richard; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Oxystele, a member of the highly diverse marine gastropod superfamily Trochoidea, is endemic to southern Africa. Members of the genus include some of the most abundant molluscs on southern African shores and are important components of littoral biodiversity in rocky intertidal habitats. Species delimitation within the genus is still controversial, especially regarding the complex O. impervia / O. variegata. Here, we assessed species boundaries within the genus using DNA barcoding and phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We analysed 56 specimens using the mitochondrial gene COI. Our analysis delimits five molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and distinguishes O. impervia from O. variegata. However, we reveal important discrepancies between MOTUs and morphology-based species identification and discuss alternative hypotheses that can account for this. Finally, we indicate the need for future study that includes additional genes, and the combination of both morphology and genetic techniques (e.g. AFLP or microsatellites) to get deeper insight into species delimitation within the genus. PMID:24453566

  16. Then there were five: a reexamination of the ant genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    LaPolla, John S; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The ant genus Paratrechina is reexamined based on the discovery of two new species from Madagascar (P. ankarana sp. n. and P. antsingy sp. n.). Paratrechina kohli, a species known from central Africa, is transferred to Paratrechina from Prenolepis based on a new morphological interpretation of the genus and an updated morphological diagnosis of the genus is provided. This means that other than the widespread P. longicornis, whose origins remain uncertain, all Paratrechina are restricted either to the Afrotropical or Malagasy regions. It would also appear that of the five Paratrechina species now known, three are from dry forest habitats. With this reexamination of the genus, the possible origins of P. longicornis are discussed. A key to the genera of the Prenolepis genus-group is provided, as is a key to the workers of Paratrechina. In addition, we also designate a lectotype for Paratrechina kohli. PMID:25061388

  17. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

  18. Genus XV. Saccharothrix Labeda, Testa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1984, 429vp emend. Labeda and Lechevalier 1989, 422

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics, ecology, and natural products of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Saccharothrix is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Saccharothrix algeriensis, Saccharothrix australiensis, Saccharothrix coeruleofla...

  19. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  20. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  1. [A personal view of the history of the genus Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Mollaret, H H

    1987-01-01

    The first recorded experience Australia had of the genus Yersinia was the arrival in 1889 of a French expedition led by Pasteur's nephew, Dr. Adrien Loir. At that time Australia was in the grips of an epidemic of rabbits, and Loir's purpose was to eradicate the rabbits by means of fowl plague (Pasteurella multocida). Sadly, bureaucratic and political obstacles prevailed, and Loir was never granted permission to release his biological control agent. Alexander Yersin had been tempted to join Loir's expedition, but elected in the end to travel to Hong Kong, where he discovered the plague bacillus. Had he gone to Australia, we might not now be speaking of the genus Yersinia... Historically, Yersinia pestis has affected not only world history but literature as well. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, the tragic denouement can be attributed directly to the consequences of the Great Plague. In times of plague, cities closed their gates to travellers, and houses their doors and windows. Thus Laurence's explanatory letter was prevented from reaching Romeo, who returned to take his life beside the drugged (but living) body of his beloved. Not only was the contemporary literature from which Shakespeare drew inspiration full of references to the plague, but he himself had experienced the social effects of the plague at first hand. The recent rejection of the name Y. pseudotuberculosis var. pestis in favour of Y. pestis is fitting, not simply on the grounds of preventing confusion - after all, Y. pseudotuberculosis can be an equally lethal pathogen. However, a review of the epidemiology for Y. pestis since the First Pandemic in the 6th Century AD lends support to Devignat's hypothesis that Y. pseudotuberculosis evolved from Y. pestis, rather than vice versa. This probably occurred in Europe shortly before the Second Pandemic, and the new mutant spread slowly through the European rodent population, immunising the carriers against plague. In other parts of the world which

  2. Description of a new species of the genus Monelata Förster, 1856 from China (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zi; Xu, Zai-fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Monelata Förster, 1856, Monelata truncata sp. n., is described and illustrated from Yunnan Province, China. This is the third Oriental species assigned to this genus. A key to Oriental species of the genus is provided. PMID:27110180

  3. Muhaka icipeins, an enigmatic new genus and species of Kleidotomini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) from an East African coastal forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remarkable new eucoiline genus and species, Muhaka icipeins, is described herein. The genus is clearly a Kleidotomini, but is distinguished from other genera in the tribe by the unique head and scutellar morphology of Muhaka. The genus belongs to the ‘wedge-head’-syndrome group of species that, ...

