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Sample records for ascomycete genus byssochlamys

  1. Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Houbraken, J; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C

    2009-06-01

    Byssochlamys and related Paecilomyces strains are often heat resistant and may produce mycotoxins in contaminated pasteurised foodstuffs. A comparative study of all Byssochlamys species was carried out using a polyphasic approach to find characters that differentiate species and to establish accurate data on potential mycotoxin production by each species. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region, parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes, macro- and micromorphological examinations and analysis of extrolite profiles were applied. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Byssochlamys includes nine species, five of which form a teleomorph, i.e. B. fulva, B. lagunculariae, B. nivea, B. spectabilis and B. zollerniae, while four are asexual, namely P. brunneolus, P. divaricatus, P. formosus and P. saturatus. Among these, B. nivea produces the mycotoxins patulin and byssochlamic acid and the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid. Byssochlamys lagunculariae produces byssochlamic acid and mycophenolic acid and thus chemically resembles B. nivea. Some strains of P. saturatus produce patulin and brefeldin A, while B. spectabilis (anamorph P. variotii s.s.) produces viriditoxin. Some micro- and macromorphological characters are valuable for identification purposes, including the shape and size of conidia and ascospores, presence and ornamentation of chlamydospores, growth rates on MEA and CYA and acid production on CREA. A dichotomous key is provided for species identification based on phenotypical characters.

  2. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance.

  3. Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Jiří; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-11-01

    Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C.

  4. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  5. Byssotoxin A, a secondary metabolite of Byssochlamys fulva.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, R K; Davis, N D; Diener, U L

    1976-01-01

    Byssochlamys fulva, isolated from corn, was grown on nutrient-amended shredded wheat medium for 14 days at 25 C. Crude solvent extract from these cultures was toxic to brine shrimp, chicken embryos, and rats. The extract was slightly inhibitory to the germination of of pea seeds, but was nontoxic to ten species of bacteria and one of yeast. One metabolite was isolated, given the trivial name byssotoxin A, and partially characterized chemically and physically. PMID:999274

  6. Influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Simas, Rosineide Costa; Almeida, Carlos A A; Cabral, Elaine C; Rauber, Ricardo H; Mallmann, Carlos A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Rosenthal, Amauri; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2010-08-15

    Although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by Penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during storage and distribution. In this study, the production of patulin by Byssochlamys spp (Byssochlamys nivea FRR 4421, B. nivea ATCC 24008 and Byssochlamys fulva IOC 4518) in cloudy and clarified apple juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages or in polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) and stored at both 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C, was investigated. The three Byssochlamys strains were able to produce patulin in both cloudy and clarified apple juices. Overall, the lower the storage temperature, the lower the patulin levels and mycelium dry weight in the apple juices (p<0.05). The greatest variations in pH and degrees Brix were observed in the juices from which the greatest mycelium dry weights were recovered. The maximum levels of patulin recovered from the juices were ca. 150 microg/kg at 21 degrees C and 220 microg/kg at 30 degrees C. HPLC-UV, HPCL-DAD and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the ability of B. fulva IOC 4518 to produce patulin. Due to the heat resistance of B. nivea and B. fulva and their ability to produce patulin either in PET bottles or in laminated paperboard packages, the control of contamination and the incidence of these fungi should be a matter of concern for food safety. Control measures taken by juice industries must also focus on controlling the ascospores of heat resistant moulds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ascomycetes on Polytrichadelphus aristatus (Musci).

    PubMed

    Döbbeler, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Fourteen herbarium specimens of Polytrichadelphus aristatus (Polytrichaceae, Musci) from the northern Andes were found to be colonized by ascomycetes. Thirty fungal specimens are indicated representing nine species and six genera. They belong to the first records of bryophilous fungi of northern South America. Five taxa are proposed as new: the genus Aphanotria, and the species A. paradoxa, Bryochiton macrosporus, Bryorella imitans, and Massarina polytrichadelphi. Most frequently found were Rogellia triseptata with six and Bryochiton macrosporus with five records. Four species develop their ascomata between the photosynthetic leaf lamellae, three are immersed within the abaxial side of the leaf nerve and two grow below the adaxial cuticle. The hypocrealean A. paradoxa, which has huge but almost invisible ascomata, merits special attention. Apart from a pronounced rostrum, these are completely immersed within the leaf nerve but longitudinally orientated occupying a type of microniche hitherto unknown. Hyphae of several species attack the thick-walled stereids of the leaf nerve and strongly contribute to leaf decomposition. Polytrichadelphus aristatus has an assemblage of parasitic ascomycetes quite different from that of P. magellanicus from southern South America.

  8. Phylogeny of filamentous ascomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbsch, H. T.

    Phylogenetic studies of higher ascomycetes are enhanced by the introduction of molecular markers. Most studies employed sequences of the SSU rRNA gene, but recently data from additional genes (RPB2, LSU rRNA) have become available. Several groups defined by their ascoma-type, such as Pyrenomycetes, are supported while others, like the Discomycetes, appear to be paraphyletic. The Pezizales with operculate asci are basal to other eu-ascomycetes, while other Discomycetes appear to be derived eu-ascomycetes. The re-evaluation of classical characters using molecular data is discussed using three examples. Ascus types are often regarded as being of major importance in ascomycete systematics, but prototunicate asci were found to be of poor taxonomic value, since ascomycetes with prototunicate asci are polyphyletic. The independence of the Agyriales, assumed from their morphological characters, is supported by sequence data but the relationship to supposed sister groups remains dubious. The phylogeny of ascolocularous fungi and their circumscription requires further study. While a circumscription based on bitunicate asci can be rejected, it remains unclear whether fungi with ascolocularous ascoma development represent a monophyletic entity.

  9. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-01-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  10. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  11. [Toxinogenic moulds in silage. V. - Production of byssochlamic acid in liquid medium with by Byssochlamys nivea Westling, Byssochlamys fulva Olliver and Smith and Paecilomyces varioti Bainier isolated in forages (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Escoula, L

    1975-01-01

    The toxinogenesis of 10 strains of Byssochlamys nivea, 4 of Byssochlamys fulva and 8 of Paecilomyces varioti is studied in Czapek's enriched liquid medium (8 p. 1000 glucose + 2p. 1000 yeast extract) at 26 degrees C. 60 p. 100 of Byssochlamys nivea filtrates, 100 p. 100 of Byssochlamys fulva filtrates and 37 p. 100 of Paecilomyces varioti filtrates contain byssochlamic acid after 60 days of culture at 26 degrees C. The concentrations observed vary from 40 to 540 p.p.m. In these moulds, patuline-production ability has also been tested (Escoula, 1975 c). There seems to be no relation between the production of patuline and of byssochlamic acid in these three species.

  12. [Antibiosis shown by a strain of Byssochlamys nivea Westling, 1909. II. Activity spectrum].

    PubMed

    Percebois, G

    1975-02-28

    A strain of Byssochlamys nivea cultivated in a liquid medium (Saccharose: 50 g: NaNo3: 2 g; KH2PO4: 1 g; KCL: 0.5 g; MgSO4, 7H2O: 0.5 g; water to 1000 ml) produces, at 24 degrees C, an antibiotic substance which appears after several days of growth (10-12 days). Among 43 strains of Bacteria Gram (minus) belonging to 10 genera none was resistant. The most was susceptible, save Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Moraxella glucidolytica. On the the great bulk of the Bacteria (Gram +) tested was little influenced, except certain strains of Bacillus. The filtrate is ineffectual against Mycobacteria and Fungi (yeast or mould) at the concentration used. This substance seemed to be different of those produced by Byssochlamys fluva (byssochlamic acid) and by some species of Paecilomyces (P. varioti, P. persicinus, P. elegans, P. variabilis, P. fusidioides).

  13. Deuteromycetes and selected ascomycetes that occur on or in wood: an indexed bibliography

    Treesearch

    E. L. Stewart; M. E. Palm; J. G. Palmer; W. E. Eslyn

    1979-01-01

    This report lists 1,008 publications that include deuteromycetous and ascomycetous fungi occurring on wood--principally wood in storage and use. Each publication is numbered and indexed by the one or more manmade or natural substrates, by general subject areas, and by authors. More than 1,150 fungi in 269 genera are listed alphabetically by genus and species. An...

  14. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.

  15. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  16. Ogataea neopini sp. nov. and O. corticis sp. nov., with the emendation of the ascomycete yeast genus Ogataea, and transfer of Pichia zsoltii, P. dorogensis, and P. trehaloabstinens to it.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Yuka; Saito, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Junta

    2008-12-01

    During a survey of yeast strains having high conversion efficiency to ethanol from cellobiose, 'Ogataea pini' ATCC 28781 and 'Pichia pini' NBRC 1794 were found to be distinct from any known species and from each other by a BLAST homology search using the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences. The D1/D2 phylogeny showed that 'O. pini' ATCC 28781 and 'P. pini' NBRC 1794 belonged to the Ogataea cluster, whereas a comparison of the ITS 1 and 2 regions sequences showed that the ATCC and NBRC strains each formed a species distinct from O. ganodermae, O. pini, O. henricii, and P. zsoltii, based on the D1/D2 sequence divergence. The ATCC and NBRC strains formed two to four hat-shaped ascospores and two to four, or more ones per deliquescent ascus, respectively, were negative for DBB and urease reactions, assimilated methanol slowly and nitrate not at all, and had the major ubiquinone system Q-7. These characteristics coincided basically with the definition of Ogataea proposed by Yamada et al. in 1994, excluding the number of ascospores. On the other hand, the ATCC and NBRC strains differed not only from each other but from relatives in various phenotypic characteristics. These differences suggest that two new yeasts of Ogataea be described as novel. The new species and their type strains are as follows: O. neopini ATCC 28781(T); and O. corticis NBRC 1794(T). In addition, the emendation of the genus Ogataea is made; besides, we propose the transfer of P. zsoltii, P. dorogensis, and P. trehaloabstinens, which were placed in the Ogataea cluster based on the D1/D2 sequence analysis, to the genus Ogataea as O. zsoltii comb. nov., O. dorogensis comb. nov., and O. trehaloabstinens comb. nov.

  17. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  18. Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Wieser, M; Morita, H; Sugio, T; Nagasawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107 was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC. The enzyme is a homodimeric flavoenzyme consisting of two 58 kDa subunits. It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of different 4-hydroxybenzylic structures, including the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols such as vanillyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehydes, eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, and 4-alkylphenols to 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alcohols. The latter reaction was S-stereospecific and was used for the synthesis of S-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol and -propanol with enantiomeric excesses of 81.9 and 86.0%, respectively. The catalytic and structural similarities to a Penicillium vanillyl-alcohol oxidase and Pseudomonas 4-alkylphenol methylhydroxylases are discussed.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Formaldehyde-Resistant Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis No. 5 (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii No. 5) (NBRC109023)

    PubMed Central

    Ekino, Keisuke; Fukuda, Kohsai; Nomura, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Byssochlamys spectabilis no. 5 (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii no. 5) (NBRC109023) was isolated from a soil sample in 2001 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This fungus is highly resistant to formaldehyde. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of P. variotii no. 5; this draft was produced with the intent of investigating the mechanism of formaldehyde resistance. This is the first report of the genome sequence of any Paecilomyces species. PMID:24407650

  20. Depletion of pentachlorophenol in soil microcosms with Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii as detoxification agents.

    PubMed

    Hechmi, Nejla; Bosso, Luciano; El-Bassi, Leila; Scelza, Rosalia; Testa, Antonino; Jedidi, Naceur; Rao, Maria A

    2016-12-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a toxic compound which is widely used as a wood preservative product and general biocide. It is persistent in the environment and has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant to be reclaimed in many countries. Fungal bioremediation is an emerging approach to rehabilitating areas fouled by recalcitrant xenobiotics. In the present study, we isolated two fungal strains from an artificially PCP-contaminated soil during a long-term bioremediation study and evaluated their potential as bioremediation agents in depletion and detoxification of PCP in soil microcosms. The two fungal strains were identified as: Byssochlamys nivea (Westling, 1909) and Scopulariopsis brumptii (Salvanet-Duval, 1935). PCP removal and toxicity were examined during 28 days of incubation. Bioaugmented microcosms revealed a 60% and 62% PCP removal by B. nivea and S. brumptii, respectively. Co-inoculation of B. nivea and S. brumptii showed a synergetic effect on PCP removal resulting in 95% and 80% PCP decrease when initial concentrations were 12.5 and 25 mg kg(-1), respectively. Detoxification in bioaugmented soil and the efficient role of fungi in the rehabilitation of PCP contaminated soil were experimentally proven by toxicity assays. A decrease in inhibition of bioluminescence of Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 and an increase of germination index of mustard (Brassica alba) seeds were observed in the decontaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control of Byssochlamys and Related Heat-resistant Fungi in Grape Products

    PubMed Central

    King, A. Douglas; Michener, H. David; Ito, Keith A.

    1969-01-01

    Heat-resistant strains of Byssochlamys fulva, B. nivea, and other heat-resistant fungi were isolated from vineyard soil, grapes, grape-processing lines, and waste pomace. They are known to remain in grape juice occasionally and to grow in grape juice products. Ascospores of these fungi have a D value (decimal reduction time) of about 10 min at 190 F (88 C), but in the presence of 90 μliters of SO2 per liter (normally added to the juice) the D value was cut in half. Filtration through a commercial diatomaceous filter aid (also a common processing step) entrapped all but about 0.001% of experimentally added spores. Thus, heat in the presence of SO2 and filtration together can reduce the population of these spores by several orders of magnitude. Growth was also prevented by benzoate or sorbate in low concentrations. Oxygen must be reduced to extremely low levels before lack of oxygen limits growth. Images PMID:16349856

  2. Inactivation of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores in strawberry puree by high pressure, power ultrasound and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Evelyn; Silva, F V M

    2015-12-02

    Byssochlamys nivea is a mold that can spoil processed fruit products and produce mycotoxins. In this work, high pressure processing (HPP, 600 MPa) and power ultrasound (24 kHz, 0.33 W/mL; TS) in combination with 75°C for the inactivation of four week old B. nivea ascospores in strawberry puree for up to 30 min was investigated and compared with 75°C thermal processing alone. TS and thermal processing can activate the mold ascospores, but HPP-75°C resulted in 2.0 log reductions after a 20 min process. For a 10 min process, HPP-75°C was better than 85°C alone in reducing B. nivea spores (1.4 vs. 0.2 log reduction), demonstrating that a lower temperature in combination with HPP is more effective for spore inactivation than heat alone at a higher temperature. The ascospore inactivation by HPP-thermal, TS and thermal processing was studied at different temperatures and modeled. Faster inactivation was achieved at higher temperatures for all the technologies tested, indicating the significant role of temperature in spore inactivation, alone or combined with other physical processes. The Weibull model described the spore inactivation by 600 MPa HPP-thermal (38, 50, 60, 75°C) and thermal (85, 90°C) processing, whereas the Lorentzian model was more appropriate for TS treatment (65, 70, 75°C). The models obtained provide a useful tool to design and predict pasteurization processes targeting B. nivea ascospores.

  3. Sexual reproduction as the cause of heat resistance in the food spoilage fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii).

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial beta-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed.

  4. Sexual Reproduction as the Cause of Heat Resistance in the Food Spoilage Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii)▿

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial β-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed. PMID:18192427

  5. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  6. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  7. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  8. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  9. Plant cell wall deconstruction by ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Glass, N Louise; Schmoll, Monika; Cate, Jamie H D; Coradetti, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi requires a diverse set of secreted enzymes and significantly contributes to the global carbon cycle. Recent advances in genomic and systems-level studies have begun to reveal how filamentous ascomycete species exploit carbon sources in different habitats. These studies have laid the groundwork for unraveling new enzymatic strategies for deconstructing the plant cell wall, including the discovery of polysaccharide monooxygenases that enhance the activity of cellulases. The identification of genes encoding proteins lacking functional annotation, but that are coregulated with cellulolytic genes, suggests functions associated with plant biomass degradation remain to be elucidated. Recent research shows that signaling cascades mediating cellulolytic responses often act in a light-dependent manner and show crosstalk with other metabolic pathways. In this review, we cover plant biomass degradation, from sensing, to transmission and modulation of signals, to activation of transcription factors and gene induction, to enzyme complement and function.

  10. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  11. Steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cvelbar, Damjana; Zist, Vanja; Kobal, Katja; Zigon, Dušan; Zakelj-Mavrič, Marija

    2013-02-25

    In the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. A major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. Steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi Hortaea werneckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. Dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all three varieties of fungi followed by androstenedione and testosterone. For their protection, fungi use several mechanisms to lower the toxic effects of steroids. The efficiency of biotransformation in detoxification depended on the microorganism and steroid substrate used. Biotransformation was a relatively slow process as it also depended on the growth phase of the fungus. In addition to biotransformation, steroid extrusion out of the cells contributed to the lowering of the active intracellular steroid concentration. Plasma membrane Pdr5 transporter was found to be the most effective, followed by Snq2 transporter and vacuolar transporters Ybt1 and Ycf1. Proteins Aus1 and Dan1 were not found to be involved in steroid import. The research of possible targets of steroid hormone action in fungi suggests that steroid hormones inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and H. werneckii. Results of this inhibition caused changes in the sterol content of the cellular membrane. The presence of steroid hormones most probably causes the degradation of the Tat2 permease and impairment of tryptophan import.

  12. Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available.

  13. ASYMMETRY IN SEXUAL PHEROMONES IS NOT REQUIRED FOR ASCOMYCETE MATING

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. Most Ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the Basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in Ascomycetes. Results We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous Ascomycete and a Basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. Conclusions We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. PMID:21835624

  14. Asymmetry in sexual pheromones is not required for ascomycete mating.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Murray, Andrew

    2011-08-23

    We investigated the determinants of sexual identity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher fungi are divided into the ascomycetes and the basidiomycetes. Most ascomycetes have two mating types: one (called α in yeasts and MAT1-1 in filamentous fungi) produces a small, unmodified, peptide pheromone, and the other (a in yeasts and MAT1-2 in filamentous fungi) produces a peptide pheromone conjugated to a C-terminal farnesyl group that makes it very hydrophobic. In the basidiomycetes, all pheromones are lipid-modified, and this difference is a distinguishing feature between the phyla. We asked whether the asymmetry in pheromone modification is required for successful mating in ascomycetes. We cloned receptor and pheromone genes from a filamentous ascomycete and a basidiomycete and expressed these in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to generate novel, alternative mating pairs. We find that two yeast cells can mate even when both cells secrete a-like or α-like peptides. Importantly, this is true regardless of whether the cells express the a- or α-mating-type loci, which control the expression of other, sex-specific genes, in addition to the pheromones and pheromone receptors. We demonstrate that the asymmetric pheromone modification is not required for successful mating of ascomycete fungi and confirm that, in budding yeast, the primary determinants of mating are the specificity of the receptors and their corresponding pheromones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in pentachlorophenol removal and biological control of two Phytophthora species.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Luciano; Scelza, Rosalia; Varlese, Rosaria; Meca, Giuseppe; Testa, Antonino; Rao, Maria A; Cristinzio, Gennaro

    2016-04-01

    Bioremediation and biological-control by fungi have made tremendous strides in numerous biotechnology applications. The aim of this study was to test Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in sensitivity and degradation to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and in biological-control of Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora. B. nivea and S. brumptii were tested in PCP sensitivity and degradation in microbiological media while the experiments of biological-control were carried out in microbiological media and soil. The fungal strains showed low PCP sensitivity at 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) although the hyphal size, fungal mat, patulin, and spore production decreased with increasing PCP concentrations. B. nivea and S. brumptii depleted completely 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) in liquid culture after 28 d of incubation at 28 °C. Electrolyte leakage assays showed that both fungi have low sensitivity to 25 mg PCP L(-1) and produced no toxic compounds for the plant. B. nivea and S. brumptii were able to inhibit the growth of the two plant pathogens in laboratory studies and reduce the mortality of chestnut plants caused by two Phytophthorae in greenhouse experiments. The two fungal strains did not produce volatile organic compounds able to reduce the growth of two plant pathogens tested. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kazachstania hellenica sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast from a Botrytis-affected grape must fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-05-01

    Four ascomycetous yeast strains (D4W13, D9W2, D9W4 and D9W17T) were isolated from Botrytis-affected fermenting grape juice originating from Attica Province, Greece. Phylogenetic analysis of rRNA gene sequences (18S, 26S and 5.8S-ITS) showed that the four strains represent a distinct species within the genus Kazachstania, closely related to Kazachstania zonata NBRC 100504T and Kazachstania gamospora NBRC 11056T. Electrophoretic karyotyping and physiological analysis support the affiliation of the four strains in a novel species for which the name Kazachstania hellenica sp. nov. is proposed, with D9W17T (=CBS 10706T=NBRC 103637T) as the type strain.

  17. New records of some Ascomycete truffle fungi from Turkey

    Treesearch

    Aziz TÜRKOÐLU; Michael Angelo CASTELLANO

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of 6 Ascomycete truffle taxa in Turkey: Genea verrucosa Vittad., Genea klotzschii Berk. & Broome, Stephensia bombycina (Vittad.) Tul. & C.Tul., Terfezia olbiensis Tul. & C.Tul., Tuber excavatum Vittad., and Tuber rufum Pico. We also...

  18. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.

  19. Molecular organization of the mating-type loci in the homothallic Ascomycete Eupenicillium crustaceum.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; O'Gorman, Céline M; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Eupenicillium species are the teleomorphic (sexual) forms of anamorphic (asexual) members of the genus Penicillium, which contains many species of industrial importance. Here we describe the first molecular analysis of the mating-type (MAT) locus from a homothallic (self-fertile) Eupenicillium species, E. crustaceum. This ascomycete is a sexual relative of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum, which while long considered asexual, was recently shown to possess the required genetic machinery for heterothallic breeding. The E. crustaceum genome contains two MAT loci, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, in an arrangement characteristic of other known homothallic euascomycetes, such as Neosartorya fischeri. MAT1-1 is flanked by conserved APN2 (DNA lyase) and SLA2 (cytoskeleton assembly control) genes and encodes a homologue of the α-box domain protein MAT1-1-1. Conversely, MAT1-2 carries a HMG-domain gene MAT1-2-1, and is flanked by a degenerate SLA2 gene and an intact homologue of the P. chrysogenum ORF Pc20g08960. Here we demonstrate the transcriptional expression of both mating-type genes during vegetative development. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were used to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of E. crustaceum with other ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees confirmed a very close relationship between the homothallic E. crustaceum and the supposedly heterothallic P. chrysogenum. This close taxonomic association makes E. crustaceum an ideal candidate for future expression and evolutionary studies of sexual reproduction, with the ultimate aim of inducing sex in P. chrysogenum.

  20. Characterization of a hydrophobin of the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Lunkenbein, Stefan; Takenberg, Meike; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-01

    The entomopathogenic ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus (alternative name Isaria farinosa) synthesized a hydrophobin, irrespective of being grown in submerged or surface culture. The protein was extracted using trifluoroacetic acid and purified using preparative HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Partial sequences were obtained using ESI-MS/MS. The peptides were used as a start to apply a 'template switching oligo' protocol to elucidate the complete open reading frame of P. farinosus hydrophobin 1 (pfah1). The deduced protein sequence comprised 107 amino acids (10.7 kDa) including a 16 amino acid long hydrophobic signal peptide, showed a calculated pI of 4.56, and was interrupted by one intron. Phylogenetic analyses revealed relationships to hydrophobins of the ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea and Metarhizium anisopliae. Based on solubility, hydropathy pattern and phylogeny PfaH1 was assigned to the class Ia hydrophobins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E.; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  2. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Phylogenomic analysis of type I polyketide synthase genes in pathogenic and saprobic ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kroken, Scott; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Yoder, O C; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2003-12-23

    Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used to investigate the origin and diversity of fungal genes encoding putative PKSs that are predicted to synthesize type I PKs. The resulting genealogy, constructed by using the highly conserved PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain, indicated that: (i). Species within subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota) but not early diverging ascomycetes, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomycotina) or Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Taphrinomycotina), had large numbers (7-25) of PKS genes. (ii). Bacteria and fungi had separate groups of PKS genes; the few exceptions are the likely result of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to various sublineages of fungi. (iii). The bulk of genes encoding fungal PKSs fell into eight groups. Four groups were predicted to synthesize variously reduced PKs, and four groups were predicted to make unreduced PKs. (iv). Species within different classes of Pezizomycotina shared the same groups of PKS genes. (v). Different fungal genomes shared few putative orthologous PKS genes, even between closely related genomes in the same class or genus. (vi) The discontinuous distributions of orthologous PKSs among fungal species can be explained by gene duplication, divergence, and gene loss; horizontal gene transfer among fungi does not need to be invoked.

  5. Expression and Function of Sex Pheromones and Receptors in the Homothallic Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In heterothallic ascomycete fungi, idiomorphic alleles at the MAT locus control two sex pheromone/receptor pairs that function in recognition and chemoattraction of strains with opposite mating types. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, the MAT locus is rearranged such that both alleles are adjacent...

  6. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  7. Genomics of alternative sulfur utilization in ascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Thirteen ascomycetous yeast strains with sequenced genomes were assayed for their ability to grow on chemically defined medium with 16 different sulfur compounds as the only significant source of sulfur. These compounds included sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfonates, sulfamates and sulfate esters. Broad utilization of alternative sulfur sources was observed in Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris), Lodderomyces elongisporus, Millerozyma farinosa (syn. Pichia sorbitophila), Pachysolen tannophilus, Scheffersomyces stipitis (syn. Pichia stipitis), Spathaspora passalidarum, Yamadazyma tenuis (syn. Candida tenuis) and Yarrowia lipolytica. Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were mainly able to utilize sulfonates and sulfate esters, while Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe were limited to aromatic sulfate esters. Genome analysis identified several candidate genes with bacterial homologues that had been previously shown to be involved in the utilization of alternative sulfur sources. Analysis of candidate gene promoter sequences revealed a significant overrepresentation of DNA motifs that have been shown to regulate sulfur metabolism in Sacc. cerevisiae.

  8. Genetic diversity of algal and fungal partners in four species of Umbilicaria (Lichenized Ascomycetes) along a transect of the Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romeike, J; Friedl, T; Helms, G; Ott, S

    2002-08-01

    Lichens from the genus Umbilicaria were collected across a 5,000-km transect through Antarctica and investigated for DNA sequence polymorphism in a region of 480-660 bp of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Sequences from both fungal (16 ascomycetes) and photosynthetic partners (22 chlorophytes from the genus Trebouxia) were determined and compared with homologs from lichens inhabiting more temperate, continental climates. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that Antarctic lichens have colonized their current habitats both through multiple independent colonization events from temperate embarkation zones and through recent long-range dispersal in the Antarctic of successful preexisting colonizers. Furthermore, the results suggest that relichenization-de novo establishment of the fungus-photosynthesizer symbiosis from nonlichenized algal and fungal cells-has occurred during the process of Antarctic lichen dispersal. Independent dispersal of algal and fungal cultures therefore can lead to a successful establishment of the lichen symbiosis even under harsh Antarctic conditions.

  9. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants.

  10. Botryane, noreudesmane and abietane terpenoids from the ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Wiebach, Vincent; Bernecker, Steffen; Stadler, Marc

    2015-09-01

    In the course of our screening for new bioactive natural products, a culture of Hypoxylon rickii, a xylariaceous ascomycete collected from the Caribbean island Martinique, was identified as extraordinary prolific producer of secondary metabolites. Ten metabolites of terpenoid origin were isolated from submerged cultures of this species by preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated using spectral techniques including 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Three of the compounds were elucidated as new botryanes (1-3) along with three known ones, i.e. (3aS)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (4), (3aS,8R)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (5) and botryenanol (6). Further three new sesquiterpenoids featured a 14-noreudesmane-type skeleton and were named hypoxylan A-C (7-9); the diterpenoid rickitin A (10) contains an abietane-type backbone. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 showed cytotoxic effects against murine cells.

  11. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts--the ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeast species are among the most important groups of biotechnological organisms. S. cerevisiae and closely related ascomycetous yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding other groups of industrial microorganisms in productivity and economic revenues. Traditional industrial attributes of the S. cerevisiae group include their primary roles in food fermentations such as beers, cider, wines, sake, distilled spirits, bakery products, cheese, sausages, and other fermented foods. Other long-standing industrial processes involving S. cerevisae yeasts are production of fuel ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), feeds and fodder, industrial enzymes, and small molecular weight metabolites. More recently, non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) have been utilized as industrial organisms for a variety of biotechnological roles. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are increasingly being used as hosts for expression of proteins, biocatalysts and multi-enzyme pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals and small molecular weight compounds of medicinal and nutritional importance. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts also have important roles in agriculture as agents of biocontrol, bioremediation, and as indicators of environmental quality. Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.

  12. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope.

  13. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne GJ; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad EL; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. Results We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. Conclusion The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope. PMID:18460219

  14. Halide uptake by the filamentous ascomycete Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A G; Budd, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of Cl minus by the ascomycetes Neocosmospora vasinfecta was investigated. Intramycelial concentrations of more than 55 mM (890-fold the external concentration) were reached. Accumulation was as inorganic Cl minus and nystatin induced total loss of mycelial Cl minus without extensive protein loss, implying that Cl minus retention was not due to binding to macromolecules. Cl minus transport was largely unidirectional with efflux being low under all conditions. Uptake was temperature dependent (maximal Arrhenius activation energy of 18.0 kcal/mol) and was severely reduced by KCN, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and anaerobiosis. A comparison with the inhibition of oxygen uptake under the same conditions implied that Cl minus transport was not directly coupled to aerobic electron transport. Cl minus uptake was a saturatable function of the external Cl minus concentration, and apparent Km values of 6.4 times 10-6 M and 10-4 M were calculated. Of the anions tested, only Br minus effectively inhibited Cl minus uptake and I minus, NO3 minus, SO4 minus 2, HCO3 minus, and H2PO4 minus were without effect. Cl minus uptake did not require concomitant cation uptake. PMID:234943

  15. A novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in ascomycetous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schmoll, Monika; Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Dorrer, Marcel; Kubicek, Christian P

    2010-01-01

    Recently, sexual development in the heterothallic ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) has been achieved and thus initiated attempts to elucidate regulation and determinants of this process. While the α-type pheromone of this fungus fits the consensus known from other fungi, the assumed a-type peptide pheromone precursor shows remarkably unusual characteristics: it comprises three copies of the motif (LI)GC(TS)VM thus constituting a CAAX domain at the C-terminus and two Kex2-protease sites. This structure shares characteristics of both a- and α-type peptide pheromone precursors. Presence of hybrid-type peptide pheromone precursor 1 (hpp1) is essential for male fertility, thus indicating its functionality as a peptide pheromone precursor, while its phosphorylation site is not relevant for this process. However, sexual development in a female fertile background is not perturbed in the absence of hpp1, which rules out a higher order function in this process. Open reading frames encoding proteins with similar characteristics to HPP1 were also found in Fusarium spp., of which Fusarium solani still retains a putative a-factor-like protein, but so far in no other fungal genome available. We therefore propose the novel class of h-type (hybrid) peptide pheromone precursors with H. jecorina HPP1 as the first member of this class. PMID:20735770

  16. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  17. Nutrient-Dependent Efficacy of the Antifungal Protein YvgO Correlates to Cellular Proliferation Rate in Candida albicans 3153A and Byssochlamys fulva H25.

    PubMed

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2014-12-01

    YvgO is a recently characterized antifungal protein isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis SF361 that exhibits a broad spectrum of activity and pH stability. Customized colorimetric metabolic assays based on standard broth microdilution techniques were used to determine the variable tolerance of Byssochlamys fulva H25 and Candida albicans 3153A to YvgO exposure under select matrix conditions impacting cellular proliferation. Normalization of the solution pH after antifungal challenge expanded the available pH range under consideration allowing for a comprehensive in vitro assessment of YvgO efficacy. Indicator susceptibility was examined across an array of elementary growth-modifying conditions, including media pH, incubation temperature, ionic strength, and carbohydrate supplementation. Under suboptimal temperature and pH conditions, the indicator growth rate reduced, and YvgO-mediated susceptibility was attenuated. While YvgO association but not efficacy was somewhat influenced by solution ionic strength, carbohydrate supplementation was shown to be the most influential susceptibility factor, particularly for C. albicans. Although the specific choice of carbohydrate/nutrient supplement dictated the extent of enhanced YvgO efficacy, D-glucose additionally improved the association between antifungal and target. Indeed, when exposed to YvgO under conditions that lead to increased cellular proliferation, both indicators displayed a stronger association and susceptibility to YvgO when compared to carbohydrate-deprived media or suboptimal incubation environments. With further study, YvgO may have the capacity to function as a prophylaxis for food safety and preservation, as well as a pharmaceutical agent against opportunistic fungal pathogens either independently or in combination with other established treatments applied to both livestock and human health concerns.

  18. Evaluation of therapeutic activity of hypogeous Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes from North America

    Treesearch

    Rita Stanikunaite; James M. Trappe; Shabana I. Khan; Samir A. Rossu

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first broad investigation of therapeutic activities of hypogeous truffles and trufflelike fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) from North America. Twenty-two species from 12 families were evaluated in several biological assays for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antituberculosis, and anticancer activities. Biological...

  19. New insights into the ligninolytic capability of a wood decay ascomycete

    Treesearch

    Semarjit Shary; Sally A. Ralph; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2007-01-01

    Wood-grown cultures of Daldinia concentrica oxidized a permethylated [beta]-14C- labeled synthetic lignin to 14CO2 and also cleaved a permethylated [alpha]-13C-labeled synthetic lignin to give C[alpha]-C[beta] cleavage products that were detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Therefore, this ascomycete resembles white-rot basidiomycetes in attacking...

  20. Impact of recent molecular phylogenetic studies on classification of ascomycete yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analyses of concatenated gene sequences as well as whole genome sequences are resolving relationships among the ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina), thus allowing classification of members of this subphylum to be based on phylogeny. In addition, changes implemented in the new Botanical Code [Intern...

  1. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain. PMID:8567907

  2. Vanderwaltozyma verrucispora sp. nov., a new ascomycetous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Fu; Liu, Chun-Hao; Ninomiya, Shinya; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    A new yeast species, Vanderwaltozyma verrucispora, is proposed in this study based on two strains isolated from partially decayed leaves in Japan and one strain from soil in Taiwan. The species is characterized by the fermentation of glucose and galactose, formation of one to four spheroidal to ellipsoidal ascospores with warty surfaces in each ascus, and assimilation of a few carbon and nitrogen compounds. Genus assignment and distinction of the species from the other two recognized species of Vanderwaltozyma is based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. From these comparisons, the name V. verrucispora sp. nov. is proposed. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene reveals that the phylogenetically closest relative of V. verrucispora is Vanderwaltozyma yarrowii. The type strain of the new species, which was isolated from a partially decayed leaf in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is NBRC 1884(T) (=CBS 10887(T)=BCRC 23141(T)).

  3. Large-Scale Introgression Shapes the Evolution of the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Filamentous Ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma

    PubMed Central

    Menkis, Audrius; Whittle, Carrie A.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Johannesson, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The significance of introgression as an evolutionary force shaping natural populations is well established, especially in animal and plant systems. However, the abundance and size of introgression tracts, and to what degree interspecific gene flow is the result of adaptive processes, are largely unknown. In this study, we present medium coverage genomic data from species of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora, and we use comparative genomics to investigate the introgression landscape at the genomic level in this model genus. We revealed one large introgression tract in each of the three investigated phylogenetic lineages of Neurospora tetrasperma (sizes of 5.6 Mbp, 5.2 Mbp, and 4.1 Mbp, respectively). The tract is located on the chromosome containing the locus conferring sexual identity, the mating-type (mat) chromosome. The region of introgression is confined to the region of suppressed recombination and is found on one of the two mat chromosomes (mat a). We used Bayesian concordance analyses to exclude incomplete lineage sorting as the cause for the observed pattern, and multilocus genealogies from additional species of Neurospora show that the introgression likely originates from two closely related, freely recombining, heterothallic species (N. hispaniola and N. crassa/N. perkinsii). Finally, we investigated patterns of molecular evolution of the mat chromosome in Neurospora, and we show that introgression is correlated with reduced level of molecular degeneration, consistent with a shorter time of recombination suppression. The chromosome specific (mat) and allele specific (mat a) introgression reported herein comprise the largest introgression tracts reported to date from natural populations. Furthermore, our data contradicts theoretical predictions that introgression should be less likely on sex-determining chromosomes. Taken together, the data presented herein advance our general understanding of introgression as a force shaping eukaryotic genomes. PMID

  4. Two pheromone precursor genes are transcriptionally expressed in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, S

    2000-06-01

    In order to analyze the involvement of pheromones in cell recognition and mating in a homothallic fungus, two putative pheromone precursor genes, named ppg1 and ppg2, were isolated from a genomic library of Sordaria macrospora. The ppg1 gene is predicted to encode a precursor pheromone that is processed by a Kex2-like protease to yield a pheromone that is structurally similar to the alpha-factor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ppg2 gene encodes a 24-amino-acid polypeptide that contains a putative farnesylated and carboxy methylated C-terminal cysteine residue. The sequences of the predicted pheromones display strong structural similarity to those encoded by putative pheromones of heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes. Both genes are expressed during the life cycle of S. macrospora. This is the first description of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a homothallic fungus. Southern-hybridization experiments indicated that ppg1 and ppg2 homologues are also present in other homothallic ascomycetes.

  5. Molecular evolution of the fungi: relationship of the Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Chytridiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B H; Taylor, J W; Brownlee, A G; Lee, J; Lu, S D; White, T J

    1992-03-01

    Establishing the phylogeny of fungi and protists often has proved difficult owing to the simple morphologies and convergent characters in these organisms. We used DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among three major classes of organisms considered to be fungi--Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Chytridiomycetes--and to assess the taxonomic position of Neocallimastix, an economically important anaerobic rumen microorganism whose classification is controversial. The Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, two classes of nonflagellated fungi, are the most closely related taxa. Chytridiomycetes, though bearing flagella, group with these higher fungi rather than with the protists. Neocallimastix, a eukaryote lacking mitochondria and variously classified as a protist or as a fungus, shows closest molecular affinities with the Chytridiomycete fungi in the order Spizellomycetales.

  6. RNA editing during sexual development occurs in distantly related filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-03-09

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes.

  7. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A.; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:28338982

  8. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. PMID:28637809

  9. rRNA Pseudogenes in Filamentous Ascomycetes as Revealed by Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yang, Rui-Heng; Jiang, Lan; Hu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Zu-Jian; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-08-07

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is considered as a paradigm of concerted evolution. Components of the rDNA tandem repeats (45S) are widely used in phylogenetic studies of different organisms and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recently selected as a fungal DNA bar code. However, rRNA pseudogenes, as one kind of escape from concerted evolution, were reported in a wide range of organisms, especially in plants and animals. Moreover, large numbers of 5S rRNA pseudogenes were identified in several filamentous ascomycetes. To study whether rDNA evolves in a strict concerted manner and test whether rRNA pseudogenes exist in more species of ascomycetes, intragenomic rDNA polymorphisms were analyzed using whole genome sequences. Divergent rDNA paralogs were found to coexist within a single genome in seven filamentous ascomycetes examined. A great number of paralogs were identified as pseudogenes according to the mutation and secondary structure analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the three rRNA coding regions of the 45S rDNA repeats, i.e., 18S, 5.8S, and 28S, revealed an interspecies clustering pattern of those different rDNA paralogs. The identified rRNA pseudogenic sequences were validated using specific primers designed. Mutation analyses revealed that the repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation was probably responsible for the formation of those rRNA pseudogenes. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  10. SmATG7 is required for viability in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-08-01

    In filamentous ascomycetes, autophagy is involved in several developmental processes. Nevertheless, until now little is known about its role in fruiting-body development. We therefore isolated a gene of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora with high sequence similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy-related gene ATG7, encoding a core autophagy regulator. This is the first characterization of an ATG7 homolog in filamentous ascomycetes. A S. cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg7 gene functionally replaces the yeast homolog. We were not able to generate a homokaryotic knock-out mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smatg7 is required for viability. However, a heterokaryotic DeltaSmatg7/Smatg7 strain and transformants generated by RNA interference showed considerable morphological phenotypes during fruiting-body development. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that in the wild type, the transcriptional expression of Smatg7 is markedly up-regulated under amino acid starvation conditions and at late stages during sexual development. Moreover, we showed that transcriptionally down-regulation of Smatg7 disturbs autophagy in S. macrospora.

  11. Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2011-07-01

    The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the α-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences.

  12. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  13. Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-03-15

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

  14. A novel class of gene controlling virulence in plant pathogenic ascomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shun-Wen; Kroken, Scott; Lee, Bee-Na; Robbertse, Barbara; Churchill, Alice C. L.; Yoder, O. C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Insertional mutants of the fungal maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus were screened for altered virulence. One mutant had 60% reduction in lesion size relative to WT but no other detectable change in phenotype. Analysis of sequence at the insertion site revealed a gene (CPS1) encoding a protein with two AMP-binding domains. CPS1 orthologs were detected in all Cochliobolus spp. examined, in several other classes of ascomycete fungi, and in animals but not in basidiomycete fungi, bacteria, or plants. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CPS1 represents a previously undescribed subset of adenylate-forming enzymes that have diverged from certain acyl-CoA ligases, which in bacteria are involved in biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides or polyketide/peptide hybrids. Disruption of CPS1 caused reduced virulence of both race T and race O of C. heterostrophus on maize, of Cochliobolus victoriae on oats, and of Gibberella zeae on wheat. These results suggest that CPS1 functions as a general fungal virulence factor in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. PMID:12730371

  15. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. Copyright © 2015 Traeger and Nowrousian.

  16. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  17. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalysed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant α-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the β-class and one of the α-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora α-class CA. The CAS4 protein was post-translationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain Δcas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S. macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Autochthonous ascomycetes in depollution of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil and sediment.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Faure, Mathieu; Gaignaire, Carole; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Mehu, Jacques; Geremia, Roberto A; Mouhamadou, Bello

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of a consortium of ascomycetous strains, Doratomyces nanus, Doratomyces purpureofuscus, Doratomyces verrucisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Phoma eupyrena and Thermoascus crustaceus in the mycoremediation of historically contaminated soil and sediment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of 15 PCB concentrations in three mesocosms containing soil from which the fungal strains had previously been isolated, revealed significant PCB depletions of 16.9% for the 6 indicator PCBs (i-PCBs) and 18.7% for the total 15 PCBs analyzed after 6months treatment. The degradation rate did not statistically vary whether the soil had been treated with non-inoculated straw or colonized straw or without straw and inoculated with the consortium of the six strains. Concerning the sediment, we evidenced significant depletions of 31.8% for the 6 i-PCBs and 33.3% for the 15 PCB congeners. The PCB depletions affected most of the 15 PCBs analyzed without preference for lower chlorinated congeners. Bioaugmented strains were evidenced in different mesocosms, but their reintroduction, after six months treatment, did not improve the rate of PCB degradation, suggesting that the biodegradation could affect the bioavailable PCB fraction. Our results demonstrate that the ascomycetous strains potentially adapted to PCBs may be propitious to the remediation of PCB contaminated sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E; Brenner, Michael P; Pringle, Anne

    2008-12-30

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes-shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes-and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.

  20. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 – an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of any supplementary information available should be included here. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06988b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J.; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Mulholland, Nicholas P.; Vincent, Jason L.; Willis, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  1. The genus Bipolaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  2. Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge A; Mahboubi, Amir; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Massive isolation of anamorphous ascomycete yeasts Candida oleophila from plant phyllosphere].

    PubMed

    Glushakova, A M; Iurkov, A M; Chernov, I Iu

    2007-01-01

    Many years of research has confirmed a wide distribution of anamorphous ascomycete yeasts in the phyllosphere of diverse plants of the Moscow oblast. Based on the standard morphological and physiological criteria, on the results of restriction analysis of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA region, and on the sequencing of the D1D2 region of 26S rDNA, these yeasts were identified as Candida oleophila Montrocher. Previous isolation of this species has been rare, possibly due to its incorrect identification. This species, together with phytobiotic basidiomycete yeasts, was shown to be dominant in the yeast epiphytic communities on the surface parts of plants. The relative abundance of C. oleophila is highest on plant fruits and increases significantly by the end of the vegetation period. Wide occurrence of this yeast species on fruits and in the phyllosphere may be related to its ability to compete with rapidly growing phytopathogenic fungi.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  5. Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

  6. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  7. Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in the Basal Filamentous Ascomycete Pyronema confluens

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    Many organisms use circadian clocks to adapt to daily changes in the environment. Major insights into the molecular mechanisms of circadian oscillators have been gained through studies of the model organism Neurospora crassa; however, little is known about molecular components of circadian clocks in other fungi. An important part of the N. crassa circadian clock is the frequency (frq) gene, homologs of which can be found in Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Leotiomycetes, but not Eurotiomycetes. Recently, we identified a frq homolog in Pyronema confluens, a member of the early-diverging Pezizomycete lineage of filamentous ascomycetes. The P. confluens FRQ shares many conserved domains with the N. crassa FRQ. However, there is no known morphological phenotype showing overt circadian rhythmicity in P. confluens. To investigate whether a molecular clock is present, we analyzed frq transcription in constant darkness, and found circadian oscillation of frq with a peak in the subjective morning. This rhythm was temperature compensated. To identify additional clock-controlled genes, we performed RNA sequencing of two time points (subjective morning and evening). Circadian expression of two morning-specific genes was verified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) over a full time course, whereas expression of two putative morning-specific and five putative evening-specific genes could not be verified as circadian. frq expression was synchronized, but not entrained by light. In summary, we have found evidence for two of the three main properties of circadian rhythms (free-running rhythm, temperature compensation) in P. confluens, suggesting that a circadian clock with rhythmically expressed frq is present in this basal filamentous ascomycete. PMID:26254031

  8. Neotropical Ascomycetes 13. Cornipulvina and Erythromada, two new genera from the Caribbean and elsewhere

    Treesearch

    S.M. Huhndorf; A.N. Miller; F.A. Fernández; D.J. Lodge

    2005-01-01

    Cornipulvina ellipsoides is described as a new genus and species in the family Boliniaceae, order Boliniales and Erythromada lanciospora is described as a new genus and species in the Sordariomycetidae. Cornipulvina is distinguished by irregular stromata with long rostrate necks and ellipsoid ascospores lacking a germ pore. Erythromada differs from similar...

  9. Neotropical Ascomycetes. 13, Cornipulvina and Erythromada, two new genera from the Caribbean and elsewhere

    Treesearch

    Sabine M. Huhndorf; Andrew N. Miller; Fernando A. Fernandez; D. Jean Lodge

    2005-01-01

    Cornipulvina ellipsoides is described as a new genus and species in the family Boliniaceae, order Boliniales and Erythromada lanciospora is described as a new genus and species in the Sordariomycetidae. Cornipulvina is distinguished by irregular stromata with long rostrate necks and ellipsoid ascospores lacking a germ pore. Erythromada differs from similar...

  10. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  11. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  12. The genus Bipolaris.