  4. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.

  5. Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species.

  6. The genus Nonomuraea: A review of a rare actinomycete taxon for novel metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sungthong, Rungroch; Nakaew, Nareeluk

    2015-05-01

    The genus Nonomuraea is a rare actinomycete taxon with a long taxonomic history, while its generic description was recently emended. The genus is less known among the rare actinomycete genera as its taxonomic position was revised several times. It can be found in diverse ecological niches, while most of its member species were isolated from soil samples. However, new trends to discover the genus in other habitats are increasing. Generic abundance of the genus was found to be dependent on geographical changes. Novel sources together with selective and invented isolation techniques might increase a chance to explore the genus and its novel candidates. Interestingly, some of its members have been revealed as a valuable source of novel metabolites for medical and industrial purposes. Broad-range of potent bioactive compounds including antimicrobial, anticancer, and antipsychotic substances, broad-spectrum antibiotics and biocatalysts can be synthesized by the genus. In order to investigate biosynthetic pathways of the bioactive compounds and self-resistant mechanisms to these compounds, the links from genes to metabolites have yet been needed for further discovery and biotechnological development of the genus Nonomuraea.

  7. The genus Nonomuraea: A review of a rare actinomycete taxon for novel metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sungthong, Rungroch; Nakaew, Nareeluk

    2015-05-01

    The genus Nonomuraea is a rare actinomycete taxon with a long taxonomic history, while its generic description was recently emended. The genus is less known among the rare actinomycete genera as its taxonomic position was revised several times. It can be found in diverse ecological niches, while most of its member species were isolated from soil samples. However, new trends to discover the genus in other habitats are increasing. Generic abundance of the genus was found to be dependent on geographical changes. Novel sources together with selective and invented isolation techniques might increase a chance to explore the genus and its novel candidates. Interestingly, some of its members have been revealed as a valuable source of novel metabolites for medical and industrial purposes. Broad-range of potent bioactive compounds including antimicrobial, anticancer, and antipsychotic substances, broad-spectrum antibiotics and biocatalysts can be synthesized by the genus. In order to investigate biosynthetic pathways of the bioactive compounds and self-resistant mechanisms to these compounds, the links from genes to metabolites have yet been needed for further discovery and biotechnological development of the genus Nonomuraea. PMID:24633812

  8. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group. PMID:27199581

  9. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group. PMID:27199581

  10. Phylogeny of the avian genus Pitohui and the evolution of toxicity in birds.

    PubMed

    Dumbacher, John P; Deiner, Kristy; Thompson, Lindsey; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    Bird species in the avian genus Pitohui contain potent neurotoxic alkaloids that may be used for defense. The genus comprises multiple species that are endemic to New Guinea and were presumed to belong to the family Pachycephalidae or Colluricinclidae, within the core corvoidea, an ancient Australasian radiation of crow-like birds. In order to understand the evolution of toxicity within the genus Pitohui, we sequenced three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene segments and reconstructed a phylogeny of the genus Pitohui and its putative relatives. We show that the genus Pitohui is polyphyletic, and consists of five different lineages. Using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction, we estimate that toxicity likely evolved multiple times within this group. Furthermore, because the morphological and behavioral similarity among these poisonous birds appears to have evolved convergently, we hypothesize that this may be a possible example of Müllerian mimicry in birds. The Morningbird of Palau, Micronesia, that has often been included in the genus Pitohui, actually belongs in the genus Pachycephala and offers an intriguing case of pronounced evolution on a remote oceanic island.

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Members of the Genus Streptobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Nicklas, Werner; Mauder, Norman; Rau, Jörg; Contzen, Matthias; Semmler, Torsten; Hofmann, Nicola; Aledelbi, Khayrieh; Ewers, Christa

    2015-01-01

    The genus Streptobacillus (S.) remained monotypic for almost 90 years until two new species were recently described. The type species, S. moniliformis, is one of the two etiological agents of rat bite fever, an under-diagnosed, worldwide occurring zoonosis. In a polyphasic approach field isolates and reference strains of S. moniliformis, S. hongkongensis, S. felis as well as divergent isolates were characterized by comparison of molecular data (n = 29) and from the majority also by their physiological as well as proteomic properties (n = 22). Based on growth-independent physiological profiling using VITEK2-compact, API ZYM and the Micronaut system fastidious growth-related difficulties could be overcome and streptobacilli could definitively be typed despite generally few differences. While differing in their isolation sites and dates, S. moniliformis isolates were found to possess almost identical spectra in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods facilitated differentiation of S. moniliformis, S. hongkongensis and S. felis as well as one divergent isolate. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene as well as functional genes groEL, recA and gyrB revealed only little intraspecific variability, but generally proved suitable for interspecies discrimination between all three taxa and two groups of divergent isolates. PMID:26252790

  12. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-01-01

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed. PMID:25781854

  13. Distribution, habitat and adaptability of the genus Tapirus.

    PubMed

    García, Manolo J; Medici, Emília Patrícia; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Novarino, Wilson; Leonardo, Raquel S

    2012-12-01

    In this manuscript, as a starting point, the ancient and current distribution of the genus Tapirus are summarized, from its origins, apparently in Europe, to current ranges. Subsequently, original and current tapir habitats are described, as well as changes in ancient habitats. As the manuscript goes on, we examine the ways in which tapir species interact with their habitats and the main aspects of habitat use, spatial ecology and adaptability. Having reviewed the historic and current distribution of tapirs, as well as their use and selection of habitats, we introduce the concept of adaptability, considering that some of the tapir physiological characteristics and behavioral strategies can reduce the negative impact of habitat alteration and climate change. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research priorities. The conservation community is still missing important pieces of information for the effective conservation of tapirs and their remaining habitats in Central and South America and Southeast Asia. Reconstructing how tapir species reached their current distribution ranges, interpreting how they interact with their habitats and gathering information regarding the strategies they use to cope with habitat changes will increase our understanding about these animals and contribute to the development of conservation strategies. PMID:23253366

  14. Genomics and ecological overview of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are high G+C Gram positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, and represent common inhabitants of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of mammals, birds and certain cold-blooded animals. The overall microbial population that resides in the GIT, referred to as the "gut microbiota", is an extremely complex community of microorganisms whose functions are believed to have a significant impact on human physiology. Different ecological relationships between bifidobacteria and their host can be developed, ranging from opportunistic pathogenic interactions (e.g. in the case of Bifidobacterium dentium) to a commensal or even health-promoting relationship (e.g. in the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium breve species). Among the known health-promoting or probiotic microorganisms, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant group and some bifidobacterial species are frequently used as the probiotic ingredient in many functional foods. However, despite the generally accepted importance of bifidobacteria as constituents of the human microbiota, there is only limited information available on their phylogeny, physiology and genetics. Moreover, host-microbiota interactions and cross-talk between different members of the gut microbiota are far from completely understood although they represent a crucial factor in the development and maintenance of human physiology and immune system. The aim of this review is to highlight the genetic and functional features of bifidobacteria residing in the human GIT using genomic and ecology-based information. PMID:21276626

  15. Species Relationships in the Genus Bryodaemon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wacławik, Beniamin; Skalski, Tomasz; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable taxonomy and phylogeny of similar, evolutionarily young species is among the greatest challenges in biology. Clearly the best approach is to use a combination of informative traits, including molecular markers and morphometric measurements. The objective of this study was to verify the taxonomy and phylogeny of four morphologically similar Carpathian species of Bryodaemon Podlussany, 1998 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Species relationships were studied using three molecular markers: two nuclear (ITS-2 and EF1-α) and one mitochondrial (COI, barcoding marker). We also took morphometric measurements of 35 taxonomically derived characteristics of body parts and genital apparatus. The potential presence of apomorphic features also was determined. We then compared our results with data concerning the ecology and geography of previously studied species. Our analyses confirmed the monophyly ofthis group and established a phylogeny for the genus. We propose that B. hanakii is the earliest derived species, based on morphometric measurements, apomorphies and the EF-lα phylogeny. The pattern ofnucleotide variation in this marker also indicates that B. rozneri and B. boroveci are the youngest species. This hypothesis is consistent with geographical ranges and ecological preferences of Carpathian Bryodaemon species. We also considered an alternative hypothesis based on the COI gene tree which indicated that B. rozneri was the oldest species. However, this arrangement is inconsistent with our morphological data.