    PubMed

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  13. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  14. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  15. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Almeida, Igor C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveals a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes including metabolism, cell recycling, signaling, and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae document that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics. PMID:18419773

  16. Phylogeny of mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi: is the genus Paecilomyces polyphyletic?

    PubMed

    Obornik, M; Jirku, M; Dolezel, D

    2001-09-01

    We analyzed sequences of the divergent domain at the 5' end of the large subunit rRNA gene from the mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces sp., Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium lecanii, Verticillium psalliotae, Beauveria bassiana, Aschersonia sp., Aschersonia placenta, ascomycetous Cordyceps sp., and Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. fumosorseus as the best characterized out of the analyzed species with the B. bassiana clade as its sister group. Two of the P. farinosus isolates were invariably placed within the Verticillium cluster, which also contained C. militaris. The only analyzed P. lilacinus isolate appeared on the root of the hyphomycetous fungi and was characterized as the most distinct from all the hyphomycetous fungi tested. Polyphyly of the genus Paecilomyces was well supported by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In all trees based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequences obtained from the GenBank, V. lecanii, V. psalliotae, P. fumosoroseus, P. tenuipes and B. bassiana form, together with that of C. militaris, the best supported cluster in the tree. The rest of Cordyceps spp. constitute a distinct clade. Phylogenetic relationships derived from both tested DNA regions show polyphyly of the genus Paecilomyces and close relationships among entomopathogenic species of the genera Verticillium, Paecilomyces, and Beauveria.

  17. Candida hyderabadensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ravella Sreenivas; Bhadra, Bhaskar; Kumar, Neradugomma Naveen; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2007-05-01

    Three ascomycetous yeast strains were isolated from decaying green wine grapes, collected from Hyderabad city in India. Two strains, YS9 and YS21, were identified as Kodamaea ohmeri and Candida fermentati, respectively. The third strain, YS12(T), differs from Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, by 1.6-1.9% with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and by 1.4-9.2% with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region. YS12(T) also differs from C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis by some phenotypic characteristics. Thus, based on the phenotypic differences and phylogenetic analysis, strain YS12(T) is assigned the status of a new species of Candida, for which the name C. hyderabadensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YS12(T) (NRRL Y-27953(T)=CBS10444(T)=IAM15334(T)).

  18. PfaH2: a novel hydrophobin from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Katerina; Takenberg, Meike; Lunkenbein, Stefan; Woche, Susanne K; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-01-01

    The pfah2 gene coding for a novel hydrophobin PfaH2 from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus was identified during sequencing of random clones from a cDNA library. The corresponding protein sequence of PfaH2 deduced from the cDNA comprised 134 amino acids (aa). A 16 aa signal sequence preceded the N-terminus of the mature protein. PfaH2 belonged to the class Ia hydrophobins. The protein was isolated using trifluoroacetic acid extraction and purified via SDS-PAGE and high-performance liquid chromatography. The surface activity of the recently described PfaH1 and of PfaH2 was compared by the determination of contact angles (CAs) on glass slides and Teflon tape, and the CA of distilled water droplets was measured on glass slides coated with hydrophobin PfaH1 or PfaH2. Surprisingly, both hydrophobins adsorbed to hydrophilic surfaces and changed their physicochemical properties to a similar quantitative extent, although little aa sequence homology was found. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2007-04-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions.

  20. Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov., a new, endemic, blue, snow resident psychrophilic ascomycete fungus from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Graciéle C A; Godinho, Valéria M; Porto, Bárbara A; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we have identified and characterised a new snow resident ascomycete blue stain fungus from Antarctica named Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov. Menezes, Godinho, Porto, Gonçalves and Rosa, using polyphasic taxonomy techniques. This fungal species was recovered from the seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctomyces pellizariae displayed different macro- and micromorphology when compared with A. psychrotrophicus Stchigel and Guarro, the only other Antarctomyces species reported until date. Antarctomyces pellizariae showed psychrophilic behavior and very low growth rate at 22-25 °C, quite different from A. psychrotrophicus that has a higher growth rate at mesophilic temperatures. In addition, micromorphological characteristics and the analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II regions revealed that A. pellizariae is a new species that is related to A. psychrotrophicus and Thelebolus species. Since the Antarctic Peninsula is reported to be one of the main regions of the earth experiencing the effects of global change in climate, species, such as A. pellizariae, might provide information about these effects on the endemic Antarctic biota. In addition, A. pellizariae displayed psychrophilic behavior and might be a source of interesting anti-freeze compounds that might prove useful in biotechnological processes.

  1. Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    Coradetti, Samuel T.; Craig, James P.; Xiong, Yi; Shock, Teresa; Tian, Chaoguang; Glass, N. Louise

    2012-01-01

    Rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. We therefore used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. A screen of a N. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose, but were not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. Transcriptional profiling with next-generation sequencing methods refined our understanding of the N. crassa transcriptional response to cellulose and demonstrated that clr-1 and clr-2 were required for the bulk of that response, including induction of all major cellulase and some major hemicellulase genes. Functional CLR-1 was necessary for expression of clr-2 and efficient cellobiose utilization. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CLR-1 and CLR-2 are conserved in the genomes of most filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. In Aspergillus nidulans, a strain carrying a deletion of the clr-2 homolog (clrB) failed to induce cellulase gene expression and lacked cellulolytic activity on Avicel. Further manipulation of this control system in industrial production strains may significantly improve yields of cellulases for cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:22532664

  2. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Malé, Pierre-Jean G.; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Ant–fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant–fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. PMID:21084334

  3. Pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for proper sexual development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Weber, Jan M; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-03-01

    The homothallic, filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is self-fertile and produces sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) without a mating partner. Even so, S. macrospora transcriptionally expresses two pheromone-precursor genes (ppg1 and ppg2) and two pheromone-receptor genes (pre1 and pre2). The proteins encoded by these genes are similar to alpha-factor-like and a-factor-like pheromones and to G-protein-coupled pheromone receptors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been suggested that in S. macrospora, PPG1/PRE2 and PPG2/PRE1 form two cognate pheromone-receptor pairs. To investigate their function, we deleted (delta) pheromone-precursor genes (delta ppg1, delta ppg2) and receptor genes (delta pre1, delta pre2) and generated single- as well as double-knockout strains. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body, and ascospore development was seen in the single pheromone-mutant and receptor-mutant strains, respectively. However, double-knockout strains lacking any compatible pheromone-receptor pair (delta pre2/delta ppg2, delta pre1/delta ppg1) and the double-pheromone mutant (delta ppg1/delta ppg2) displayed a drastically reduced number of perithecia and sexual spores, whereas deletion of both receptor genes (delta pre1/delta pre2) completely eliminated fruiting-body and ascospore formation. The results suggest that pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for optimal sexual reproduction of the homothallic S. macrospora.

  4. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  5. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  6. Functional properties and differential mode of regulation of the nitrate transporter from a plant symbiotic ascomycete

    PubMed Central

    Montanini, Barbara; Viscomi, Arturo R.; Bolchi, Angelo; Martin, Yusé; Siverio, José M.; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen assimilation by plant symbiotic fungi plays a central role in the mutualistic interaction established by these organisms, as well as in nitrogen flux in a variety of soils. In the present study, we report on the functional properties, structural organization and distinctive mode of regulation of TbNrt2 (Tuber borchii NRT2 family transporter), the nitrate transporter of the mycorrhizal ascomycete T. borchii. As revealed by experiments conducted in a nitrate-uptake-defective mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, TbNrt2 is a high-affinity transporter (Km=4.7 μM nitrate) that is bispecific for nitrate and nitrite. It is expressed in free-living mycelia and in mycorrhizae, where it preferentially accumulates in the plasma membrane of root-contacting hyphae. The TbNrt2 mRNA, which is transcribed from a single-copy gene clustered with the nitrate reductase gene in the T. borchii genome, was specifically up-regulated following transfer of mycelia to nitrate- (or nitrite)-containing medium. However, at variance with the strict nitrate-dependent induction commonly observed in other organisms, TbNrt2 was also up-regulated (at both the mRNA and the protein level) following transfer to a nitrogen-free medium. This unusual mode of regulation differs from that of the adjacent nitrate reductase gene, which was expressed at basal levels under nitrogen deprivation conditions and required nitrate for induction. The functional and expression properties, described in the present study, delineate TbNrt2 as a versatile transporter that may be especially suited to cope with the fluctuating (and often low) mineral nitrogen concentrations found in most natural, especially forest, soils. PMID:16201972

  7. Crystal structures of two tetrameric β-carbonic anhydrases from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Lehneck, Ronny; Neumann, Piotr; Vullo, Daniela; Elleuche, Skander; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ficner, Ralf; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) and protons. CAs have been identified in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes and can be classified into five groups (α, β, γ, δ, ζ) that are unrelated in sequence and structure. The fungal β-class has only recently attracted attention. In the present study, we investigated the structure and function of the plant-like β-CA proteins CAS1 and CAS2 from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. We demonstrated that both proteins can substitute for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA Nce103 and exhibit an in vitro CO2 hydration activity (kcat /Km of CAS1: 1.30 × 10(6) m(-1) ·s(-1) ; CAS2: 1.21 × 10(6 ) m(-1) ·s(-1) ). To further investigate the structural properties of CAS1 and CAS2, we determined their crystal structures to a resolution of 2.7 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. The oligomeric state of both proteins is tetrameric. With the exception of the active site composition, no further major differences have been found. In both enzymes, the Zn(2) (+) -ion is tetrahedrally coordinated; in CAS1 by Cys45, His101 and Cys104 and a water molecule and in CAS2 by the side chains of four residues (Cys56, His112, Cys115 and Asp58). Both CAs are only weakly inhibited by anions, making them good candidates for industrial applications. CAS1 and CAS2 bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction) Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank database under accession numbers 4O1J for CAS1 and 4O1K for CAS2. © 2014 FEBS.

  8. Comparative Xylose Metabolism among the Ascomycetes C. albicans, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lépine, Guylaine; Askew, Chris; Raymond, Martine; Whiteway, Malcolm; Wu, Cunle

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycetes Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolize the pentose sugar xylose very differently. S. cerevisiae fails to grow on xylose, while C. albicans can grow, and S. stipitis can both grow and ferment xylose to ethanol. However, all three species contain highly similar genes that encode potential xylose reductases and xylitol dehydrogenases required to convert xylose to xylulose, and xylulose supports the growth of all three fungi. We have created C. albicans strains deleted for the xylose reductase gene GRE3, the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, as well as the gre3 xyl2 double mutant. As expected, all the mutant strains cannot grow on xylose, while the single gre3 mutant can grow on xylitol. The gre3 and xyl2 mutants are efficiently complemented by the XYL1 and XYL2 from S. stipitis. Intriguingly, the S. cerevisiae GRE3 gene can complement the Cagre3 mutant, while the ScSOR1 gene can complement the Caxyl2 mutant, showing that S. cerevisiae contains the enzymatic capacity for converting xylose to xylulose. In addition, the gre3 xyl2 double mutant of C. albicans is effectively rescued by the xylose isomerase (XI) gene of either Piromyces or Orpinomyces, suggesting that the XI provides an alternative to the missing oxido-reductase functions in the mutant required for the xylose-xylulose conversion. Overall this work suggests that C. albicans strains engineered to lack essential steps for xylose metabolism can provide a platform for the analysis of xylose metabolism enzymes from a variety of species, and confirms that S. cerevisiae has the genetic potential to convert xylose to xylulose, although non-engineered strains cannot proliferate on xylose as the sole carbon source. PMID:24236198

  9. PCR primers specific for the genus Tuber reveal the presence of several truffle species in a truffle-ground.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Elisa; Mello, Antonietta; Bonfante, Paola; Murat, Claude

    2009-08-01

    Truffles are hypogeous Ascomycete fungi belonging to the genus Tuber and forming fruiting bodies highly prized for their taste and aroma. The identification of the genus Tuber and its species is important to investigate their ecology and avoid fraud in the food market. As genus-specific primers are not available, the aims of this work were (1) to assess the usefulness of the beta-tubulin gene as a DNA barcoding region for designing Tuber genus-specific primers, (2) to test the primers on a range of fruiting bodies, representing a large part of truffle biodiversity and (3) to check their ecological usefulness, applying them to truffle-ground soil. The new primers designed on the beta-tubulin gene were specific to the Tuber genus in nested PCR. When applied to DNA from soils, they gave a positive signal for 23 of 32 soils. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the bands corresponded to Tuber and that at least five Tuber species were present in the truffle-ground. beta-tubulin was found to be a good barcoding region for designing Tuber genus-specific primers, detecting a high Tuber diversity in a natural environment. These primers will be useful for understanding truffle ecology and for practical needs in plantation management.

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis reveals the new genus Hemisphaericaspora of the family Debaryomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T ( = CICC 33021 = NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.

  11. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T ( = CICC 33021 = NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

  12. The ura5 gene of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Chevanton, L; Leblon, G

    1989-04-15

    We cloned the ura5 gene coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora by heterologous probing of a Sordaria genomic DNA library with the corresponding Podospora anserina sequence. The Sordaria gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli pyrE mutant strain defective for the same enzyme, and expression was shown to be promoted by plasmid sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the 1246-bp DNA fragment encompassing the region of homology with the Podospora gene has been determined. This sequence contains an open reading frame of 699 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 72% similarity with the corresponding Podospora protein.

  13. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  14. Genus I. Leptospira

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  15. The draft genome sequence of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium subrubescens reveals a highly enriched content of plant biomass related CAZymes compared to related fungi.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R; Hildén, Kristiina; Bervoets, Sander; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; Granchi, Zoraide

    2017-03-20

    Here we report the genome sequence of the ascomycete saprobic fungus Penicillium subrubescens FBCC1632/CBS132785 isolated from a Jerusalem artichoke field in Finland. The 39.75Mb genome containing 14,188 gene models is highly similar for that reported for other Penicillium species, but contains a significantly higher number of putative carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) encoding genes.

  16. Simulated aerial sprays for field cage evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Montana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field efficacy of the entomopathogenic Ascomycete Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 was evaluated against nymphs of the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex. Fungi were applied with a new apparatus that allows simulated aerial sprays to 0.1m2 areas in the field. The Mormon...

  17. The lichen-forming ascomycete Evernia mesomorpha associates with multiple genotypes of Trebouxia jamesii.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2006-01-01

    The epiphyte Evernia mesomorpha forms a lichen association with green algae in the genus Trebouxia. Little is known about the population structure of E. mesomorpha. Here, population structure of the algal and fungal symbionts was examined for 290 lichen thalli on 29 jack pine (Pinus banksiana) trees in Manitoba. Through phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, five algal genotypes were detected that were nested within T. jamesii. Two fungal genotypes were detected that formed a clade with two other Evernia species. The genus Evernia was paraphyletic with E. prunastri, sister to Parmelia saxatilis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ITS rDNA showed multiple algal genotypes in 45% of the 290 lichen thalli collected, whereas all thalli only contained one fungal genotype. Low population subdivision of algal and fungal genotypes among trees suggested that the algal symbiont was being dispersed in the lichen soredium. Low fungal specificity for multiple algal genotypes and a hypothesized algal switch may be important life history strategies for E. mesomorpha to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

  18. Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea

    PubMed Central

    Hijri, Mohamed; Redecker, Dirk; Petetot, Jean A. MacDonald-Comber; Voigt, Kerstin; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Sanders, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy and dead spores, was assigned to Leptosphaeria, a genus that also contains pathogens of plants in the Brassicaceae. PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analyses, however, did not indicate similarities between pathogens and the isolate. The presence of the two isolates in both healthy spores and perforated dead spores of S. castanea was finally confirmed by transmission electron microscopy by using distinctive characteristics of the isolates and S. castanea. The role of this fungus in S. castanea spores remains unclear, but the results serve as a strong warning that sequences obtained from apparently healthy AMF spores cannot be presumed to be of glomalean origin and that this could present problems for studies on AMF genes. PMID:12200315

  19. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-01-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges. PMID:26478650

  20. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  1. Romellia is congeneric with Togninia, and description of Conidiotheca gen. nov. for one species of this genus with polysporous asci.

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina; Mostert, Lizel

    2007-03-01

    During a continued survey of fungi accommodated in the Calosphaeriales, we observed that the genus Romellia is morphologically heterogeneous. Historically, four species were placed in the genus. Romellia was introduced for taxa with globose, dark, superficial, papillate perithecia, a paraphysate centrum, and octosporous asci containing eight allantoid, hyaline ascospores. The type species, R. vibratilis, was revised in our study, and its freshly collected material was cultured. The anamorph obtained in vitro matches the generic concept of the hyphomycete genus Phaeoacremonium, the anamorph of Togninia. The phylogenies inferred from newly obtained sequences of LSU rDNA, beta-tubulin, and actin of R. vibratilis revealed that the species is congeneric with Togninia (Togniniaceae) and represents a good species. Revision of type and herbarium material of other Romellia species confirmed they are not congeneric with Togninia. Romellia tympanoides possesses immersed, subglobose perithecia with sessile asci containing eight ascospores, which during maturation produce ascoconidia filling the entire ascus. This maturation process represents a new kind of apparent polyspory known in the ascomycetes. We introduce a new genus, Conidiotheca, and a new combination for R. tympanoides. The species is compared with the genera Barrina and Tympanis. The relationships of two other Romellia species, R. ambigua and R. cornina, lie with Wegelina and Jattaea of the Calosphaeriales.

  2. Colonization of roots of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum by dark septate and other ascomycetous endophytes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Franken, Philipp; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Restrepo, Silvia; de Garcia, Maria Caridad Cepero; Maximova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots from four different crop sites in Colombia were surface sterilized and 51 fungal isolates were obtained and conserved for further analysis. Based on microscopical observations and growth characteristics, 20 fungal isolates corresponded to genus Fusarium, six presented asexual conidia different from Fusarium, eight were sterile mycelia, seven of which had dark septate hyphae and 17 did not continue to grow on plates after being recovered from conservation. Growth on different media, detailed morphological characterization and ITS region sequencing of the six sporulating and eight sterile isolates revealed that they belonged to different orders of Ascomycota and that the sterile dark septate endophytes did not correspond to the well known Phialocephala group. Interactions of nine isolates with tomato plantlets were assessed in vitro. No effect on shoot development was revealed, but three isolates caused brown spots in roots. Colonization patterns as analyzed by confocal microscopy differed among the isolates and ranged from epidermal to cortical penetration. Altogether 11 new isolates from root endophytic fungi were obtained, seven of which showed features of dark septate endophytes. Four known morphotypes were represented by five isolates, while six isolates belonged to five morphotypes of putative new unknown species.

  3. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-07-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Deltamcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development.

  4. A new pullulan and a branched (1-->3)-, (1-->6)-linked beta-glucan from the lichenised ascomycete Teloschistes flavicans.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rodrigo A; Tischer, Cesar A; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2002-04-23

    The polysaccharides formed on hot alkaline extraction of the ascomycetous lichen Teloschistes flavicans were fractionated to give two glucans, which were characterised by methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. One was a branched beta-glucan containing (1-->3) and (1-->6) linkages, a structure which is more typical of basidiomycetes rather than ascomycetes, which have linear glucans. The other was an alpha-glucan with alternating (1-->4) and (1-->6) linkages, found for the first time in Nature. This structure can be classified as a pullulan, which has been isolated from the fungi Aureobasidium pullulans, Tremella mesenterica, and Cyttaria harioti, but has different ratios of the component glycosidic linkages. The significance of the presence of the isolated alpha- and beta-glucans is discussed.

  5. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, Evgeny; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  6. Contribution to the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Taeniolella, with a focus on lichenicolous taxa.

    PubMed

    Ertz, Damien; Heuchert, Bettina; Braun, Uwe; Freebury, Colin E; Common, Ralph S; Diederich, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Taeniolella is a genus of asexual ascomycetes with saprophytic, endophytic, and lichenicolous life styles. A phylogeny of representative species is presented, with a focus on lichenicolous taxa. We obtained mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data from culture isolates of Taeniolella and from freshly collected specimens of other taxa. Taeniolella is recovered as strongly polyphyletic. The type species, Taeniolella exilis, is placed in Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes. Other saprophytic/endophytic Taeniolella species previously assigned to Sordariomycetes based on sequences were found to represent either contaminants or species that cannot be assigned to Taeniolella for morphological reasons. Lichenicolous species are restricted to Asterotexiales (Dothideomycetes) where the sequenced species of Taeniolella do not form a monophyletic group, but are related to species of Buelliella s. lat., Karschia, Labrocarpon, Melaspilea s. lat., and Stictographa. Molecular data are, however, not sufficient to reallocate the lichenicolous Taeniolella species to other genera so far. Anamorph-teleomorph relationships between these taxa and lichenicolous Taeniolella are discussed but could not be demonstrated. The type of Buelliella is placed in Asterotexiales, and the genus recovered as polyphyletic. Three new lichenicolous Taeniolella species are described, Taeniolella hawksworthiana, Taeniolella pyrenulae and Taeniolella toruloides. Taeniolella rudis is transferred to Sterigmatobotrys. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.

  8. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; ...

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  9. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m(3) of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m(3) extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Coverage ITS Primers for the DNA-Based Identification of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties), causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing. PMID:22808280

  11. Primer Sets Developed To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes Are Useful in Differentiating Fusarium Species Associated with Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G. C.; Ball, L. A.; Axelrood, P. E.; Glass, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of Fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in five amplified PCR products from each Fusarium isolate. The primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in Neurospora crassa. Primers previously developed for the intergenic transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA were also used. The degree of interspecific polymorphism observed in the PCR products from the six Fusarium species allowed differentiation by a limited number of amplifications and restriction endonuclease digestions. The level of intraspecific RFLP variation in the five PCR products was low in both Fusarium proliferatum and F. avenaceum but was high in a population sample of F. oxysporum isolates. Clustering of the 35 isolates by statistical analyses gave similar dendrograms for H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin RFLP analysis, but a dendrogram produced by intergenic transcribed spacer analysis varied in the placement of some F. oxysporum isolates. PMID:16534991

  12. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. PMID:26338189

  13. Mating-type genes from the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora are functionally expressed in a heterothallic ascomycete.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, S; Risch, S; Kück, U; Osiewacz, H D

    1997-10-01

    Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina.

  14. Regulation of melanin biosynthesis via the dihydroxynaphthalene pathway is dependent on sexual development in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora accumulates melanin during sexual development. The four melanin biosynthesis genes pks, teh, sdh and tih were isolated and their homology to genes involved in 1,8 dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthesis was shown. The presence of DHN melanin in S. macrospora was further confirmed by disrupting the pks gene encoding a putative polyketide synthase and by RNA interference-mediated silencing of the sdh gene encoding a putative scytalone dehydratase. Because melanin occurs in fruiting bodies that develop through several intermediate stages within 7 days of growth, a Northern analysis of a developmental time-course was conducted. These data revealed a time-dependent regulation of teh and sdh transcript levels. Comparing the transcriptional expression by real-time PCR of melanin biosynthesis genes in the wild type under conditions allowing or repressing sexual development, a significant downregulation during vegetative growth was detected. Quantitative real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis of melanin biosynthesis gene expression in different developmental mutants confirmed that melanin biosynthesis is linked to fruiting body development and is under the control of specific regulatory genes that participate in sexual differentiation.

  15. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+)-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+)-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers) and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain. PMID:25955649

  16. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison; Bishop, Ferial S.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37–41. 1964.—The conditions necessary for H2S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H2S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H2S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H2S are incorrect; H2S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula. PMID:14198791

  17. THE GENUS DERMATOPHILUS

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Morris A.

    1964-01-01

    Gordon, M. A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany). The genus Dermatophilus. J. Bacteriol. 88:509–522. 1964.—Seventeen strains of Dermatophilus originating in skin lesions of cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and man were compared as to conditions for growth, colonial characteristics under varying conditions, microscopic morphology, and biochemical reactions. All grew well aerobically at 37 C and were facultatively anaerobic. They were morphologically similar in both gross and microscopic appearance, and most produced motile spores. Stable gray variants often appeared among the orange-yellow “wild-type” colonies. Acid without gas was produced consistently from glucose and fructose, and transitorily from galactose, but was produced from none of eight other carbohydrates except belatedly by some strains from maltose. Almost all strains hydrolyzed casein, most of them digested BCP milk with varying rapidity, and the majority liquefied gelatin, but there was considerable variation in this last property. Differences crossed both host and geographic lines. It is concluded that all isolates can be accommodated in the species D. congolensis Van Saceghem 1915, emend. 1916, 1934, with D. dermatonomus and D. pedis falling into synonymy. Images PMID:14203370

  18. The genus Vitex: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347927

  19. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  20. The genus Cladosporium.

    PubMed

    Bensch, K; Braun, U; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2012-06-15

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada

  1. A new proteinaceous pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) identified in Ascomycete fungi induces cell death in Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Franco-Orozco, Barbara; Berepiki, Adokiye; Ruiz, Olaya; Gamble, Louise; Griffe, Lucie L; Wang, Shumei; Birch, Paul R J; Kanyuka, Kostya; Avrova, Anna

    2017-04-07

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transient expression of Phytophthora infestans effectors PiAVR3a and PexRD2 were used to assess the involvement of known components of PTI in N. benthamiana responses to RcCDI1. RcCDI1 was highly upregulated early during barley colonization with R. commune. RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species, including Zymoseptoria tritici, Magnaporthe oryzae and Neurospora crassa, exhibited PAMP activity, inducing cell death in Solanaceae but not in other families of dicots or monocots. RcCDI1-triggered cell death was shown to require N. benthamiana Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-Associated Kinase 1 (NbBAK1), N. benthamiana suppressor of BIR1-1 (NbSOBIR1) and N. benthamiana SGT1 (NbSGT1), but was not suppressed by PiAVR3a or PexRD2. We report the identification of a novel Ascomycete PAMP, RcCDI1, recognized by Solanaceae but not by monocots, which activates cell death through a pathway that is distinct from that triggered by the oomycete PAMP INF1.

  2. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  3. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme. PMID:25372682

  4. Identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the sexual reproduction of the ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungkwan; Park, Chanju; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Yin-Won

    2010-10-08

    We previously reported that G protein alpha subunit 1 (GPA1) is essential for sexual reproduction in the homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study we performed microarray analyses on a GPA1 deletion mutant of G. zeae (Δgpa1) to identify genes involved in the sexual reproduction of this fungus. In the Δgpa1 strain, 645 genes were down-regulated and 550 genes were up-regulated during sexual reproduction when compared to the wild-type strain. One hundred of the down-regulated genes were selected for further investigation based on orthologous group clusters and differences in transcript levels. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to determine transcriptional profiles of these genes at various sexual and vegetative stages. We observed that transcript levels of 78 of these genes were dramatically increased in the wild-type strain during sexual reproduction compared to levels observed during vegetative growth, and were down-regulated in Δgpa1 compared to the wild-type strain. We deleted 57 of these genes and found that four of the deletion mutants lost self-fertility and five produced fewer perithecia compared to the wild-type strain. Two mutants produced wild-type numbers of perithecia, but maturation of perithecia and ascospores was delayed. In all we identified 11 genes that are involved in sexual reproduction of G. zeae and present evidence that some of these genes function at distinct stages during sexual reproduction in the fungus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  6. On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of decent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smal...

  7. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; ...

    2017-07-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates, particularly filamentous Ascomycetes, or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here in this study we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and extracellular enzyme activity assays to compare the protein compositionmore » of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that the fungi exhibit striking differences in the regulation of extracellular lignocellulose-degrading enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability. Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. In conclusion, this work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among understudied yet ubiquitous cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes, enhancing our understanding of their contribution to C turnover in the environment.« less

  8. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    PubMed

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  9. Characterisation and classification of phylloplane yeasts from Portugal related to the genus Taphrina and description of five novel Lalaria species.

    PubMed

    Inácio, João; Rodrigues, Manuel G; Sobral, Patrícia; Fonseca, Alvaro

    2004-01-01

    Taphrina Fries is a genus of dimorphic ascomycetes comprising more than 90 species distinguished by the specific infections they produce on different vascular plants. Their filamentous states are restricted to parasitised plant tissue whereas the yeast states are saprobic and can be grown on artificial media. The latter coincide with the anamorphic phases and have been given separate nomenclatural status by the erection of the genus Lalaria R.T. Moore. In its original circumscription Lalaria included only 23 yeast states of known species of Taphrina and its creation was then redundant. Here we describe five novel species in the genus Lalaria to accommodate a total of 44 yeast isolates obtained mainly from leaf surfaces (phylloplane) of different plants in Portugal: Lalaria arrabidae sp. nov. (one strain), L. carpini sp. nov. (one strain), L. inositophila sp. nov. (37 strains), L. kurtzmanii sp. nov. (one strain) and L. veronaerambellii sp. nov. (four strains). L. inositophila was notable for its widespread occurrence since it was recovered during two consecutive years from the leaves of miscellaneous plant species. In the absence of sexual states and of unequivocal associations to particular host plants, the taxonomic relationship of the novel species to the yeast states of Taphrina available from culture collections was verified by the comparative analysis of physiological and molecular characteristics. The latter included PCR fingerprinting using single primers for microsatellite regions, sequencing of the 5' end of the 26S rRNA (LSU) gene (D1/D2 domains) and of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA spacer regions, and DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments. An emended description of the genus Lalaria is provided.

  10. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

  11. Autophagic kinases SmVPS34 and SmVPS15 are required for viability in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process of all eukaryotes. It includes the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents and organelles within a double-membraned autophagosome. Autophagy involves core autophagy related (atg) genes as well as genes regulating vesicle trafficking. Previously, we analyzed the impact of proteins of the core autophagic machinery SmATG7, SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. While deletion of Smatg8 and Smatg4 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth, Smatg7 is required for viability. In yeast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) and its myristoylated membrane targeting unit, the protein kinase Vps15 have been shown to be important regulators of autophagy and vacuolar protein sorting. However, their exact role in filamentous ascomycetes remains elusive. To determine the function of Smvps34 and Smvps15 we isolated genes with high sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS34 and VPS15. For both genes we were not able to generate a homokaryotic knockout mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smvps34 and Smvps15 are required for viability. Furthermore, we analyzed the repertoire of vps genes encoded by S. macrospora and could identify putative homologs of nearly all of the 61 VPS genes of S. cerevisiae.

  12. Antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin MtDef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Islam, Kazi T; Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Read, Nick D; Shah, Dilip M

    2016-05-01

    Defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. The plant defensin, MtDef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. We have reported that MtDef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. Here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of MtDef4 are conserved in these fungi. We show that N. crassa and F. graminearum respond differently to MtDef4 challenge. Membrane permeabilization is required for the antifungal activity of MtDef4 against F. graminearum but not against N. crassa. We find that MtDef4 is targeted to different subcellular compartments in each fungus. Internalization of MtDef4 in N. crassa is energy-dependent and involves endocytosis. By contrast, MtDef4 appears to translocate into F. graminearum autonomously using a partially energy-dependent pathway. MtDef4 has been shown to bind to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We provide evidence that the plasma membrane localized phospholipase D, involved in the biosynthesis of PA, is needed for entry of this defensin in N. crassa, but not in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a defensin which inhibits the growth of two ascomycete fungi via different mechanisms. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Deletion of Smgpi1 encoding a GPI-anchored protein suppresses sterility of the STRIPAK mutant ΔSmmob3 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Frey, Stefan; Lahmann, Yasmine; Hartmann, Thomas; Seiler, Stephan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    The striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and kinases, is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Here, we report on the interplay of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein SmGPI1 with the kinase activator SmMOB3, a core component of human and fungal STRIPAK complexes. SmGPI1 is conserved among filamentous ascomycetes and was first identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using SmMOB3 as bait. The physical interaction of SmMOB3 and SmGPI1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In vivo localization and differential centrifugation revealed that SmGPI1 is predominantly secreted and attached to the cell wall but is also associated with mitochondria and appears to be a dual-targeted protein. Deletion of Smgpi1 led to an increased number of fruiting bodies that were normally shaped but reduced in size. In addition, Smmob3 and Smgpi1 genetically interact. In the sterile ΔSmmob3 background deletion of Smgpi1 restores fertility, vegetative growth as well as hyphal-fusion defects. The suppression effect was specific for the ΔSmmob3 mutant as deletion of Smgpi1 in other STRIPAK mutants does not restore fertility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Functional characterization of MAT1-1-specific mating-type genes in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora provides new insights into essential and nonessential sexual regulators.

    PubMed

    Klix, V; Nowrousian, M; Ringelberg, C; Loros, J J; Dunlap, J C; Pöggeler, S

    2010-06-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the alpha domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes.

  15. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions.

  16. A MADS Box Protein Interacts with a Mating-Type Protein and Is Required for Fruiting Body Development in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Δmcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development. PMID:16835449

  17. A STE12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora interacts with the MADS box protein MCM1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-11-01

    The MADS box protein MCM1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. MADS box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. We have recently shown that the S. macrospora MCM1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1. To further evaluate the functional roles of MCM1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify MCM1-interacting proteins. From this screen, we isolated a protein with a putative N-terminal homeodomain and C-terminal C2/H2-Zn2+ finger domains. The protein is a member of the highly conserved fungal STE12 transcription factor family of proteins and was therefore termed STE12. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of two-hybrid and far western analysis that in addition to MCM1, the S. macrospora STE12 protein is able to interact with the mating-type protein SMTA-1. Unlike the situation in the closely related heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, deletion (Delta) of the ste12 gene in S. macrospora neither affects vegetative growth nor fruiting body formation. However, ascus and ascospore development are highly impaired by the Deltaste12 mutation. Our data provide another example of the functional divergence within the fungal STE12 transcription factor family.

  18. A Fox2-Dependent Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation Pathway Coexists Both in Peroxisomes and Mitochondria of the Ascomycete Yeast Candida lusitaniae

    PubMed Central

    Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  19. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  20. Description of Komagataella phaffii sp. nov. and the transfer of Pichia pseudopastoris to the methylotrophic yeast genus Komagataella.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2005-03-01

    The new methanol-assimilating yeast species Komagataella phaffii Kurtzman sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-7556(T)=CBS 2612(T)) is described. Of the four known strains of this species, two were isolated from black oak trees in California, USA, one from an Emory oak in Arizona, USA, and one from an unidentified source in Mexico. The species forms hat-shaped ascospores in deliquescent asci and appears to be homothallic. Analysis of nucleotide sequences from domains D1/D2 of large-subunit (26S) rDNA separates the new species from Komagataella pastoris, the type species of the genus, and from Pichia pseudopastoris, which is here renamed Komagataella pseudopastoris (Dlauchy, Tornai-Lehoczki, Fulop & Peter) Kurtzman comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27603(T)=CBS 9187(T)=NCAIM Y 01541(T)). On the basis of D1/D2 26S rDNA sequence analysis, the three species now assigned to the genus Komagataella represent a clade that is phylogenetically isolated from other ascomycetous yeast genera.

  1. Advances in taxonomy of genus phoma: polyphyletic nature and role of phenotypic traits and molecular systematics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra Kumar; Tiwari, Vaibhav V; Irinyi, László; Kövics, György János

    2014-06-01

    Phoma is a highly polyphyletic genus with its unclear species boundaries. The conventional system of identification is functional but it has its limitations. Besides morphological studies, chemotaxonomy, secondary metabolite and protein profiling have been assessed for the classification and identification of these fungi. Molecular datasets have provided a better outlook towards the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends of Phoma. Molecular markers such as ITS-rDNA, tubulin, actin, translation elongation factor have been widely used by the taxonomists to demarcate species. However, outcomes gained up till now represent preliminary step towards the study of Phoma systematics and a combined approach would be beneficial in the understanding of this polyphyletic group members. Lately, on the base of molecular phylogeny of the type species of the seven Phoma sections a new teleomorph family, Didymellaceae has been established, besides the Phaeosphaeriaceae related to sect. Paraphoma anamorphs, and the Leptosphaeriaceae to sect. Heterospora anamorphs. The estimated ratio is about 70 % of the recognized Phoma-like species can be associated with the Didymellaceae ascomycetous family.

  2. Convergent evolution of a symbiotic duet: the case of the lichen genus Polychidium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Nelson, Peter; Wheeler, Tim; Yakovchenko, Lidia S; Tønsberg, Tor; Spribille, Toby

    2011-10-01

    Thallus architecture has long been a powerful guide for classifying lichens and has often trumped photobiont association and ascomatal type, but the reliability of these characters to predict phylogenetic affinity has seldom been tested. The cyanolichen genus Polychidium unites species that have strikingly similar gross morphology but consort with different photobiont genera. If Polychidium were found to be monophyletic, photobiont switching among closely related species would be suggested. If, however, species were found to arise in different lineages, a convergent body plan and ascomatal type evolution would be inferred. We tested the monophyly of Polychidium with a multilocus phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from all known Peltigeralean families and reconstructed ancestral states for specific thallus architecture and ascomatal ontogeny types relative to Polychidium and other clades. We found that Polychidium consists of two species groups that arose independently in different suborders within the Peltigerales, associated with Nostoc and Scytonema photobionts, respectively. We infer from ancestral character state reconstruction that dendroid thallus architecture evolved independently in these two lineages. The independent development of similar dendroid thallus architecture in different fungal suborders with different photobionts represents a clear and previously overlooked example of convergent evolution in lichens. Our results also suggest a pattern of character state conservation, loss, and reversion in ascomatal ontogeny types, hitherto considered conserved traits useful for higher level ascomycete systematics.

  3. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Trichosporon Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Wang, Li; Yokoyama, Koji; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) genes of 42 strains representing 23 species of the genus Trichosporon were partially sequenced to determine their molecular phylogenetic relationships. Almost half of the 22 strains investigated (from 11 different species) contained introns in their sequences. Analysis of a 396-bp coding sequence from each strain of Trichosporon under investigation showed a total of 141 (35.6%) variable nucleotide sites. A phylogenetic tree based on the cyt b gene sequences revealed that all species of Trichosporon except Trichosporon domesticum and Trichosporon montevideense had species-specific cyt b genes. Trichosporon sp. strain CBS 5581 was identified as Trichosporon pullulans, and one clinical isolate, IFM 48794, was identified as Trichosporon faecale. Analysis of 132-bp deduced amino acid sequences showed a total of 34 (25.75%) variable amino acid sites. T. domesticum and T. montevideense, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon asteroides, and Trichosporon gracile and Trichosporon guehoae had identical amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree constructed with the ascomycetes Saccharomyces douglasii and Candida glabrata taken as outgroup species and including representative species from closely related genera species of Trichosporon clustered with other basidiomycetous yeasts that contain xylose in their cell wall compositions. These results indicate the effectiveness of mitochondrial cyt b gene sequences for both species identification and the phylogenetic analysis of Trichosporon species. PMID:16207980

  4. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-27

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  5. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Treesearch

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  6. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  7. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  8. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  9. Cyanobacteria of the Genus Prochlorothrix†

    PubMed Central

    Pinevich, Alexander; Velichko, Natalia; Ivanikova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Green cyanobacteria differ from the blue–green cyanobacteria by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light-harvesting antenna. Three genera of the green cyanobacteria namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus, and Prochloron are unicellular and inhabit marine environments. Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its prominent role in marine primary productivity. The fourth genus Prochlorothrix is represented by the filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the other green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix strains are remarkably rare: to date, living isolates have been limited to two European locations. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance to Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful attempts to obtain enrichments of Prochlorothrix, the most successful strategy to search for this cyanobacterium involves PCR with environmental DNA and Prochlorothrix-specific primers. This approach has revealed a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix. Marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite of the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultured strains with one of them (PCC 9006) being claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described. In addition, the evolutionary scenario for green cyanobacteria is suggested taking into account their possible role in the origin of simple chloroplast. PMID:22783229

  10. On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2014-07-01

    Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233–318 and 180–193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis. PMID:27040368

  12. The genus Thermotoga: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thermotoga comprises extremely thermophilic (Topt ≥ 70°C) and hyperthermophilic (Topt ≥ 80°C) bacteria that have been extensively studied for insights into the basis for life at elevated temperatures and for biotechnological opportunities (e.g., biohydrogen production, biocatalysis). Over the past decade, genome sequences have become available for a number of Thermotoga species, leading to functional genomics efforts to understand growth physiology as well as genomics-based identification and characterization of novel high temperature biocatalysts. Discussed here are recent developments along these lines for this novel group of microorganisms. PMID:20718299

  13. Neotropical Ascomycetes. 12, Mirannulata samuelsii gen. et sp. nov. and M. costaricensis sp. nov., new taxa from the Caribbean and elsewhere.

    Treesearch

    Sabine M. Huhndorf; Fernando A. Fernandez; Andrew N. Miller; D. Jean. Lodge

    2003-01-01

    A terrestrial wood-inhabiting pyrenomycete was collected numerous times in the Neotropics. It possesses superficial, clustered ascomata, large, distinctive ascus rings and strongly guttulate, fusiform ascospores. A second similar pyrenomycete was collected once in Costa Rica. They could not be placed into any known genus, so a new genus, Mirannulata, is described....

  14. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  15. Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from grapes and wine fermentation in Lanzarote, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González, Sara S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Laich, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the characterization of the microbiota biodiversity associated with grapes and wineries in different bioclimatic conditions of the Canary Islands (Spain), a novel yeast species was isolated from Lanzarote, the driest wine-producing region of the archipelago. Seven strains isolated from grapes, microvinifications and wineries are described. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically a member of the genus Lachancea and are closely related to Lachancea meyersii NRRL Y-27269(T) and Lachancea nothofagi NRRL Y-48670(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L2C-15(T) ( = CBS 12615(T) = CECT 13066(T)) which was isolated from grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Listán Negro red grape variety in Tinajo, Lanzarote. The MycoBank no. is MB 801390.

  16. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) ( = CBS 13946(T) = NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain.

  17. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  18. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  19. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  20. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  1. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  2. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as an alternative for biological control. Part I: metabolites from nematophagous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated to cause global annual losses of more than US$ 100 billion. The number of registered nematicides has declined substantially over the last 25 years due to concerns about their non-specific mechanisms of action and hence their potential toxicity and likelihood to cause environmental damage. Environmentally beneficial and inexpensive alternatives to chemicals, which do not affect vertebrates, crops, and other non-target organisms, are therefore urgently required. Nematophagous fungi are natural antagonists of nematode parasites, and these offer an ecophysiological source of novel biocontrol strategies. In this first section of a two-part review article, we discuss 83 nematicidal and non-nematicidal primary and secondary metabolites found in nematophagous ascomycetes. Some of these substances exhibit nematicidal activities, namely oligosporon, 4',5'-dihydrooligosporon, talathermophilins A and B, phomalactone, aurovertins D and F, paeciloxazine, a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative, and leucinostatins. Blumenol A acts as a nematode attractant. Other substances, such as arthrosporols and paganins, play a decisive role in the life cycle of the producers, regulating the formation of reproductive or trapping organs. We conclude by considering the potential applications of these beneficial organisms in plant protection strategies.

  3. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12. PMID:27309377

  4. The phocein homologue SmMOB3 is essential for vegetative cell fusion and sexual development in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2011-04-01

    Members of the striatin family and their highly conserved interacting protein phocein/Mob3 are key components in the regulation of cell differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes. The striatin homologue PRO11 of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a crucial role in fruiting body development. Here, we functionally characterized the phocein/Mob3 orthologue SmMOB3 of S. macrospora. We isolated the gene and showed that both, pro11 and Smmob3 are expressed during early and late developmental stages. Deletion of Smmob3 resulted in a sexually sterile strain, similar to the previously characterized pro11 mutant. Fusion assays revealed that ∆Smmob3 was unable to undergo self-fusion and fusion with the pro11 strain. The essential function of the SmMOB3 N-terminus containing the conserved mob domain was demonstrated by complementation analysis of the sterile S. macrospora ∆Smmob3 strain. Downregulation of either pro11 in ∆Smmob3, or Smmob3 in pro11 mutants by means of RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in synthetic sexual defects, demonstrating for the first time the importance of a putative PRO11/SmMOB3 complex in fruiting body development.

  5. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  6. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12.

  7. The High-Affinity Phosphodiesterase BcPde2 Has Impact on Growth, Differentiation and Virulence of the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Harren, Karin; Brandhoff, Beate; Knödler, Michael; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Components of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as the adenylate cyclase Bac and the protein kinase A (PKA) were shown to affect growth, morphogenesis and differentiation as well as virulence of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. While loss of Bac caused drastically reduced intracellular cAMP levels, deletion of the PKA resulted in extremely increased cAMP concentrations. To regulate the intracellular level of the second messenger cAMP, a balance between its biosynthesis through adenylate cyclase activity and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is crucial. Here, we report the functional characterization of the two PDEs in the ascomycete B. cinerea, BcPde1 and BcPde2. While deletion of bcpde2 resulted in severely affected vegetative growth, conidiation, germination and virulence, the bcpde1 deletion strain displayed a wild-type-like phenotype. However, the double bcpde1/2 deletion mutant exhibited an even stronger phenotype. Localization studies revealed that BcPde2 accumulates at the plasma membrane, but is also localized in the cytoplasm. BcPde1 was shown to be distributed in the cytoplasm as well, but also accumulates in so far unknown mobile vesicles. Overexpression of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 background rescued the deletion phenotype, and in addition an increased transcript level of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 strain was observed, indicating redundant functions of both PDEs and an interdependent gene expression. PMID:24265695

  8. Industrial importance of the genus Brevibacterium.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2005-04-01

    The genus Brevibacterium has long been difficult for taxonomists to classify due to its close morphological similarity to other genera. Since it was proposed in 1953, the genus has often been redefined. The genus is best known for its important role in the ripening of certain cheeses (B. linens) and for its supposed over-production of L: -amino acids. Other interesting industrial applications, including the production of ectoine, have recently been proposed. The general characteristics, the occurrence and the recent taxonomy of Brevibacterium are reviewed here. Furthermore, known and potential industrial applications for Brevibacterium species are briefly discussed.

  9. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of the Genus Tovomita.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Specchiulli, Maria Carmela; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    The genus Tovomita (Fam. Clusiaceae) comprises 45 species mainly found in tropical regions of Central and South America. Most of the species of the title genus have been used for centuries as natural remedies. Phytochemicals isolated from Tovomita spp. include prenylated and unprenylated benzophenones and xanthones. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view what is reported in the past and current literature about the properties of phytopreparations and individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Tovomita genus.

  10. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  12. The Genus Hafnia: from Soup to Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; however, its role as a gastrointestinal pathogen is controversial. Many of the data supporting a role for hafniae as enteric pathogens were incorrectly attributed to this genus rather than to the actual pathogen, Escherichia albertii. There are numerous gaps in our understanding of this genus, including ecologic habitats and population genetics, disease-producing role in animals, phenetic and genetic methods useful in distinguishing genomospecies within the H. alvei complex, and bona fide pathogenicity factors. PMID:16418520

  13. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  14. Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M

    2012-03-01

    The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus.

  15. Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Yen Yen; Takano, Atsuko; Ibrahim, Halijah; Záveská, Eliška; Aziz, Fazimah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus from Borneo, Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, is described here. The genus currently contains eight species previously classified as members of the Scaphochlamys Baker. The finding is based on the results of the morphological and molecular studies of Scaphochlamys throughout its geographical range and its closely allied sister groups, Distichochlamys M.F.Newman and Myxochlamys A.Takano & Nagam. Borneocola is nested within the tribe Zingibereae and its monophyly is strongly supported by both ITS and matK sequence data. The genus is characterised by several thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on the labellum and capitate stigma with two dorsal knobs. The genus is distributed in northwest Borneo and all species are very rare and highly endemic. PMID:28127243

  16. Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Sam, Yen Yen; Takano, Atsuko; Ibrahim, Halijah; Záveská, Eliška; Aziz, Fazimah

    2016-01-01

    A new genus from Borneo, Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, is described here. The genus currently contains eight species previously classified as members of the Scaphochlamys Baker. The finding is based on the results of the morphological and molecular studies of Scaphochlamys throughout its geographical range and its closely allied sister groups, Distichochlamys M.F.Newman and Myxochlamys A.Takano & Nagam. Borneocola is nested within the tribe Zingibereae and its monophyly is strongly supported by both ITS and matK sequence data. The genus is characterised by several thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on the labellum and capitate stigma with two dorsal knobs. The genus is distributed in northwest Borneo and all species are very rare and highly endemic.