  16. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphism in the genus Littorina (Prosobranchia: Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Knight, A J; Ward, R D

    1986-06-01

    Examination of eight Atlantic species of the genus Littorina by starch gel electrophoresis of purine nucleoside phosphorylase revealed extensive polymorphism within the L. saxatilis complex. In this group, four alleles have been identified. Heterozygotes are four banded, and thus, as in vertebrates, the enzyme is likely to be a trimer. Breeding experiments confirmed the genetic interpretation of the phenotype patterns. Where species of the saxatilis complex [L. saxatilis (=L. rudis), L. arcana, L. nigrolineata, L. neglecta] are sympatric, there are sometimes significant allele frequency differences between them. A fifth allele was present at a high frequency in L. obtusata and L. mariae, and L. littorea and L. neritoides each possessed unique alleles. A total of eight alleles was identified. Densitometric scanning of heterozygote patterns pointed to activity differences between alleles and also showed that, while the heterotrimeric bands were never less intense than the homotrimeric bands, the heterotrimeric bands were sometimes less intense than expected. It is not clear whether this represents nonrandom association of subunits, decreased stability of heterotrimers, or simply an artifact of the staining and quantifying process. PMID:3091000

  17. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A.; Wang, Yanbing; Obraztsova, Anna; Zagnitko, Olga P.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Osterman, Andrei L.

    2010-09-13

    To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we have established a subsystems-based comparative approach and applied it to 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The key stages of our approach include: (i) a homology-based identification of gene candidates using a genomic compilation of ~500 known components of sugar catabolic pathways; (ii) functional assignment of orthologs and prediction of alternative genes and pathway variants based on genomic (operons, regulons) and functional (subsystems, pathways) context analysis; (iii) validation of bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. The reconstructed catabolic pathways are significantly enriched by nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics, functional organization and evolution of the sugar catabolome, this study confirmed the efficiency of the established approach, which is scalable and applicable to other groups of microorganisms.

  18. Variability in the developmental life history of the genus Gorilla.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie; Breuer, Thomas; Hoff, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Life history is influenced by factors both intrinsic (e.g., body and relative brain size) and extrinsic (e.g., diet, environmental instability) to organisms. In this study, we examine the prediction that energetic risk influences the life history of gorillas. Recent comparisons suggest that the more frugivorous western lowland gorilla shows increased infant dependence, and thus a slower life history, than the primarily folivorous mountain gorilla to buffer against the risk of starvation during periods of food unpredictability. We further tested this hypothesis by incorporating additional life history data from wild western lowland gorillas and captive western lowland gorillas with the assumption that the latter live under ecological conditions of energetic risk that more closely resemble those of mountain gorillas and thus should show faster life histories than wild members of the species. Overall, we found captive western lowland and wild mountain gorillas to have faster developmental life histories than wild western lowland gorillas, weaning their infants approximately a year earlier and thus reducing interbirth intervals by a year. These results provide support that energetic risk plays an important role in determining gorilla life history. Unlike previous assertions, gorillas do not have substantially faster life histories, at least at the genus level, than other great apes. This calls for a re-evaluation of theories concerning comparative ape life history and evolution and highlights the need for data from additional populations that vary in energetic risk.

  19. Alhagi: a plant genus rich in bioactives for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Gulzar; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Alhagi, a plant genus from family Fabaceae, is widely distributed in many countries of Asia, Australia and Europe. Commonly known as camel thorn, Alhagi has many species famous for feed and folk medicinal uses. Different species of Alhagi such as Alhagi pseudalhagi, A. graecorum, A. sparsifolia, A. kirgisorum, A. maurorum, A. camelorum and A. persarum have been explored for their antioxidant potential and nutritive value along with various medicinal properties. A wide array of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids (alhacidin and alhacin), steroids, pseudalhagin A, phospholipids and polysaccharides have been reported from different parts of Alhagi species. A broad range of biological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial and antifungal have been ascribed to different parts of Alhagi. In addition, Alhagi plants are also valued as a rich source of digestible protein and important minerals. This review focuses on the medicinal applications and detailed profile of high-value bioactive phytochemicals along with pharmacological attributes and therapeutic potential of these multi-purpose plants.

  20. The artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils.

    PubMed

    Abad, María José; Bedoya, Luis Miguel; Apaza, Luis; Bermejo, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000-2011). PMID:22388966