  17. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  18. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  19. A suggested new bacteriophage genus: "Viunalikevirus".

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Anany, Hany; Blasdel, Bob; Connerton, Ian F; Goulding, David; Griffiths, Mansel W; Hooton, Steven P; Kutter, Elizabeth M; Kropinski, Andrew M; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Maes, Martine; Pickard, Derek; Ryu, Sangryeol; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Shahrbabak, S Sabouri; Toribio, Ana L; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-10-01

    We suggest a bacteriophage genus, "Viunalikevirus", as a new genus within the family Myoviridae. To date, this genus includes seven sequenced members: Salmonella phages ViI, SFP10 and ΦSH19; Escherichia phages CBA120 and PhaxI; Shigella phage phiSboM-AG3; and Dickeya phage LIMEstone1. Their shared myovirus morphology, with comparable head sizes and tail dimensions, and genome organization are considered distinguishing features. They appear to have conserved regulatory sequences, a horizontally acquired tRNA set and the probable substitution of an alternate base for thymine in the DNA. A close examination of the tail spike region in the DNA revealed four distinct tail spike proteins, an arrangement which might lead to the umbrella-like structures of the tails visible on electron micrographs. These properties set the suggested genus apart from the recently ratified subfamily Tevenvirinae, although a significant evolutionary relationship can be observed.

  20. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  1. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  2. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  3. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  4. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; ...

    2017-03-10

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibriomore » strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANI m ), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.« less

  5. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.; Robson, Norman K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John’s Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John’s wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented. PMID:22662019

  6. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  7. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  8. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  9. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  10. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  11. PIGMENTATION AND TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS XANTHOMONAS

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mortimer P.; Stephens, William L.

    1964-01-01

    Starr, Mortimer P. (University of California, Davis), and William L. Stephens. Pigmentation and taxonomy of the genus Xanthomonas. J. Bacteriol. 87:293–302. 1964.—The colonies formed by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are typically yellow in color. This chromogenesis stems from the presence in all yellow xanthomonads of a particular carotenoid pigment. This unique “Xanthomonas-carotenoid,” which has not been found in any yellow nonxanthomonad, is characterized herein to the extent required for its recognition by relatively simple screening procedures. In general, the occurrence of a carotenoid “alcohol” with absorption maxima at 418, 437, and 463 mμ (petroleum ether)—in a gram-negative, polarly-flagellated, oxidative, rod-shaped bacterium—would suggest placement of that microorganism in the genus Xanthomonas. PMID:14151047

  12. Rhizochaete, a new genus of phanerochaetoid fungi

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Karen K. Nakasone; Mario Rajchenberg

    2004-01-01

    A new basidiomycete genus, Rhizochaete (Phanerochaetaceae, polyporales) is described. Rhizochaete is characterized by a smooth to tuberculate, pellicular hymenophre and hyphal cords that turn red or violet in potassium hydroxide, monomitic hyphal system of simple or nodose septate hyphae, cystidia, and small, cylindrical to subglobose basidiospores. It morphologically...

  13. PULCHRASPHAERA, A NEW CHLOROCOCCALEAN GENUS(1).

    PubMed

    Deason, T R

    1967-03-01

    Pulchrasphaera macronucleata gen. et sp. nov. was isolated from a sand dune on Dauphin Island, Alabama. The distinguishing attributes of the genus include a lobed and perforate parietal chloroplast, lack of pyrenoids, and Protosiphon-type zoospores. The specific epithet calls attention to the unusually large nucleus, a character useful in distinguishing P. macronucleata from other spherical, zoospore producing members of the Chlorococcales.

  14. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  15. Bark beetles in the genus Dendroctonus

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), originally described by Erichson in 1836, currently includes 19 species that are widely distributed. Seventeen species occur between Arctic North America and northwestern Nicaragua, and an additional two species are in northern Europe and Asia. Dendroctonus species attack and infest conifer hosts (Pinaceae...

  16. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  17. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar. PMID:23646289

  18. Population structure in the genus Carya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Carya includes diploid (n=x=16) and tetraploid (n=2x=32) species in the southeastern United States. Only diploid species are found in Mexico, including three (Carya illinoinensis, C. ovata, C. myristiciformis) also found in the U.S. One endemic (C. palmeri) is found only in Mexico. Se...

  19. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    PubMed

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Treesearch

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  1. The genus Sipha in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  2. Functional Characterization of MAT1-1-Specific Mating-Type Genes in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Provides New Insights into Essential and Nonessential Sexual Regulators▿†

    PubMed Central

    Klix, V.; Nowrousian, M.; Ringelberg, C.; Loros, J. J.; Dunlap, J. C.; Pöggeler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the α domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes. PMID:20435701

  3. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  4. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  5. Microbial Reduction of Ketopantoyl Lactone to Pantoyl Lactone1

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Raymond P.; Bradley, Dorothy G.; McDonald, Kerry M.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a microbial survey study have shown that the ability to reduce added ketopantoic acid (or ketopantoyl lactone) and accumulate pantoic acid (or pantoyl lactone) in the growth medium is widespread among diverse fungi. The reductions generally proceeded with less than full stereoselectivity. However, specific strains of the ascomycete Byssochlamys fulva were found to form D[-]-pantoic acid in unusually high yields and optical purity. PMID:4589122

  6. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  7. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Treesearch

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  8. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  9. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  10. Calocybella, a new genus for Rugosomyces pudicus (Agaricales, Lyophyllaceae) and emendation of the genus Gerhardtia.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Alfredo; Consiglio, Giovanni; Setti, Ledo; Ercole, Enrico

    2015-06-01

    Calocybella is a new genus established to accommodate Rugosomyces pudicus. Phylogenetic analyses based on a LSU-ITS sequence dataset place Calocybella sister to Gerhardtia from which it differs morphologically in the presence of clamp-connections and reddening context. The genus Gerhardtia is emended to also include taxa with smooth spores. According to our morphological analysis of voucher material, Calocybe juncicola s. auct. is shown to be Calocybella pudica.

  11. The taxonomy, biology and chemistry of the fungal Pestalotiopsis genus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ze; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2012-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the Pestalotiopsis genus represents a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological relevance. So far, 196 secondary metabolites have been encountered in this genus. This review systematically surveys the taxonomy, biology and chemistry of the Pestalotiopsis genus. It also summarises the biosynthetic relationships and chemical synthesis of metabolites from this genus. There are 184 references.

  12. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.

  13. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  14. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  15. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  16. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  17. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  18. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  19. Taxonomy of Marine Bacteria: the Genus Beneckea

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Paul; Baumann, Linda; Mandel, M.

    1971-01-01

    One-hundred-and-forty-five isolates of marine origin were submitted to an extensive physiological, nutritional, and morphological characterization. All strains were gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of flagella. Glucose was fermented with the production of acid but no gas. Sodium but no organic growth factors were required. None of the strains were able to denitrify or fix molecular nitrogen. The results of nutritional and physiological tests were submitted to a numerical analysis. On the basis of phenotypic similarity, nine groups were established. These groups could be distinguished from one another by multiple, unrelated, phenotypic traits. Six groups which had deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) containing 45 to 48 moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) were assigned to a redefined genus Beneckea. All of the strains in this genus, when grown in liquid medium, had a single, polar flagellum. When grown on a solid medium, many strains had peritrichous flagella. Two groups were similar to previously described species and were designated B. alginolytica and B. natriegens. The remaining four groups were designated B. campbellii, B. neptuna, B. nereida, and B. pelagia. An additional group of phenotypically similar strains having the properties of the genus Beneckea was not included in the numerical analysis. These strains were readily separable from species of this genus and were designated B. parahaemolytica. Of the remaining groups, one was identified as Photobacterium fischeri. The other group (B-2) which had about 41 moles% GC content in its DNA could not be placed into existing genera. Images PMID:4935323

  20. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  1. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  2. The Pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-03-21

    We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  4. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    PubMed

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  6. The myxomycete genus Schenella: morphological and DNA sequence evidence for synonymy with the gasteromycete genus Pyrenogaster.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W

    2005-01-01

    The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed.

  7. Imaia, a new truffle genus to accommodate TerJezia gigantea

    Treesearch

    Gabor M. Kovacs; James M. Trappe; Abulmagid Alsheikh; Karoly Boka

    2008-01-01

    Originally described from Japan by Sanshi Imai in 1933, the hypogeous ascomycete Terjezia gigantea was subsequently discovered in the Appalachian Mountains of the USA. Morphological, electron microscopic, and phylogenetic studies of specimens collected in both regions revealed that, despite this huge geographic disjunction, (1) the Japanese and...

  8. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  10. Genomic Characterization of the Taylorella Genus

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Pons, Nicolas; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Goux, Didier; Batto, Jean-Michel; Laugier, Claire; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS). While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus. PMID:22235352

  11. The Genus Diphasiastrum and Its Lycopodium Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Elsa Steinunn; Kowal, Natalia Magdalena; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2015-08-01

    The genus Diphasiastrum includes at least 23 species distributed primarily across the northern temperate and subarctic areas of the world. These plants produce an array of lycopodium alkaloids, and some species such as Diphasiastrum complanatum have been used in traditional medicine for ages for various conditions. Hybridization is common in this group of plants and they have always been a challenge for taxonomists and other scientists studying them. To date, 11 Diphasiastrum species have been reported to produce lycopodium alkaloids. In this review, reported alkaloids and their distribution patterns across these species along with taxonomical and bioactivity considerations are reviewed and discussed.

  12. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  13. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  14. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  15. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    PubMed

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  16. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  17. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  18. Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Young, J M; Park, D-C

    2007-12-01

    The relationships of the genus Azotobacter, Azomonas macrocytogenes and the genus Pseudomonas were revealed by comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA and atpD, carA and recA gene sequences and as concatenated nucleotide and peptide sequences. Sequence similarities of Azotobacter species and Azomonas macrocytogenes indicated that these may be considered to be synonyms at the molecular level. In addition, these species show an intimate relationship with species of Pseudomonas, especially P. aeruginosa (the type species of the genus). In terms of the current circumscription of the genus Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and Azomonas macrocytogenes should be considered for amalgamation with Pseudomonas. Azotobacter and Azomonas comprise nitrogen-fixing strains with large pleomorphic cells that form cysts, and peritrichous flagella insertion; characteristics not included in the current circumscription of Pseudomonas. The data are discussed in the light of whether lateral transfer of genes could be involved in the determination of significant morphological characteristics, thus leading to a problem that may be encountered more frequently: how to resolve classification of taxa based on conserved sequences with those based on their phenotype. More fundamentally, the results illuminate problems that will increasingly be encountered: by what criteria can taxa be delineated, what are the most appropriate methods for classification, and what are the proper assumptions of bacterial classification?

  19. Heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia and the description of the new genus Parafumarolamoeba (Vahlkampfiidae; Heterolobosea).

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Zhang, Junling; De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2015-08-01

    Heterolobosean amoebae are common and diverse members of soil protist communities. In this study, we isolated seven strains of amoebae from soil samples taken in Tibet (at high altitude), Sardinia and the Netherlands, all resembling to belong to a similar heterolobosean morphospecies. However, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, revealed a high heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia to which six of the isolates belong. Some unnamed strains, of which the sequences had been published before, are also included within the genus Allovahlkampfia. One Allovahlkampfia isolated in the Netherlands harbors a twin-ribozyme, containing a His-Cys box, similar to the one found in strain BA of Allovahlkampfia. The other SSU rDNA sequence grouped in phylogenetic analyses with sequences obtained in environmental sequencing studies as sister to the genus Fumarolamoeba. This phylogenetic placement was supported by analyses of the 5.8S rDNA leading us to describe it as a new genus Parafumarolamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Koh, I. G.

    1989-05-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Olive coset-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A(1)1 Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface.

  1. [Taxonomy and ecology of the genus Candida].

    PubMed

    Schauer, F; Hanschke, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida is a heterogeneous genus which contains about a quarter of all yeast species. It includes not only species of uncertain affiliation but also unrelated strains whose phylogenetic relationships have not been resolved. A great variety of CoQ types are present in the genus, the mol % G + C ranges from 30-63%, and species that were found to sporulate have teleomorphic counterparts in 11 different genera. Candida species are mainly associated with plants, rotting vegetation, with insects which feed on plants or with food. In line with this, 71% of Candida species utilize xylose (wood degradation), 57% of species use cellobiose (cellulose degradation), 29% oxidize aliphatic hydrocarbons (components of plant cuticula), 27% of species degrade starch as a plant storage material, and 7% utilize methanol as a possible metabolite from pectin catabolism. 85% of species require individual vitamins produced mainly in plant materials. 65% of Candida species are not able to grow at temperatures of 37 degrees C. In comparison only relatively few species occur normally in humans and other warm blooded animals. About 16% of type strains and selected strains for comparative purposes (CBS) were isolated from human specimens. Perhaps up to 10% of Candida species may be of medical importance, though this has so far only been clearly demonstrated for less than 5% of currently known species.

  2. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  3. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus.

  4. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  5. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, N; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi.

  6. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  7. [Investigation of genus Ardisia in Bencao literature].

    PubMed

    Tong, Jia-Yun; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wu, Jia-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Based on a systematic review of morphology and distribution of plants, alternate names, actions, and properties of herbs recorded in ancient and modern literatures, in combination of field investigation, 18 Chinese herbal medicines recorded in ancient bencao literature were regarded to be derived from 7 species in the Ardisia genus. Among them, the variety Ardisia crenata f. hortensis was identified as the source of Zhushagen and Zijinniu. A. hanceana is referenced as Tiesan in the illustrated atlas of Botanical Nomenclature (Zhiwu Mingshi Tukao). The name Pingdimu refers to a different substance in the illustrated atlas of Botanical Nomenclature and the Flower Mirror (Huajing). The medicinals named Yedihong, Aicha, and Duanjiao sanlangare all derived from A. japonica. The origin of the herb Xiaoqing referenced in the Illustrated Classic of the Materia Medica (Bencao Tujing) is A. pusilla. The medicinals Bailiangjin, Jiuguanxue and Zoumatai are derived from A. crispa, A. brevicaulis, and A. gigantifolia, respectively. This investigation clarifies the botanical sources and actions of related Chinese medicinal materials in the genus Ardisia, and provides clues and evidence for utilizing and developing their medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  9. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  10. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Ni, S; Woese, C R; Aldrich, H C; Boone, D R

    1994-04-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  11. Molecular data indicate that Rhytidhysteron rufulum (ascomycetes, Patellariales) in Costa Rica consists of four distinct lineages corroborated by morphological and chemical characters.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Catalina; Albertazzi, Federico J; Carranza, Julieta; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Tamayo, Giselle

    2009-04-01

    Rhytidhysteron rufulum is a poorly known, common, pantropical species, capable of utilizing different substrata and occupying diverse habitats, and is the only species of its genus in Costa Rica. We have employed molecular, morphological, and chemical data to assess the variability and differentiation of R. rufulum in Costa Rica, including sites from the Pacific and Atlantic coast. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ITS rDNA sequences revealed the presence of four distinct lineages in the R. rufulum complex. Re-examination of the morphology and anatomy showed differences between these lineages in ascomatal, ascal, and ascospore size that have previously been regarded as intraspecific variations. In addition, there was a correlation between molecular phylogenies and chemical components as determined by hplc and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two lineages (clades I and II) produced the palmarumycins MK-3018, CJ-12372, and CR(1), whereas clade III produced dehydrocurvularin, and clade IV unidentified compounds. Our results based on a polyphasic approach contradict previous taxonomic interpretations of one morphologically variable species.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena.

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan Luis; Remsen, J V; Alvarez-Rebolledo, Mauricio; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of sexual dichromatism and in the biogeography of speciation within the Andes. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based mostly on similarities in coloration conflicted with our molecular phylogeny, emphasizing the unreliability of color characters for phylogenetic inference. Two major clades, one monochromatic and the other dichromatic, were found in Coeligena. Closely related species were either allopatric or parapatric on opposite mountain slopes. No sister lineages replaced each other along an elevational gradient. Our results indicate the importance of geographic isolation for speciation in this group and the potential interaction between isolation and sexual selection to promote diversification.

  13. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    PubMed Central

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females. PMID:26462693

  14. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  15. [CITRULLINUREIDASE GENE DIVERSITY IN THE GENUS FRANCISELLA].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, V S; Bakhteeva, I V; Pavlov, V M; Mokrievich, A N

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the results, of the in silico analysis of the genetic diversity of the citrullinureidase gene (ctu) in two species of bacteria of the genus Francisella: tularensis (ssp. tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicida) and philomiragia. The strains of the Central Asiatic subspecies possessing the citrullinureidase activity differ in the gene ctu from the ssp tularensis Schu by three nucleotide substitutions leading to two insignificant amino acid substitutions in the encoded polypeptide. In the strain F. tularensis of the ssp. holarctica the gene ctu encodes inactive enzyme, which is probably due to amino acid substitutions: 151 Gly --> Asp, 183 Pro --> Leu, 222 Asp --> Asn. Except for the Japan biovar bacteria, in all strains of the Holarctic subspecies there are two stop codons in the gene ctu. The bacteria of the subspecies novicida contain the ctu gene only in the strain 3523, whereas the other strains contain the gene FTN_0827 encoding the C-N hydrolase, which probably provides the citrullinureidase activity.

  16. Proteolytic Activity in the Genus Ficus 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donald C.; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C.; Whitaker, John R.

    1968-01-01

    The latices of only 13 of a total of 46 species of Ficus examined contained appreciable proteolytic activity. Therefore, high proteolytic activity in the latex is not a distinguishing feature of the genus. The latex of F. stenocarpa had the highest specific activity followed closely by the latices of F. carica and F. glabrata. Latices of 6 species of Ficus were examined by chromatography on CM-cellulose and compared with the results obtained for 9 varieties of F. carica. All of the latices were found to contain multiple proteolytic enzymes. Chromatographically, the multiple enzyme components of the several varieties of F. carica were more similar than those of the several species examined. The latices of 16 varieties of F. carica were all different as determined by free boundary electrophoresis although the specific proteolytic activity of the latices was reasonably constant. PMID:16656886

  17. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Song, Yuqin; Liu, Wenjun; Xu, Haiyan; Xi, Xiaoxia; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    As important lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus species are widely used in the production of fermented food. However, as some strains of Enterococcus are opportunistic pathogens, their safety has not been generally accepted. In recent years, a large number of new species have been described and classified within the genus Enterococcus, so a better understanding of the genetic relationships and evolution of Enterococcus species is needed. In this study, the genomes of 29 type strains of Enterococcus species were sequenced. In combination with eight complete genome sequences from the Genbank database, the whole genomes of 37 strains of Enterococcus were comparatively analyzed. The average length of Enterococcus genomes was 3.20Mb and the average GC content was 37.99%. The core- and pan- genomes were defined based on the genomes of the 37 strains of Enterococcus. The core-genome contained 605 genes, a large proportion of which were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, DNA and RNA metabolism. The phylogenetic tree showed that habitat is very important in the evolution of Enterococcus. The genetic relationships were closer in strains that come from similar habitats. According to the topology of the time tree, we found that humans and mammals may be the original hosts of Enterococcus, and then species from humans and mammals made a host-shift to plants, birds, food and other environments. However, it was just an evolutionary scenario, and more data and efforts were needed to prove this postulation. The comparative genomic analysis provided a snapshot of the evolution and genetic diversity of the genus Enterococcus, which paves the way for follow-up studies on its taxonomy and functional genomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Origin of the Genus Bordetella

    PubMed Central

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Linz, Bodo; Harvill, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species. Bacteria of the genus Bordetella were frequently found in soil, water, sediment, and plants. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Bordetella recovered from environmental samples are evolutionarily ancestral to animal-associated species. Sequences from environmental samples had a significantly higher genetic diversity, were located closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree and were present in all 10 identified sequence clades, while only four sequence clades possessed animal-associated species. The pathogenic bordetellae appear to have evolved from ancestors in soil and/or water. We show that, despite being animal-adapted pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella hinzii have preserved the ability to grow and proliferate in soil. Our data implicate soil as a probable environmental origin of Bordetella species, including the animal-pathogenic lineages. Soil may further constitute an environmental niche, allowing for persistence and dissemination of the bacterial pathogens. Spread of pathogenic bordetellae from an environmental reservoir such as soil may potentially explain their wide distribution as well as frequent disease outbreaks that start without an obvious infectious source. PMID:28174558

  20. Multigene phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Melanconiella (Diaporthales)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of LSU rDNA demonstrate monophyly of the genus Melanconiella, and its status as a genus distinct from Melanconis is confirmed. Data of macro- and microscopic morphology, pure cultures, and phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, tef1 and rpb2 sequences reve...

  1. Production of acetoin and diacetyl by the genus Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, J A; Bayne, H G

    1970-12-01

    Members (all 42 tested) of the genus Salmonella, although Voges-Proskauer-negative when grown on MR-VP Medium, produce abundant quantities of acetoin or diacetyl, or both, when cultured on a minimal medium containing 1% glucose. The designation that the genus Salmonella does not produce acetoin should be re-examined.

  2. A new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osperalycus tenerphagus, a new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata), is described from Ohio, USA, using light microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were extracted from two different loam soils. This genus can be readily distinguished from the oth...

  3. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  4. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Treesearch

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  5. Australasian sequestrate fungi 17: The genus Hydnoplicata (Ascomycota, Pezizacae) resurrected

    Treesearch

    James M. Trappe; Andrew W. Claridge

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hydnoplicata and its type species, H. whitei, were described by Gilkey in 1954. Having discovered that it has amyloid asci and other characters that relate it to the genus Peziza, Trappe later proposed the new combination, Peziza whiten, even though the species is consistently...

  6. The genus Eleodes Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    False wireworms are larvae of the darkling beetle genus Eleodes Eschscholtz, some of which are agricultural pests of dryland wheat. Because of the large numbers of species in the genus (approximately 235), identifications can be problematic. Hence, regional keys are of great utility. Within the s...

  7. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed t...

  8. Australasian sequestrate fungi 17: the genus Hydnoplicata (Ascomycota, Pezizaceae) resurrected.

    Treesearch

    James M. Trappe; Andrew W. Claridge

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hydnoplicata and its type species, H. whitei, were described by Gilkey in 1954. Having discovered that it has amyloid asci and other characters that relate it to the genus Peziza, Trappe later proposed the new combination, Peziza whitei, even though the species is consistently...

  9. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  10. Notes on the genus Xenocerogria (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Lagriini) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Merkl, Ottó; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Three species of the genus Xenocerogria Merkl, 2007 have been recorded in China, Xenocerogriafeai (Borchmann, 1911), Xenocerogriaignota (Borchmann, 1941) and Xenocerogriaruficollis (Borchmann, 1912). Xenoceraxanthisma Chen, 2002 is proposed as a junior synonym of Xenocerogriaruficollis. Lectotype of Xenocerogriaignota is designated, and the species is transferred to the genus Lagria Fabricius, 1775. New Chinese province records of Xenocerogriaruficollis are provided.

  11. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  12. Genus XIII. Umezawaea Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2007, 2761vp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Umezawaea is presented. The phylogenetic position of the lone species within this genus, Umezawaea tangerina relative to the species in other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discu...

  13. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Treesearch

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  15. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The genus Gnaphalium L. (Compositae): phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Wang, Wei; Piao, Huishan; Xu, Weiqiang; Shi, Haibo; Zhao, Chengai

    2013-07-15

    The genus Gnaphalium, a herb distributed worldwide, comprises approximately 200 species of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family that belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae. Some species are traditionally used as wild vegetables and in folk medicine. This review focuses on the phytochemical investigations and biological studies of plants from the genus Gnaphalium over the past few decades. More than 125 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Gnaphalium, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, anthraquinones, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and other compounds. The extracts of this genus, as well as compounds isolated from it, have been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-complement, antitussive and expectorant, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypouricemic properties. The present review compiles the information available on this genus because of its relevance to food and ethnopharmacology and the potential therapeutic uses of these species.

  17. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  18. Small RNAs in the Genus Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Jones, Shawn W.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny. PMID:21264064

  19. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  20. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    PubMed

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n, and singletons [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. For graphs with 2n - 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n except [0, n], and [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  1. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n, and singletons [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. For graphs with 2n − 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n except [0, n], and [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges. PMID:27807395

  2. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

  3. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  4. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  5. Tropical forests and the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Boivin, Nicole; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Petraglia, Michael; Stock, Jay

    2016-11-01

    Tropical forests constitute some of the most diverse and complex terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. From the Miocene onward, they have acted as a backdrop to the ongoing evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, and provided the cradle for the emergence of early hominins, who retained arboreal physiological adaptations at least into the Late Pliocene. There also now exists growing evidence, from the Late Pleistocene onward, for tool-assisted intensification of tropical forest occupation and resource extraction by our own species, Homo sapiens. However, between the Late Pliocene and Late Pleistocene there is an apparent gap in clear and convincing evidence for the use of tropical forests by hominins, including early members of our own genus. In discussions of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene hominin evolution, including the emergence and later expansion of Homo species across the globe, tropical forest adaptations tend to be eclipsed by open, savanna environments. Thus far, it is not clear whether this Early-Middle Pleistocene lacuna in Homo-rainforest interaction is real and representative of an adaptive shift with the emergence of our species or if it is simply reflective of preservation bias.

  6. METABOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GENUS BRUCELLA II.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Margaret E.; Cameron, H. S.

    1961-01-01

    Meyer, Margaret E. (University of California, Davis), and H. S. Cameron. Metabolic characterization of the genus Brucella. II. Oxidative metabolic patterns of the described biotypes. J. Bacteriol. 82:396–400. 1961.—The oxidative metabolism of the biotypes of Brucella abortus and Brucella suis was compared to that of typical strains of these species. It was found that the biotypes of B. abortus display a metabolic pattern identical to that of B. abortus type I, irrespective of their differences in susceptibility to the bacteriostatic action of basic fuchsin and thionin. It was also found that a characteristic feature which distinguishes all of the biotypes of B. suis from the other species was their ability to oxidize l-arginine, dl-citrulline, and dl-ornithine. The three biotypes of B. suis can be differentiated from each other by discrete differences in their utilization of l-lysine and l-glutamic acid. Data on the oxidative rates obtained on eight amino acid and four carbohydrate substrates by 47 strains of the described biotypes are presented in support of these conclusions. PMID:13770012

  7. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  9. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  10. Color evolution in the hummingbird genus coeligena.

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan Luis

    2010-02-01

    The remarkable diversity of coloration and species present in hummingbirds has been considered the result of sexual selection. I evaluate if color differences among species in the genus Coeligena are consistent with expectations from sexual selection theory. If sexual selection on color is important for speciation, closely related species should be markedly different in the colors of feather patches associated with aggression and breeding. I evaluate this prediction through a statistical assessment of the phylogenetic signal of colors from five feather patches: crown, gorget, belly, upper back, and rump. The first two are associated with aggressive and courtship displays and are expected to be under sexual selection, whereas the others are not. Contrary to expectations, the crown and gorget were the only patches with significant phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, I assess if populations of dichromatic species are more divergent in coloration and therefore have reduced gene flow. Color distances among dichromatic subspecies were larger than among monochromatic subspecies, but the magnitude of phenotypic differentiation was not related to levels of gene flow. These results support a role for sexual selection in shaping color variation among populations, but these differences alone are not sufficient to explain speciation.

  11. METABOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GENUS BRUCELLA I.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Margaret E.; Cameron, H. S.

    1961-01-01

    Meyer, Margaret E. (University of California, Davis), and H. S. Cameron. Metabolic characterization of the genus Brucella. I. Statistical evaluation of the oxidative rates by which type I of each species can be identified. J. Bacteriol. 82:387–395. 1961.—The oxidative uptake rates on 11 amino acid and seven carbohydrate substrates were determined for 75 strains of brucellae that had been identified by the conventional determinative methods as Brucella melitensis type I, Brucella abortus type I, or Brucella suis type I. By calculating the standard deviation of the oxidative rates, it was demonstrated that a metabolic pattern that is characteristic and definitive for each of the species was formed by their differential oxidative utilization of substrate groups, and that qualitative as well as quantitative metabolic differences exist among the Brucella species. B. melitensis oxidized l-alanine, l-asparagine, and l-glutamic acid, but not l-arginine, dl-citrulline, l-lysine, dl-ornithine, l-arabinose, d-galactose, d-ribose, or d-xylose. B. abortus differed qualitatively from B. melitensis in that it oxidized the carbohydrate substrates. B. suis differed quantitatively from both of these species in its consistently low oxidative rates of l-alanine, l-asparagine, and l-glutamic acid, and its high rates of utilization of the carbohydrate substrates. It differed qualitatively in that it oxidized the four amino acid substrates that are components of the urea cycle. PMID:13770011

  12. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  13. Genus Caulophyllum: An Overview of Chemistry and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants. PMID:24876877

  14. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids.

  15. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-09-06

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species.

  16. Genus caulophyllum: an overview of chemistry and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants.

  17. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-05-13

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  18. The genus Sappinia: history, phylogeny and medical relevance.

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Wylezich, Claudia; Michel, Rolf

    2010-09-01

    The genus Sappinia with the single species Sappinia pedata was established for an amoeba with two nuclei and pedicellate "cysts" by Dangeard in 1896. In 1912, Alexeieff transferred an also double nucleated, but apparently sexually reproducing amoeba to this genus as Sappinia diploidea, that had been described as Amoeba diploidea by Hartmann and Nägler in 1908. As the original isolates were lost, Michel and colleagues established a neotype for S. diploidea in 2006 and Brown and colleagues established a neotype for S. pedata in 2007. Molecular analyses have corroborated the differentiation between S. pedata and S. diploidea, however, the genus splits into more than two well separated clusters. Altogether, the genus Sappinia is now classified as a member of the Thecamoebidae and, moreover, as potentially pathogenic. In 2001, Gelman and colleagues reported a case of severe encephalitis in a non-immunocompromised young man caused by Sappinia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  20. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  1. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  2. Contribution to the genus Xanthocorus Miyatake (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chilocorini).

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    The genus Xanthocorus Miyatake, 1970 consists of three species from China, including two new species described here: Xanthocorusnigrosuturalis sp. n. and Xanthocorusmucronatus sp. n. A key to identification of species is given. Diagnoses, detailed descriptions, illustrations, and distributions are provided.

  3. The Genus Letrouitia (Letrouitiaceae: Lichenized Ascomycota) New to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haixia; Qian, Zigang; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yanyun; Ye, Xin; Harada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Letrouitia is newly recorded for Cambodia, including the four species as L. domingensis, L. leprolytoides, L. sayeri, and L. subvulpina. A brief description and illustrations are provided. PMID:26190924

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanov, Pavel S.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  5. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Aguero, Fernan; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  6. The description of Banacuniculus Buffington, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The new eucoiline genus Banacuniculus is described to accommodate several species previously placed in Ganaspidium: Banacuniculus hunteri (Crawford), new combination; B. merickeli (Miller), new combination; B. nigrimanus (Kieffer), new combination; B. utilis (Beardsley), new combination; these spec...

  7. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  8. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  9. Rapid Genomic Characterization of the Genus Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Bonnie; Simon, Charles; Zhong, Gan Yuan; Buckler, Edward; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies promise to dramatically accelerate the use of genetic information for crop improvement by facilitating the genetic mapping of agriculturally important phenotypes. The first step in optimizing the design of genetic mapping studies involves large-scale polymorphism discovery and a subsequent genome-wide assessment of the population structure and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the species of interest. In the present study, we provide such an assessment for the grapevine (genus Vitis), the world's most economically important fruit crop. Reduced representation libraries (RRLs) from 17 grape DNA samples (10 cultivated V. vinifera and 7 wild Vitis species) were sequenced with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. We developed heuristic approaches for SNP calling, identified hundreds of thousands of SNPs and validated a subset of these SNPs on a 9K genotyping array. We demonstrate that the 9K SNP array provides sufficient resolution to distinguish among V. vinifera cultivars, between V. vinifera and wild Vitis species, and even among diverse wild Vitis species. We show that there is substantial sharing of polymorphism between V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and find that genetic relationships among V. vinifera cultivars agree well with their proposed geographic origins using principal components analysis (PCA). Levels of LD in the domesticated grapevine are low even at short ranges, but LD persists above background levels to 3 kb. While genotyping arrays are useful for assessing population structure and the decay of LD across large numbers of samples, we suggest that whole-genome sequencing will become the genotyping method of choice for genome-wide genetic mapping studies in high-diversity plant species. This study demonstrates that we can move quickly towards genome-wide studies of crop species using next-generation sequencing. Our study sets the stage for future work in other high diversity crop species, and provides a

  10. METABOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GENUS BRUCELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Margaret E.

    1961-01-01

    Meyer, Margaret E. (University of California, Davis). Metabolic characterization of the genus Brucella. III. Oxidative metabolism of strains that show anomalous characteristics by conventional determinative methods. J. Bacteriol. 82:401–410. 1961.—The oxidative metabolic patterns were determined on 83 strains of brucellae that had been described as “atypical” because they differed in one or more characteristics or because they had been isolated from an abnormal host (other than the natural reservoir for that species). Of the 83 strains examined, 44 displayed the metabolic pattern for Brucella melitensis. A comparison was then made between the results of identifying these strains metabolically and by the conventional methods. It was found that a few strains of B. melitensis showed a decreased tolerance to basic fuchsin and thionin, but none of the strains that was identified metabolically as B. melitensis produced H2S or required CO2. No biotypes have been reported for this species, since only slight quantitative variation in dye tolerances occurs among strains of B. melitensis, and no metabolic variants were found. It is concluded that B. melitensis is a homogenous species and can be identified with certainty by its oxidative metabolic pattern, irrespective of its host or geographic source. Of the remaining strains, 38 displayed the metabolic pattern singular for Brucella abortus. Evidence was presented to support the conclusion that in this species the characteristics of dye tolerance, H2S production, and CO2 required for initial growth vary independently of each other, and strains that differ from the species description by these criteria can be identified correctly by their oxidative metabolic pattern. Of the 83 atypical strains examined, 24 were strains of Brucella described as a new species, Brucella intermedia (Renoux). Of these 24 strains, 10 were identified as Brucella melitensis, 13 as Brucella abortus, and one as Brucella suis. Evidence was

  11. The huntsman genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Sparianthinae).

    PubMed

    Rheims, Cristina Anne; Alayón, Giraldo

    2014-06-12

    The genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 is revised. Pseudosparianthis variabilis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900, Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks, 1909 and Thelcticopis pestai (Reimoser, 1939) are transferred to the genus; and P. cubana is considered a senior synonym of the type species, Decaphora trabiformis Franganillo, 1931. In addition, the female of T. pestai and the male of P. variabilis are described for the first time; and a new species, Decaphora kohunlich spec. nov., is described from Mexico and Guatemala.

  12. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  13. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I; Armitage, Brian J

    2010-10-29

    Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgonasp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissisp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

  14. Skadisotoma, a new genus of Isotomidae (Collembola) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Fjellberg, Arne

    2015-06-13

    A new species and genus, Skadisotoma inpericulosa, is described from south-eastern Australia. It possesses some characters that are found in Tomoceridae, such as a long cylindrical dens that is medially bent and a mucro with at least six teeth of different sizes and three setae but in other characters it resembles an isotomid. In this it shows similarities to the Boreal genus Mucronia Fjellberg, but differs from it in the possession of spines on the dens and in some chaetotaxic characters.

  15. A review of the genus Lamellipalpodes Maulik (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Bocakova, Milada; Bocak, Ladislav; Gimmel, Matthew L; Friedlova, Tereza

    2015-03-02

    The Ototretinae genus Lamellipalpodes Maulik, 1921 is reviewed. Four species are proposed as new to science, L. bajhangensis Bocakova sp. nov., L. holzschuhi Bocakova sp. nov. and L. godawarensis Bocakova sp. nov., all from Nepal, and L. yunnanensis Bocakova sp. nov. from China (Yunnan) and northern Laos. Six species are redescribed. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are included, with a checklist and a key to Lamellipalpodes species. The genus is newly recorded from China and Laos.

  16. The harvestman genus Taracus Simon 1879, and the new genus Oskoron (Opiliones: Ischyropsalidoidea: Taracidae).

    PubMed

    Shear, William A; Warfel, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    The ischyropsalidoid genus Taracus Simon 1879 is reviewed and all previously named species are redescribed. Taracus nigripes Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943 is synonymized with T. packardi Simon 1879, and T. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 with Oskoron spinosus (Banks) 1894; the type locality of T. gertschi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 is corrected from "eastern Oregon" to Rose Lake, Idaho, based on original labelling. The following new species of Taracus are described: T. carmanah (Vancouver Island), T. marchingtoni (Oregon), T. taylori, T. spesavius (both Nevada), T. timpanogos (Utah), T. audisioae, T. ubicki, and T. fluvipileus (all California). A new genus Oskoron is based upon O. spinosus (Banks) 1894, originally described in Taracus, and also includes two new species, O. brevichelis (Oregon, Washington) and O. crawfordi (Washington). New locality records extend the known distribution of Taracus to the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and the US states of Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and New Mexico. Schönhofer's (2013) proposal of a family Taracidae for Taracus, Hesperonemastoma Gruber 1970 and Crosbycus Roewer 1914 is discussed.

  17. Phylogenomic re-assessment of the thermophilic genus Geobacillus.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Habibu; Lebre, Pedro; Blom, Jochen; Cowan, Don; De Maayer, Pieter

    2016-12-01

    Geobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming obligate thermophiles. The descriptions and subsequent affiliations of the species in the genus have mostly been based on polyphasic taxonomy rules that include traditional sequence-based methods such as DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Currently, there are fifteen validly described species within the genus. The availability of whole genome sequences has provided an opportunity to validate and/or re-assess these conventional estimates of genome relatedness. We have applied whole genome approaches to estimate the phylogenetic relatedness among the sixty-three Geobacillus strains for which genome sequences are currently publicly available, including the type strains of eleven validly described species. The phylogenomic metrics AAI (Average Amino acid Identity), ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) and dDDH (digital DNA-DNA hybridization) indicated that the current genus Geobacillus is comprised of sixteen distinct genomospecies, including several potentially novel species. Furthermore, a phylogeny constructed on the basis of the core genes identified from the whole genome analyses indicated that the genus clusters into two monophyletic clades that clearly differ in terms of nucleotide base composition. The G+C content ranges for clade I and II were 48.8-53.1% and 42.1-44.4%, respectively. We therefore suggest that the Geobacillus species currently residing within clade II be considered as a new genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Genus identification of toxic plant by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Shuji; Nishi, Katsuji

    2011-03-01

    Some plants have toxicities that are dangerous for humans. In the case of poisoning by toxic plants, a rapid and easy screening test is required for accurate medical treatment or forensic investigation. In this study, we designed specific primer pairs for identification of toxic plants, such as subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, genus Illicium, and genus Scopolia, by internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Allied species of target plants, foods, and human DNA were not detected, but each primer pair provided a specific PCR product from the target plant using real-time PCR. This method can detect the subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, and genus Scopolia with template DNA of 10 pg, respectively, and genus Illicium with 1 pg. Furthermore, each primer pair provided the exact PCR product from digested target plants in artificial gastric fluid. When a trace unknown plant sample in forensic investigation is collected from stomach contents, this PCR assay may be useful for screening toxic plants.

  19. Genus Microsternus Lewis (1887) from China, with description of a new genus Neosternus from Asia (Coleoptera, Erotylidae, Dacnini).

    PubMed

    Dai, Cong-Chao; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This work treats species of the genus Microsternus Lewis, 1887 from Asia and North America. A new genus is described: Neosternus (type species Microsternus higonius Lewis, 1887). A new species is described: Microsternus pengzhongi. A new synonym is provided: Microsternus tricolor taiwanicus Nakane (=Microsternus tricolor Lewis). Three species previously placed in Microsternus Lewis, 1887 are transferred to Neosternus resulting in the following three new combinations: Neosternus higonius (Lewis, 1887), Neosternus taiwanus (Chûjô, 1976), and Neosternus hisamatsui (Nakane, 1981).

  20. Proposal of nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium and emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Saitou, Satomi; Tamura, Tomohiko; Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were isolated from various samples collected from mangrove forests in Japan, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the 13 isolates formed a single clade with Lysinimicrobium mangrovi HI08-69T, with a similarity range of 97.6-99.5 %. The peptidoglycan of the isolates was of the A4α type with an interpeptide bridge comprising Ser-Glu and an l-Ser residue at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The predominant menaquinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. These chemotaxonomic characteristics corresponded to those of the genus Lysinimicrobium. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with average nucleotide identity values among the isolates, we concluded that the 13 isolates should be assigned to the following nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium: Lysinimicrobium aestuarii sp. nov. (type strain HI12-104T = NBRC 109392T = DSM 28144T), Lysinimicrobium flavum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-45T = NBRC 109391T = DSM 28150T), Lysinimicrobium gelatinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-44T = NBRC 109390T = DSM 28149T), Lysinimicrobium iriomotense sp. nov. (type strain HI12-143T = NBRC 109399T = DSM 28146T), Lysinimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-123T = NBRC 109395T = DSM 28147T), Lysinimicrobium pelophilum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-111T = NBRC 109393T = DSM 28148T), Lysinimicrobium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain HI12-135T = NBRC 109397T = DSM 28152T), Lysinimicrobium soli sp. nov. (type strain HI12-122T = NBRC 109394T = DSM 28151T) and Lysinimicrobium subtropicum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-128T = NBRC 109396T = DSM 28145T). In addition, an emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium is proposed.

  1. An investigation of self-incompatibility within the genus Restrepia.

    PubMed

    Millner, Helen J; McCrea, Alison R; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2015-03-01

    • The genus Restrepia (Orchidaceae) is indigenous to montane rain forests of Central and South America. Recently, as habitat has fragmented and wild populations dwindled, the chances for successful cross-pollination within the genus have been reduced. Since cultivated species of Restrepia have been vegetatively propagated, they remain genetically close to those in the wild, making ex situ collections of the genus useful model populations for investigating breeding systems. Restrepia are found in clade B of the Pleurothallidinae, the only clade in which self-incompatibility (SI) has not yet been confirmed. In the current study, private collections of Restrepia were used to study the operation of SI within the genus to assist future ex situ conservation of this and related genera.• A variety of self-pollination, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses were performed across the genus, and pollen tube growth was studied.• Individual species exhibited varying degrees of SI. Self-pollinations performed across 26 species in the genus produced few viable seeds, with the exception of R. aberrans. Viable "filled" seeds with embryos were shown to require an intraspecific cross. Primary hybrids between species produced >90% seeds with embryos that germinated well.• The type of SI operating within the genus was considered to be best explained by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) with interspecific variation in its phenotypic expression. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to SI in the Pleurothallidinae and conservation strategies for Restrepia and related genera. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    PubMed

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  3. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  4. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  5. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  6. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N; de Sá, Rafael O

    2011-11-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium, as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities. PMID:27920771

  9. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  10. Guyanagarika, a new ectomycorrhizal genus of Agaricales from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, Mary Catherine; Smith, Matthew E; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2016-12-01

    A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We formally recognize this 'Catathelasma clade' as an expanded family Catathelasmataceae that includes the genera Callistosporium, Catathelasma, Guyanagarika, Macrocybe, Pleurocollybia, and Pseudolaccaria. Within the Catathelasmataceae, Catathelasma and Guyanagarika represent independent origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit. Guyanagarika is the first documented case of an ECM Agaricales genus known only from the Neotropics. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chase, Alexander B; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium, as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  12. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  13. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  14. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length.

  15. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Phylogenetic position of the Dalmatian genus Phoxinellus and description of the newly proposed genus Delminichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Pitra, Christian; Ludwig, Arne

    2006-02-01

    The Dalmatian cyprinid genus Phoxinellus is characterized by reductive characters most likely associated with the environmental conditions of small karstic streams, where all species of this genus occur. Based on 33 morphological traits, nuclear and mtDNA sequences Phoxinellus was found to be paraphyletic and included three not closely related monophyletic units. The scientific name Phoxinellus should therefore be restricted to species having plain coloration, small or absent postcleithrum, no genital papilla and an almost entirely naked body such as P. alepidotus, P. dalmaticus, and P. pseudalepidotus. Species that also have a small or absent postcleithrum and no genital papilla but display a dark stripe from the head to the caudal peduncle, and are entirely covered by distinct, not overlapping scales should be positioned closely to Telestes. Thus, we suggest inclusion of Phoxinellus croaticus, P. fontinalis and Paraphoxinus metohiensis in the genus Telestes. The Phoxinellus species that have a irregularly spotted color pattern, a large postcleithrum, an increased number of precaudal anal-fin pterygiophores, and a large genital papilla in females represent its own evolutionary line closely related to the Balkan species of Pseudophoxinus. For this monophyletic group, we propose to introduce a new genus: Delminichthys. This genus includes the species D. adspersus, D. ghetaldii, D. krbavensis and D. jadovensis.

  17. Rapid identification of Zygosaccharomyces with genus-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Michelle; Wheals, Alan

    2014-03-03

    There has been a recent and rapid increase in the number of species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces which now comprises Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. gambellarensis, Z. kombuchaensis, Z. lentus, Z. machadoi, Z. mellis, Z. parabaillii, Z. pseudobailii, Z. pseudorouxii, Z. rouxii, Z. sapae, and Z. siamensis. Z. pseudorouxii is an unofficial name given to isolates closely related to the newly-described species Z. sapae. The Zygosaccharomyces genus contains species that are important as food and beverage spoilage organisms and others are associated with fermentations and sweet foodstuffs, such as honey. Their economic significance means that the ability to identify them rapidly is of significant importance. Although Z. rouxii and Z. bailii have been genome-sequenced the extent of sequence data for the others, especially the newly-discovered species, is sometimes extremely limited which makes identification slow. However, parts of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 rDNA region contain sequences of sufficient similarity within the genus and of sufficient difference with outgroups, to be potential regions for the design of genus-wide specific primers. We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can detect all the major Zygosaccharomyces species including all those associated with foods; the rare and localised species Z. machadoi and Z. gambellarensis are not detected. The size of the single amplicon produced varies between species and in some cases is sufficiently different to assign provisional species identification. Sequence data from rDNA regions are available for virtually all described yeast species in all genera, thus, prior to having sufficient sequence data from structural genes, rDNA regions may provide more generally suitable candidates for both genus-specific and species-specific primer design.

  18. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  19. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Boerhavia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2016-04-22

    The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study. Information on the Boerhavia species was collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and others. Also scientific literatures based on ethnomedicinal surveys, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, published papers from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS as well as Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. A total of 180 compounds from Boerhavia genus were isolated of which B. diffusa alone shared around 131 compounds and for most of which it is currently an exclusive source. In the genus, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids contribute approximately 97 compounds. These includes eupalitin, rotenoids like boeravinones, coccineons, alkaloid i.e. betanin and punarnavine etc., showing vital pharmaceutical activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Boerhavia is an important genus with wide range of medicinal uses. However, most of the available scientific literatures have lacked relevant doses, duration and positive controls for examining bioefficacy of extracts and its active compounds. In some studies, taxonomic errors were encountered. Moreover, there is need for accurate methods in testing the safety and ethnomedicinal validity of Boerhavia species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    PubMed

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  1. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  2. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  3. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  4. Divergent karyotypes of the annual killifish genus Nothobranchius (Cyprinodontiformes, Nothobranchiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krysanov, Eugene; Demidova, Tatiana; Nagy, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes of two species of the African annual killifish genus Nothobranchius Peters, 1868, Nothobranchius brieni Poll, 1938 and Nothobranchius sp. from Kasenga (D.R. Congo) are described. Both species displayed diploid chromosome number 2n = 49/50 for males and females respectively with multiple-sex chromosome system type X1X2Y/X1X1X2X2. The karyotypes of studied species are considerably different from those previously reported for the genus Nothobranchius and similar to the Actinopterygii conservative karyotype. PMID:27830051

  5. Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Beck, James B; Semple, John C; Brull, Justin M; Lance, Stacey L; Phillips, Mai M; Hoot, Sara B; Meyer, Gretchen A

    2014-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. • Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. • The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of a wide age range will facilitate numerous inter- and intraspecific studies in the ca. 120 Solidago species.

  6. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  7. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini).

    PubMed

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-05-20

    The members of the endemic African genus Endochilus Weise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalis sp nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for identification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  8. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The members of the endemic African genus Endochilus Weise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalis sp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for identification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  9. Kitasatosporia, a new genus of the order Actinomycetales.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Tanaka, H

    1982-08-01

    The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics of a new actinomycete strain producing a new antibiotic, setamycin are described. The strain forms aerial mycelia. There is no fragmentation of vegetative mycelia. Since the cell wall type is a new one containing both LL- and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid, glycine and galactose, strain KM-6054 could not be classified in any previously named genera of the order Actinomycetales. Thus, it is considered to be a member of a new genus, for which the name Kitasatosporia is proposed. The type species (monotype) of this genus is K. setalba. The type strain of K. setalba is strain KM-6054 (ATCC 33774).

  10. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  11. Review of the leafhopper genus Evinus Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Evinus Dlabola (Deltocephalinae: Macrostelini) is reviewed. Seven new species are described including E. angulatus sp. nov., E. hainanensis sp. nov., E. longus sp. nov., E. obscurus sp. nov., E. planus sp. nov., E. sinuatus sp. nov. E. tenuis sp. nov. One previously described species, E. peri Anufriev, newly recorded from China, is redescribed. The species of the genus have so far been recorded from Iran, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and China; here several new species from Thailand are added. A checklist and a key to species (males) are also provided.

  12. Fricke Lie algebras and the genus zero property in Moonshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnahan, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We give a new, simpler proof that the canonical actions of finite groups on Fricke-type Monstrous Lie algebras yield genus zero functions in generalized Monstrous Moonshine, using a Borcherds–Kac–Moody Lie algebra decomposition due to Jurisich. We describe a compatibility condition, arising from the no-ghost theorem in bosonic string theory, that yields the genus zero property. We give evidence for and against the conjecture that such a compatibility for symmetries of the Monster Lie algebra gives a characterization of the Monster group.

  13. Redescription of the genus Opisthoncus L. Koch, 1880 (Araneae: Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Gardzińska, Joanna; Żabka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Of 33 nominal species listed by Platnick (2012), 25 species of the genus Opisthoncus are redefined and redescribed here. O. kochi Żabka, 1991, was redescribed by Prószyński (1983) while O. delectabilis Rainbow, 1920, O. eriognathus (Thorell, 1881), O. inconspicuus (Thorell, 1881), O. nigritifemur Strand, 1911 and O. pallidulus L. Koch, 1880 are excluded from the genus. O. clarus Keyserling, 1883 (the type specimen lost) is considered nomen dubium and O. verisimilis Peckham & Peckham, 1901 was not studied (types not located).

  14. The Genus Chlorociboria, Blue-Green Micromycetes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Huan; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-06-01

    The species of the genus Chlorociboria Seaver are very common on the forest floor, and can be easily distinguished by small and numerous blue-green fruitbody, especially the blue substrate dyed with xylindein produced by this group. This genus has rather high species diversity in the Southern Hemisphere, while a little attention was paid to this group in East Asia area. During a field survey in South Korea, several Chlorociboria specimens were collected. Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, three species of Chlorociboria were reported, including one new record in South Korea and one new record in Jeju Island. The key to the species of Chlorociboria from South Korea is provided.

  15. The genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 (Diplopoda, Penicillata, Polyxenida) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Megan; Huynh, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The penicillate genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 is widespread, with species found in Africa, Madagascar, India and Australia. Each of the two Australian species was originally described from single samples from Western Australia. In this study, collections of Penicillata from museums in all states of Australia were examined to provide further details of the two described species, to revise the diagnoses for both the genus and the species, and to better understand the distribution of the two species in Australia. In addition, two new species Unixenus karajinensis sp. n. and Unixenus corticolus sp. n. are described. PMID:22303098

  16. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima.

  17. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  18. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-04-23

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia.

  19. Use of gradient plates to study combined effects of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration on growth of Monascus ruber van Tieghem, an Ascomycetes fungus isolated from green table olives.

    PubMed

    Panagou, E Z; Skandamis, P N; Nychas, G-J E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of temperature, pH, and sodium chloride concentration on the growth of the Ascomycetes fungus Monascus ruber van Tieghem, the main spoilage microorganism during storage of table olives, was studied by using the gradient plate technique. Gradients of NaCl (3 to 9%, wt/vol) at right angles to gradients of pH (2 to 6.8) were prepared for the plates, which were incubated at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. Visible fungal growth, expressed in optical density units, was recorded by image analysis and graphically presented in the form of three-dimensional grids. Results obtained from the plates indicated that the fungus was salt and acid tolerant, being able to grow at NaCl concentrations of up to 9% (wt/vol) and pH values of as low as 2.2, depending on the incubation temperature. The inhibitory effect of NaCl increased as the pH decreased progressively at 25 and 30 degrees C but not at 35 degrees C. Growth was better at 30 and 25 degrees C as judged by the larger extent of the plates covered by mycelium compared with that at 35 degrees C, where no growth was observed at pHs below 3.7. Differentiation between vegetative (imperfect-stage) and reproductive (perfect-stage) growth was evident on all plates, providing useful information about the effect of environmental conditions on the form of fungal growth. When the growth/no-growth surface model was obtained by applying linear logistic regression, it was found that all factors (pH, NaCl, and temperature) and their interactions were significant. Plots of growth/no-growth interfaces for P values of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 described the results satisfactorily at 25 and 35 degrees C, whereas at 35 degrees C the model predicted lower minimum pH values for growth in the range of 7 to 10% NaCl than those observed on the plates. Overall, it is suggested that the fungus cannot be inhibited by any combination of pH and NaCl within the limits of the brine environment, so further processing is required to ensure product stability in the

  20. Gondwanamyia, a new empidoid (Diptera) genus of uncertain placement

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Scott E.; Plant, Adrian R.; Saigusa, Toyohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new minute-size empidoid fly genus, Gondwanamyia gen. n. and two new species (Gondwanamyia chilensis Cumming & Saigusa, sp. n., Gondwanamyia zealandica Sinclair & Brooks, sp. n.) are described, illustrated, and their distributions mapped. The family and subfamily assignments remain uncertain, but features of the female terminalia potentially suggest Trichopezinae (Brachystomatidae). PMID:27833421

  1. Digitomyces, a new genus of hyphomycetes with cheiroid conidia.

    PubMed

    Mercado Sierra, Angel; Calduch, Misericordia; Gené, Josepa; Guarro, Josep; Delgado, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    The new anamorphic genus Digitomyces, based on Dictyosporium verrucosum, is proposed. It is characterized by micronematous or semimacronematous conidiophores, integrated or discrete, holoblastic, determinate conidiogenous cells, and olivaceous to pale brown, verrucose, cheiroid conidia, with a truncate basal cell and (2-)3 arms. The new taxon is compared with morphologically similar anamorph genera.

  2. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  3. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

    Treesearch

    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  4. A review of the genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species of the Afrotropical genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 of the subfamily Copromyzinae are revised. The status of Afroborborus Curran, 1931 as a junior synonym of Dudaia is corroborated. Twelve species have been described hitherto, two of them are proposed here to be junior synonyms: Copromyza (Dudaia...

  5. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Treesearch

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  6. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given.

  7. Troglobitic scorpions: a new genus and species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce

    2004-12-01

    A new genus and species of troglobitic buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Brazil. This is the first cavernicolous scorpion ever found in Brazil, and only the second to be found in South America. Some considerations on troglobitic scorpions are proposed.

  8. Mountain scorpions: a new genus and species from Tibet (China).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Qi, Jian-xin

    2006-04-01

    A new genus and species of mountain liochelid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Tibet (China). This is the first liochelid scorpion found in the high Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, and the first example of the family to be collected out of its typical tropical and subtropical areas of distribution. Some considerations on mountain scorpions are proposed.

  9. Humicolous microcharmid scorpions: a new genus and species from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2004-01-01

    A new genus and species of humicolous microcharmid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the Ankarana Reserve, Madagascar. New considerations regarding the taxonomy and morphology of micro-buthoid Malagasy scorpions are proposed, based mainly on the study of the peg-shaped sensillae of the pectines by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female). PMID:26798279

  11. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female).

  12. The South American genus Lagideus (Hymenoptera: Pergidae: Syzygoniinae), a supplement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six new species of the Neotropical pergid genus Lagideus are described and illustrated: Lagideus boyaca, L. magdalena, L. schmidti, and L. flavus from Colombia and L. tapanti and L. isidro from Costa Rica. Lagideus romius Smith is newly recorded from Colombia and the female lancet is illustrated. ...

  13. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. First case of neonatal bacteremia due to Dyella genus.

    PubMed

    Hakima, Nesrine; Bidet, Philippe; Lopez, Maureen; Rioualen, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    We describe the first case of sepsis due to a yet unnamed species of Dyella genus associated to gastrointestinal perforation in a premature newborn. The rarity of such environmental bacteria in human infection, their misidentification with classical methods and their antibiotic resistance represent real challenges for both microbiologists and clinicians.

  15. Hurleyella, a new genus of Nearctic Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Treesearch

    Justin Runyon; Harold Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Hurleyella and two new species, H. cumberlandensis and H. brooksi are described from the Nearctic. Hurleyella resembles the subfamily Medeterinae in having the legs bare of major setae, a depressed posterior mesonotum, and concave dorsal postcranium, but the complex male genitalia is unlike the relatively simple structure of...

  16. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  17. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  18. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  19. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  20. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed.

  1. The transfer of the genus Lytocaryum to Syagrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract In this paper we formally transfer all four known species of Lytocaryum to the genus Syagrus based on recent molecular analyses, which show it as a monophyletic group either nested within Syagrus making Syagrus paraphyletic or sister to it. Because of these conflicting results bet...

  2. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range.

  3. Australopithecus sediba and the earliest origins of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in 2008, the site of Malapa has yielded a remarkable assemblage of early hominin remains attributed to the species Australopithecus sediba. The species shows unexpected and unpredicted mosaicism in its anatomy. Several commentators have questioned the specific status of Au. sediba arguing that it does not exceed the variation of Au. africanus. This opinion however, does not take into account that Au. sediba differs from Au. africanus in both craniodental and postcranial characters to a greater degree than Au.africanus differs from Au. afarensis in these same characters. Au. sediba has also been questioned as a potential ancestor of the genus Homo due to the perception that earlier specimens of the genus have been found than the c198 Ma date of the Malapa sample. This opinion however, does not take into account either the poor condition of these fossils, as well as the numerous problems with both the criteria used to associate them with the genus Homo, nor the questionable provenance of each of these specimens. This argument also does not acknowledge that Malapa is almost certainly not the first chronological appearance of Au. sediba, it is only the first known fossil occurrence. Au. sediba should therefore be considered a strong potential candidate ancestor of the genus Homo until better preserved specimens are discovered that would refute such a hypothesis.

  4. Pharmacology and phytochemistry of the Nitraria genus (Review).

    PubMed

    Du, Qiaohui; Xin, Hailiang; Peng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the Nitraria genus, members of the Zygophyllaceae family, grow naturally in Europe, Africa, Australia and the central Asian desert. Previous pharmacological research has provided evidence that members of the Nitraria genus have numerous beneficial effects. In the present review, the pharmacological and phytochemical studies of Nitraria were presented and assessed. The review was written using information published between 1968 and 2013 from a number of reliable sources, including ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI. Numerous compounds, such as alkaloids and flavonoids have been isolated from the plants of this genus in the past, and multiple members of these constituents have been demonstrated to exert antitumor or anti-oxidative activities. The extracts of plants of the Nitraria genus possess antitumor, antiproliferative, anti-oxidative, antifatigue, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic effects. However, the possible active components in the fraction and the molecular mechanisms require further investigation prior to their use in clinical practice.

  5. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  7. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16–19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as “endangered” as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  8. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  9. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  10. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    PubMed

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  11. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    PubMed Central

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  12. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2017-08-24

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  13. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Dictamnus (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Lv, Mengying; Xu, Ping; Tian, Yuan; Liang, Jingyu; Gao, Yiqiao; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian; Sun, Jianbo

    2015-08-02

    Seven species from the genus Dictamnus are distributed throughout Europe and North Asia and only two species grow in China. One is Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., which could be found in many areas of China and has been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The other is Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet, which is only present in Xinjiang province and has been used as an alternative for Dictamnus dasycarpus in the local for the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. The present paper reviewed the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the genus Dictamnus. Information on the Dictamnus species was collected from classic books about Chinese herbal medicine and globally accepted scientific databases including PubMed, Elsevier, ASC, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI and others. About 170 chemical compounds, which include quinoline alkaloids, limonoids, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids and steroids, have been isolated from the genus Dictamnus. The characteristic and active constituents of Dictamnus species are considered to be quinoline alkaloids and limonoids, which exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microbe, anti-platelet-aggregation, vascular-relaxation, anti-insect, anti-HIV, anti-allergy and neuroprotection. Moreover, quinoline alkaloids and limonoids could be used as quality control markers to distinguish different species from the genus Dictamnus. However, there were also some reports on the toxic hepatitis and phototoxic effect of Dictamnus species, and the related research needs to be further studied. In this review, we summarized the chemical constituents, pharmacology, quality control and toxicology of the species from genus Dictamnus. Phytochemical investigations indicated that quinoline alkaloids and limonoids were the major bioactive components with potential cytotoxic, neuroprotective, anti

  14. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  15. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  16. Neocampanella, a new corticioid fungal genus, and a note on Dendrothele bispora

    Treesearch

    Karen K. Nakasone; David S. Hibbett; Greta Goranova

    2009-01-01

    The new genus Neocampanella (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is established for Dentocorticium btastanos Boidin & Gilles, a crustose species, and the new combination, Neocampanella blastanos, is proposed. Morphological and molecular studies support the recognition of the new genus and its close...

  17. Genus Goodfellowiella (Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2006) Labeda, Kroppenstedt, Euzeby and Tindall 2008, 1048vp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Goodfellowiella is presented. The phylogenetic position of the lone species within this genus, Goodfellowiella coeruleoviolacea relative to the other genera within the family Pseudonocardinaea i...

  18. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  19. Genus X. Lechevalieria Labeda, Hatano, Kroppenstedt and Tamura 2001, 1049vp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Lechevalieria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Lecehvalieria aerocolonigenes, Lechevalieria flava, Lechevalieria fradiae, and Lechevalieria xinjian...

  20. Description of two new species of the leafhopper genus Karachiota (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Dikraneurini ) from China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Meng

    2015-02-04

    Two new species of the dikraneurine leafhopper genus Karachiota Ahmed are reported from China: Karachiota recurva sp. nov. and Karachiota aristata sp. nov.. A key of all species of the genus is provided. 

  1. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  2. Genus VIII. Kibdelosporangium Shearer, Colman, Ferrin, Nisbet and Nash 1986, 48

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The morphology, physiology, systematics, ecology, and natural products of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Kibdelosporangium is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum, Kibdelosporangium aridum ...

  3. First record of the genus Hephathus Ribaut (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-07-21

    The genus Hephathus with its species Hephathus freyi (Fieber, 1868) is recorded for the first time from China. A new species Hephathus dilatatus is described and illustrated. An updated species checklist with distribution of the genus Hephathus is also provided.

  4. A review of the leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae), with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, C A; Zhang, Yalin; Webb, M D

    2009-09-01

    The leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura is redescribed, and three new species are described and Illustrated: S. striatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Java (on bamboo) and China; S. bispinosus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov from China; and S. pectinatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Vietnam. Most other species of Scaphotettix were re-examined and found to belong to a new genus also described herein, Scaphomonus Viraktamath, gen. nov.. The new genus is compared with the superficially similar Melanetettix Knight and Fletcher, Scaphodhara Viraktamath and Mohan, and Scaphoideus Uhler and a new species, Scaphomonus vateriae Viraktamath, sp. nov. from India, is described and Illustrated. In addition, the following new combinations are proposed (all previously placed in Scaphotettix): Scaphomonus agumbensis (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. arcuatus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. freytagi (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. indicus (Distant) comb, nov.; S. longistylus (Li and Wang) comb, nov.; S. mainadicus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. quadrifidus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. redundans (Distant) comb, nov.; and S. splinterus (Li and Wang) comb. nov. Three species, Scaphotettix fanjingensis Li and Wang, Scaphotettix redstripeus Li and Wang, and Scaphotettix sienderus Li and Wang, do not belong to the genus Scaphotettix and are not treated further. Keys are provided for species of both Scaphotettix and Scaphomonus.

  5. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  6. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Indexing of the Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...

  7. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  8. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus and species, Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, is described. This genus is characterized by having a fuscina along the dorsal margin of the clypeus. This three-pronged protrusion is unique within Hymenoptera. The genus is also characterized by the possession of a corniculum, and the shared poss...

  9. A new genus of Silvaninae (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) with two new species from the Malay Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Hashim, Rosli

    2017-05-01

    A new silvanid genus Dentirotacorimus gen. nov. is described based on specimens collected from Ulu Gombak (Malay Peninsula), Malaysia. Two new species, D. reticulatus sp. nov. and D. zigzag sp. nov., are described herein. A key to species of this genus and a table listing states of diagnostic characters of Corimus-like genera, including this new genus, are provided.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  11. A new species of the genus Amphicteis (Polychaeta: Ampharetidae) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-07-01

    A new species of the ampharetid genus Amphicteis, A. chinensis sp. nov., is described based on material from the East and South China Seas. The new species is distinguished from the other known species of this genus by the presence of a lobebehind the paleae. A key to distinguish all Amphicteis species and the closely related genus Paramphicteis from the Chinese seas is provided.

  12. The tryphosine genus Cheirimedon in Australian waters (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassidae, Tryphosinae).

    PubMed

    Kilgallen, N M; Lowry, J K

    2015-09-11

    The genus Cheirimedon is reviewed and the monotypic genus Tryphosoides placed in its synonymy. We describe fourteen new species of Cheirimedon, all from Australian waters, bringing the total number of species in the genus to 22. Full synonymies and distribution data are provided for all taxa. A key to the world species is provided.

  13. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jiao Jiao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2015-09-15

    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented. The literature study of this review is based on various databases search (SCIFinder, Science Direct, CNKI, Wiley online library, Spring Link, Web of Science, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Medalink, Google scholar, ACS, Tropicos, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, The New York Botanical Garden, African Plants Database at Genera Botanical Garden, The Plant List and SEINet) and library search for Biological Abstract and some local books on ethnopharmacology. 19 species of the genus Uncaria are found to be important folk medicines in China, Malaysia, Phillippines, Africa and Southeast America, etc, and have been served for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, hyperpyrexia, hypertension and headaches, etc. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Uncaria, including indole alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, etc. As characteristic constituents, indole alkaloids have been considered as main efficacy component for hypertension, epilepsy, depressant, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, pharmacokinetic and metabolism investigation reveal that the indole alkaloids are likely to be absorbed, metabolized and excreted at early time points. Moreover, the specific inhibition of CYP isozymes can regulate their hydroxylation metabolites

  14. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  15. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  16. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM. PMID:23866043

  17. Parallel independent evolution of pathogenicity within the genus Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Sandra; Connor, Thomas R.; Barquist, Lars; Walker, Danielle; Feltwell, Theresa; Harris, Simon R.; Fookes, Maria; Hall, Miquette E.; Petty, Nicola K.; Fuchs, Thilo M.; Corander, Jukka; Dufour, Muriel; Ringwood, Tamara; Savin, Cyril; Bouchier, Christiane; Martin, Liliane; Miettinen, Minna; Shubin, Mikhail; Riehm, Julia M.; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Sihvonen, Leila M.; Siitonen, Anja; Skurnik, Mikael; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Scholz, Holger C.; Prentice, Michael B.; Wren, Brendan W.; Parkhill, Julian; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; McNally, Alan; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Yersinia has been used as a model system to study pathogen evolution. Using whole-genome sequencing of all Yersinia species, we delineate the gene complement of the whole genus and define patterns of virulence evolution. Multiple distinct ecological specializations appear to have split pathogenic strains from environmental, nonpathogenic lineages. This split demonstrates that contrary to hypotheses that all pathogenic Yersinia species share a recent common pathogenic ancestor, they have evolved independently but followed parallel evolutionary paths in acquiring the same virulence determinants as well as becoming progressively more limited metabolically. Shared virulence determinants are limited to the virulence plasmid pYV and the attachment invasion locus ail. These acquisitions, together with genomic variations in metabolic pathways, have resulted in the parallel emergence of related pathogens displaying an increasingly specialized lifestyle with a spectrum of virulence potential, an emerging theme in the evolution of other important human pathogens. PMID:24753568

  18. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  19. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains of the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493

  20. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity* §

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny. PMID:18837102

  1. Resemblance and divergence: the "new" members of the genus Bordetella.

    PubMed

    Gross, Roy; Keidel, Kristina; Schmitt, Karin

    2010-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, belongs to the bacterial pathogens first described in the so-called golden era of microbiology more than 100 years ago. In the course of the following decades, several other closely related pathogens were described which are nowadays classified in the genus Bordetella together with B. pertussis. These are the human and animal pathogens B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica and B. avium which are of high medical or veterinary interest, and which, together with B. pertussis, are referred to as the "classical" Bordetella species. Only in the past 15 years, several additional species were classified in the genus, frequently isolated from patients with underlying disease, animals or from the environment. Very little is known about most of these bacteria. In the present review, the current knowledge about these "new" Bordetella species is briefly summarized.

  2. Exploitation of genus Rhodosporidium for microbial lipid production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyang; Liu, Dehua

    2017-03-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids. This paper reviews the current trends in the exploitation of Rhodosporidium species for microbial lipid production, including the utilization of various (single or mixed, pure or waste-derived) substrates, progress of genetic modification and metabolic engineering, innovations in fermentation mode, lipid characterizations and their potential applications. Finally, the constraints and perspectives of cultivating Rhodosporidium species for lipid production are also discussed.

  3. Taxonomy of mayapple rust: the genus Allodus resurrected.

    PubMed

    Minnis, Andrew M; McTaggart, Alistair R; Rossman, Amy Y; Aime, M Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Mayapple rust is a common, disfiguring disease that is widespread in temperate eastern North America wherever the host, Podophyllum peltatum, occurs. Puccinia podophylli, the etiological agent of this rust, has been shown to be distantly related to both Puccinia and Uromyces as exemplified by their types. A systematic study was made to determine the generic classification of P. podophylli. Phylogenetic analyses of two rDNA loci from multiple specimens support the recognition of this taxon as a separate genus of Pucciniaceae. Based on historical literature and type material, P. podophylli was found to represent the type of the forgotten genus Allodus and it is correctly named Allodus podophylli. A neotype is designated for Puccinia podophylli Schwein. (≡ Allodus podophylli) and a lectotype is designated for Aecidium podophylli.

  4. A review of the cicada genus Kosemia Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Shengping; Hayashi, Masami; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-21

    The genus Kosemia Matsumura is reviewed based on investigation of the described species and the descriptions of two new species, Kosemia castanea sp. n. and Kosemia guanzhongensis sp. n., from Shaanxi Province, China. Two species formerly belonging to the genus Cicadetta Kolenati, C. chinensis (Distant) and C. mogannia (Distant), are transferred to Kosemia Matsumura to become K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. and K. mogannia (Distant), comb. n.. The male of K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. is discovered and described for the first time. Melampsalta bifuscata Liu, 1940 is recognized to be a junior synonym of K. chinensis. Leptopsalta rubicosta Chou & Lei, 1997 and Lycurgus sinensis Jacobi, 1944 are recognized to be junior synonyms of K. mogannia. Kosemia radiator (Uhler, 1896) is removed from the Chinese cicada fauna. A key to species of Kosemia is provided. 

  5. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  6. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

  7. Mathieu Moonshine in the elliptic genus of K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Hohenegger, Stefan; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    It has recently been conjectured that the elliptic genus of K3 can be written in terms of dimensions of Mathieu group {mathbb{M}_{24}} representations. Some further evidence for this idea was subsequently found by studying the twining genera that are obtained from the elliptic genus upon replacing dimensions of Mathieu group representations by their characters. In this paper we find explicit formulae for all (remaining) twining genera by making an educated guess for their general modular properties. This allows us to identify the decomposition of all expansion coefficients in terms of dimensions of {mathbb{M}_{24}} -representations. For the first 500 coefficients we verify that the multiplicities with which these representations appear are indeed all non-negative integers. This represents very compelling evidence in favour of the conjecture.

  8. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  9. [Adaptation of yeasts of the genus Debaryomyces to protocatechuic acid].

    PubMed

    Karasevich, Iu N

    1980-01-01

    Among five yeast strains belonging to the genus Debaryomyces that were unable of utilizing aromatic compounds (phenols and hydroxybenzoic acids), three strains, viz. D. kloeckeri BKM-Y-1044, D. marama BKM-Y-100 and D. marama BKM-Y-2045, were adapted to protocatechuic acid. The adapted yeasts utilized protocatechuic acid if its concentration in the medium was 0.1%, but did not utilize it, or did at a very low rate, if the concentration of protocatechuic acid was decreased to 0.05%. The mechanism of adaptation is rare mutations occurring in succession, and the process takes therefore several months. The adaptation seems to be based on reversion of inactivated genes for enzymes involved in the preparative metabolism of protocatechuic acid. Three typical yeast species of the Debaryomyces genus are proposed (D. hansenii, D. kloeckeri and D. konokotinae) which include all of the Debaryomyces species and strains available at the Institute of Microbiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  10. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  11. [Pharmacognostical study on seven species from Astragalus genus in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Yan; Liu, Ya-Ling; Yang, Yue-E; Jiang, Bei

    2013-08-01

    For the identification and utilization of the Astragalus plants from Yunnan, pharmacognostical studies were systematically performed for seven Astragalus plants which were selected from four subgenera of Astragalus genus. Standard pharmacognosy methods and HPLC method were adopted, and microscopic characteristics and major chemical constituents of the test plant samples were compared. There were differences in root transverse section, powder and chemical constituents of the seven Astragalus plants. This study can provide the pharmacognosy experimental basis for the future study of Astragalus plants.

  12. Iron bacteria of the genus Siderocapsa in mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of iron bacteria in mineral waters has been under study. It could be shown that Siderocapsa caronata Redlinger 1931 and S. treubii Molisch 1909 are synonymous, as well as S. eusphaera Skuja 1948 and S. major Molisch 1909, and S. botryoides Berger 1949 and S. monoica 1922. Two new species, S. hexagonata and S. quadrata, have been described. A simplified key for determining the species of the genus Sideracapsa is presented.

  13. Four New Species of the Genus Hemicriconemoides (Nematoda:Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Raski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Four new species of the genus Hemicriconemoides (H. californianus n.sp., H. taiwanensis n.sp., H. annulatus n. sp., and H. nitida n.sp.) are described. The range of total length of H. mangiferae is increased on the basis of specimens collected in Israel, Observations on H. mangiferae and H. litchi support the validity of H. litchi as distinct from H. mangiferae. PMID:19308169

  14. [The spread of nematodes from Toxocara genus in the world].

    PubMed

    Borecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven species belong to the genus Toxocara. Most of the species infect Carnivora from families: Canidae, Felidae, Viverridae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Herpestidae. The most widespread species are: T. canis, T. cati and T. vitulorum. The life cycle of Toxocara spp. is connected with young animals and adults with the lowered immune response. Three of the Toxocara species: T. canis, T. cati and T. pteropodis are the aetiological agents of human toxocariasis.

  15. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A

    2016-06-29

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated.

  16. A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Deein, Gridsada; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Page, Lawrence M

    2014-03-17

    Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.

  17. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  18. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  19. Uapaca genus (Euphorbiaceae), a good source of betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Nyasse, Barthelemy; Nono, Jean-Jules; Nganso, Yves; Ngantchou, Igor; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Betulinic acid, isolated in substantial amounts from stem barks of five distinct species of Uapaca could be considered as an important chemotaxomic marker of the Uapaca genus. It inhibited Trypanosoma brucei GAPDH with an IC(50) value of 240 microM and has been shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor (Ki=200+/-10 microM) of this enzyme with respect to its cofactor NAD(+).

  20. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  1. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  2. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W.; Olden, Julian D.; Abbott, Cathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  3. Distribution of beta-glucanases within the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D F; Priest, F G; Todd, C; Goodfellow, M

    1980-01-01

    Representative strains (368) from 36 species in the genus Bacillus were screened for the secretion of beta-glucanases. (1 leads to 6)-beta-glucanases active on pustulan were produced by a minority of the organisms studied (4%), but (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases which hydrolyzed laminarin and pachyman were more widespread and were secreted by 56 and 44% of the strains, respectively. PMID:7458311

  4. The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

  5. A review of the genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz was originally described to accommodate the species Trigonopselaphus mutator Sharp. New information In this paper, I review Scaponopselaphus and describe a new species from Colombia as Scaponopselaphus diaspartos n. sp. Illustrations are provided for the identification of specimens and the presence of spatulate setae on first mesotarsomere is shown to be a unique characteristic of Scaponopselaphus within Xanthopygina. PMID:25892923

  6. General occurrence of the glucosinolate glucocochlearin within the Cochlearia genus.

    PubMed

    Dauvergne, Xavier; Cérantola, Stéphane; Salaün, Stéphanie; Magné, Christian; Kervarec, Nelly; Bessières, Marie-Anne; Deslandes, Eric

    2006-09-04

    A natural compound, glucocochlearin, was isolated from the aerial parts of 10 different Cochlearia species. The purification of this compound was achieved through HPLC. The identity of the product was established mainly on the basis of spectroscopic NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, TOCSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-MOD) and high resolution mass spectroscopy data. This compound can be considered as a chemomarker of the genus Cochlearia.

  7. A new genus of leafhopper subtribe Paraboloponina (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with molecular phylogeny of related genera.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Naresh M; Shashank, Pathour R; Sinha, Twinkle

    2017-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus Chandra and species Chandra dehradunensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are described, illustrated from India and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cidadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). This genus is closely associated with the genus Parabolopona Webb but differs in shape of the head, placement of antennae, male genitalia and molecular analysis using Histone H3 and COI genes confirmed the difference. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Chandra is discussed using morphological characters and preliminary molecular evidence of the new genus and related genus Parabolopona.

  8. The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueyang; He, Ting; Chang, Yanli; Zhao, Yicheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; Wang, Le; Shen, Meng; She, Gaimei

    2017-08-21

    The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are the dominant constituents in the genus, whose anticancer effect has been brought into focus. Pure compounds and crude extracts from the genus exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. This paper compiles 273 naturally occurring compounds from the genus Alnus along with their structures and pharmacological activities, as reported in 138 references.

  9. Establishment of a new genus for Abraximorpha heringi and A. pieridoides
    (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Tagiadini).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Fu; Chiba, Hideyuki; Wang, Min; Fan, Xiao-Ling

    2016-10-04

    A new hesperiid genus, Albiphasma gen. nov., is described with Abraximorpha heringi as the type species. The new genus consists of two species: Al. heringi comb. nov. and Al. pieridoides comb. nov. The genitalia and hair tuft on the hind tibiae suggest that the new genus is related to the genus Pintara rather than the genus Abraximorpha to which the two species have been assigned. The geographic distribution is currently restricted to southern China and Vietnam. The adult, hind leg, wing venation and male genitalia of Al. heringi as well as relevant species are illustrated.

  10. A new genus of leafhopper subtribe Paraboloponina (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with molecular phylogeny of related genera

    PubMed Central

    Shashank, Pathour R.; Sinha, Twinkle

    2017-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus Chandra and species Chandra dehradunensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are described, illustrated from India and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cidadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). This genus is closely associated with the genus Parabolopona Webb but differs in shape of the head, placement of antennae, male genitalia and molecular analysis using Histone H3 and COI genes confirmed the difference. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Chandra is discussed using morphological characters and preliminary molecular evidence of the new genus and related genus Parabolopona. PMID:28542237

  11. [Advance in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of lichens in Usnea genus].

    PubMed

    Laxinamujila; Bao, Hai-Ying; Bau, Tolgor

    2013-02-01

    To summarize the studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of lichens of Usnea genus. A systematic literature survey was conducted to classifiy and summarize chemical constituents of lichens of Usnea genus, and sum up current studies on main pharmacological activities of lichens of the genus. Lichens of Usnea genus contained multiple chemical constituents, primarily including mono-substituted phenyl rings, depsides, anthraquinones, dibenzofurans, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids and polysaccharides, with such biological activities as antitumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and antithrombosis. This essay provides reference for further studies and development of lichens of Usnea genus.

  12. A new species of genus Nishada Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rahul; Kirti, Jagbir S; Singh, Navneet

    2016-10-28

    Genus Nishada Moore (1878) was proposed as a monotypic genus, under subfamily Lithosiinae, family Lithosiidae (now Lithosiini), including only Nishada flabrifera Moore (1878) from Calcutta (now as Kolkata), India. The genus is distributed from China to India, Thailand, Malaysia and up to Australia. The Indian fauna of Nishada is reported from North-East Himalayas, West Bengal (Kolkata) and South India. Members of this genus are unmarked, yellow to brown with short and broad wings. Genus Nishada has been taxonomically dealt by many authors but awaits thorough revision.

  13. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  14. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  15. Biogeography and divergence times of genus Macroptilium (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Espert, Shirley M.; Burghardt, Alicia D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Macroptilium is a herbaceous legume genus with 18 currently accepted species, seven of them with economic importance due to their use as forage, green fertilizer and in medicine. The genus is strictly American, with an unknown biogeographic history. The aim of this study was to infer a biogeographic pattern of Macroptilium and to estimate its divergence times, using sequences from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers. Methodology To study the historical biogeography of Macroptilium, two approaches were used: area optimization on a previously obtained phylogeny and a dispersal–vicariance analysis. Divergence times were calculated by Bayesian methods. Principal results The analyses revealed that Macroptilium has its origin in the middle Pliocene, with an estimated age that ranges from 2.9 to 4 million years. The biogeographic analyses placed its origin in South America, specifically on the Chaquean sub-region, where most of the cladogenetic events of the genus took place. Conclusions Macroptilium constitutes a further example of the geographic pattern displayed by numerous Neotropical taxa that moved north from South America to dominate the Central American lowlands after the land connection across the Isthmus of Panama was established. PMID:22476076

  16. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus. PMID:24146585

  17. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  18. Evolution of corallivory in the gastropod genus Drupella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claremont, M.; Reid, D. G.; Williams, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Although muricid gastropods in the genus Drupella are well-known consumers of Indo-Pacific corals, their evolutionary and ecological history is unclear, as is their relationship to the apparently facultative coral-feeder Ergalatax margariticola, which has been reported to feed upon corals in Hong Kong. We use a well resolved molecular phylogeny (reconstructed from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes) to show that the monophyletic genus Drupella falls into the muricid subfamily Ergalataxinae and that the genus includes ` E. margariticola', which is composed of two cryptic species. We show that genetic structure within the here reassigned ` Drupella margariticola' species complex does not relate to feeding mode, but instead seems to correspond to broad patterns of habitat ecology found in other gastropod taxa. Our analyses suggest that Drupella originated in the late Miocene (approximately 9.6 Ma) and diversified approximately 5.0 Ma, much later than the appearance of modern coral reefs in the early Cenozoic. Thus, it is possible that corallivory in Drupella evolved in response to the major expansion and reorganization of reefs that took place in the early Miocene.

  19. A Descriptive Morphology of the Ant Genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serna, F.; Mackay, W.

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata. PMID:20874568

  20. Molecular characterisation of the species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Zorman, Tina; Belloch, Carmela; Querol, Amparo

    2003-09-01

    The restriction fragments polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA and the PCR fragment that comprised the internal transcribes spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene, together with the electrophoretic karyotypes of 40 strains from the 10 species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces, including the new species Z. lentus were examined. The RFLP's of the ITS-5.8S region showed a specific restriction pattern for each species, including the new species Z. lentus. The only exception were the species Z. cidri and Z. fermentati that produced identical restriction profiles. The electrophoretic chromosome patterns confirmed the differences between the species of this genus, including the phylogenetic closest species Z. cidri and Z. fermentati. They present few chromosomes ranging from 3 bands (4 or 5 chromosomes) for Z. florentinus to 7 bands (8 to 10 chromosomes) for Z. cidri and Z. fermentati. The strain level resolution power of RFLP's of mtDNA of this genus enabled the characterisation of strains from the same species, even where they are isolated from the same substrate. However, in the cases of Z. bailii and Z. lentus, electrophoretic karyotyping there was considerable variation.

  1. Genome structure and phylogeny in the genus Brucella.

    PubMed

    Michaux-Charachon, S; Bourg, G; Jumas-Bilak, E; Guigue-Talet, P; Allardet-Servent, A; O'Callaghan, D; Ramuz, M

    1997-05-01

    PacI and SpeI restriction maps were obtained for the two chromosomes of each of the six species of the genus Brucella: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, and B. neotomae. Three complementary techniques were used: hybridization with the two replicons as probes, cross-hybridization of restriction fragments, and a new mapping method. For each type strain, a unique I-SceI site was introduced in each of the two replicons, and the location of SpeI sites was determined by linearization at the unique site, partial digestion, and end labeling of the fragments. The restriction and genetic maps of the six species were highly conserved. However, numerous small insertions or deletions, ranging from 1 to 34 kb, were observed by comparison with the map of the reference strain of the genus, B. melitensis 16M. A 21-kb Spel fragment specific to B. ovis was found in the small chromosome of this species. A 640-kb inversion was demonstrated in the B. abortus small chromosome. All of these data allowed the construction of a phylogenetic tree, which reflects the traditional phenetic classification of the genus.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  3. Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group.

  4. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  5. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pteronotropis is widely distributed along the gulf slope of eastern North America from Louisiana to Florida and rivers in South Carolina along the Atlantic slope. Pteronotropis have very distinctive, flamboyant coloration. The habitats most frequently associated with these species include heavily vegetated backwater bayous to small sluggish or flowing tannin-stained streams. Although Pteronotropis is recognized as a valid genus, no phylogenetic analysis of all the species has corroborated its monophyly. In recent years, four additional species have been either described or elevated from synonymy: P. merlini, P. grandipinnis, P. stonei, and P. metallicus, with the wide-ranging P. hypselopterus complex. To examine relationships within this genus and test its monophyly, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using two nuclear genes, recombination activating gene 1, RAG1, and the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein gene in both maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In no analysis was Pteronotropis, as currently recognized, recovered as monophyletic without the inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei. PMID:26114103

  6. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Serna, F; Mackay, W

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata.

  7. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  8. Homology of Melanoma-Inducing Loci in the Genus Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several species of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for specific pigment patterns. Some of these give rise to malignant melanoma following the appropriate crossings. For one of these pattern loci from the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus the melanoma-inducing gene has been cloned and found to encode a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, designated Xmrk. Using molecular probes from this gene in Southern blot analyses on single fish DNA preparations from 600 specimens of different populations of various species of the genus Xiphophorus and their hybrids, either with or without melanoma-predisposing pattern, it was shown that all individuals contain the Xmrk gene as a proto-oncogene. It is located on the sex chromosome. All fish that carry a melanoma-predisposing locus which has been identified by Mendelian genetics contain an additional copy of Xmrk, closely linked to a specific melanophore pattern locus on the sex chromosome. The melanoma-inducing loci of the different species and populations are homologous. The additional copy of Xmrk obviously arose by a gene-duplication event, thereby acquiring the oncogenic potential. The homology of the melanoma-inducing loci points to a similar mechanism of tumor suppression in all feral fish populations of the different species of the genus Xiphophorus. PMID:1981761

  9. Operculomyces is a new genus in the order Rhizophydiales.

    PubMed

    Powell, Martha J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E

    2011-01-01

    In recent years molecular phylogenies based on analyses of rDNA sequences have advanced knowledge of the Chytridiomycota, but much alpha taxonomic work remains. We have discovered an operculate chytrid that molecular phylogenies placed in the Rhizophydiales, an order that currently contains a single operculate species, the rest having inoperculate zoospore release. Because descriptions of genera in the Chytridiomycota now rely on transmission electron microscopic features of the zoospore as well as molecular evidence we studied the zoospore ultrastructure of the isolate to confirm its placement in the Rhizophydiales and to evaluate it as a new genus. Its suite of ultrastructural characters confirmed its placement within the Rhizophydiales, and its J-shaped, multilayered spur and the position of the nonflagellate centriole at a slight angle to the kinetosome make it unique within the Rhizophydiales, thus supporting molecular evidence indicating that the isolate represents a new genus. Herein we describe zoospore ultrastructure and scanning electron and light microscopic level morphology of this monocentric, endogenous, operculate chytrid and describe it as a new genus and species, Operculomyces laminatus.

  10. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Minnis, Andrew M; Sung, Gi-Ho; Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer; Devotto, Luis; Humber, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorphic genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic within the Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales), and both B. bassiana and B. brongniartii have been linked developmentally and phylogenetically to Cordyceps species. Despite recent interest in the genetic diversity and molecular ecology of Beauveria, particularly as it relates to their role as pathogens of insects in natural and agricultural environments, the genus has not received critical taxonomic review for several decades. A multilocus phylogeny of Beauveria based on partial sequences of RPB1, RPB2, TEF and the nuclear intergenic region, Bloc, is presented and used to assess diversity within the genus and to evaluate species concepts and their taxonomic status. B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, both which represent species complexes and which heretofore have lacked type specimens, are redescribed and types are proposed. In addition six new species are described including B. varroae and B. kipukae, which form a biphyletic, morphologically cryptic sister lineage to B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, which also is morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from B. bassiana, B. asiatica and B. australis, which are sister lineages to B. brongniartii, and B. sungii, an Asian species that is linked to an undetermined species of Cordyceps. The combination B. amorpha is validly published and an epitype is designated.

  11. Genome structure and phylogeny in the genus Brucella.

    PubMed Central

    Michaux-Charachon, S; Bourg, G; Jumas-Bilak, E; Guigue-Talet, P; Allardet-Servent, A; O'Callaghan, D; Ramuz, M

    1997-01-01

    PacI and SpeI restriction maps were obtained for the two chromosomes of each of the six species of the genus Brucella: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, and B. neotomae. Three complementary techniques were used: hybridization with the two replicons as probes, cross-hybridization of restriction fragments, and a new mapping method. For each type strain, a unique I-SceI site was introduced in each of the two replicons, and the location of SpeI sites was determined by linearization at the unique site, partial digestion, and end labeling of the fragments. The restriction and genetic maps of the six species were highly conserved. However, numerous small insertions or deletions, ranging from 1 to 34 kb, were observed by comparison with the map of the reference strain of the genus, B. melitensis 16M. A 21-kb Spel fragment specific to B. ovis was found in the small chromosome of this species. A 640-kb inversion was demonstrated in the B. abortus small chromosome. All of these data allowed the construction of a phylogenetic tree, which reflects the traditional phenetic classification of the genus. PMID:9150220

  12. Ceratomyxa (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida): robust taxon or genus of convenience?

    PubMed

    Gunter, Nicole L; Whipps, Christopher M; Adlard, Robert D

    2009-10-01

    The genus Ceratomyxa (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) contains parasites that typically infect the gall bladders of marine teleosts. Species of this genus have also been recorded from elasmobranchs, while the best known species (Ceratomyxa shasta) is a systemic pathogen of fresh water salmonid fishes. Here we characterise 10 new species of Ceratomyxa from marine teleosts using morphometric and rDNA sequence data. A phylogeny of all Ceratomyxa species for which ssrDNA sequence is available was estimated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Mapping host fish taxonomy, geographic locality and morphology onto the phylogenetic tree provided some concordance of these characters to groups of Ceratomyxa species, but in no case was it consistent throughout the inferred phylogeny. The position of C. shasta as a sister species to the Ceratomyxa clade contradicts previous estimates of marine myxozoan phylogeny which suggested C. shasta was an unrelated lineage. Comparative DNA sequence data is available for more than 17% of some 200 described Ceratomyxa species and the genus now represents one of the most cohesive lineages within the Myxozoa. The independent branching of all atypical Ceratomyxa species and Palliatusindecorus, indicates a review of the diagnostic characters and possible division into more genera is warranted when further data are available.

  13. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  14. New species of Cordana and epitypification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Gené, Josepa; Mena-Portales, Julio; Cano, Jose; Madrid, Hugo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Two interesting fungi belonging to the genus Cordana have been isolated recently in Spain from plant debris. Both are proposed here as new species, described and illustrated. Cordana mercadiana sp. nov. produces 0-1-septate conidia, with a prominent basal scar. Cordana verruculosa sp. nov. differs from the other species of the genus by its unique combination of aseptate, verruculose and small conidia. Both species are compared morphologically with other species of Cordana and their identities supported by the analysis of rDNA sequences. LSU sequence analysis revealed the congeneric relationship of Cordana and Pseudobotrytis; the members of both genera are in a well supported monophyletic lineage that appears to be related to the Coniochaetales but remains incertae sedis within the Sordariomycetes. To establish nomenclatural stability of the genus Cordana, an isolate of C. pauciseptata is designed here as epitype and the two species of Pseudobotrytis are transferred to Cordana. A dichotomous key is provided to identify the currently accepted species of Cordana.

  15. Flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Drosera.

    PubMed

    Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Wawrosch, Christoph; Strohbach, Jaqueline; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-10-01

    The botanical classification of the huge genus Drosera remains controversial since long. In the present study, the pattern of major phenolic compounds in ten Drosera species belonging to seven different subgenera and/or sections of the genus was investigated for chemotaxonomic allocation. The composition of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera adelae, Drosera burmannii, Drosera dielsiana, Drosera hilaris, Drosera montana, Drosera petiolaris, and Drosera pygmaea was elucidated for the first time. The scarce data on these compounds in Drosera binata, Drosera aliciae, and Drosera spatulata were complemented significantly. Detailed LC-DAD-MS, LC-NMR, and offline 1D and 2D NMR analyses resulted in the unambiguous identification of around 40 different substances, three of them (8-hydroxy-luteolin-8-O-arabinopyranoside, tricetin-7-O-xylopyranoside and 8-hydroxytricetin-8-O-arabinopyranoside) being natural products described for the first time. The distribution of the compounds characterized underlines their potential to serve as chemotaxonomic markers in this genus.

  16. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pteronotropis is widely distributed along the gulf slope of eastern North America from Louisiana to Florida and rivers in South Carolina along the Atlantic slope. Pteronotropis have very distinctive, flamboyant coloration. The habitats most frequently associated with these species include heavily vegetated backwater bayous to small sluggish or flowing tannin-stained streams. Although Pteronotropis is recognized as a valid genus, no phylogenetic analysis of all the species has corroborated its monophyly. In recent years, four additional species have been either described or elevated from synonymy: P. merlini, P. grandipinnis, P. stonei, and P. metallicus, with the wide-ranging P. hypselopterus complex. To examine relationships within this genus and test its monophyly, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using two nuclear genes, recombination activating gene 1, RAG1, and the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein gene in both maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In no analysis was Pteronotropis, as currently recognized, recovered as monophyletic without the inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei.

  17. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  18. Phylogenetic Placement and Taxonomy of the Genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  19. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  20. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis.