Science.gov

Sample records for ascomycete podospora anserina

  1. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne GJ; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad EL; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. Results We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed sequence tag collection. Similar to higher eukaryotes, the P. anserina transcription/splicing machinery generates numerous non-conventional transcripts. Comparison of the P. anserina genome and orthologous gene set with the one of its close relatives, Neurospora crassa, shows that synteny is poorly conserved, the main result of evolution being gene shuffling in the same chromosome. The P. anserina genome contains fewer repeated sequences and has evolved new genes by duplication since its separation from N. crassa, despite the presence of the repeat induced point mutation mechanism that mutates duplicated sequences. We also provide evidence that frequent gene loss took place in the lineages leading to P. anserina and N. crassa. P. anserina contains a large and highly specialized set of genes involved in utilization of natural carbon sources commonly found in its natural biotope. It includes genes potentially involved in lignin degradation and efficient cellulose breakdown. Conclusion The features of the P. anserina genome indicate a highly dynamic evolution since the divergence of P. anserina and N. crassa, leading to the ability of the former to use specific complex carbon sources that match its needs in its natural biotope. PMID:18460219

  2. Yeti--a degenerate gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon in the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Hamann, A; Feller, F; Osiewacz, H D

    2000-10-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina a 6,935-bp retrotransposon, Yeti, has been identified and characterized. It is flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contains long terminal repeats (LTRs) 354 bp in length. The LTRs show a high degree of identity to the previously reported repetitive element repa, a sequence suggested to represent a solo-LTR element of an unknown transposon. In the investigated Podospora strains, the number of complete Yeti copies is significantly lower than the number of repa elements, with up to 25 copies. Yeti appears to be inactive: it is highly degenerate and no transcripts of the element have been detected even in Podospora cultures grown under elevated stress conditions. The amino acid sequences deduced from Yeti display significant homology, particularly in the reverse transcriptase region, to those of other fungal retrotransposons, indicating that it is a member of the gypsy family. As suggested by the unusual dinucleotide content, degeneration of Yeti appears to be the result of a molecular mechanism resembling repeat-induced point mutation in Neurospora crassa.

  3. Podospora anserina does not senesce when serially passaged in liquid culture.

    PubMed Central

    Turker, M S; Cummings, D J

    1987-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the prolonged growth of the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina in liquid culture to determine the effects of such growth on the senescence phenotype. Senescence in P. anserina, which is maternally inherited and associated with the excision and amplification of specific mitochondrial plasmids, occurs when this species is grown on solid medium. In two independent experiments no evidence of senescence was observed as mycelia were serially passaged in liquid culture. Further, when separable mycelial masses, termed puff balls, from the liquid cultures were plated on solid medium, a significant increase in their average longevity was observed. The apparent immortality of P. anserina in liquid culture was not dependent upon mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, nor was it affected by the presence of a previously described senescence plasmid, alpha senDNA. Evidence was obtained indicating that growth in liquid culture exerts selective pressure to maintain the wild-type mitochondrial genome. Images PMID:3804968

  4. A Network of HMG-box Transcription Factors Regulates Sexual Cycle in the Fungus Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Ait Benkhali, Jinane; Coppin, Evelyne; Brun, Sylvain; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Martin, Tom; Dixelius, Christina; Lazar, Noureddine; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Debuchy, Robert

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group (HMG) B proteins are eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins characterized by the HMG-box functional motif. These transcription factors play a pivotal role in global genomic functions and in the control of genes involved in specific developmental or metabolic pathways. The filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina contains 12 HMG-box genes. Of these, four have been previously characterized; three are mating-type genes that control fertilization and development of the fruit-body, whereas the last one encodes a factor involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. Systematic deletion analysis of the eight remaining uncharacterized HMG-box genes indicated that none were essential for viability, but that seven were involved in the sexual cycle. Two HMG-box genes display striking features. PaHMG5, an ortholog of SpSte11 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a pivotal activator of mating-type genes in P. anserina, whereas PaHMG9 is a repressor of several phenomena specific to the stationary phase, most notably hyphal anastomoses. Transcriptional analyses of HMG-box genes in HMG-box deletion strains indicated that PaHMG5 is at the hub of a network of several HMG-box factors that regulate mating-type genes and mating-type target genes. Genetic analyses revealed that this network also controls fertility genes that are not regulated by mating-type transcription factors. This study points to the critical role of HMG-box members in sexual reproduction in fungi, as 11 out of 12 members were involved in the sexual cycle in P. anserina. PaHMG5 and SpSte11 are conserved transcriptional regulators of mating-type genes, although P. anserina and S. pombe diverged 550 million years ago. Two HMG-box genes, SOX9 and its upstream regulator SRY, also play an important role in sex determination in mammals. The P. anserina and S. pombe mating-type genes and their upstream regulatory factor form a module of HMG-box genes analogous to the SRY/SOX9 module, revealing a commonality of sex

  5. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics.

  6. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina: decrease in mitochondrial DNA repair activity during ageing.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis; Werner, Alexandra; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2009-08-01

    The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P. anserina genome revealed high homology. We report for the first time the presence of BER activities in P. anserina mitochondrial extracts. DNA glycosylase activities decrease with age, suggesting that the increased mtDNA instability with age may be caused by decreased ability to repair mtDNA damage and hence contribute to ageing and lifespan control in this ageing model. Additionally, we find low DNA glycosylase activities in the long-lived mutants grisea and DeltaPaCox17::ble, which are characterized by low mitochondrial ROS generation. Overall, our data identify a potential role of mtDNA repair in controlling ageing and life span in P. anserina, a mechanism possibly regulated in response to ROS levels.

  7. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Is a Substrate Recognized by Two Metacaspases of Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    The two metacaspases MCA1 and MCA2 of the fungal aging model organism Podospora anserina (PaMCA1 and PaMCA2, respectively) have previously been demonstrated to be involved in the control of programmed cell death (PCD) and life span. In order to identify specific pathways and components which are controlled by the activity of these enzymes, we set out to characterize them further. Heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli of the two metacaspase genes resulted in the production of proteins which aggregate and form inclusion bodies from which the active protein has been recovered via refolding in appropriate buffers. The renaturated proteins are characterized by an arginine-specific activity and are active in caspase-like self-maturation leading to the generation of characteristic small protein fragments. Both activities are dependent on the presence of calcium. Incubation of the two metacaspases with recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of mammalian caspases, led to the identification of PARP as a substrate of the two P. anserina proteases. Using double mutants in which P. anserina Parp (PaParp) is overexpressed and PaMca1 is either overexpressed or deleted, we provide evidence for in vivo degradation of PaPARP by PaMCA1. These results support the idea that the substrate profiles of caspases and metacaspases are at least partially overlapping. Moreover, they link PCD and DNA maintenance in the complex network of molecular pathways involved in aging and life span control. PMID:23584991

  8. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Glycoside Hydrolase Families 5 and 26 β-(1,4)-Mannanases from Podospora anserina Reveal Differences upon Manno-oligosaccharide Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Marie; Roussel, Alain; Rosengren, Anna; Leone, Philippe; Stålbrand, Henrik; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2013-01-01

    The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-β-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, P. anserina mannanases were further subjected to detailed comparative analysis of their substrate specificities, active site organization, and transglycosylation capacity. Although PaMan5A displays a classical mode of action, PaMan26A revealed an atypical hydrolysis pattern with the release of mannotetraose and mannose from mannopentaose resulting from a predominant binding mode involving the −4 subsite. The crystal structures of PaMan5A and PaMan26A were solved at 1.4 and 2.85 Å resolution, respectively. Analysis of the PaMan26A structure supported strong interaction with substrate at the −4 subsite mediated by two aromatic residues Trp-244 and Trp-245. The PaMan26A structure appended to its family 35 carbohydrate binding module revealed a short and proline-rich rigid linker that anchored together the catalytic and the binding modules. PMID:23558681

  9. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a Long-Lived Strain of Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Silliker, M. E.; Cummings, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    A genetic and molecular analysis of a long-lived strain of Podospora anserina, Mn19, was undertaken to detect mutations in genes responsible for senescence. In crosses between Mn19 and wild type about 15% of the progeny were long-lived, regardless of the female parent. Molecular analysis of the long-lived progeny showed that none of the strains inherited a mtDNA rearrangement characteristic of the Mn19 parent. Instead, all long-lived strains initially inherited wild-type mtDNA. Over time the mtDNA of most long-lived strains underwent rearrangements, deletions and amplifications. The change over time in the presence of two previously characterized plasmids associated with either senescence or longevity was monitored. Crosses between Mn19 and its long-lived progeny also yielded only a small percent of individuals recovering from senescence. Analysis of mtDNA from crosses suggests that wild-type mtDNA from the paternal parent can be selected over mtDNA from the maternal parent. The life span phenotypes of progeny were not consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in a few nuclear genes were responsible for longevity. PMID:2397883

  10. Purification and characterization of a new laccase from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Durand, Fabien; Gounel, Sébastien; Mano, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    A new laccase from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina has been isolated and identified. The 73 kDa protein containing 4 coppers, truncated from its first 31 amino acids, was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and purified in one step with a yield of 48% and a specific activity of 644Umg(-1). The kinetic parameters, k(cat) and K(M), determined at 37 °C and optimal pH are 1372 s(-1) and 307 μM for ABTS and, 1.29 s(-1) and 10.9 μM, for syringaldazine (SGZ). Unlike other laccases, the new protein displays a better thermostability, with a half life>400 min at 37 °C, is less sensitive to chloride and more stable at pH 7. Even though, the new 566 amino-acid enzyme displays a large homology with Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from Myrothecium verrucaria (58%) and exhibits the four histidine rich domains consensus sequences of BODs, the new enzyme is not able to oxidize neither conjugated nor unconjugated bilirubin. PMID:23220637

  11. Identification of a Hypothetical Protein from Podospora anserina as a Nitroalkane Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, Jose R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Daubner, S. Colette; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2010-08-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k{sub cat}/K{sub M}-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK{sub a} of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k{sub cat}/K{sub M} value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}, confirming its identification as an NAO.

  12. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components.

  13. Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Lamacchia, Marina; Dyrka, Witold; Breton, Annick; Saupe, Sven J.; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most

  14. Altering a gene involved in nuclear distribution increases the repeat-induced point mutation process in the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Bouhouche, Khaled; Zickler, Denise; Debuchy, Robert; Arnaise, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanism that introduces C:G-to-T:A transitions in duplicated DNA segments. Cis-duplicated sequences can also be affected by another mechanism called premeiotic recombination (PR). Both are active over the sexual cycle of some filamentous fungi, e.g., Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. During the sexual cycle, several developmental steps require precise nuclear movement and positioning, but connections between RIP, PR, and nuclear distributions have not yet been established. Previous work has led to the isolation of ami1, the P. anserina ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans apsA gene, which is required for nuclear positioning. We show here that ami1 is involved in nuclear distribution during the sexual cycle and that alteration of ami1 delays the fruiting-body development. We also demonstrate that ami1 alteration affects loss of transgene functions during the sexual cycle. Genetically linked multiple copies of transgenes are affected by RIP and PR much more frequently in an ami1 mutant cross than in a wild-type cross. Our results suggest that the developmental slowdown of the ami1 mutant during the period of RIP and PR increases time exposure to the duplication detection system and thus increases the frequency of RIP and PR. PMID:15166143

  15. Cytosolic Ribosomal Mutations That Abolish Accumulation of Circular Intron in the Mitochondria without Preventing Senescence of Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Silar, P.; Koll, F.; Rossignol, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Podospora anserina presents a degeneration syndrome called Senescence associated with mitochondrial DNA modifications. We show that mutations affecting the two different and interacting cytosolic ribosomal proteins (S7 and S19) systematically and specifically prevent the accumulation of senDNAα (a circular double-stranded DNA plasmid derived from the first intron of the mitochondrial cox1 gene or intron α) without abolishing Senescence nor affecting the accumulation of other usually observed mitochondrial DNA rearrangements. One of the mutant proteins is homologous to the Escherichia coli S4 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S13 ribosomal proteins, known to be involved in accuracy control of cytosolic translation. The lack of accumulation of senDNAα seems to result from a nontrivial ribosomal alteration unrelated to accuracy control, indicating that S7 and S19 proteins have an additional function. The results strongly suggest that modified expression of nucleus-encoded proteins contributes to Senescence in P. anserina. These data do not fit well with some current models, which propose that intron α plays the role of the cytoplasmic and infectious Determinant of Senescence that was defined in early studies. PMID:9055079

  16. A Mutation in an Hsp90 Gene Affects the Sexual Cycle and Suppresses Vegetative Incompatibility in the Fungus Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Loubradou, G.; Begueret, J.; Turcq, B.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility is widespread in fungi but its molecular mechanism and biological function are still poorly understood. A way to study vegetative incompatibility is to investigate the function of genes whose mutations suppress this phenomenon. In Podospora anserina, these genes are known as mod genes. In addition to suppressing vegetative incompatibility, mod mutations cause some developmental defects. This suggests that the molecular mechanisms of vegetative incompatibility and development pathways are interconnected. The mod-E1 mutation was isolated as a suppressor of the developmental defects of the mod-D2 strain. We show here that mod-E1 also partially suppresses vegetative incompatibility, strengthening the link between development and vegetative incompatibility. mod-E1 is the first suppressor of vegetative incompatibility characterized at the molecular level. It encodes a member of the Hsp90 family, suggesting that development and vegetative incompatibility use common steps of a signal transduction pathway. The involvement of mod-E in the sexual cycle has also been further investigated. PMID:9335595

  17. Premature Death in Podospora Anserina: Sporadic Accumulation of the Deleted Mitochondrial Genome, Translational Parameters and Innocuity of the Mating Types

    PubMed Central

    Contamine, V.; Lecellier, G.; Belcour, L.; Picard, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Podospora anserina premature death syndrome was described as early growth arrest caused by a site-specific deletion of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and occurring in strains displaying the genotype AS1-4 mat-. The AS1-4 mutation lies in a gene encoding a cytosolic ribosomal protein, while mat- is one of the two forms (mat- and mat+) of the mating-type locus. Here we show that, depending on culture conditions, death due to the accumulation of the deleted mtDNA molecule can occur in the AS1-4 mat+ context and can be delayed in the AS1-4 mat- background. Furthermore, we show that premature death and the classical senescence process are mutually exclusive. Several approaches permit the identification of the mat-linked gene involved in the appearance of premature death. This gene, rmp, exhibits two natural alleles, rmp- linked to mat- and rmp+ linked to mat+. The first is probably functional while the second probably carries a nonsense mutation and is sporadically expressed through natural suppression. A model is proposed that emphasizes the roles played by the AS1-4 mutation, the rmp gene, and environmental conditions in the accumulation of the deleted mitochondrial genome characteristic of this syndrome. PMID:8889519

  18. Supramolecular organization of cytochrome c oxidase- and alternative oxidase-dependent respiratory chains in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Krause, Frank; Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Werner, Alexandra; Rexroth, Sascha; Reifschneider, Nicole H; Dencher, Norbert A; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2004-06-18

    To elucidate the molecular basis of the link between respiration and longevity, we have studied the organization of the respiratory chain of a wild-type strain and of two long-lived mutants of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. This established aging model is able to respire by either the standard or the alternative pathway. In the latter pathway, electrons are directly transferred from ubiquinol to the alternative oxidase and thus bypass complexes III and IV. We show that the cytochrome c oxidase pathway is organized according to the mammalian "respirasome" model (Schägger, H., and Pfeiffer, K. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 1777-1783). In contrast, the alternative pathway is composed of distinct supercomplexes of complexes I and III (i.e. I(2) and I(2)III(2)), which have not been described so far. Enzymatic analysis reveals distinct functional properties of complexes I and III belonging to either cytochrome c oxidase- or alternative oxidase-dependent pathways. By a gentle colorless-native PAGE, almost all of the ATP synthases from mitochondria respiring by either pathway were preserved in the dimeric state. Our data are of significance for the understanding of both respiratory pathways as well as lifespan control and aging.

  19. Co-expression of the mating-type genes involved in internuclear recognition is lethal in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R

    2000-01-01

    In the heterothallic filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, four mating-type genes encoding transcriptional factors have been characterized: FPR1 in the mat+ sequence and FMR1, SMR1, and SMR2 in the alternative mat- sequence. Fertilization is controlled by FPR1 and FMR1. After fertilization, male and female nuclei, which have divided in the same cell, form mat+/mat- pairs during migration into the ascogenous hyphae. Previous data indicate that the formation of mat+/mat- pairs is controlled by FPR1, FMR1, and SMR2. SMR1 was postulated to be necessary for initial development of ascogenous hyphae. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional control of the mat genes by seeking mat transcripts during the vegetative and sexual phase and fusing their promoter to a reporter gene. The data indicate that FMR1 and FPR1 are expressed in both mycelia and perithecia, whereas SMR1 and SMR2 are transcribed in perithecia. Increased or induced vegetative expression of the four mat genes has no effect when the recombined gene is solely in the wild-type strain. However, the combination of resident FPR1 with deregulated SMR2 and overexpressed FMR1 in the same nucleus is lethal. This lethality is suppressed by the expression of SMR1, confirming that SMR1 operates downstream of the other mat genes. PMID:10835389

  20. A mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome c1 leads to a decreased ROS content and to a long-lived phenotype in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Sellem, Carole H; Marsy, Sophie; Boivin, Antoine; Lemaire, Claire; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2007-07-01

    We present here the properties of a complex III loss-of-function mutant of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. The mutation corresponds to a single substitution in the second intron of the gene cyc1 encoding cytochrome c(1), leading to a splicing defect. The cyc1-1 mutant is long-lived, exhibits a defect in ascospore pigmentation, has a reduced growth rate and a reduced ROS production associated with a stabilisation of its mitochondrial DNA. We also show that increased longevity is linked with morphologically modified mitochondria and an increased number of mitochondrial genomes. Overexpression of the alternative oxidase rescues all these phenotypes and restores aging. Interestingly, the absence of complex III in this mutant is not paralleled with a deficiency in complex I activity as reported in mammals although the respiratory chain of P. anserina has recently been demonstrated to be organized according to the "respirasome" model.

  1. The mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase of Podospora anserina is a bifunctional enzyme active in protein synthesis and RNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Kämper, U; Kück, U; Cherniack, A D; Lambowitz, A M

    1992-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mt tyrRS), which is encoded by the nuclear gene cyt-18, functions not only in aminoacylation but also in the splicing of group I introns. Here, we isolated the cognate Podospora anserina mt tyrRS gene, designated yts1, by using the N. crassa cyt-18 gene as a hybridization probe. DNA sequencing of the P. anserina gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 641 amino acids which has significant similarity to other tyrRSs. The yts1 ORF is interrupted by two introns, one near its N terminus at the same position as the single intron in the cyt-18 gene and the other downstream in a region corresponding to the nucleotide-binding fold. The P. anserina yts1+ gene transformed the N. crassa cyt-18-2 mutant at a high frequency and rescued both the splicing and protein synthesis defects. Furthermore, the YTS1 protein synthesized in Escherichia coli was capable of splicing the N. crassa mt large rRNA intron in vitro. Together, these results indicate that YTS1 is a bifunctional protein active in both splicing and protein synthesis. The P. anserina YTS1 and N. crassa CYT-18 proteins share three blocks of amino acids that are not conserved in bacterial or yeast mt tyrRSs which do not function in splicing. One of these blocks corresponds to the idiosyncratic N-terminal domain shown previously to be required for splicing activity of the CYT-18 protein. The other two are located in the putative tRNA-binding domain toward the C terminus of the protein and also appear to be required for splicing. Since the E. coli and yeast mt tyrRSs do not function in splicing, the adaptation of the Neurospora and Podospora spp. mt tyrRSs to function in splicing most likely occurred after the divergence of their common ancestor from yeast. Images PMID:1531084

  2. Biological Roles of the Podospora anserina Mitochondrial Lon Protease and the Importance of Its N-Domain

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Céline; Picard, Marguerite; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Sellem, Carole H.; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-Le; Contamine, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial protease, PaLon1, leads to lethality at high and low temperatures, indicating that PaLON1 plays a main role in protein quality control. Under normal physiological conditions, the PaLon1 deletion is viable but decreases life span. PaLon1 deletion also leads to defects in two steps during development, ascospore germination and sexual reproduction, which suggests that PaLON1 ensures important regulatory functions during fungal development. Mitochondrial Lon proteases are composed of a central ATPase domain flanked by a large non-catalytic N-domain and a C-terminal protease domain. We found that three mutations in the N-domain of PaLON1 affected fungal life cycle, PaLON1 protein expression and mitochondrial proteolytic activity, which reveals the functional importance of the N-domain of the mitochondrial Lon protease. All PaLon1 mutations affected the C-terminal part of the N-domain. Considering that the C-terminal part is predicted to have an α helical arrangement in which the number, length and position of the helices are conserved with the solved structure of its bacterial homologs, we propose that this all-helical structure participates in Lon substrate interaction. PMID:22693589

  3. Deletion of the MED13 and CDK8 subunits of the Mediator improves the phenotype of a long-lived respiratory deficient mutant of Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Adeline; Bovier, Elodie; Sellem, Carole H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2015-09-01

    In Podospora anserina, the loss of function of the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is viable. This is due to the presence in this organism, as in most filamentous fungi, of an alternative respiratory oxidase (AOX) that provides a bypass to the cytochrome pathway. However mutants lacking a functional cytochrome pathway present multiple phenotypes including poorly colored thin mycelium and slow growth. In a large genetic screen based on the improvement of these phenotypes, we isolated a large number of independent suppressor mutations. Most of them led to the constitutive overexpression of the aox gene. In this study, we characterize a new suppressor mutation that does not affect the production of AOX. It is a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the MED13 subunit of the kinase module of the Mediator complex. Inactivation of the cdk8 gene encoding another subunit of the same module also results in partial suppression of a cytochrome-deficient mutant. Analysis of strains lacking the MED13 or CDK8 subunits points to the importance of these subunits as regulators involved in diverse physiological processes such as growth, longevity and sexual development. Interestingly, transcriptional analyses indicate that in P. anserina, loss of the respiratory cytochrome pathway results in the up-regulation of glycolysis-related genes revealing a new type of retrograde regulation. The loss of MED13 augments the up-regulation of some of these genes.

  4. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sellem, Carole H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H.; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before. PMID:27442014

  5. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Sellem, Carole H; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8-15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before.

  6. The mod-A suppressor of nonallelic heterokaryon incompatibility in Podospora anserina encodes a proline-rich polypeptide involved in female organ formation.

    PubMed Central

    Barreau, C; Iskandar, M; Loubradou, G; Levallois, V; Bégueret, J

    1998-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi results from the control of heterokaryon formation by the genes present at het loci. Coexpression of antagonistic het genes in the same hyphae leads to a lethal process. In Podospora anserina, self-incompatible strains containing nonallelic incompatible genes in the same nucleus are inviable as the result of a growth arrest and a lytic process. Mutations in suppressor genes (mod genes) can restore the viability. These mod mutations also interfere with developmental processes, which suggests common steps between the incompatibility reaction and cellular differentiation. The mod-A locus, responsible for growth arrest in the self-incompatible strains, is also involved in the control of the development of female organs. The mod-A gene was isolated. An open reading frame 687 amino acids long was identified. The MOD-A-encoded polypeptide is rich in proline residues, which are clustered in a domain containing a motif that displays similarity to SH3-binding motifs, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Construction of a strain deleted for mod-A confirmed that the product of this gene involved in differentiation is a key regulator of growth arrest associated with vegetative incompatibility. PMID:9611202

  7. HET-E and HET-D belong to a new subfamily of WD40 proteins involved in vegetative incompatibility specificity in the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Espagne, Eric; Balhadère, Pascale; Penin, Marie-Louise; Barreau, Christian; Turcq, Béatrice

    2002-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility, which is very common in filamentous fungi, prevents a viable heterokaryotic cell from being formed by the fusion of filaments from two different wild-type strains. Such incompatibility is always the consequence of at least one genetic difference in specific genes (het genes). In Podospora anserina, alleles of the het-e and het-d loci control heterokaryon viability through genetic interactions with alleles of the unlinked het-c locus. The het-d2(Y) gene was isolated and shown to have strong similarity with the previously described het-e1(A) gene. Like the HET-E protein, the HET-D putative protein displayed a GTP-binding domain and seemed to require a minimal number of 11 WD40 repeats to be active in incompatibility. Apart from incompatibility specificity, no other function could be identified by disrupting the het-d gene. Sequence comparison of different het-e alleles suggested that het-e specificity is determined by the sequence of the WD40 repeat domain. In particular, the amino acids present on the upper face of the predicted beta-propeller structure defined by this domain may confer the incompatible interaction specificity. PMID:12019224

  8. eEF1A Controls ascospore differentiation through elevated accuracy, but controls longevity and fruiting body formation through another mechanism in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Silar, P; Lalucque, H; Haedens, V; Zickler, D; Picard, M

    2001-01-01

    Antisuppressor mutations in the eEF1A gene of Podospora anserina were previously shown to impair ascospore formation, to drastically increase life span, and to permit the development of the Crippled Growth degenerative process. Here, we show that eEF1A controls ascospore formation through accuracy level maintenance. Examination of antisuppressor mutant perithecia reveals two main cytological defects, mislocalization of spindle and nuclei and nuclear death. Antisuppression levels are shown to be highly dependent upon both the mutation site and the suppressor used, precluding any correlation between antisuppression efficiency and severity of the sporulation impairment. Nevertheless, severity of ascospore differentiation defect is correlated with resistance to paromomycin. We also show that eEF1A controls fruiting body formation and longevity through a mechanism(s) different from accuracy control. In vivo, GFP tagging of the protein in a way that partly retains its function confirmed earlier cytological observation; i.e., this factor is mainly diffuse within the cytosol, but may transiently accumulate within nuclei or in defined regions of the cytoplasm. These data emphasize the fact that the translation apparatus exerts a global regulatory control over cell physiology and that eEF1A is one of the key factors involved in this monitoring. PMID:11514440

  9. A homologue of the yeast SHE4 gene is essential for the transition between the syncytial and cellular stages during sexual reproduction of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Berteaux-Lecellier, V; Zickler, D; Debuchy, R; Panvier-Adoutte, A; Thompson-Coffe, C; Picard, M

    1998-01-01

    The Podospora anserina cro1 gene was identified as a gene required for sexual sporulation. Crosses homozygous for the cro1-1 mutation yield fruiting bodies which produce few asci due to the formation of giant plurinucleate cells instead of dikaryotic cells after fertilization. This defect does not impair karyogamy, but meioses of the resultant polyploid nuclei are most often abortive. Cytological studies suggest that the primary defect of the mutant is its inability to form septa between the daughter nuclei after each mitosis, a step specific for normal dikaryotic cell divisions. The cro1-1 mutant would thus be unable to leave the syncytial vegetative state while abiding by the meiotic programme. cro1-1 also shows defects in ascospore germination and growth rate. GFP-tagging of the CRO1 protein reveals that it is a cytosolic protein mainly expressed at the beginning of the dikaryotic stage and at the time of ascospore maturation. The CRO1 protein exhibits significant similarity to the SHE4 protein, which is required for asymmetric mating-type switching in budding yeast cells. Thus, a gene involved in asymmetric cell divisions in a unicellular organism plays a key role at the transition between the syncytial (vegetative) state and the cellular (sexual) state in a filamentous fungus. PMID:9482722

  10. ami1, an orthologue of the Aspergillus nidulans apsA gene, is involved in nuclear migration events throughout the life cycle of Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Graïa, F; Berteaux-Lecellier, V; Zickler, D; Picard, M

    2000-01-01

    The Podospora anserina ami1-1 mutant was identified as a male-sterile strain. Microconidia (which act as male gametes) form, but are anucleate. Paraphysae from the perithecium beaks are also anucleate when ami1-1 is used as the female partner in a cross. Furthermore, in crosses heterozygous for ami1-1, some crozier cells are uninucleate rather than binucleate. In addition to these nuclear migration defects, which occur at the transition between syncytial and cellular states, ami1-1 causes abnormal distribution of the nuclei in both mycelial filaments and asci. Finally, an ami1-1 strain bearing information for both mating types is unable to self-fertilize. The ami1 gene is an orthologue of the Aspergillus nidulans apsA gene, which controls nuclear positioning in filaments and during conidiogenesis (at the syncytial/cellular transition). The ApsA and AMI1 proteins display 42% identity and share structural features. The apsA gene complements some ami1-1 defects: it increases the percentage of nucleate microconidia and restores self-fertility in an ami1-1 mat+ (mat-) strain. The latter effect is puzzling, since in apsA null mutants sexual reproduction is quite normal. The functional differences between the two genes are discussed with respect to their possible history in these two fungi, which are very distant in terms of evolution. PMID:10835387

  11. Mutational analysis of the [Het-s] prion analog of Podospora anserina. A short N-terminal peptide allows prion propagation.

    PubMed Central

    Coustou, V; Deleu, C; Saupe, S J; Bégueret, J

    1999-01-01

    The het-s locus is one of nine known het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci of the fungus Podospora anserina. This locus exists as two wild-type alleles, het-s and het-S, which encode 289 amino acid proteins differing at 13 amino acid positions. The het-s and het-S alleles are incompatible as their coexpression in the same cytoplasm causes a characteristic cell death reaction. We have proposed that the HET-s protein is a prion analog. Strains of the het-s genotype exist in two phenotypic states, the neutral [Het-s*] and the active [Het-s] phenotype. The [Het-s] phenotype is infectious and is transmitted to [Het-s*] strains through cytoplasmic contact. het-s and het-S were associated in a single haploid nucleus to generate a self-incompatible strain that displays a restricted and abnormal growth. In the present article we report the molecular characterization of a collection of mutants that restore the ability of this self-incompatible strain to grow. We also describe the functional analysis of a series of deletion constructs and site-directed mutants. Together, these analyses define positions critical for reactivity and allele specificity. We show that a 112-amino-acid-long N-terminal peptide of HET-s retains [Het-s] activity. Moreover, expression of a mutant het-s allele truncated at position 26 is sufficient to allow propagation of the [Het-s] prion analog. PMID:10581272

  12. Structure and Biophysical Characterization of the S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent O-Methyltransferase PaMTH1, a Putative Enzyme Accumulating during Senescence of Podospora anserina *

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Deep; Kudlinzki, Denis; Linhard, Verena; Saxena, Krishna; Schieborr, Ulrich; Gande, Santosh L.; Wurm, Jan Philip; Wöhnert, Jens; Abele, Rupert; Rogov, Vladimir V.; Dötsch, Volker; Osiewacz, Heinz D.; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as important signaling molecules, but in excess they can damage biomolecules. ROS regulation is therefore of key importance. Several polyphenols in general and flavonoids in particular have the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, the most hazardous among all ROS. However, the generation of a hydroxyl radical and subsequent ROS formation can be prevented by methylation of the hydroxyl group of the flavonoids. O-Methylation is performed by O-methyltransferases, members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase superfamily involved in the secondary metabolism of many species across all kingdoms. In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a well established aging model, the O-methyltransferase (PaMTH1) was reported to accumulate in total and mitochondrial protein extracts during aging. In vitro functional studies revealed flavonoids and in particular myricetin as its potential substrate. The molecular architecture of PaMTH1 and the mechanism of the methyl transfer reaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of PaMTH1 apoenzyme, PaMTH1-SAM (co-factor), and PaMTH1-S-adenosyl homocysteine (by-product) co-complexes refined to 2.0, 1.9, and 1.9 Å, respectively. PaMTH1 forms a tight dimer through swapping of the N termini. Each monomer adopts the Rossmann fold typical for many SAM-binding methyltransferases. Structural comparisons between different O-methyltransferases reveal a strikingly similar co-factor binding pocket but differences in the substrate binding pocket, indicating specific molecular determinants required for substrate selection. Furthermore, using NMR, mass spectrometry, and site-directed active site mutagenesis, we show that PaMTH1 catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to one hydroxyl group of the myricetin in a cation-dependent manner. PMID:25979334

  13. Structure and Biophysical Characterization of the S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent O-Methyltransferase PaMTH1, a Putative Enzyme Accumulating during Senescence of Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Deep; Kudlinzki, Denis; Linhard, Verena; Saxena, Krishna; Schieborr, Ulrich; Gande, Santosh L; Wurm, Jan Philip; Wöhnert, Jens; Abele, Rupert; Rogov, Vladimir V; Dötsch, Volker; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-06-26

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as important signaling molecules, but in excess they can damage biomolecules. ROS regulation is therefore of key importance. Several polyphenols in general and flavonoids in particular have the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, the most hazardous among all ROS. However, the generation of a hydroxyl radical and subsequent ROS formation can be prevented by methylation of the hydroxyl group of the flavonoids. O-Methylation is performed by O-methyltransferases, members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase superfamily involved in the secondary metabolism of many species across all kingdoms. In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a well established aging model, the O-methyltransferase (PaMTH1) was reported to accumulate in total and mitochondrial protein extracts during aging. In vitro functional studies revealed flavonoids and in particular myricetin as its potential substrate. The molecular architecture of PaMTH1 and the mechanism of the methyl transfer reaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of PaMTH1 apoenzyme, PaMTH1-SAM (co-factor), and PaMTH1-S-adenosyl homocysteine (by-product) co-complexes refined to 2.0, 1.9, and 1.9 Å, respectively. PaMTH1 forms a tight dimer through swapping of the N termini. Each monomer adopts the Rossmann fold typical for many SAM-binding methyltransferases. Structural comparisons between different O-methyltransferases reveal a strikingly similar co-factor binding pocket but differences in the substrate binding pocket, indicating specific molecular determinants required for substrate selection. Furthermore, using NMR, mass spectrometry, and site-directed active site mutagenesis, we show that PaMTH1 catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to one hydroxyl group of the myricetin in a cation-dependent manner. PMID:25979334

  14. Overexpression of Pa_1_10620 encoding a mitochondrial Podospora anserina protein with homology to superoxide dismutases and ribosomal proteins leads to lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Böhl, Lena; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-02-01

    In biological systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent 'double edged swords': as signaling molecules they are essential for proper development, as reactive agents they cause molecular damage and adverse effects like degeneration and aging. A well-coordinated control of ROS is therefore of key importance. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are enzymes active in the detoxification of superoxide. The number of isoforms of these proteins varies among species. Here we report the characterization of the putative protein encoded by Pa_1_10620 that has been previously annotated to code for a mitochondrial ribosomal protein but shares also sequence domains with SODs. We report that the gene is transcribed in P. anserina cultures of all ages and that the encoded protein localizes to mitochondria. In strains overexpressing Pa_1_10620 in a genetic background in which PaSod3, the mitochondrial MnSOD of P. anserina, is deleted, no SOD activity could be identified in isolated mitochondria. However, overexpression of the gene leads to lifespan extension suggesting a pro-survival function of the protein in P. anserina. PMID:25151510

  15. Mating types and sexual development in filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R; Arnaise, S; Picard, M

    1997-01-01

    The progress made in the molecular characterization of the mating types in several filamentous ascomycetes has allowed us to better understand their role in sexual development and has brought to light interesting biological problems. The mating types of Neurospora crassa, Podospora anserina, and Cochliobolus heterostrophus consist of unrelated and unique sequences containing one or several genes with multiple functions, related to sexuality or not, such as vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The presence of putative DNA binding domains in the proteins encoded by the mating-type (mat) genes suggests that they may be transcriptional factors. The mat genes play a role in cell-cell recognition at fertilization, probably by activating the genes responsible for the hormonal signal whose occurrence was previously demonstrated by physiological experiments. They also control recognition between nuclei at a later stage, when reproductive nuclei of each mating type which have divided in the common cytoplasm pair within the ascogenous hyphae. How self is distinguished from nonself at the nuclear level is not known. The finding that homothallic species, able to mate in the absence of a partner, contain both mating types in the same haploid genome has raised more issues than it has resolved. The instability of the mating type, in particular in Sclerotinia trifolorium and Botrytinia fuckeliana, is also unexplained. This diversity of mating systems, still more apparent if the yeasts and the basidiomycetes are taken into account, clearly shows that no single species can serve as a universal mating-type model. PMID:9409146

  16. The Podospora rmp1 gene implicated in nucleus-mitochondria cross-talk encodes an essential protein whose subcellular location is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Contamine, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Picard, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    It has been previously reported that, at the time of death, the Podospora anserina AS1-4 mutant strains accumulate specific deleted forms of the mitochondrial genome and that their life spans depend on two natural alleles (variants) of the rmp1 gene: AS1-4 rmp1-2 strains exhibit life spans strikingly longer than those of AS1-4 rmp1-1. Here, we show that rmp1 is an essential gene. In silico analyses of eight rmp1 natural alleles present in Podospora isolates and of the putative homologs of this orphan gene in other filamentous fungi suggest that rmp1 evolves rapidly. The RMP1 protein is localized in the mitochondrial and/or the cytosolic compartment, depending on cell type and developmental stage. Strains producing RMP1 without its mitochondrial targeting peptide are viable but exhibit vegetative and sexual defects. PMID:15020413

  17. A site-specific deletion in mitochondrial DNA of Podospora is under the control of nuclear genes.

    PubMed Central

    Belcour, L; Begel, O; Picard, M

    1991-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, the association of two nuclear genes inevitably leads to a "premature death" phenotype consisting of an early end of vegetative growth a few days after ascospore germination. Mycelia showing this phenotype contain a mitochondrial chromosome that always bears the same deletion. One of the break points is exactly at the 5' splice site of a particular mitochondrial intron, suggesting that the deletion event could result from molecular mechanisms also involved in intron mobility. One of the nuclear genes involved in triggering this site-specific event belongs to the mating-type minus haplotype; the other is a mutant allele of a gene encoding a cytosolic ribosomal protein. Images PMID:2023905

  18. Protoplasmic Incompatibility in PODOSPORA ANSERINA: a Possible Function for Incompatibility Genes.

    PubMed

    Boucherie, H; Bernet, J

    1980-10-01

    The suppression of protoplasmic incompatibility resulting from nonallelic gene interactions has been obtained by the coupled effect of mutations in the modA and modB genes (Bernet 1971). Due to their female sterility, modA modB strains provide an experimental tool to determine whether or not the mod and incompatibility loci are involved in a function other than protoplasmic incompatibility. Present results show that modA modB female sterility is a nonautonomous trait since heterokaryotic mycelia that include a modA modB nucleus and a female fertile nucleus (wild-type, modA or modB) produce modA modB protoperithecia, which are also formed by culture on medium supplemented with specific amino acids. Using modA modB strains, which are sterile at 32 degrees and fertile at 26 degrees , we have shown that the mod genes have no specific sequential timing. Indeed, the mod mutations may prevent the achievement of the female sexual cycle at any developmental stage from before early differentiation of protoperithecia until ascospore maturation. Employing different modA and modB mutations, we have shown that protoperithecia in modA modB cultures are generally distributed in female fertile rings; this result indicates that protoperithecia occur only in mycelial areas that have a restricted range of age at the time that modA modB thalli complete growth. Furthermore, nonsense mutations of incompatibility genes suppress the modA modB female fertile rings or restrict their width, suggesting that incompatibility loci, like the mod loci, are involved in protoperithecium formation. Taken together, these results lead to the postulate that mod and incompatibility genes do not determine, sensu stricto, protoperithecial function, as previously supposed (Boucherie and Bernet 1974), but may be involved in the homeostatic control of stationary cell functions essential for the complete development of the female sexual cycle.

  19. Phylogeny of filamentous ascomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbsch, H. T.

    Phylogenetic studies of higher ascomycetes are enhanced by the introduction of molecular markers. Most studies employed sequences of the SSU rRNA gene, but recently data from additional genes (RPB2, LSU rRNA) have become available. Several groups defined by their ascoma-type, such as Pyrenomycetes, are supported while others, like the Discomycetes, appear to be paraphyletic. The Pezizales with operculate asci are basal to other eu-ascomycetes, while other Discomycetes appear to be derived eu-ascomycetes. The re-evaluation of classical characters using molecular data is discussed using three examples. Ascus types are often regarded as being of major importance in ascomycete systematics, but prototunicate asci were found to be of poor taxonomic value, since ascomycetes with prototunicate asci are polyphyletic. The independence of the Agyriales, assumed from their morphological characters, is supported by sequence data but the relationship to supposed sister groups remains dubious. The phylogeny of ascolocularous fungi and their circumscription requires further study. While a circumscription based on bitunicate asci can be rejected, it remains unclear whether fungi with ascolocularous ascoma development represent a monophyletic entity.

  20. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III from the fungus Podospora comata. Purification, subunit structure and comparison with the homologous enzyme of a related species.

    PubMed

    Barreau, C; Begueret, J

    1982-12-15

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III has been purified to homogeneity from the filamentous fungus Podospora comata. The enzyme was extracted at low ionic strength, separated from the polymerases I and II by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and purified by heparin-Sepharose and phosphocellulose chromatography; 0.1-0.2 mg highly purified homogeneous enzyme with a specific activity of 220 units/mg could be obtained from 2 kg wet mycelium. The subunit composition of the enzyme was determined after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; thirteen putative subunits of molecular weight 174000 (a), 129000 b), 87000 (c), 50000 (d), 39000 (e), 23500 (f), 21000 (g), 19000 (h), 17000 (i), 16500 (j), 13500 (k), 11000 (l) and 10000 (m) were identified. All of the polypeptide components of the enzyme are present in about integral stoichiometric amounts as judged by dye binding. The presence of subunit Mr = 87000 in a molar ratio 1:1 is necessary to obtain very active enzyme. Thirteen homologous subunits were observed in a preparation of RNA polymerase III from Podospora anserina, which is a related species. Only subunit i is different in the two species. PMID:7151805

  1. Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

  2. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as "autophagic cell death" or "type II" programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  3. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T.; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as “autophagic cell death” or “type II” programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy. PMID:27683587

  4. Cyclophilin D Is Involved in the Regulation of Autophagy and Affects the Lifespan of P. anserina in Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Piet; Jung, Alexander T.; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore plays a key role in programmed cell death and the induction of autophagy. Opening of the pore is regulated by the mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis, trans-isomerase cyclophilin D (CYPD). Previously it was shown in the aging model organism Podospora anserina that PaCYPD abundance increases during aging and that PaCypD overexpressors are characterized by accelerated aging. Here, we describe a role of PaCYPD in the regulation of autophagy. We found that the accelerated aging phenotype observed in a strain overexpressing PaCypD is not metacaspase-dependent but is accompanied by an increase of general autophagy and mitophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria. It thus is linked to what has been defined as “autophagic cell death” or “type II” programmed cell death. Moreover, we found that the previously demonstrated age-related induction of autophagy in wild-type aging depends on the presence of PaCYPD. Deletion of PaCypD leads to a decrease in autophagy in later stages of age and under paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. Finally, we report that PaCYPD is also required for mitohormesis, the beneficial effect of mild mitochondrial stress. Thus, PaCYPD plays a key role in the context-dependent regulation of pathways leading to pro-survival and pro-death effects of autophagy.

  5. Emestrins: Anti-Cryptococcus Epipolythiodioxopiperazines from Podospora australis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yue, Qun; Krausert, Nicole M; An, Zhiqiang; Gloer, James B; Bills, Gerald F

    2016-09-23

    Eleven emestrin-type epipolythiodioxopiperazines, including four new compounds, emestrins H-K (1-4), were isolated from the crude extracts of two strains of the coprophilous fungus Podospora australis. The structures of 1-4 were established primarily by analysis of NMR data, and the absolute configuration of C-6 in 1 was independently assigned using the modified Mosher method. Four of the known emestrins obtained (emestrins C-E and MPC1001C) were found to selectively inhibit the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. These results also represent the first report of chemistry from any strain of P. australis. PMID:27557418

  6. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  7. Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Solomon P.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

  8. Species diversity of hypogeous ascomycetes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided. PMID:23956647

  9. MOD-D, a Galpha subunit of the fungus Podospora anserina, is involved in both regulation of development and vegetative incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Loubradou, G; Bégueret, J; Turcq, B

    1999-01-01

    Cell death via vegetative incompatibility is widespread in fungi but molecular mechanism and biological function of the process are poorly understood. One way to investigate this phenomenon was to study genes named mod that modified incompatibility reaction. In this study, we cloned the mod-D gene that encodes a Galpha protein. The mod-D mutant strains present developmental defects. Previously, we showed that the mod-E gene encodes an HSP90. The mod-E1 mutation suppresses both vegetative incompatibility and developmental defects due to the mod-D mutation. Moreover, we isolated the PaAC gene, which encodes an adenylate cyclase, as a partial suppressor of the mod-D1 mutation. Our previous results showed that the molecular mechanisms involved in vegetative incompatibility and developmental pathways are connected, suggesting that vegetative incompatibility may result from disorders in some developmental steps. Our new result corroborates the involvement of mod genes in signal transduction pathways. As expected, we showed that an increase in the cAMP level is able to suppress the defects in vegetative growth due to the mod-D1 mutation. However, cAMP increase has no influence on the suppressor effect of the mod-D1 mutation on vegetative incompatibility, suggesting that this suppressor effect is independent of the cAMP pathway. PMID:10353896

  10. Inactivation of the Podospora anserina vegetative incompatibility locus het-c, whose product resembles a glycolipid transfer protein, drastically impairs ascospore production.

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, S; Descamps, C; Turcq, B; Bégueret, J

    1994-01-01

    The het-c locus contains different alleles that elicit nonallelic vegetative incompatibility through specific interactions with alleles of the unlinked loci het-e and het-d. The het-c2 allele has been cloned. It encodes a 208-amino acid polypeptide that is similar to a glycolipid transfer protein purified from pig brain. Disruption of this gene drastically impairs ascospore production in homozygous crosses, and some mutants exhibit abnormal branching of apical hyphae. The protein encoded by het-c2 is essential in the biology of the fungus and may be involved in cell-wall biosynthesis. Images PMID:8016091

  11. Anserina bursitis. A treatable cause of knee pain in patients with degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brookler, M I; Mongan, E S

    1973-07-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient.

  12. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  13. Flavan-3-ols and flavonoids from Potentilla anserina.

    PubMed

    Kombal, R; Glasl, H

    1995-10-01

    Roots/rhizomes and aerial parts of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) contain two flavan-3-ols: (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The flavonol glycosides and glucuronides isolated from the herb were kaempferol 3- O-beta- D-glucoside, kaempferol 3- O-beta- D-(6''- O-( E)- P-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside, quercetin 3- O-beta- D-glucoside, quercetin 3- O-beta- D-xyloside, quercetin 3- O-alpha- L-rhamnoside, quercetin 3- O-beta- D-sambubioside, quercetin 3- O-beta- D-glucuronide, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta- D-glucuronide, myricetin 3- O-alpha- L-rhamnoside, and myricetin 3- O-beta- D-glucuronide. Herbacetin 8-methyl ether-3- O-beta- D-sophoroside (8-methoxykaempferol 3-sophoroside) was identified in the flowers. The 6''-methyl ester of quercetin 3- O-beta- D-galacturonide, which may be an artifact, was isolated from the herb. The total flavonoid content calculated as quercetin-3- O-beta- D-glucuronide was 1% in the lyophilized herb used in this study and 0.5% in a commercial drug, meeting DAC standards.

  14. The Kinetochore Interaction Network (KIN) of ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation relies on coordinated activity of a large assembly of proteins, the “Kinetochore Interaction Network” (KIN). How conserved the underlying mechanisms driving the epigenetic phenomenon of centromere and kinetochore assembly and maintenance are remains unclear, even though various eukaryotic models have been studied. More than 50 different proteins, many in multiple copies, comprise the KIN or are associated with fungal centromeres and kinetochores. Proteins isolated from immune sera recognized centromeric regions on chromosomes and were thus named centromere proteins (“CENPs”). CENP-A, sometimes called “centromere-specific H3” (CenH3), is incorporated into nucleosomes within or near centromeres. The “constitutive centromere-associated network” (CCAN) assembles on this specialized chromatin, likely based on specific interactions with and requiring presence of CENP-C. The outer kinetochore comprises the Knl1-Mis12-Ndc80 (“KMN”) protein complexes that connect the CCAN to spindles, accomplished by binding and stabilizing microtubules (MTs) and in the process generating load-bearing assemblies for chromatid segregation. In most fungi the Dam1/DASH complex connects the KMN complexes to MTs. Fungi present a rich resource to investigate mechanistic commonalities but also differences in kinetochore architecture. While ascomycetes have sets of CCAN and KMN proteins that are conserved with those of either budding yeast or metazoans, searching other major branches of the fungal kingdom revealed that CCAN proteins are poorly conserved at the primary sequence level. Several conserved binding motifs or domains within KMN complexes have been described recently, and these features of ascomycete KIN proteins are shared with most metazoan proteins. In addition, several ascomycete-specific domains have been identified here. PMID:26908646

  15. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  16. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  17. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  18. Three new ascomycetes from freshwater in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dian-Ming; Cai, Lei; Hyde, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Three new freshwater ascomycetes, Diaporthe aquatica sp. nov. (Diaporthaceae), Ophioceras aquaticus sp. nov. (Magnaporthaceae) and Togninia aquatica sp. nov. (Togniniaceae), are described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular data (ITS, 18S, 28S rDNA sequences). Diaporthe aquatica is characterized by globose to subglobose, black ascomata with long necks, broadly cylindrical to obclavate asci, and small, ellipsoidal to fusiform, one-septate, hyaline ascospores; it is unusual among Diaporthe species in the fact that it lacks a stroma and has freshwater habitat. Ophioceras aquaticus is characterized by globose ascomata with a long beak, cylindrical, eight-spored asci with J- subapical rings and 3-5-septate filiform ascospores with slightly acute ends. Togninia aquatica is characterized by globose ascomata with long necks, clavate and truncate asci clustered on distinct ascogenous hyphae, and small, reniform, hyaline ascospores. Differences among the new taxa and similar species are discussed. PMID:22684292

  19. Steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cvelbar, Damjana; Zist, Vanja; Kobal, Katja; Zigon, Dušan; Zakelj-Mavrič, Marija

    2013-02-25

    In the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. A major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. Steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi Hortaea werneckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae. Dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all three varieties of fungi followed by androstenedione and testosterone. For their protection, fungi use several mechanisms to lower the toxic effects of steroids. The efficiency of biotransformation in detoxification depended on the microorganism and steroid substrate used. Biotransformation was a relatively slow process as it also depended on the growth phase of the fungus. In addition to biotransformation, steroid extrusion out of the cells contributed to the lowering of the active intracellular steroid concentration. Plasma membrane Pdr5 transporter was found to be the most effective, followed by Snq2 transporter and vacuolar transporters Ybt1 and Ycf1. Proteins Aus1 and Dan1 were not found to be involved in steroid import. The research of possible targets of steroid hormone action in fungi suggests that steroid hormones inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae and H. werneckii. Results of this inhibition caused changes in the sterol content of the cellular membrane. The presence of steroid hormones most probably causes the degradation of the Tat2 permease and impairment of tryptophan import.

  20. A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eui Cha; Kim, Ki Don; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Ju Cheol; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2007-05-01

    A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kDa peak in a Superdex-200 HR gel-filtration column. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by sialoglycoproteins, but not in by mono- or disaccharides, asialoglycoproteins, or de-O-acetylated glycoprotein. The activity was maximal at pH 6.0-9.1 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis revealed that CML comprises 27% alpha-helix, 12% beta-sheets, 29% beta-turns, and 32% random coils. Its binding specificity and secondary structure are similar to those of a fungal lectin from Arthrobotrys oligospora. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of CML differs greatly from those of other lectins. CML exhibits mitogenic activity against mouse splenocytes. PMID:17306462

  1. Curvicollides A-C: new polyketide-derived lactones from a sclerotium-colonizing isolate of Podospora curvicolla (NRRL 25778).

    PubMed

    Che, Yongsheng; Gloer, James B; Wicklow, Donald T

    2004-04-15

    Curvicollides A-C (1-3) have been obtained from cultures of an isolate of Podospora curvicolla (NRRL 25778) that colonized a sclerotium of Aspergillus flavus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR data. The lead compound (1) showed antifungal activity against A. flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. [structure: see text] PMID:15070309

  2. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Tuovinen, Veera; Resl, Philipp; Vanderpool, Dan; Wolinski, Heimo; Aime, M Catherine; Schneider, Kevin; Stabentheiner, Edith; Toome-Heller, Merje; Thor, Göran; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Johannesson, Hanna; McCutcheon, John P

    2016-07-29

    For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen-one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi. PMID:27445309

  3. Interactive effects of pollination and heavy metals on resource allocation in Potentilla anserina L.

    SciTech Connect

    Saikkonen, K. |; Koivunen, S.; Vuorisalo, T.; Mutikainen, P. |

    1998-07-01

    The authors studied resource allocation between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in a perennial stoloniferous clonal plant, Potentilla anserina, an obligate outcrosser. They manipulated reproductive effort of Potentilla anserina either by hand-pollinating all flowers or by preventing pollination. To test the effect of resource-limiting conditions on resource allocation and reproductive output, the authors used a control and two levels of heavy metals (copper and nickel) to limit plant growth. The experiment was conducted as a 2 {times} 3 factorial design to reveal possible interactions between reproductive manipulation and resource limitation. Heavy metals decreased the total biomass of the plants and number of flowers and ramets produced. Only 50% of the plants grown with the higher level of heavy metals produced flowers. Pollination treatment interacted significantly with the heavy-metal treatment. In the metal control and lower heavy-metal treatment, there were no significant differences in total vegetative biomass between the two pollination treatments. Costs of reproduction in terms of subsequent flowering in the later season appeared to be clear, because the number of flowers per whole plant was lower if the plants were hand-pollinated and because the proportion of flowering ramets decreased due to hand-pollination. However, flowering may also be partly hormonally controlled. In contrast, hand-pollinated plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals tended to have greater biomass of vegetative plant structures and higher number of flowers compared to nonpollinated plants.

  4. Phenolic profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) herb of siberian origin and development of a rapid method for simultaneous determination of major Phenolics in P. anserina pharmaceutical products by microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Kuz'mina, Sargylana S

    2015-01-01

    A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae) of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins-potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B-are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 μm) with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 М LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 μg/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 μg/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk), two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract).

  5. Phenolic profile of Potentilla anserina L. (Rosaceae) herb of siberian origin and development of a rapid method for simultaneous determination of major Phenolics in P. anserina pharmaceutical products by microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Kuz'mina, Sargylana S

    2015-01-01

    A chemical study of Potentilla anserina L. herb (Rosaceae) of Siberian origin led to the isolation of 17 compounds. Three ellagitannins-potentillin, agrimonic acid A and B-are reported for the first time in this species. With a view to rapid quantitative analysis, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of major phenolic compounds in P. anserina, including caffeic acid, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide, agrimoniin, ellagic acid, miquelianin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside. The quantitative determination was conducted by microcolumn reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Separation was performed using a ProntoSIL-120-5-C18 AQ column (60 mm × 1 mm × 5 μm) with six-step gradient elution of aqueous 0.2 М LiClO4 in 0.006 M HClO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The components were quantified by HPLC-UV at 270 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) within test ranges. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and RSD values were less than 2.8%. The recoveries were between 97.15 and 102.38%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.21 to 1.94 μg/mL, and limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 to 5.88 μg/mL, respectively. Various solvents, extraction methods, temperatures, and times were evaluated to obtain the best extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of selected pharmaceutical products: 12 batches of P. anserina herb collected from three Siberian regions (Yakutia, Buryatia, Irkutsk), two commercial samples of P. anserina herb, and some preparations (liquid extract, tincture, decoction, infusion, and dry extract). PMID:25547725

  6. [Effectiveness of sodium arsamilate and its effect on the immunity of hens experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina].

    PubMed

    Drumev, D; Stoianova, L

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sodium arsanilate for chickens was determined following a six-day oral application. Doses higher than 0.15/kg body weight led to symptoms of intoxication and death, especially when the intake of water was restricted. No spirochetemia, clinical signs of spirochetosis, and death cases were noted in birds infected subcutaneously with a lethal dose of Borrelia anserina simultaneously treated (orally) in the course of three days with sodium arsanilate either in solution or in tablets rated 0.05 -0.15/kg or in the drinking water at 0.4--0.5/1 for four days beginning one day prior to infection. Symptoms of the disease were observed in the birds of the control group only. On the second day after the infection the effectiveness of sodium arsanilate proved as high as 95 per cent, and on the third day--75 percent It was found that the agent had a relatively short-term prophylactic action. The chickens acquired immunity at the simultaneous application of sodium arsanilate and a culture of Borrelia anserina. Sodium arsanilate was shown not to affect the building of postvaccinal immunity in birds in the case of Borrelia anserina infection.

  7. Larvicidal activity of metabolites from the endophytic Podospora sp. against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Matasyoh, Josphat C; Dittrich, Birger; Schueffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    In a screening for natural products with mosquito larvicidal activities, the endophytic fungus Podospora sp. isolated from the plant Laggera alata (Asteraceae) was conspicuous. Two xanthones, sterigmatocystin (1) and secosterigmatocystin (2), and an anthraquinone derivative (3) 13-hydroxyversicolorin B were isolated after fermentation on M(2) medium. These compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis and examined against third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. The results demonstrated that compound 1 was the most potent one with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 13.3 and 73.5 ppm, respectively. Over 95% mortality was observed at a concentration 100 ppm after 24 h. These results compared farvorably with the commercial larvicide pylarvex® that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. Compound 3 was less potent and had an LC(50) of 294.5 ppm and over 95% mortality was achieved at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Secosterigmatocystin (2) revealed relatively weak activity and therefore LC values were not determined.

  8. Some coprophilous fungi from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Caretta, G; Piontelli, E; Savino, E; Bulgheroni, A

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of coprophilous fungi on samples of antelope, buffalo, zebra and hippopotamus dung collected from the Marula Estates in Kenya was recorded. A hundred and seventy three fungal isolates representative of 40 genera and 59 species were identified. Among these species, 23 were Ascomycetes (39%), 30 Deuteromycetes (50.8%), 5 Zygomycetes (8.5%) and 1 Basidiomycete (1.7%). Ascobolus immersus, Coprotus niveus, Iodophanus carneus, Lasiobolus lasioboloides, Podospora anserina, P. australis and Sporormiella minima were the dominant species occurring in the dung of these animals. Notes on infrequent or interesting Ascomycetes include Kernia nitida, Saccobolus versicolor, Sordaria fimicola and others. The interdependence of the vegetation of this area with the fungi occurring on the dung of these animals is discussed. PMID:16284849

  9. The Chemical Diversity of the Ascomycete Fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Mioso, Roberto; Toledo Marante, Francisco Javier; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma

    2015-10-01

    Paecilomyces variotii isolated from a broad range of habitats drives the diversification of new high-value-added secondary metabolites that could potentially play an important role in human and animal health. These metabolites include the anhydride metabolite of the nonadride family, as well as the following compounds: naphthopyranone metabolites, sphingofungins, eicosenoic acids, new branched fatty acids, ascofuranone, polyketides, an anacardic acid analogue, straight-chain peptides, and volatile compounds. These natural products show that P. variotii can provide leading compounds for new drug discoveries, which may include herbicide agents, some of which are important in the agrochemical market. Finally, this review outlines recent developments, trends, and prospects for the chemistry of this ascomycete. PMID:26288080

  10. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  11. Ascomycete fungal communities associated with early decaying leaves of Spartina spp. from central California estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Justine I; Alber, Merryl; Hollibaugh, James T

    2010-02-01

    Ascomycetous fungi play an important role in the early stages of decomposition of Spartina alterniflora, but their role in the decomposition of other Spartina species has not been investigated. Here we use fingerprint (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and phylogenetic analyses of the 18S to 28S internal transcribed spacer region to compare the composition of the ascomycete fungal communities on early decay blades of Spartina species (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina foliosa, and a hybrid (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa)) collected from three salt marshes in San Francisco Bay and one in Tomales Bay, California, USA. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola was found on all samples collected and was often dominant. Two other ascomycetes, Phaeosphaeria halima and Mycosphaerella sp. strain 2, were also common. These three species are the same ascomycetes previously identified as the dominant fungal decomposers on S. alterniflora on the east coast. Ascomycetes appeared to exhibit varying degrees of host specificity, demonstrated by grouping patterns on phylogenetic trees. Neither the exotic S. alterniflora nor the hybrid supported fungal flora different from that of the native S. foliosa. However, S. densiflora had a significantly different fungal community than the other species, and hosted at least two unique ascomycetes. Significant differences in the fungal decomposer communities were also detected within species (two clones of S. foliosa), but these were minor and may be due to morphological differences among the plants.

  12. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  13. Lipids stimulate spore germination in the entomopathogenic ascomycete Ascosphaera aggregata.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Buckner, J S

    2004-10-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is solitary and managed on a large scale for pollination of alfalfa seed crops. The bees nest in holes drilled in wood or polystyrene blocks, and their larvae are highly prone to a fungal disease called chalkbrood. The most prevalent form of chalkbrood is caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, but this ascomycete is difficult to culture. Hyphae will grow on standard fungal media, but spore germination is difficult to achieve and highly variable. We found that germination can be enhanced with oils. Lipids derived from plants and bee larvae increased germination from 50% (without oil) to 75-85% (with oil). Percent germination was significantly greater in the presence of lipids but germination was not significantly different when different oils, including mineral oil, were used. A. aggregata spores oriented along the oil-aqueous interface in the broth in a polar fashion, with swelling and germ tube formation always occurring into the aqueous portion of the broth. The other half of the spore tended to attach to a lipid droplet, where it remained, without swelling, during germ tube formation. The physical attachment of spores to the oil-aqueous interface is what most probably stimulates spore germination, as opposed to some nutritional stimulation. However, further research is needed to determine if and where the spores encounter such an interface when germinating in the host gut, where germination normally occurs. PMID:15645171

  14. Impact of recent molecular phylogenetic studies on classification of ascomycete yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of concatenated gene sequences as well as whole genome sequences are resolving relationships among the ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina), thus allowing classification of members of this subphylum to be based on phylogeny. In addition, changes implemented in the new Botanical Code [Intern...

  15. Soil Ecology of the Entomopathogenic Ascomycetes: A Critical Examination of What We (Think) We Know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides an in-depth review of what is and is not known about the soil ecology of the entomopathogenic Ascomycetes, particularly the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is subject to a matrix of interlocking abiotic and bi...

  16. Molecular evolution of the fungi: relationship of the Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Chytridiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B H; Taylor, J W; Brownlee, A G; Lee, J; Lu, S D; White, T J

    1992-03-01

    Establishing the phylogeny of fungi and protists often has proved difficult owing to the simple morphologies and convergent characters in these organisms. We used DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to determine phylogenetic relationships among three major classes of organisms considered to be fungi--Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Chytridiomycetes--and to assess the taxonomic position of Neocallimastix, an economically important anaerobic rumen microorganism whose classification is controversial. The Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes, two classes of nonflagellated fungi, are the most closely related taxa. Chytridiomycetes, though bearing flagella, group with these higher fungi rather than with the protists. Neocallimastix, a eukaryote lacking mitochondria and variously classified as a protist or as a fungus, shows closest molecular affinities with the Chytridiomycete fungi in the order Spizellomycetales.

  17. Ascomycetes associated with ectomycorrhizas: molecular diversity and ecology with particular reference to the Helotiales.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Pärtel, Kadri; Jairus, Teele; Gates, Genevieve; Põldmaa, Kadri; Tamm, Heidi

    2009-12-01

    Mycorrhizosphere microbes enhance functioning of the plant-soil interface, but little is known of their ecology. This study aims to characterize the ascomycete communities associated with ectomycorrhizas in two Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forests. We hypothesize that both the phyto- and mycobiont, mantle type, soil microbiotope and geographical distance affect the diversity and occurrence of the associated ascomycetes. Using the culture-independent rDNA sequence analysis, we demonstrate a high diversity of these fungi on different hosts and habitats. Plant host has the strongest effect on the occurrence of the dominant species and community composition of ectomycorrhiza-associated fungi. Root endophytes, soil saprobes, myco-, phyto- and entomopathogens contribute to the ectomycorrhiza-associated ascomycete community. Taxonomically these Ascomycota mostly belong to the orders Helotiales, Hypocreales, Chaetothyriales and Sordariales. Members of Helotiales from both Tasmania and the Northern Hemisphere are phylogenetically closely related to root endophytes and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, suggesting their strong ecological and evolutionary links. Ectomycorrhizal mycobionts from Australia and the Northern Hemisphere are taxonomically unrelated to each other and phylogenetically distant to other helotialean root-associated fungi, indicating independent evolution. The ubiquity and diversity of the secondary root-associated fungi should be considered in studies of mycorrhizal communities to avoid overestimating the richness of true symbionts. PMID:19671076

  18. Mitochondrial RNase P RNAs in ascomycete fungi: lineage-specific variations in RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Seif, Elias R; Forget, Lise; Martin, Nancy C; Lang, B Franz

    2003-09-01

    The RNA subunit of mitochondrial RNase P (mtP-RNA) is encoded by a mitochondrial gene (rnpB) in several ascomycete fungi and in the protists Reclinomonas americana and Nephroselmis olivacea. By searching for universally conserved structural elements, we have identified previously unknown rnpB genes in the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of two fission yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus; in the budding yeast Pichia canadensis; and in the archiascomycete Taphrina deformans. The expression of mtP-RNAs of the predicted size was experimentally confirmed in the two fission yeasts, and their precise 5' and 3' ends were determined by sequencing of cDNAs generated from circularized mtP-RNAs. Comparative RNA secondary structure modeling shows that in contrast to mtP-RNAs of the two protists R. americana and N. olivacea, those of ascomycete fungi all have highly reduced secondary structures. In certain budding yeasts, such as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, we find only the two most conserved pairings, P1 and P4. A P18 pairing is conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives, whereas nearly half of the minimum bacterial consensus structure is retained in the RNAs of fission yeasts, Aspergillus nidulans and Taphrina deformans. The evolutionary implications of the reduction of mtP-RNA structures in ascomycetes will be discussed.

  19. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  20. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  1. Conservation and evolution of cis-regulatory systems in ascomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasch, Audrey P.; Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Fraser, Hunter B.; Berardini, Mark; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-03-15

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which gene expression regulation evolves. To investigate this, we systematically explored the conservation of regulatory networks in fungi by examining the cis-regulatory elements that govern the expression of coregulated genes. We first identified groups of coregulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes enriched for genes with known upstream or downstream cis-regulatory sequences. Reasoning that many of these gene groups are coregulated in related species as well, we performed similar analyses on orthologs of coregulated S. cerevisiae genes in 13 other ascomycete species. We find that many species-specific gene groups are enriched for the same flanking regulatory sequences as those found in the orthologous gene groups from S. cerevisiae, indicating that those regulatory systems have been conserved in multiple ascomycete species. In addition to these clear cases of regulatory conservation, we find examples of cis-element evolution that suggest multiple modes of regulatory diversification, including alterations in transcription factor-binding specificity, incorporation of new gene targets into an existing regulatory system, and cooption of regulatory systems to control a different set of genes. We investigated one example in greater detail by measuring the in vitro activity of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rpn4p and its orthologs from Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa. Our results suggest that the DNA binding specificity of these proteins has coevolved with the sequences found upstream of the Rpn4p target genes and suggest that Rpn4p has a different function in N. crassa.

  2. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development.

  3. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  4. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E; Brenner, Michael P; Pringle, Anne

    2008-12-30

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes-shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes-and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.

  5. Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

  6. Bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Krings, Ulrich; Nanzad, Tsevegsuren; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-06-01

    Submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. Inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-P450-monooxygenase. However, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-Valencene and the flavour-active mono-oxyfunctionalised transformation products, alpha-nootkatol, nootkatone, and valencene-11,12-epoxide accumulated preferably inside the fungal cells. Di- and poly-oxygenated products, such as nootkatone-11,12-epoxide, were found solely in the culture medium, indicating an active transport of these metabolites into the extracellular compartment during (+)-valencene detoxification. These metabolic properties may have contributed to the high tolerance of the fungus towards the exogenous hydrocarbon. PMID:15602686

  7. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Carolyn A; Purvine, Samuel O; Zink, Erika M; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  8. Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

  9. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  10. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S.; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown, but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4+ T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4+ T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogeneticity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  11. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  12. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M; Almeida, Igor C; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2008-08-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveal a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes, including metabolism, cell recycling, signalling and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae documents that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis, providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics.

  13. Vesicular transport in Histoplasma capsulatum: an effective mechanism for trans-cell wall transfer of proteins and lipids in ascomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Priscila Costa; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Almeida, Igor C.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular secretion of macromolecules has recently been described in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans raising the question as to whether ascomycetes similarly utilize vesicles for transport. In the present study, we examine whether the clinically important ascomycete Histoplasma capsulatum produce vesicles and utilized these structures to secrete macromolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show transcellular secretion of vesicles by yeast cells. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses of vesicles isolated from culture supernatants reveals a rich collection of macromolecules involved in diverse processes including metabolism, cell recycling, signaling, and virulence. The results demonstrate that H. capsulatum can utilize a trans-cell wall vesicular transport secretory mechanism to promote virulence. Additionally, TEM of supernatants collected from Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae document that vesicles are similarly produced by additional ascomycetes. The vesicles from H. capsulatum react with immune serum from patients with histoplasmosis providing an association of the vesicular products with pathogenesis. The findings support the proposal that vesicular secretion is a general mechanism in fungi for the transport of macromolecules related to virulence and that this process could be a target for novel therapeutics. PMID:18419773

  14. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs.

  15. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT2 Regulates Perithecium Size in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-01-01

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae is a plant pathogen that is found worldwide, causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops and ear rot of maize. Ascospores formed in fruiting bodies (i.e., perithecia) are hypothesized to be the primary inocula for FHB disease. Perithecium development is a complex cellular differentiation process controlled by many developmentally regulated genes. In this study, we selected a previously reported putative transcription factor containing the Myb DNA-binding domain MYT2 for an in-depth study on sexual development. The deletion of MYT2 resulted in a larger perithecium, while its overexpression resulted in a smaller perithecium when compared to the wild-type strain. These data suggest that MYT2 regulates perithecium size differentiation. MYT2 overexpression affected pleiotropic phenotypes including vegetative growth, conidia production, virulence, and mycotoxin production. Nuclear localization of the MYT2 protein supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. Transcriptional analyses of trichothecene synthetic genes suggest that MYT2 additionally functions as a suppressor for trichothecene production. This is the first study characterizing a transcription factor required for perithecium size differentiation in G. zeae, and it provides a novel angle for understanding sexual development in filamentous fungi. PMID:22649560

  16. Bradymyces gen. nov. (Chaetothyriales, Trichomeriaceae), a new ascomycete genus accommodating poorly differentiated melanized fungi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Réblová, Martina; Rehulka, Jiří; Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; de Hoog, Sybren G; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-11-01

    Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C. PMID:25164483

  17. Induction of apoptosis against cancer cell lines by four ascomycetes (endophytes) from Malaysian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hazalin, Nurul Aqmar Mohamad Nor; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Lim, Siong Meng; Cole, Anthony L J; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2012-05-15

    Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 μg/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis.

  18. Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from forest soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tun, Moe Moe; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2007-02-01

    Two strains (S-34T and S-35) of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were isolated from soil from a mixed deciduous forest in Amphoe Wang Nam Khiao, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA sequences of the two strains were identical and also indicated a close relationship with respect to Kazachstania aquatica, Kazachstania unispora, Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania solicola. The most closely related species, K. aquatica, has 14 nucleotide substitutions and three gaps in 566 nt. The phenotypic characteristics of the two strains were typical of those of members of the genus Kazachstania. These characteristics include the formation of a single globose ascospore in an unconjugated and persistent ascus, multilateral budding, the absence of arthrospores and ballistospores, the fermentation of glucose, the inability to assimilate nitrate, negative diazonium blue B and urease reactions, and the presence of ubiquinone Q-6. The novel strains can be distinguished from K. aquatica on the basis of a number of phenotypic characteristics and represent a novel species in the genus Kazachstania, for which the name Kazachstania siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-34T (=CBS 10361T=NBRC 101968T=BCC 21230T).

  19. Sequences of metanicins, 20-residue peptaibols from the ascomycetous fungus CBS 597.80.

    PubMed

    Kimonyo, Anastase; Brückner, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Four linear 20-residue peptaibols, named metanicins (MTCs) A-D, were isolated from submerged cultures of the ascomycetous fungus CBS 597.80. Structure elucidation was performed by a combination of fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), electrospray ionization MS, Edman degradation of isolated fragments, and amino acid analysis by ion-exchange and gas chromatography, and enantioselective HPLC. The sequences of MTC A(B) are (amino acid exchange in B and C in parentheses): Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib(D-Iva)-Gln-Gln-Pheol and of MTC C(D) Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Gln-Aib-Val-Aib-Gly-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-Aib-Aib(D-Iva)-Gln-Gln-Pheol (Ac, acetyl; Aib, α-aminoisobutyric acid; Iva, isovaline; Pheol, L-phenylalaninol). The peptides are related, and some of the sequences are identical, to other 20-residue peptaibols isolated from Trichoderma species. MTCs show moderate activities against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and very low activities against Bacillus subtilis. The producer has originally been identified and deposited as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae CBS 597.80. Although this identification has been withdrawn by Centralbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) in the meantime, the accession number will be retained - independently from any taxonomic revisions. PMID:23681727

  20. Interactions of sterile-cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Girlanda, Mariangela; Honegger, Rosmarie; Fubini, Bice; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2007-04-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming ascomycetes have not yet been used to investigate mycobiont-mineral substrate interactions under controlled conditions. In this study Candelariella vitellina, Xanthoparmelia tinctina and Lecanora rupicola mycobionts were isolated and inoculated with chrysotile fibres in the laboratory, in order to verify whether physical and chemical weathering processes, which were already described in the field, may be reproduced in vitro. Tight adhesion of hyphae to chrysotile fibres was observed in all species. The adhering hyphae affected the chemical composition of asbestos fibres, with the selective depletion of magnesium being a prominent feature, as is the case in field conditions. Oxalic acid and pulvinic acid, mycobiont-derived metabolites of X. tinctina and C. vitellina, were involved in the weathering action. Time and environmental factors and the absence of biological synergisms strongly limited the chemical weathering in vitro compared with what was observed in the field. Nevertheless, the results show that in vitro incubation of sterile-cultured lichen-forming fungi with minerals is a practicable experimental system to investigate the weathering effects of different mycobionts and fungal compounds under controlled conditions.

  1. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species—Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  2. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems. PMID:22802654

  3. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  4. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  5. Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism in the Ectomycorrhizal Ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea during Glucose Utilization 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Canet, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to study the metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Sphaerosporella brunnea. The main purpose was to assess the biochemical pathways for the assimilation of glucose and to identify the compounds accumulated during glucose assimilation. The majority of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, while glycogen, trehalose and free amino acids were labeled to a much lesser extent. The high enrichment of the C1/C6 position of mannitol indicated that the polyol was formed via a direct route from absorbed glucose. Randomization of the 13C label was observed to occur in glucose and trehalose leading to the accumulation of [1,6-13C]trehalose and [1,6-13C]glucose. This suggests that the majority of the glucose carbon used to form trehalose was cycled through the metabolically active mannitol pool. The proportion of label entering the free amino acids represented 38% of the soluble 13C after 6 hours of continuous glucose labeling. Therefore, amino acid biosynthesis is an important sink of assimilated carbon. Carbon-13 was incorporated into [3-13C]alanine and [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [4-13C]glutamate and glutamine. From the analysis of the intramolecular 13C enrichment of these amino acids, it is concluded that [3-13C]pyruvate, arising from [1-13C]glucose catabolism, was used by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate carboxylase (or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). Intramolecular 13C labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were similar and are consistent with the operation of the Krebs cycle. There is strong evidence for (a) randomization of the label on C2 and C3 positions of oxaloacetate via malate dehydrogenase and fumarase, and (b) the dual biosynthetic and respiratory role of the citrate synthase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase reactions. The high flux of carbon through the carboxylation (presumably pyruvate carboxylase) step indicates that CO

  6. In Vitro Testing of Susceptibilities of Filamentous Ascomycetes to Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Amphotericin B, with Consideration of Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Michael R.; Pasarell, Lester

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of three hundred eighty-one isolates representing two classes, five orders, nine families, 30 genera, and 51 species of ascomycetous fungi to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were tested by using a modification of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A reference method. For those fungi of known phylogenetic relatedness, drug MICs were consistently low for isolates among all clades, except for members of the family Microascaceae. The highest MICs of all drugs tested were consistently for the Microascaceae, supporting the observation of fungal phylogeny and corresponding susceptibility to antifungal drugs. Itraconazole and voriconazole have a broad range of activity against phylogenetically similar agents of hyalohyphomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. PMID:9666022

  7. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  8. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, Evgeny; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  9. Primer Sets Developed To Amplify Conserved Genes from Filamentous Ascomycetes Are Useful in Differentiating Fusarium Species Associated with Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G. C.; Ball, L. A.; Axelrood, P. E.; Glass, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of Fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in five amplified PCR products from each Fusarium isolate. The primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in Neurospora crassa. Primers previously developed for the intergenic transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA were also used. The degree of interspecific polymorphism observed in the PCR products from the six Fusarium species allowed differentiation by a limited number of amplifications and restriction endonuclease digestions. The level of intraspecific RFLP variation in the five PCR products was low in both Fusarium proliferatum and F. avenaceum but was high in a population sample of F. oxysporum isolates. Clustering of the 35 isolates by statistical analyses gave similar dendrograms for H3, H4, and (beta)-tubulin RFLP analysis, but a dendrogram produced by intergenic transcribed spacer analysis varied in the placement of some F. oxysporum isolates. PMID:16534991

  10. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-09-02

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change.

  11. Genomic Analysis of an Ascomycete Fungus from the Rice Planthopper Reveals How It Adapts to an Endosymbiotic Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Noda, Hiroaki; Xie, Hong-Qing; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change. PMID:26338189

  12. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGES

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  13. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Gacura, Matthew D; Sprockett, Daniel D; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    Fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this study we developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from 40 fungal genomes. The primers were used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communities were up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystem type were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.

  14. Nutritional physiology of a rock-inhabiting, model microcolonial fungus from an ancestral lineage of the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Nai, Corrado; Wong, Helen Y; Pannenbecker, Annette; Broughton, William J; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P; Gueidan, Cécile; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-07-01

    Rock-inhabiting black fungi [also microcolonial or meristematic fungi (MCF)] are a phylogenetically diverse group of melanised ascomycetes with distinctive morphological features that confer extensive stress tolerance and permit survival in hostile environments. The MCF strain A95 Knufia petricola (syn. Sarcinomyces petricola) belongs to an ancestral lineage of the order Chaetothyriales (class Eurotiomycetes). K. petricola strain A95 is a rock-inhabiting MCF and its growth requirements were studied using the 96-well plate-based Biolog System under ∼1070 different conditions (osmotic stress, pH growth optima, growth factor requirements and nutrient catabolism). A95 is an osmotolerant, oligotrophic MCF that grows best around pH 5. Remarkably, A95 shows metabolic activity in the absence of added nitrogen, phosphorus or sulphur. Correlations could be drawn between the known nutrient requirements of A95 and what probably is available in sub-aerial systems (rock and other material surfaces). Detailed knowledge of A95's metabolic requirements allowed formulation of a synthetic medium that supports strong fungal growth. PMID:23587800

  15. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover.

    PubMed

    Walser, J C; Zoller, S; Büchler, U; Scheidegger, C

    2001-09-01

    The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria has suffered a substantial decline in central and northern Europe during the twentieth century and is now considered to be critically endangered in many European lowland regions. Based on demographic studies, it has been proposed that under the present environmental conditions and forest management regimes, dispersal of diaspores and subsequent establishment of new thalli are insufficient to maintain the remnant small lowland populations. Chances of long-term survival may therefore be reduced. The data and analytical power of these demographic studies are limited. Since lichen diaspores show very few species-specific morphological characteristics, and are therefore almost indistinguishable, the accurate assessment of diaspore flux would be a fundamental first step in better understanding the life cycle of L. pulmonaria. Here we present a new molecular approach to investigate the dispersal of L. pulmonaria diaspores in its natural environment by specifically identifying small amounts of DNA in snow litter samples at varying distances from known sources. We used a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pair to amplify the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and a sensitive automated PCR product detection system using fluorescent labelled primers. We detected considerable amounts of naturally dispersed diaspores, deposited as far as 50 m away from the closest potential source. Diaspores were only found in the direction of the prevailing wind. Diaspore deposition varied from 1.2 diaspores per m(2) per day at 50 m distance from the source to 15 diaspores per m(2) per day at 1 m distance. The method described in this paper opens up perspectives for studies of population dynamics and dispersal ecology mainly in lichenized ascomycetes but also in other organisms with small, wind-dispersed diaspores.

  16. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  17. Quiescence and/or pathogenicity of the ascomycete micro-organism as one of three separate entities in a living animal or human host.

    PubMed

    White, M W

    1978-01-01

    Experimental studies on I.C.R. mice with induced ascitic fluid suggest that the mold micro-organism of the ascomycete family when inoculated in a living host, with a lowered pH, may survive but only initially in a conidial phase as a distinct and separate entity. It may reside quiescently as a sexual conidium within a cell of the reticulo-endothial system or with provocation multiply as the asexual form. Because of their altered physiomorphological status these conidial bodies cannot be identified accurately either by a microscopic study on a cytobiological wet smear basis or by a stained slide, nor be readily recaptured by utilizing the conventional culture techniques. Revised culturing methods utilizing the elements carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, calcium and magnesium in Sabouraud's Agar slant aerobically may help recover the adult micro-organism for positive identification. Sometimes, however, under deteriorating or moribund status of the host the conidia may revert, in ascitic fluid, to the autonomous form spontaneously. The transformation-reformation potential of the ascomycete in vivo, the non-recognizable status of the conidial bodies, and the inability to recapture the adult autonomous form by conventional laboratory means, despite their known presence, suggests a possible relationship of this micro-organism to certain of the acute, chronic inflammatory diseases, pleomorphic tumors, granulomas, and the malignancies. These diseases despite signs of an acute or chronic inflammatory process usually give a "no growth" result. The conidial phase of the ascomycete may very well, I believe, be the malefactor in these conditions that hitherto have defied etiological explanation.

  18. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. PMID:27524652

  19. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    SciTech Connect

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  20. Candida auris sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    A single strain of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain, nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region sequences, and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a new species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Candida ruelliae and Candida haemulonii in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. This strain grew well at 40 degrees C, but showed slow and weak growth at 42 degrees C. The taxonomic description of Candida auris sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM15448T= CBS10913T= DSM21092T).

  1. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

  2. A Fox2-dependent fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway coexists both in peroxisomes and mitochondria of the ascomycete yeast Candida lusitaniae.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frédéric; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Salin, Bénédicte; Lucas-Guérin, Marine; Manon, Stephen; Dementhon, Karine; Noël, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    It is generally admitted that the ascomycete yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina possess a single fatty acid ß-oxidation pathway located exclusively in peroxisomes, and that they lost mitochondrial ß-oxidation early during evolution. In this work, we showed that mutants of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida lusitaniae which lack the multifunctional enzyme Fox2p, a key enzyme of the ß-oxidation pathway, were still able to grow on fatty acids as the sole carbon source, suggesting that C. lusitaniae harbored an alternative pathway for fatty acid catabolism. By assaying 14Cα-palmitoyl-CoA consumption, we demonstrated that fatty acid catabolism takes place in both peroxisomal and mitochondrial subcellular fractions. We then observed that a fox2Δ null mutant was unable to catabolize fatty acids in the mitochondrial fraction, thus indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was Fox2p-dependent. This finding was confirmed by the immunodetection of Fox2p in protein extracts obtained from purified peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Finally, immunoelectron microscopy provided evidence that Fox2p was localized in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the existence of a Fox2p-dependent mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in an ascomycetous yeast, C. lusitaniae. It also points to the existence of an alternative fatty acid catabolism pathway, probably located in peroxisomes, and functioning in a Fox2p-independent manner. PMID:25486052

  3. Antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin MtDef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Islam, Kazi T; Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Read, Nick D; Shah, Dilip M

    2016-05-01

    Defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. The plant defensin, MtDef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. We have reported that MtDef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. Here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of MtDef4 are conserved in these fungi. We show that N. crassa and F. graminearum respond differently to MtDef4 challenge. Membrane permeabilization is required for the antifungal activity of MtDef4 against F. graminearum but not against N. crassa. We find that MtDef4 is targeted to different subcellular compartments in each fungus. Internalization of MtDef4 in N. crassa is energy-dependent and involves endocytosis. By contrast, MtDef4 appears to translocate into F. graminearum autonomously using a partially energy-dependent pathway. MtDef4 has been shown to bind to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We provide evidence that the plasma membrane localized phospholipase D, involved in the biosynthesis of PA, is needed for entry of this defensin in N. crassa, but not in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a defensin which inhibits the growth of two ascomycete fungi via different mechanisms. PMID:26801962

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233–318 and 180–193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis. PMID:27040368

  5. NPS6, Encoding a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, Is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes[W

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Krasnoff, Stuart; Gibson, Donna; Haas, Hubertus; Yoshioka, Keiko; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2006-01-01

    NPS6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (Zea mays) pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to H2O2. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, and the Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to H2O2. Introduction of the NPS6 ortholog from the saprobe Neurospora crassa to the Δnps6 strain of C. heterostrophus restored wild-type virulence to maize and tolerance to H2O2, demonstrating functional conservation in filamentous ascomycete phytopathogens and saprobes. Increased sensitivity to iron depletion was identified as a conserved phenotype of Δnps6 strains. Exogenous application of iron enhanced the virulence of Δnps6 strains of C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola to each host. NPS6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores by C. heterostrophus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola. Application of the extracellular siderophore of A. brassicicola restored wild-type virulence of the ΔAbnps6 strain to Arabidopsis. It is proposed that the role of extracellular siderophores in fungal virulence to plants is to supply an essential nutrient, iron, to their producers in planta and not to act as phytotoxins, depriving their hosts of iron. PMID:17056706

  6. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12. PMID:27309377

  7. Biochemical and physicochemical processes contributing to the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ulrike; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally widespread micropollutants bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac (DF), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), technical nonylphenol (t-NP) and triclosan (TCS) were used to assess the potential of the laccase-producing freshwater ascomycete Phoma sp. strain UHH 5-1-03 for micropollutant removal and to provide quantitative insights into the mechanisms involved. Biotransformation rates observed with whole fungal cells followed the rank order EE2 ≫ BPA > TCS > t-NP > DF > SMX > CBZ. Biosorption onto fungal mycelia was prominent for BPA, EE2, TCS and t-NP and insignificant for CBZ, DF and SMX. Enzymatic removal rates investigated with cell-free, laccase-containing culture supernatants of Phoma sp. followed the rank order EE2 > BPA > DF > t-NP > TCS and were insignificant for SMX and CBZ. Mass spectrometry-assisted investigations addressing metabolite formation from unlabelled and (13)C6-labelled DF and SMX yielded DF metabolites indicating hydroxylation, cyclisation and decarboxylation reactions, as well as oxidative coupling typical for laccase reactions. For SMX, several products characterised by lower molecular masses than the parent compound were found, and indications for deamination and formamide formation were obtained. Summarising, the obtained results suggest that the extracellular laccase of Phoma sp. largely contributes to fungal biotransformation of EE2, BPA, DF, TCS and t-NP, together with cell-associated enzymes such as, e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases suggested by the appearance of hydroxylated metabolites from DF. Laccase does not seem to play any role in the metabolisation of SMX and CBZ, where yet to be identified cell-associated enzymes have to be considered instead. PMID:26536880

  8. Minutisphaerales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of freshwater ascomycetes including a new family, Minutisphaeraceae, and two new species from North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Shearer, Carol A; Miller, Andrew N; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Akira; Fournier, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Minutisphaera is a recently established genus of freshwater Dothideomycetes characterized by small, globose to subglobose or apothecioid, erumpent to superficial, brown ascomata; fissitunicate, eight-spored, ovoid to obclavate asci; and 1-2-septate, clavate to broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with or without a gelatinous sheath and filamentous appendages. The genus currently contains two species: M. fimbriatispora, the type species, and M. japonica. The higher-level phylogenetic relationship of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes currently is unresolved. To establish the phylogenetic position of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes and evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of newly collected Minutisphaera-like taxa, we sequenced three rDNA regions-18S, ITS1-5.8SITS2 (ITS) and 28S nuc rDNA, and a protein-coding gene, MCM7, for newly collected strains of Minutisphaera. Based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined dataset (18S and 28S) composed of 167 taxa, a more refined dataset (28S and MCM7) comprising 52 taxa and a separate ITS dataset, and an examination of morphology, we describe and illustrate two new species of Minutisphaera. The Minutisphaera clade was strongly supported within the Dothideomycetes with likelihood and Bayesian statistics but did not share phylogenetic affinities with any existing taxonomic group within the Dothideomycetes. We therefore establish a new order, Minutisphaerales, and new family, Minutisphaeraceae, for this monophyletic clade of freshwater ascomycetes. Chemical analysis of the organic extract M. aspera (G427) resulted in isolation and characterization of five known secondary metabolites, of which four were dipeptides (1-4) and one an aromatic polyketide (5). Conversely, two aromatic polyketides (5, 6) were isolated and identified from the organic extract of M. parafimbriatispora (G156-4). The isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against an array of bacteria and

  9. The dddP gene, encoding a novel enzyme that converts dimethylsulfoniopropionate into dimethyl sulfide, is widespread in ocean metagenomes and marine bacteria and also occurs in some Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Todd, J D; Curson, A R J; Dupont, C L; Nicholson, P; Johnston, A W B

    2009-06-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM can produce the gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a widespread secondary metabolite that occurs in many phytoplankton. Roseovarius possesses a novel gene, termed dddP, which when cloned, confers on Escherichia coli the ability to produce DMS. The DddP polypeptide is in the large family of M24 metallopeptidases and is wholly different from two other enzymes, DddD and DddL, which were previously shown to generate DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Close homologues of DddP occur in other alphaproteobacteria and more surprisingly, in some Ascomycete fungi. These were the biotechnologically important Aspergillus oryzae and the plant pathogen, Fusarium graminearum. The dddP gene is abundant in the bacterial metagenomic sequences in the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition. Thus, dddP has several novel features and is widely dispersed, both taxonomically and geographically.

  10. Cloning of opal suppressor tRNA genes of a filamentous fungus reveals two tRNASerUGA genes with unexpected structural differences.

    PubMed Central

    Debuchy, R; Brygoo, Y

    1985-01-01

    The informational suppressors su4-1 and su8-1 of Podospora anserina were isolated by transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe UGA mutants. The DNA sequence revealed that they were opal (UGA) suppressor tRNAs. Wild-type alleles were also isolated by hybridization. The DNA sequence showed that they both encode species of tRNASerUGA. The gene SU8 has an 18-bp intervening sequence and its primary sequence is very different from that of SU4. PMID:3937728

  11. Pulmonary Necrotizing Granulomas in a patient with familial mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Kushima, Hisako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishii, Koji; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2015-09-01

    We herein report a case of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) presenting with granulomatous lung lesions with neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), MHC class II transcription activator (CIITA), incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina (HET-E), and telomerase-associated protein (TP1) (NACHT) leucine-rich-repeat 1-positive inflammatory cell infiltrates. FMF is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent and self-limited attacks of pyrexia, arthritis and erysipelas-like skin lesions. Lung disorders associated with FMF are extremely rare. This is the first report of an immunologically-confirmed case of pulmonary manifestations of this disease. PMID:24252001

  12. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease caused by a novel ascomycete, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov.: first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Ling, Ian W H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-01

    No members of the freshwater ascomycetes family Lindgomycetaceae have been associated with human infections. We isolated a mould (HKU35(T)) from the biopsy specimen of a patient with invasive foot infection and underlying immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease. Histology showed florid, suppurative, granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with central microabscess formation surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, scattered giant cells, and a small number of lymphocytes. A Grocott stain revealed fungal elements in the center of the lesion. On Sabouraud glucose agar, HKU35(T) grew as gray and velvety colonies. Among the members of the family Lindgomycetaceae, HKU35(T) was the only strain that grew at 37°C. Microscopically, only sterile mycelia, but no fruiting bodies, were observed. HKU35(T) was susceptible to itrazonazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which was in line with the patient's clinical response to itraconazole treatment. Internal transcribed spacer and partial 18S nuclear rDNA (nrDNA), 28S nrDNA, β-tubulin gene, and EF1α gene sequencing showed that HKU35(T) occupied a unique phylogenetic position, most closely related to but distinct from members of the genera Clohesyomyces and Lindgomyces. We propose a new genus and species, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov., to describe this fungus, which belongs to the family Lindgomycetaceae in the orderPleosporales of class Dothideomycetes. This case also represents the first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae. PMID:25147085

  13. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  14. Localization of HET-S to the Cell Periphery, Not to [Het-s] Aggregates, Is Associated with [Het-s]–HET-S Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vidhu; Seuring, Carolin; Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are associated with accumulation of the amyloid form of the prion protein, but the mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. Amyloid toxicity is also associated with fungal prions. In Podospora anserina, the simultaneous presence of [Het-s] prion and its allelic protein HET-S causes cell death in a self-/nonself-discrimination process. Here, using the prion form of a fragment of HET-s ([PrD157+]), we show that [Het-s]–HET-S toxicity can be faithfully recapitulated in yeast. Overexpression of Hsp40 chaperone, Sis1, rescues this toxicity by curing cells of [PrD157+]. We find no evidence for toxic [PrD157+] conformers in the presence of HET-S. Instead, [PrD157+] appears to seed HET-S to accumulate at the cell periphery and to form aggregates distinct from visible [PrD157+] aggregates. Furthermore, HET-S mutants that cause HET-S to be sequestered into [PrD157+] prion aggregates are not toxic. The localization of HET-S at the cell periphery and its association with cell death was also observed in the native host Podospora anserina. Thus, upon interaction with [Het-s], HET-S localizes to the cell periphery, and this relocalization, rather than the formation of mixed HET-s/HET-S aggregates, is associated with toxicity. PMID:22037764

  15. Podospora mutant defective in glucose-dependent growth control.

    PubMed Central

    Durrens, P

    1983-01-01

    A mutation (modE), previously described as a membrane mutation, results in several modifications of the female developmental cycle: a high density of protoperithecia, the unscheduled development of protoperithecia into sterile perithecia on the homokaryons of each mating type, and the independence of ascospore outgrowth from the substances normally required for germination. Cultured in liquid medium, the modE strain showed two additional specific features: a higher growth yield than that of wild-type cultures (plus 10% of dry weight) and an extreme reduction of cell life span. Both mutant traits were specific to glucose limitation. Despite the large difference existing in the sensitivity of cells to glucose starvation, the glycogen and trehalose reserves of mutant and wild-type cells were nearly identical. Considered together, these results suggest that the primary effect of the mutation lies in the disruption of a glucose-dependent regulation controlling the transition of the metabolic pattern of cells from growth to quiescence. PMID:6841314

  16. Chemical constituents of the ascomycete Daldinia concentrica.

    PubMed

    Quang, Dang Ngoc; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Masami; Baumgartner, Manuela; Stadler, Marc; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2002-12-01

    Four compounds, daldinone A (1), daldinone B (2), daldiniapyrone (4-methoxy-5-carbomethoxy-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, 3), and daldinialanone (22R-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one, 4), were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of fruit bodies of Daldinia concentrica collected in Europe. In addition, 11 known compounds, 4:5:4':5'-tetrahydroxy-1:1'-binaphthyl (5), 3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-tetralone (6), (+)-orthosporin (7), curuilignan D (8), (22E)-cholesta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (9), 3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-triene (10), concentricol (11), concentricol B (12), concentricol C (13), concentricol D (14), and phenochalasin B (15), were obtained. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were determined by CD spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method, respectively. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the compounds obtained in this investigation is discussed. PMID:12502330

  17. Screen for soil fungi highly resistant to dichloroaniline uncovers mostly Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh-Chi; Bouillon, Julien; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Silar, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Arylamines are frequent pollutants in soils. Fungi have proven to be efficient in detoxifying these chemicals by acetylating them using arylamine N-acetyl transferase enzymes. Here, we selected from natural soils fungi highly resistant to 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Fusarium species were the most frequently isolated species, especially Fusarium solani. The sequenced strain of F. solani contains five NAT genes, as did all the DCA-resistant isolates. RT-PCR analysis showed that the five genes were expressed in F. solani. Expression of the F. solani genes in Podospora anserina and analysis of acetylation directly in F. solani showed that only the NhNAT2B gene conferred significant resistance to DCA and that F. solani likely uses pathways different from acetylation to resist high doses of DCA, as observed previously for Trichoderma.

  18. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals. PMID:26713322

  19. Yeast prions: evolution of the prion concept.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Edskes, Herman K; Shewmaker, Frank; Nakayashiki, Toru; Engel, Abbi; McCann, Linsay; Kryndushkin, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Prions (infectious proteins) analogous to the scrapie agent have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Podospora anserina based on their special genetic characteristics. Each is a protein acting as a gene, much like nucleic acids have been shown to act as enzymes. The [URE3], [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)] and [Het-s] prions are self-propagating amyloids of Ure2p, Sup35p, Rnq1p and the HET-s protein, respectively. The [beta] and [C] prions are enzymes whose precursor activation requires their own active form. [URE3] and [PSI(+)] are clearly diseases, while [Het-s] and [beta] carry out normal cell functions. Surprisingly, the prion domains of Ure2p and Sup35p can be randomized without loss of ability to become a prion. Thus amino acid content and not sequence determine these prions. Shuffleability also suggests amyloids with a parallel in-register beta-sheet structure.

  20. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals.

  1. Coprophilous fungi: antibiotic discovery and functions in an underexplored arena of microbial defensive mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B; An, Zhiqiang

    2013-10-01

    Microbial antibiotics can mediate mutualisms and interorganism communications. Herbivorous animal dung offers opportunities for discovery of new antibiotics from microbial communities that compete for a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource. Distinct lineages form a specialized community of coprophilous (dung-colonizing) fungi. Bacteria, protists, invertebrates, the mammalian digestive system, and other fungi can pose challenges to their fitness in the dung environment. The well-characterized diversity of dung fungi offers accessible systems for dissecting the function of antibiotics and for exploring fungal genomes for new antibiotics. Their potential for antibiotic discovery is evidenced by a high frequency of antifungal antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites from limited prior efforts and from mapping biosynthetic pathways in the genomes of the coprophilous fungi Podospora anserina and Sordaria macrospora.

  2. Reverse transcriptase activity of an intron encoded polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Fassbender, S; Brühl, K H; Ciriacy, M; Kück, U

    1994-01-01

    A number of group II introns from eukaryotic organelles and prokaryotes contain open reading frames for polypeptides with homology to retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs). We have used the yeast transposon (Ty) system to express ORFs for RTs from eukaryotic organelles. This includes the mitochondrial coxI intron i1 from the fungus Podospora anserina, the plastid petD intron from the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the mitochondrial RTL gene from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The ORFs were fused with the TYA ORF from the yeast retrotransposon Ty to produce virus-like particles in the recipient strains with detectable amounts of the RT-like polypeptides. Analysis of the heterologous gene products revealed biochemical evidence that the P. anserina intron encodes an RNA-directed DNA polymerase with properties typically found for RTs of viral or retrotransposable origin. In vitro assays showed that the intron encoded RT is sensitive to RT inhibitors such as N-ethylmaleimide and dideoxythymidine triphosphate but is insensitive against the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin. The direct biochemical evidence provided here supports the idea that intron encoded RTs are involved in intron transposition events. Images PMID:7514530

  3. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species. PMID:26846452

  4. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-02-05

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species.

  5. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  6. Ogataea allantospora sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from phylloplane.

    PubMed

    Péter, Gábor; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2007-11-01

    Following a two-step enrichment in methanol containing broth, methylotrophic yeast strains were isolated from about 45% of the leaf samples collected from broad leafed deciduous trees and from herbs in Hungary. During the enrichment process protists predating the yeasts were observed. Based on standard phenotypical tests and the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit (26S) rDNA of the yeast strains recovered from the phylloplane, some of them represent previously unknown species. The description of a new methylotrophic yeast species, Ogataea allantospora [type strain: NCAIM Y.01822(T) (CBS 10576, NRRL Y-48267)], isolated from phylloplane is given. The proposed new species is the first member of the genus which forms allantoid ascospores, therefore the emendation of the diagnosis of the genus Ogataea Yamada, Maeda & Mikata is proposed.

  7. Vegetative incompatibility in the het-6 region of Neurospora crassa is mediated by two linked genes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M L; Micali, O C; Hubbard, S P; Mir-Rashed, N; Jacobson, D J; Glass, N L

    2000-01-01

    Non-self-recognition during asexual growth of Neurospora crassa involves restriction of heterokaryon formation via genetic differences at 11 het loci, including mating type. The het-6 locus maps to a 250-kbp region of LGIIL. We used restriction fragment length polymorphisms in progeny with crossovers in the het-6 region and a DNA transformation assay to identify two genes in a 25-kbp region that have vegetative incompatibility activity. The predicted product of one of these genes, which we designate het-6(OR), has three regions of amino acid sequence similarity to the predicted product of the het-e vegetative incompatibility gene in Podospora anserina and to the predicted product of tol, which mediates mating-type vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. The predicted product of the alternative het-6 allele, HET-6(PA), shares only 68% amino acid identity with HET-6(OR). The second incompatibility gene, un-24(OR), encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, which is essential for de novo synthesis of DNA. A region in the carboxyl-terminal portion of UN-24 is associated with incompatibility and is variable between un-24(OR) and the alternative allele un-24(PA). Linkage analysis indicates that the 25-kbp un-24-het-6 region is inherited as a block, suggesting that a nonallelic interaction may occur between un-24 and het-6 and possibly other loci within this region to mediate vegetative incompatibility in the het-6 region of N. crassa. PMID:10880472

  8. RCF1-dependent respiratory supercomplexes are integral for lifespan-maintenance in a fungal ageing model

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Filippis, Christodoulos; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes (mtRSCs) are stoichiometric assemblies of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. They are hypothesized to regulate electron flow, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to stabilize ETC complexes. Using the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina, we investigated the impact of homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiratory supercomplex factors 1 and 2 (termed PaRCF1 and PaRCF2) on mtRSC formation, fitness and lifespan. Whereas PaRCF2’s role seems negligible, ablation of PaRCF1 alters size of monomeric complex IV, reduces the abundance of complex IV-containing supercomplexes, negatively affects vital functions and shortens lifespan. PaRcf1 overexpression slightly prolongs lifespan, though without appreciably influencing ETC organization. Overall, our results identify PaRCF1 as necessary yet not sufficient for mtRSC formation and demonstrate that PaRCF1-dependent stability of complex IV and associated supercomplexes is highly relevant for maintenance of the healthy lifespan in a eukaryotic model organism. PMID:26220011

  9. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  10. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil. PMID:23728813

  11. The Pichia pastoris PER6 gene product is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis and has sequence similarity to the Zellweger syndrome protein PAF-1.

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, H R; de Vries, Y; Russel, K A; Xie, W; Veenhuis, M; Cregg, J M

    1996-01-01

    We report the cloning of PER6, a gene essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The PER6 sequence predicts that its product Per6p is a 52-kDa polypeptide with the cysteine-rich C3HC4 motif. Per6p has significant overall sequence similarity with the human peroxisome assembly factor PAF-1, a protein that is defective in certain patients suffering from the peroxisomal disorder Zellweger syndrome, and with car1, a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis and caryogamy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. In addition, the C3HC4 motif and two of the three membrane-spanning segments predicted for Per6p align with the C3HC4 motifs and the two membrane-spanning segments predicted for PAF-1 and car1. Like PAF-1, Per6p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein. In methanol- or oleic acid-induced cells of per6 mutants, morphologically recognizable peroxisomes are absent. Instead, peroxisomal remnants are observed. In addition, peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized but located in the cytosol. The similarities between Per6p and PAF-1 in amino acid sequence and biochemical properties, and between mutants defective in their respective genes, suggest that Per6p is the putative yeast homolog of PAF-1. PMID:8628321

  12. The HET-S/s Prion Motif in the Control of Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J

    2016-01-01

    The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina is a well-studied model system to elucidate the action of prions and beyond. The [Het-s] prion works as an activation trigger of a cell death execution protein termed HET-S. Amyloid transconformation of the prion-forming region of HET-S induces activation of its pore-forming cell death execution HeLo domain. The prion motif functions in a signal transduction process by which a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor termed NWD2 controls the HET-S cell death effector. This prion motif thus corresponds to a functional amyloid motif, allowing a conformational crosstalk between homologous motif domains in signal transduction processes that appears to be widespread from the fungal to the mammalian animal kingdoms. This review aims to establish a structure-activity relationship of the HET-S/s prion system and sets it in the context of its wider biological significance. PMID:27352624

  13. Yeast and Fungal Prions: Amyloid-Handling Systems, Amyloid Structure, and Prion Biology.

    PubMed

    Wickner, R B; Edskes, H K; Gorkovskiy, A; Bezsonov, E E; Stroobant, E E

    2016-01-01

    Yeast prions (infectious proteins) were discovered by their outré genetic properties and have become important models for an array of human prion and amyloid diseases. A single prion protein can become any of many distinct amyloid forms (called prion variants or strains), each of which is self-propagating, but with different biological properties (eg, lethal vs mild). The folded in-register parallel β sheet architecture of the yeast prion amyloids naturally suggests a mechanism by which prion variant information can be faithfully transmitted for many generations. The yeast prions rely on cellular chaperones for their propagation, but can be cured by various chaperone imbalances. The Btn2/Cur1 system normally cures most variants of the [URE3] prion that arise. Although most variants of the [PSI+] and [URE3] prions are toxic or lethal, some are mild in their effects. Even the most mild forms of these prions are rare in the wild, indicating that they too are detrimental to yeast. The beneficial [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina poses an important contrast in its structure, biology, and evolution to the yeast prions characterized thus far.

  14. Peroxisomes and sexual development in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are essential for the development of most eukaryotic organisms. In fungi, many developmental processes, such as sexual development, require the activity of peroxisomes. Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the formation of meiotic-derived sexual spores, often takes place inside multicellular fruiting bodies and requires precise coordination between the differentiation of multiple cell types and the progression of karyogamy and meiosis. Different peroxisomal functions contribute to the orchestration of this complex developmental process. Peroxisomes are required to sustain the formation of fruiting bodies and the maturation and germination of sexual spores. They facilitate the mobilization of reserve compounds via fatty acid β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, allowing the generation of energy and biosynthetic precursors. Additionally, peroxisomes are implicated in the progression of meiotic development. During meiotic development in Podospora anserina, there is a precise modulation of peroxisome assembly and dynamics. This modulation includes changes in peroxisome size, number and localization, and involves a differential activity of the protein-machinery that drives the import of proteins into peroxisomes. Furthermore, karyogamy, entry into meiosis and sorting of meiotic-derived nuclei into sexual spores all require the activity of peroxisomes. These processes rely on different peroxisomal functions and likely depend on different pathways for peroxisome assembly. Indeed, emerging studies support the existence of distinct import channels for peroxisomal proteins that contribute to different developmental stages. PMID:24046747

  15. Identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP protease interactors and substrates suggests its central role in energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Langer, Julian D.; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondria is achieved by several mechanisms, including the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis. The matrix protease CLPXP, involved in protein quality control, has been implicated in ageing and disease. However, particularly due to the lack of knowledge of CLPXP’s substrate spectrum, only little is known about the pathways and mechanisms controlled by this protease. Here we report the first comprehensive identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP in vivo interaction partners and substrates using a combination of tandem affinity purification and differential proteomics. This analysis reveals that CLPXP in the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina is mainly associated with metabolic pathways in mitochondria, e.g. components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as subunits of electron transport chain complex I. These data suggest a possible function of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control and/or maintenance of energy metabolism. Since bioenergetic alterations are a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing, our data comprise an important resource for specific studies addressing the role of CLPXP in these adverse processes. PMID:26679294

  16. A group-I intron in the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Carbone, I; Anderson, J B; Kohn, L M

    1995-01-01

    A 1,380-bp intervening sequence within the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (mt SSU rRNA) gene of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been sequenced and identified as a group-I intron. This is the first report of an intron in the mt SSU rRNA gene. The intron shows close similarity in secondary structure to the subgroup-IC2 introns from Podospora (ND3i1, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The intron has an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 420 amino acids which contains two copies of the LAGLI-DADG motif. The ORF belongs to a family of ORFs identified in Podospora (ND3i1, ND4Li1, ND4Li2, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The putative 420-aa polypeptide is also similar to a site-specific endonuclease in the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos. In each clone of S. sclerotiorum examined, including several clones which were sampled over a 3-year period from geographically separated sites, all isolates either had the intron or lacked the intron within the mt SSU rRNA gene. Screening by means of Southern hybridization and PCR amplification detected the intron in the mt SSU rRNA genes of S. minor, S. trifoliorum and Sclerotium cepivorum, but not in other members of the Sclerotiniaceae, such as Botrytis anamorphs of Botryotinia spp., or in other ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. PMID:7788720

  17. Differential roles of pyruvate decarboxylase in aerial and embedded mycelia of the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-04-01

    The pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate (PAA) pathway has diverse roles in eukaryotes. Our previous study on acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 1 (ACS1) in Gibberella zeae suggested that the PAA pathway is important for lipid production, which is required for perithecia maturation. In this study, we deleted all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes, which encode enzymes that function upstream of ACS1 in the PAA pathway. Results suggest PDC1 is required for lipid accumulation in the aerial mycelia, and deletion of PDC1 resulted in highly wettable mycelia. However, the total amount of lipids in the PDC1 deletion mutants was similar to that of the wild-type strain, likely due to compensatory lipid production processes in the embedded mycelia. PDC1 was expressed both in the aerial and embedded mycelia, whereas ACS1 was observed only in the aerial mycelia in a PDC1-dependent manner. PDC1 is also involved in vegetative growth of embedded mycelia in G. zeae, possibly through initiating the ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, PDC1 may function as a key metabolic enzyme crucial for lipid production in the aerial mycelia, but play a different role in the embedded mycelia, where it might be involved in energy generation by ethanol fermentation.

  18. Notes on Lichen Genus Buellia De Not. (lichenized Ascomycetes) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Lökös, László; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and assessment of the important features of lichen genus Buellia (spore shape and size, anatomy of the exciple as well as analysis of the lichen substances), the present paper describes four new records of B. maritima, B. polyspora, B. spuria and B. stellulata from South Korea. Among them, B. maritima and B. polyspora are firstly reported in East Asia including in China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Brief description of all the new records along with earlier described species placed under genus Amandinea and Hafellia are provided with their distribution and chemistry. A key to all the Buellia species reported so far from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23956628

  19. Insect peptide metchnikowin confers on barley a selective capacity for resistance to fungal ascomycetes pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Langen, Gregor; Imani, Jafargholi; Khalifa, Walaa; Altincicek, Boran; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The potential of metchnikowin, a 26-amino acid residue proline-rich antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster was explored to engineer disease resistance in barley against devastating fungal plant pathogens. The synthetic peptide caused strong in vitro growth inhibition (IC50 value ∼1 μM) of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Transgenic barley expressing the metchnikowin gene in its 52-amino acid pre-pro-peptide form under the control of the inducible mannopine synthase (mas) gene promoter from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens displayed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew as well as Fusarium head blight and root rot. In response to these pathogens, metchnikowin accumulated in plant apoplastic space, specifying that the insect signal peptide is functional in monocotyledons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that the peptide is markedly effective against fungal pathogens of the phylum Ascomycota but, clearly, less active against Basidiomycota fungi. Importantly, germination of the mutualistic basidiomycete mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica was affected only at concentrations beyond 50 μM. These results suggest that antifungal peptides from insects are a valuable source for crop plant improvements and their differential activities toward different phyla of fungi denote a capacity for insect peptides to be used as selective measures on specific plant diseases. PMID:19734262

  20. Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A Potential Bioresource for Commercialization in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Bharat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in Tibetan traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. The species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in East Asia. Its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. Nonetheless, in Sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it is traded illegally. Formal legalization and the community's involvement will ensure the conservation and sustainability of the species, as well as proper management of harvesting areas and monitoring of pressure on Yartsa Gunbu to exploit it. PMID:27481300

  1. Identification and characterization of polymorphic minisatellites in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Maria; Gout, Lilian; Rouxel, Thierry; Blaise, Françoise; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Fitt, Bruce; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans causes phoma stem canker, the most serious disease of oilseed rape world-wide. Sexual recombination is important in the pathogen life cycle and increases the risk of plant resistance genes being overcome rapidly. Thus, there is a need to develop easy-to-use molecular markers suitable for large-scale population genetic studies. The minisatellite MinLm1, showing six alleles in natural populations, has previously been used as a marker to survey populations. Here, we report the characterization of five new minisatellites (MinLm2-MinLm6), of which four were identified by a systematic search for tandemly repeated polymorphic regions in BAC-end sequencing data from L. maculans. Of 782 BAC-end sequences analysed, 43 possessed putative minisatellite-type repeats and four of these (MinLm3-MinLm6) displayed both consistent PCR amplification and size polymorphism in a collection of L. maculans isolates of diverse origins. Cloning and sequencing of each allele confirmed that polymorphism was due to variation in the repeat number of a core motif ranging from 11 bp (MinLm3) to 51 bp (MinLm4). The number of alleles found for each minisatellite ranged from three (MinLm4) to nine (MinLm2), with eight, five and six for MinLm3, MinLm5 and MinLm6, respectively. MinLm2-MinLm6 are all single locus markers specific to L. maculans and share some common features, such as conservation of core motifs and incomplete direct repeats in the flanking regions. To our knowledge, L. maculans is the first fungal species for which six polymorphic single locus minisatellite markers have been reported.

  2. A Putative Transcription Factor MYT1 Is Required for Female Fertility in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae. PMID:21984921

  3. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau.

  4. Three types of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from the medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde

    2014-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. In the present study, three types of ggpps genes were cloned and analyzed from the Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued carotenoid-producing species. The sequences were named as ggpps727, ggpps191, and ggpps595. The open reading frame codes for predicted polypeptides of 464, 550, and 431 aa. Three predicted GGPPSs had a high similarity to that from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 with identity of 73%, 71%, and 56%, respectively. Homology comparison of the deduced peptide sequences of the various GGPPSs revealed highly conserved domains. Both GGPPS727 and GGPPS191 from C. militaris contained all five domains highly conserved among prenyltransferases as well as two aspartate-rich DDXX(XX)D motifs in domains II and V, which have been proven essential for prenyltransferase activity. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of fungal GGPPSs, it was found that fungi-derived GGPPSs could be divided into three clusters, suggesting there were three types of GGPPSs in fungi. Each type may be responsible for a different metabolism. Three types of GGPPSs from C. militaris belonged to the different clusters separately. Expression analysis of three ggpps genes during the fruit body cultivation of C. militaris by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggested the ggpps 191 gene may be involved in the synthesis of carotenoids and ggpps 727 may be responsible for primary metabolism. This is the first report of the GGPPS from C. militaris, a valued edible and medicinal fungus. PMID:24941033

  5. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

  6. The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

    2013-01-01

    Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

  7. Balticolid: a new 12-membered macrolide with antiviral activity from an ascomycetous fungus of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Shushni, Muftah A M; Singh, Rajinder; Mentel, Renate; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    A new 12-membered macrolide, balticolid (1) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the culture broth of fungal strain 222 belonging to the Ascomycota, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany. The structure of balticolid was determined to be (3R,11R), (4E,8E)-3-hydroxy-11-methyloxacyclododeca-4,8-diene-1,7-dione using extensive spectral data as well as the modified Mosher ester method. Balticolid (1) displayed anti-HSV-1 activity with an IC₅₀ value of 0.45 μM.

  8. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-12-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

  9. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  10. Evaluation of Mycelial Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidants of Five Himalayan Entomopathogenic Ascomyceteous Fungi from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Gautam, Nandini; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, using standard methods, mycelial nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidants were analyzed for the first time for five fungal species: Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, I. tenuipes Peck, I. japonica Yasuda, I. farinosa (Holmsk) Fr. and Cordyceps tuberculata (Lebert) Maire. All of these species were low in fat content and rich in protein, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates. Mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ca) were detected in appreciable amounts. All three types of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) as well as bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides) were detected for each species. The investigated species showed high ferric-reducing antioxidant power as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Although differences were observed in the values of each species, each species showed richness in one or more components. PMID:26559700

  11. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  12. Remispora spitsbergenensis sp. nov., a marine lignicolous ascomycete from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Chiang, Michael W L; Vrijmoed, Lilian L P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Remispora was established for R. maritima, a fungus with globose/subglobose, lightly colored and coriaceous ascomata; deliquescing asci; ellipsoidal ascospores; and bipolar, pleomorphic ascospore appendages. Seven species currently are included in Remispora: R crispa, R. galerita, R maritima, R. minuta, R. pilleata, R. quadriremis and R stellata. Variations on ascospore appendages can be observed in Remispora. In general the appendage is exosporic in nature and comprises an amorphous, electron-transparent matrix, and a fibrous, electron-dense component. An eighth Remispora species, R. spitsbergenensis sp. nov., is described here, discovered from washed-up wood collected at the shore of Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis appear as fibrous strands and amorphic material under the scanning electron microscope, which are characteristic of a Remispora species. Remispora spitsbergenensis resembles R. quadriremis and R. stellata because all possess four or more ascospore appendages at one end. Remispora spitsbergenensis possesses consistently four polar appendages at each end in contrast to six in R. stellata. Also ascospore appendages of R. spitsbergenensis are ribbon-like, compared with the obclavate, curved and attenuate appendages in R. quadriremis and R. stellata. A key for the identification of the eight Remispora species is provided.

  13. Isolation and characterization of MAT genes in the symbiotic ascomycete Tuber melanosporum.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Tisserant, Emilie; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    • The genome of Tuber melanosporum has recently been sequenced. Here, we used this information to identify genes involved in the reproductive processes of this edible fungus. The sequenced strain (Mel28) possesses only one of the two master genes required for mating, that is, the gene that codes for the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor (MAT1-2-1), whereas it lacks the gene that codes for the protein containing the α-box- domain (MAT1-1-1), suggesting that this fungus is heterothallic. • A PCR-based approach was initially employed to screen truffles for the presence of the MAT1-2-1 gene and amplify the conserved regions flanking the mating type (MAT) locus. The MAT1-1-1 gene was finally identified using primers designed from the conserved regions of strains that lack the MAT1-2-1 gene. • Mating type-specific primer pairs were developed to screen asci and gleba from truffles of different origins and to genotype single ascospores within the asci. These analyses provided definitive evidence that T. melanosporum is a heterothallic species with a MAT locus that is organized similarly to those of ancient fungal lineages. • A greater understanding of the reproductive mechanisms that exist in Tuber spp. allows for optimization of truffle plantation management strategies.

  14. Two new pathogenic ascomycetes in Guignardia and Rosenscheldiella on New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella: Viscaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Park, D.; Robertson, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Two new pathogens, Guignardia korthalsellae and Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae, are described from New Zealand's pygmy mistletoes (Korthalsella, Viscaceae). Both form ascomata on living phylloclades with minimal disruption of the tissue. Fungal hyphae within the phylloclade are primarily intercellular. Guignardia korthalsellae disrupts a limited number of epidermal cells immediately around the erumpent ascoma, while the ascomata of Rosenscheldiella korthalsellae develop externally on small patches of stromatic tissue that form above stomatal cavities. Rosenscheldiella is applied in a purely morphological sense. LSU sequences show that R. korthalsellae as well as another New Zealand species, Rosenscheldiella brachyglottidis, are members of the Mycosphaerellaceae sensu stricto. Genetically, Rosenscheldiella, in the sense we are using it, is polyphyletic; LSU and ITS sequences place the two New Zealand species in different clades within the Mycosphaerellaceae. Rosenscheldiella is retained for these fungi until generic relationships within the family are resolved. Whether or not the type species of Rosenscheldiella, R. styracis, is also a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae is not known, but it has a similar morphology and relationship to its host as the two New Zealand species. PMID:21523197

  15. Evaluation of automated cell disruptor methods for oomycetous and ascomycetous model organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two automated cell disruptor-based methods for RNA extraction; disruption of thawed cells submerged in TRIzol Reagent (method QP), and direct disruption of frozen cells on dry ice (method CP), were optimized for a model oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, and compared with grinding in a mortar and pestl...

  16. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Kondratyuk, Sergii Y; Lőkös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A; Kondratiuk, Anna S; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-09-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed.

  17. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea.

  18. An ascomycetous endophyte isolated from Mentha piperita L.: biological features and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Scannerini, Silvano; Bertea, Cinzia M; Maffei, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    A hyaline sterile fungus forming epiphyllous mycelial nets was isolated from meristem cultures of Mentha piperita. Histological studies indicated that the culture isolate is able to colonize stems and leaves with no damage to the host plant. In vitro-grown peppermint plants displayed enhanced vegetative growth when infected by the fungus, with mycelium extending from green tissues to growing rootlets. The production of very thin hyphae growing away from host meristems and the asymptomatic nature of the symbiosis were commonly observed in cultures, where the isolate never sporulated. No attribution to a precise morphospecies was therefore possible and the fungal culture was named sterile mycelium PGP-HSF. Through comparison of the 18 S rDNA sequence of the epibiont to those available in literature and in GenBank we were able to determine that the mutualist of peppermint is a member of the Pyrenomycetes, belonging to the subclass Sordariomycetidae. PMID:21156475

  19. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  20. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Dou, Zhipeng; Zhou, Yupei; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis) is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea) and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons. PMID:27579008

  1. AbaA Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously described in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we firstly identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. Results from RNA-sequencing analysis suggest that AbaA plays a pivotal role in conidiation by regulating cell cycle pathways and other conidiation-related genes. Thus, the conserved roles of the AbaA ortholog in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum give new insight into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24039821

  2. WetA Is Required for Conidiogenesis and Conidium Maturation in the Ascomycete Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Min, Kyunghun; Lim, Jae Yun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Chae, Suhn-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we functionally characterized the F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidial dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that most of the putative conidiation-related genes are expressed constitutively and that only a few genes are specifically involved in F. graminearum conidiogenesis. The conserved and distinct roles identified for WetA in F. graminearum provide new insights into the genetics of conidiation in filamentous fungi. PMID:24186953

  3. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-03-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  4. New Species and New Records of Buellia (Lichenized Ascomycetes) from Jeju Province, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Liu, Dong; Lőkös, László; Kondratyuk, Sergey Y.; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2016-01-01

    A new species and 2 new records of lichen genus Buellia were discovered from Chuja-do Island in Jeju Province during a recent floristic survey: B. chujana X. Y. Wang, S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur sp. nov., B. halonia (Ach.) Tuck., and B. mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber. The new species is characterized by a brown, areolate thallus, the presence of perlatolic acid, and a saxicolous habitat. Together with previously recorded species, 10 Buellia species were confirmed from Jeju-do Island. Among these species, 3 growing in the exposed rocky area contained xanthone (yellowish lichen thallus, UV + orange), indicating that production of xanthone in this genus might be a defense strategy against the harm of UV light. Although the genus Buellia has been thoroughly studied in Korea before, novel species have been discovered continuously, and large species diversity has been found in this crustose genus, even from a small rocky island. This study indicates that the coastal area harbors a vast number of crustose lichen species, and there is great potential to discover unknown lichens in the coastal rocky area in Korea. PMID:27103850

  5. Mating systems in representatives of Parmeliaceae, Ramalinaceae and Physciaceae (Lecanoromycetes, lichen-forming ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Zippler, Undine

    2007-04-01

    The progeny of meiosis of eight Parmeliaceae, two Ramalinaceae and seven Physciaceae were subjected to fingerprint analysis using RAPD-PCR applied to single spore isolates. The sample set included common and widespread rarely fertile species (Parmelia sulcata, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Physcia tenella), local to common, infrequently fertile species (Melanelixia glabra, Parmelina tiliacea, Xanthoparmelia conspersa, X. stenophylla, Anaptychia runcinata, Diploicia canescen, Physconia distorta), local to rare, infrequently or regularly fertile species with declining distributions (Parmelina carporrhizans, P. quercina, Ramalina fastigiata, R. fraxinea, Anaptychia ciliaris), and local to common, regularly fertile species (Physcia aipolia, P. stellaris). All species turned out to be heterothallic, polymorphisms among RAPD markers ranging from 10-87%. The significance of these findings for population genetics and conservation biology, and potential reasons for infrequent ascoma formation in some of the species are discussed.

  6. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Lőkös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A.; Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-01-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed. PMID:26539034

  7. Keratitis due to the wood saprobic ascomycete, Auerswaldia lignicola (Family Botryosphaeriaceae), in a carpenter in India.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Kaliamurthy, Jayaraman; Dineshkumar, Muniyandi; Jesudasan, Christadoss Arul Nelson; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Thomas, Philip Aloysius

    2013-12-01

    Keratitis due to Auerswaldia lignicola in a 32-year-old Indian male carpenter is described. At presentation, the patient reported persistent pain and tearing (left eye) in spite of topical antimicrobial therapy for more than 3 weeks. Clinically, mycotic keratitis was suspected, and direct microscopy of corneal scrapings stained by lactophenol cotton blue and Gram stains revealed broad septate hyphae. Intensive topical antifungal therapy was then given for 15 days. The keratitis continued to progress, necessitating therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Following the keratoplasty, there was rapid reduction in inflammation and gradual quietening of the eye. Brown-black fungal colonies resembling Lasiodiplodia theobromae were isolated from corneal scrape and corneal button (post-surgery) material on Sabouraud glucose-neopeptone agar; however, sporulation did not occur, so the morphological identification could not be confirmed. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA region of extracted fungal genomic DNA yielded an identification of A. lignicola Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde; the sequence data have been deposited in GenBank (A. lignicola strain DK/V4, accession number KC866317.1). Medical management of keratitis due to such rarely reported fungal species may be difficult, necessitating surgical procedures. PMID:24158617

  8. Contribution of Specific Residues of the β-Solenoid Fold to HET-s Prion Function, Amyloid Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thierry; Chi, Celestine N.; Wasmer, Christian; Schütz, Anne; Ceschin, Johanna; Clavé, Corinne; Cescau, Sandra; Meier, Beat; Riek, Roland; Saupe, Sven J.

    2014-01-01

    The [Het-s] prion of the fungus Podospora anserina represents a good model system for studying the structure-function relationship in amyloid proteins because a high resolution solid-state NMR structure of the amyloid prion form of the HET-s prion forming domain (PFD) is available. The HET-s PFD adopts a specific β-solenoid fold with two rungs of β-strands delimiting a triangular hydrophobic core. A C-terminal loop folds back onto the rigid core region and forms a more dynamic semi-hydrophobic pocket extending the hydrophobic core. Herein, an alanine scanning mutagenesis of the HET-s PFD was conducted. Different structural elements identified in the prion fold such as the triangular hydrophobic core, the salt bridges, the asparagines ladders and the C-terminal loop were altered and the effect of these mutations on prion function, fibril structure and stability was assayed. Prion activity and structure were found to be very robust; only a few key mutations were able to corrupt structure and function. While some mutations strongly destabilize the fold, many substitutions in fact increase stability of the fold. This increase in structural stability did not influence prion formation propensity in vivo. However, if an Ala replacement did alter the structure of the core or did influence the shape of the denaturation curve, the corresponding variant showed a decreased prion efficacy. It is also the finding that in addition to the structural elements of the rigid core region, the aromatic residues in the C-terminal semi-hydrophobic pocket are critical for prion propagation. Mutations in the latter region either positively or negatively affected prion formation. We thus identify a region that modulates prion formation although it is not part of the rigid cross-β core, an observation that might be relevant to other amyloid models. PMID:24945274

  9. The Homologue of het-c of Neurospora crassa Lacks Vegetative Compatibility Function in Fusarium proliferatum†

    PubMed Central

    Kerényi, Zoltán; Oláh, Brigitta; Jeney, Apor; Hornok, László; Leslie, John F.

    2006-01-01

    For two fungal strains to be vegetatively compatible and capable of forming a stable vegetative heterokaryon they must carry matching alleles at a series of loci variously termed het or vic genes. Cloned het/vic genes from Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina have no obvious functional similarity and have various cellular functions. Our objective was to identify the homologue of the Neurospora het-c gene in Fusarium proliferatum and to determine if this gene has a vegetative compatibility function in this economically important and widely dispersed fungal pathogen. In F. proliferatum and five other closely related Fusarium species we found a few differences in the DNA sequence, but the changes were silent and did not alter the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein. Deleting the gene altered sexual fertility as the female parent, but it did not alter male fertility or existing vegetative compatibility interactions. Replacement of the allele-specific portion of the coding sequence with the sequence of an alternate allele in N. crassa did not result in a vegetative incompatibility response in transformed strains of F. proliferatum. Thus, the fphch gene in Fusarium appears unlikely to have the vegetative compatibility function associated with its homologue in N. crassa. These results suggest that the vegetative compatibility phenotype may result from convergent evolution. Thus, the genes involved in this process may need to be identified at the species level or at the level of a group of species and could prove to be attractive targets for the development of antifungal agents. PMID:17021201

  10. Mass analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction validate predictions of stacked beta-solenoid model of HET-s prion fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anindito; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N; Wall, Joseph S; Sabate, Raimon; Saupe, Sven J; Steven, Alasdair C

    2007-02-23

    Fungal prions are infectious filamentous polymers of proteins that are soluble in uninfected cells. In its prion form, the HET-s protein of Podospora anserina participates in a fungal self/non-self recognition phenomenon called heterokaryon incompatibility. Like other prion proteins, HET-s has a so-called "prion domain" (its C-terminal region, HET-s-(218-289)) that is responsible for induction and propagation of the prion in vivo and for fibril formation in vitro. Prion fibrils are thought to have amyloid backbones of polymerized prion domains. A relatively detailed model has been proposed for prion domain fibrils of HET-s based on a variety of experimental constraints (Ritter, C., Maddelein, M. L., Siemer, A. B., Luhrs, T., Ernst, M., Meier, B. H., Saupe, S. J., and Riek, R. (2005) Nature 435, 844-848). To test specific predictions of this model, which envisages axial stacking of beta-solenoids with two coils per subunit, we examined fibrils by electron microscopy. Electron diffraction gave a prominent meridional reflection at (0.47 nm)(-1), indicative of cross-beta structure, as predicted. STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) mass-per-unit-length measurements yielded 1.02 +/- 0.16 subunits per 0.94 nm, in agreement with the model prediction (1 subunit per 0.94 nm). This is half the packing density of approximately 1 subunit per 0.47 nm previously obtained for fibrils of the yeast prion proteins, Ure2p and Sup35p, whence it follows that the respective amyloid architectures are basically different.

  11. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s β-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the β-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the β-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the β-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the β-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the β-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the β-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  12. Analyzing the Birth and Propagation of Two Distinct Prions, [PSI+] and [Het-s]y, in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vidhu; Taneja, Vibha; Sun, Yidi

    2010-01-01

    Various proteins, like the infectious yeast prions and the noninfectious human Huntingtin protein (with expanded polyQ), depend on a Gln or Asn (QN)-rich region for amyloid formation. Other prions, e.g., mammalian PrP and the [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina, although still able to form infectious amyloid aggregates, do not have QN-rich regions. Furthermore, [Het-s] and yeast prions appear to differ dramatically in their amyloid conformation. Despite these differences, a fusion of the Het-s prion domain to GFP (Het-sPrD-GFP) can propagate in yeast as a prion called [Het-s]y. We analyzed the properties of two divergent prions in yeast: [Het-s]y and the native yeast prion [PSI+] (prion form of translational termination factor Sup35). Curiously, the induced appearance and transmission of [PSI+] and [Het-s]y aggregates is remarkably similar. Overexpression of tagged prion protein (Sup35-GFP or Het-sPrD-GFP) in nonprion cells gives rise to peripheral, and later internal, ring/mesh-like aggregates. The cells with these ring-like aggregates give rise to daughters with one (perivacuolar) or two (perivacuolar and juxtanuclear) dot-like aggregates per cell. These line, ring, mesh, and dot aggregates are not really the transmissible prion species and should only be regarded as phenotypic markers of the presence of the prions. Both [PSI+] and [Het-s]y first appear in daughters as numerous tiny dot-like aggregates, and both require the endocytic protein, Sla2, for ring formation, but not propagation. PMID:20219972

  13. Comparison of fungal carbohydrate esterases of family CE16 on artificial and natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Puchart, Vladimír; Agger, Jane W; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Várnai, Anikó; Westereng, Bjørge; Biely, Peter

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic conversion of acetylated hardwood glucuronoxylan to functional food oligomers, biochemicals or fermentable monomers requires besides glycoside hydrolases enzymes liberating acetic acid esterifying position 2 and/or 3 in xylopyranosyl (Xylp) residues. The 3-O-acetyl group at internal Xylp residues substituted by MeGlcA is the only acetyl group of hardwood acetylglucuronoxylan and its fragments not attacked by acetylxylan esterases of carbohydrate esterase (CE) families 1, 4, 5 and 6 and by hemicellulolytic acetyl esterases classified in CE family 16. Monoacetylated aldotetraouronic acid 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, generated from the polysaccharide by GH10 endoxylanases, appears to be one of the most resistant fragments. The presence of the two substituents on the non-reducing-end Xylp residue prevents liberation of MeGlcA by α-glucuronidase of family GH67 and blocks the action of acetylxylan esterases. The Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 was isolated from an enzymatic hydrolysate of birchwood acetylglucuronoxylan and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a mixture of two positional isomers, 3″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3 and 4″-Ac(3)MeGlcA(3)Xyl3, the latter being the result of acetyl group migration. The mixture was used as a substrate for three members of CE16 family of fungal origin. Trichoderma reesei CE16 esterase, inactive on polymeric substrate, deacetylated both isomers. Podospora anserina and Aspergillus niger esterases, active on acetylglucuronoxylan, deesterified effectively only the 4″-isomer. The results indicate catalytic diversity among CE16 enzymes, but also their common and unifying catalytic ability to exo-deacetylate positions 3 and 4 on non-reducing-end Xylp residues, which is an important step in plant hemicellulose saccharification. PMID:27439201

  14. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  15. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region. PMID:27649731

  16. Cytological Characterization of Anamorphic Fungus Lecanicillium pui and Its Relationship with Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Wu, Guangguo; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), one of the most valuable medicinal mushrooms, has great economic importance on the Tibetan Plateau. We isolated an anamorphic fungus Lecanicillium pui from natural O. sinensis specimens and found that the optimal temperature for its culture on potato dextrose agar media was 25°C. Cell ultrastructure in L. pui hyphae and spores was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and it was observed that some primary organelles showed the typical fungal features. Five chemical elements were determined in this fungus and niobium was discovered for the first time even with trace amounts. A species-specific method, nested polymerase chain reaction, was established to investigate the colonization of this fungus. Thus, the extensive distribution of L. pui on O. sinensis, in the shape of hyphae or mycelia, suggested that it may have subtle and chronic effects on the growth of the O. sinensis teleomorphic stage. These findings provide a potential reference, in the view of microbial ecology, for the study on the occurrence and mechanism of development of O. sinensis. PMID:27279447

  17. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  18. [Insecticidal and immunosuppressive effect of ascomycete Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, V Iu; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Dubovskiĭ, I M; Tiurin, M V; Kriukova, N A; Glupov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and insecticidal activity of cultures of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata has been established for the first time. It was found that the peroral effect of the fungal culture resulted in dose-dependent decrease in survival, delayed in development time and molting, decreases in the total hemocyt counts, increased activity of phenoloxidases in the hemolymph, and reduced activity of the enzyme in the cuticle, as well as increased sensitivity of larvae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana at the level of the synergistic effect. PMID:25731041

  19. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:26854106

  20. Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su-Lin L; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V; Frisvad, Jens C; Thrane, Ulf; Heipieper, Hermann J; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Grabherr, Manfred; Pettersson, Mats; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Schnürer, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22 Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrient-rich environment, X. bisporus appears to have relinquished abilities for combative interactions. Elements to sense/signal osmotic stress, e.g. HogA pathway, were present in X. bisporus. However, transcriptomes at optimal (∼ 0.89) versus low aw (0.68) revealed differential expression of only a few stress-related genes; among these, certain (not all) steps for glycerol synthesis were upregulated. Xeromyces bisporus increased glycerol production during hypo- and hyper-osmotic stress, and much of its wet weight comprised water and rinsable solutes; leaked solutes may form a protective slime. Xeromyces bisporus and other food-borne moulds increased membrane fatty acid saturation as water activity decreased. Such modifications did not appear to be transcriptionally regulated in X. bisporus; however, genes modulating sterols, phospholipids and the cell wall were differentially expressed. Xeromyces bisporus was previously proposed to be a 'chaophile', preferring solutes that disorder biomolecular structures. Both X. bisporus and the closely related xerophile, Xerochrysium xerophilum, with low membrane unsaturation indices, could represent a phylogenetic cluster of 'chaophiles'. PMID:25142400

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Stephen B; McCorison, Cassandra B; Cavaletto, Jessica R; Culley, David E; LaButti, Kurt; Baker, Scott E; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2016-08-01

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelia in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds is thought to improve air quality. Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known. To fill this gap, the circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare was sequenced and, at only 23 743 bp, is the smallest reported for a filamentous fungus. Genes were encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. Other than its small size, the only unusual feature of the Z. cellare mitochondrial genome was two copies of a 110-bp sequence that were duplicated, inverted and separated by approximately 1 kb. This inverted-repeat sequence confused the assembly program but appears to have no functional significance. The small size of the Z. cellare mitochondrial genome was due to slightly smaller genes, lack of introns and non-essential genes, reduced intergenic spacers and very few ORFs relative to other fungi rather than a loss of essential genes. Whether this reduction facilitates its unusual biology remains unknown.

  2. Antibacterial activity of wild Xylaria sp. strain R005 (Ascomycetes) against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Veluchamy; Arivudainambi, U; Thalavaipandian, Annamalai; Karunakaran, Chandran; Rajendran, Ayyappan

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for new and effective antibiotic agents due to the recent emergence of life-threatening, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of mushroom was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. The mushroom was identified as Xylaria sp. strain R005 based on the morphological characteristics and confirmed by 18S ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. The crude ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. showed significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains (1-10) and P. aeruginosa strains (1-8). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies ranged from 225 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, and 120 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, respectively, against clinical strains of S. aurues and P. aeruginosa. The synergistic action of extracts of Xylaria sp. with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was observed against S. aureus strain 6 and P. aeruginosa strain 3, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of culture filtrate extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.18, respectively. The FICI of fruiting body extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.375, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. are the potential source for production of new antimicrobial compounds.

  3. On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2014-07-01

    Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

  4. Cordyceps s.l. (Ascomycetes) Species Used as Medicinal Mushrooms are Closely Related with Higher Ability to Produce Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Huang, I-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps s.l. (sensu lato) species have been used as herbal medicines; one of their main constituents is cordycepin. As genome sequencing techniques have become more cost-effective and more popular, more entomogenous fungal genomes have been sequenced and published. Here, we constructed a phylogenetic tree based on 18S rRNA sequences from Cordyceps species and analyzed the copy number of the key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of cordycepin from related fungal genomes that have been published. The sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were examined, and seven single nucleotides were found that could represent the evolutionary history of Cordyceps s.l. and which perfectly fit the phylogenetic tree. Their evolution was influenced mainly by host factors, rather than geographical location. The Cordyceps s.l. species that are used as herbal medicines are closely related in the phylogenetic tree. The major species for Chinese pharmaceutical markets, such as C. militaris and C. sinensis, have higher copy numbers of 5'-nucleotidase and adenylate kinase, and ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), respectively. Moreover, absence of an RNR inhibitor may cause cordycepin accumulation. Presence of an RNR inhibitor may lead to lower cordycepin levels in fungal species in which no medicinal applications have been described. Cordycepin is not only an important secondary metabolite that is used as an herbal medicine, but it also has significance for understanding the evolution of these entomogenous species. PMID:26853963

  5. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource. PMID:26559703

  6. Protective Efficacy of the Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), from India in Neuronal Hippocampal Cells against Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mamta; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Manickam, Manimaran; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Srivastava, Mousami; Sugadev, Ragumani; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the protective efficiency of extracts of the Indian variety of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (=Cordyceps sinensis) (CSEs) in HT22 (murine hippocampal) cells under hypoxic conditions. Various parameters such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species, levels of endogenous antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, and oxidation of macromolecules were analyzed. In addition, the radical scavenging abilities of hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals were also studied. Antioxidant compounds, ascorbic acid, hesperidin, and rutin were quantified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The information acquired from high-performance thin-layer chromatography profiling was subjected to principal component analysis for data clustering. Findings of this research revealed that ascorbic acid and rutin were highest in aqueous CSE, whereas the maximum amount of hesperidin was found in 25% alcoholic CSE. In vitro studies showed that all the CSEs protected HT22 cells well by upregulating the level of endogenous antioxidants and preventing the oxidation of lipids and proteins. These extracts also reduced the amount of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors on par with the normoxic control with more or less equal protection in the cells under hypoxia, and indicated significant radical scavenging potential. PMID:26756295

  7. Antibacterial activity of wild Xylaria sp. strain R005 (Ascomycetes) against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Veluchamy; Arivudainambi, U; Thalavaipandian, Annamalai; Karunakaran, Chandran; Rajendran, Ayyappan

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for new and effective antibiotic agents due to the recent emergence of life-threatening, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of mushroom was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. The mushroom was identified as Xylaria sp. strain R005 based on the morphological characteristics and confirmed by 18S ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. The crude ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. showed significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains (1-10) and P. aeruginosa strains (1-8). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies ranged from 225 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, and 120 µg/mL to 625 µg/mL, respectively, against clinical strains of S. aurues and P. aeruginosa. The synergistic action of extracts of Xylaria sp. with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was observed against S. aureus strain 6 and P. aeruginosa strain 3, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of culture filtrate extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.18, respectively. The FICI of fruiting body extract with vancomycin and ciprofloxacin were 0.5 and 0.375, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of culture filtrate and fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp. are the potential source for production of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22339707

  8. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeast genus Zygoascus, with proposal of Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. and related anamorphic varieties.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maudy Th; Robert, V; Poot, G A; Epping, Wendy; de Cock, A W A M

    2005-05-01

    Physiological characters, mating compatibility, PCR-RAPD fingerprints, mol% G + C content, DNA-DNA relatedness, and large-subunit and internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequences of strains assigned to the genus Zygoascus were re-examined. On the basis of those data, and after phylogenetic analyses, an emendation of Zygoascus hellenicus (type material is a cross of CBS 6736(T) x CBS 5839(T)) is proposed, comprising two novel anamorphic varieties, Candida steatolytica var. steatolytica (CBS 6736(T)) and C. steatolytica var. inositophila (CBS 5839(T)). A novel teleomorphic species, Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. (type material is a cross of CBS 4099(T) x CBS 7521(T)) is described, together with two novel anamorphic varieties corresponding to it, Candida hellenica var. hellenica (CBS 4099(T)) and C. hellenica var. acidophila (CBS 7115(T)).

  9. Conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Stephan; Justa-Schuch, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. Despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. Budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure proper nuclear segregation. The extent to which these pathways are conserved in multicellular fungi remains unknown. Recent progress indicates common components, but different mechanisms that are required for proper selection of the septation site in the different groups of Ascomycota. Cortical cues are used in yeast- and filament-forming species of the Saccharomycotina clade that are established at the incipient bud site or the hyphal tip respectively. In contrast, septum formation in the filament-forming Pezizomycotina species Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa seems more closely related to the fission yeast programme in that they may combine mitotic signals with a cell end-based marker system and Rho GTPase signalling. Thus, significant differences in the use and connection of conserved signalling modules become apparent that reflect the phylogenetic relationship of the analysed models. PMID:21091496

  10. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some plant species within the Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) from South America, Africa, and Australia cause a neurologic disease in grazing livestock caused by swainsonine. These convolvulaceous species including Ipomoea carnea contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, an inhibitor of ...

  11. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Stephen B; McCorison, Cassandra B; Cavaletto, Jessica R; Culley, David E; LaButti, Kurt; Baker, Scott E; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2016-08-01

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelia in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds is thought to improve air quality. Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known. To fill this gap, the circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare was sequenced and, at only 23 743 bp, is the smallest reported for a filamentous fungus. Genes were encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. Other than its small size, the only unusual feature of the Z. cellare mitochondrial genome was two copies of a 110-bp sequence that were duplicated, inverted and separated by approximately 1 kb. This inverted-repeat sequence confused the assembly program but appears to have no functional significance. The small size of the Z. cellare mitochondrial genome was due to slightly smaller genes, lack of introns and non-essential genes, reduced intergenic spacers and very few ORFs relative to other fungi rather than a loss of essential genes. Whether this reduction facilitates its unusual biology remains unknown. PMID:27521628

  12. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)).

  13. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  14. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource.

  15. Molecular systematics of Woswasia atropurpurea gen. et sp. nov. (Sordariomycetidae), a fungicolous ascomycete with globose ascospores and holoblastic conidiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Réblová, Martina; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The monotypic genus Woswasia is described for wood-inhabiting and mycotrophic fungi classified in the Sordariomycetidae. It is characterized by unicellular, hyaline, globose to ellipsoid, verruculose ascospores; unitunicate long-stipitate asci with an apical annulus staining blue in aqueous cotton blue and perithecia with a long neck immersed in a stroma exhibiting a conspicuous pH-dependent color reaction. In vitro, it produces branched subhyaline to hyaline conidiophores with terminally arranged sympodial conidiogenous cells and holoblastic hyaline conidia. The remarkable morphological similarity of Woswasia to Amplistroma of the Amplistromataceae, although suggestive of a close relationship, was not confirmed by molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis based on two functional ribosomal genes (large and small subunits of the nuclear rDNA) and one protein-coding gene (second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) supports the placement of Woswasia in the Sordariomycetidae incertae sedis. Woswasia atropurpurea, the type and only species of the genus, groups within a large heterogeneous clade containing other small or monotypic genera of wood-inhabiting saprobic fungi, which are distantly related and of which the majority lacks an ordinal or familial affiliation. Within the clade a relationship of Woswasia to the freshwater genus Cyanoannulus is suggested. PMID:23099520

  16. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) ( = CBS 13946(T) = NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain. PMID:25644482

  17. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against adult Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Velasco, E; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Pescador-Rubio, A; Angel-Sahagún, C A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Contreras-Lara, D

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of five strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) and three strains of Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) at a concentration of 1×10(8)colony-forming units/ml applied by spraying onto bovines with controlled infestation of Haematobia irritans under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics. Four experiments were performed, in each of which three treatments (two fungal strains and one control) were evaluated with eight repetitions for each one, by carrying out a single application of the aqueous suspension of each strain. The animals were isolated in individual cages and direct counts of the infestation were carried out for 13 days. It was observed that strains Ma2, Ma6, Ma10, Ma14, and Ma34 caused 94-100% reduction in infestation between days 12 and 13 post-treatment, while strains Ifr19, Ifr11, and Ifr12 reduced infestation from 90% to 98% up to day 13 post-application. There was an effect in the generation of horn flies from the excrement of bovines that were treated with different strains, reducing the reproduction of subsequent generations. It was concluded that the strains of M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea evaluated in this study can be used as biocontrol agents in infestations of H. irritans in stabled bovines.

  18. [Insecticidal and immunosuppressive effect of ascomycete Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, V Iu; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Dubovskiĭ, I M; Tiurin, M V; Kriukova, N A; Glupov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and insecticidal activity of cultures of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris on the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata has been established for the first time. It was found that the peroral effect of the fungal culture resulted in dose-dependent decrease in survival, delayed in development time and molting, decreases in the total hemocyt counts, increased activity of phenoloxidases in the hemolymph, and reduced activity of the enzyme in the cuticle, as well as increased sensitivity of larvae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana at the level of the synergistic effect.

  19. Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in mainland Ecuador and on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Portero Barahona, Patricia; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2015-04-01

    Seven strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Kazachstania were found at several collection sites on both mainland Ecuador (Yasuní National Park) and the Galápagos (Santa Cruz Island). Two strains (CLQCA 20-132(T) and CLQCA 24SC-045) were isolated from rotten wood samples, two further strains (CLQCA 20-280 and CLQCA 20-348) were isolated from soil samples, and three strains (CLQCA 20-198, CLQCA 20-374 and CLQCA 20-431) were isolated from decaying fruits. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. Although the strains could not be distinguished from one another based upon their differing geographical origins, they could be differentiated according to their isolation source (fruit, soil or wood) by ITS sequencing. The species name Kazachstania yasuniensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 20-132(T) ( = CBS 13946(T) = NCYC 4008(T)) designated the type strain.

  20. A study of lipid secretion from the lichen symbionts, ascomycetous fungus Myelochroa leucotyliza and green alga Trebouxia sp.

    PubMed

    Arakawa-Kobayashi, Satoko; Kanaseki, Toku

    2004-06-01

    Lichens are symbionts of fungi and algae. Although wild fungi secrete lipids to form crystals, those grown in culture either alone or with algae do not secrete enough lipids to be crystallized. To investigate the mode of lipid secretion, we stimulated fungi cultured alone to form crystals. (1) The fungi had serpentine invaginations on the P-faces. These were formed as a consequence of secretory granule exocytosis. (2) Fungi cultured alone in normally used medium had on their P-faces intramembrane particle-cleared parts that also showed a serpentine configuration. (3) After the medium was fortified by further addition of glucose, the fungi cultured alone produced multiple lipid bodies and secretory granules, though no crystals were formed. (4) After the addition of filtered algal culture medium into the fungal culture medium that had been fortified, the fungi grown under this condition showed extracellular crystals. As fungi also showed extensive exocytotic activity, protein secretion seemed essential prior to lipid secretion. The place with no intramembrane particles was postulated to be the site through which lipids penetrate to the outside. (5) As we had identified crystals as atranorin, we made atranorin-containing liposome. The liposome released atranorin to the aqueous phase by the addition of albumin or albumin-like proteins. PMID:15099581

  1. Wickerhamomyces edaphicus sp. nov. and Pichia jaroonii sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2009-05-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from soil in a mixed deciduous forest in Amphoe Wang Nam Khiao, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, small-subunit rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the three strains (S-29, S-63 and S-80) were found to represent a single species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, which were named Wickerhamomyces edaphicus sp. nov. The type strain is S-29(T) (BCC 21231(T)=NBRC 101969(T)=CBS 10408(T)). Strain S-75 represented a novel species of the genus Pichia on the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, for which the name Pichia jaroonii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-75(T) (BCC 23061(T), NRBC 102180(T)=CBS 10930(T)).

  2. Various grain substrates for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of the medicinal caterpillar mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, several grains such as brown rice (Br), plumule rice (Pr), wheat (W) and pearl barley (Pb) supplemented with 1% (w/w) peptone (P), yeast extract (Ye), ammonia sulfate (As), and monosodium glutamate (Mg) as a nitrogen source, respectively, were used to produce fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds of two strains of Cordyceps militaris. Among these grain substrates, the substrate most suitable to mycelial growth was Pb+Ye for C. militaris H and L. The mushroom strains colonized this substrate in 12.8 and 12.6 days, respectively. For C. militaris L, the fewest days were required for primordial initiation on Br+Ye and Pr+P substrates. The highest yield and biological efficiency was observed with Pb substrate (25.16 g/bottle and 87.36%) and Br+P substrate (21.84 g/bottle and 75.83%) for C. militaris H and L, respectively. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris H, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated on W+Mg substrate (25.07 mg/g), the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pr+Mg (153.21 mg/g) and Pr (151.65 mg/g) substrates, and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pr+Ye (0.94 mg/g) and Pb+Ye (0.90 mg/g) substrates. In the fruiting bodies of C. militaris L, the highest cordycepin content was cultivated with W+Mg substrate (22.14 mg/g); the highest mannitol content was cultivated with Pb substrate (189.33 mg/g); and the highest adenosine content was cultivated with Pb+Ye substrate (0.71 mg/g).

  3. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  4. Host colonization and substrate utilization by wood-colonizing Ascomycete fungi in the grapevine trunk disease complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine trunk diseases cause chronic wood infections (cankers) in mixed infections within the same vine. To determine the synergistic interactions of trunk-pathogen communities and their impact on the host we are characterizing, on a pathogen-by-pathogen basis, fungal damage to woody cells and tis...

  5. An Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.

    PubMed

    von Freiesleben, Pernille; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Blicher, Thomas Holberg; Anderson, Lars; Jørgensen, Henning; Stålbrand, Henrik; Meyer, Anne S; Krogh, Kristian B R M

    2016-02-01

    The activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase (AnMan26A) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. The AnMan26A was characterized in parallel with the GH26 endomannanase from Podospora anserina (PaMan26A) and three GH5 endomannanases from A. nidulans and Trichoderma reesei (AnMan5A, AnMan5C and TrMan5A). The initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion of locust bean gum and guar gum galactomannans were determined. The hydrolysis product profile at maximal degree of conversion was determined using DNA sequencer-Assisted Saccharide analysis in High throughput (DASH). This is the first reported use of this method for analyzing galactomannooligosaccharides. AnMan26A and PaMan26A were found to have a novel substrate degradation pattern on the two galactomannan substrates. On the highly substituted guar gum AnMan26A and PaMan26A reached 35-40% as their maximal degree of conversion whereas the three tested GH5 endomannanases only reached 8-10% as their maximal degree of conversion. α-Galactosyl-mannose was identified as the dominant degradation product resulting from AnMan26A and PaMan26A action on guar gum, strongly indicating that these two enzymes can accommodate galactopyranosyl residues in the -1 and in the +1 subsite. The degradation of α-6(4)-6(3)-di-galactosyl-mannopentaose by AnMan26A revealed accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in the -2, -1 and +1 subsite of the enzyme. Accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in subsites -2 and +1 has not been observed for other characterized endomannanases to date. Docking analysis of galactomannooligosaccharides in available crystal structures and homology models supported the conclusions drawn from the experimental results. This newly discovered diversity of substrate degradation patterns demonstrates an expanded functionality of fungal endomannanases, than hitherto

  6. An Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.

    PubMed

    von Freiesleben, Pernille; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Blicher, Thomas Holberg; Anderson, Lars; Jørgensen, Henning; Stålbrand, Henrik; Meyer, Anne S; Krogh, Kristian B R M

    2016-02-01

    The activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel Aspergillus nidulans GH26 endo-β-mannanase (AnMan26A) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. The AnMan26A was characterized in parallel with the GH26 endomannanase from Podospora anserina (PaMan26A) and three GH5 endomannanases from A. nidulans and Trichoderma reesei (AnMan5A, AnMan5C and TrMan5A). The initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion of locust bean gum and guar gum galactomannans were determined. The hydrolysis product profile at maximal degree of conversion was determined using DNA sequencer-Assisted Saccharide analysis in High throughput (DASH). This is the first reported use of this method for analyzing galactomannooligosaccharides. AnMan26A and PaMan26A were found to have a novel substrate degradation pattern on the two galactomannan substrates. On the highly substituted guar gum AnMan26A and PaMan26A reached 35-40% as their maximal degree of conversion whereas the three tested GH5 endomannanases only reached 8-10% as their maximal degree of conversion. α-Galactosyl-mannose was identified as the dominant degradation product resulting from AnMan26A and PaMan26A action on guar gum, strongly indicating that these two enzymes can accommodate galactopyranosyl residues in the -1 and in the +1 subsite. The degradation of α-6(4)-6(3)-di-galactosyl-mannopentaose by AnMan26A revealed accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in the -2, -1 and +1 subsite of the enzyme. Accommodation of galactopyranosyl residues in subsites -2 and +1 has not been observed for other characterized endomannanases to date. Docking analysis of galactomannooligosaccharides in available crystal structures and homology models supported the conclusions drawn from the experimental results. This newly discovered diversity of substrate degradation patterns demonstrates an expanded functionality of fungal endomannanases, than hitherto

  7. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry.

  8. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production. PMID:27649728

  9. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind. PMID:27481299

  10. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  11. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.

  12. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), on the Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion/Reperfusion (MCAO/R) Model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ran; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Shuofeng; Liu, Min; Sun, Wenyan; Xing, Yue; Guan, Yalan; Han, Chunchao; Liu, Zhenquan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (EEOS) on neuroprotective efficacy in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR). The effects of EEOS on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. The cerebral infarction was examined through tetrazolium chloride staining. EEOS significantly inhibited IR-induced brain production of IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, ICAM-1, and COX-2. Moreover, EEOS suppressed infiltration of PMN cells. EEOS caused a significant reduction in the infarct size compared with the middle cerebral artery occlusion group. The study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of EEOS inhibition of IR through anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of IR. PMID:26756191

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Subtilisin-Like Serine Protease Gene (Pr1) from the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Lu, Zenghui; He, Yuanchuan; Chen, Shijiang; Yan, Jun; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    In the Chinese caterpillar mushroom Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a subtislin-like serine protease (Pr1) is one of the most important enzymes for its infection activity against insect cuticles. The Pr1 gene was isolated from the valuable Chinese medicinal fungus O. sinensis using rapid amplification of 5' and 3' complementary DNA ends. The 2079-bp full-length complementary DNA sequence containing the 1605-bp predicted open reading frame of the Pr1 gene was obtained (GenBank accession no. KF836756). The open reading frame encodes a protein comprising 534 amino acids. Protein sequence multiple alignment analysis revealed high homology with 16 other subtilisin serine proteases and exhibited the highly conserved catalytic domain (D195, H227, and S393). We also constructed a phylogenetic tree in this study. Further molecular studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of fungal infection. PMID:26853964

  14. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  15. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa.

  16. The phylogenetic analysis of fungi associated with lichenized ascomycete genus Bryoria reveals new lineages in the Tremellales including a new species Tremella huuskonenii hyperparasitic on Phacopsis huuskonenii.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Hanna; Diederich, Paul; Goward, Trevor; Myllys, Leena

    2015-09-01

    The basidiomycete order Tremellales includes many species parasitic on or cohabiting with lichen-forming fungi. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic position of Tremellales obtained from Bryoria thalli using nSSU, 5.8S, and partial nLSU sequence data. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed the presence of basidiomycetous fungi in three separate clades within Tremellales. Tremellales sp. A and Tremella sp. B exist asymptomatically in Bryoria thalli and should thus be regarded as endolichenic rather than lichenicolous fungi. The third lineage represents a new species and is described here as Tremella huuskonenii. It is hyperparasitic over galls induced by Phacopsis huuskonenii, a lichenicolous fungus growing in Bryoria thalli. We also examined the genetic diversity of Tremella sp. B and Tremella huuskonenii with an extended taxon sampling using ITS and partial nLSU sequence data. For comparison, ITS, GAPDH, and Mcm7 regions were used for phylogenetic analyses of the host lichen specimens. According to our results, phylogenetic structure within the two Tremella species does not appear to correlate with the geographic distribution nor with the phylogeny or the secondary chemistry of the host lichen. However, ITS haplotype analysis of T. huuskonenii revealed some genetic differences between European and North American populations as some haplotypes were more common in Europe than in North America and vice versa. PMID:26321732

  17. Molecular Markers to Detect the Formation of Heterokaryon and Homokaryon from Asexual Spores of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Cai, Tao; Wei, Jing; Feng, Aiping; Lin, Nan; Bao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is widely cultivated on artificial media in China; however, the cultures often are afflicted with the degeneration of nonfruiting strains. To understand the mechanism of degeneration of C. militaris, from the heterokaryotic strain into the homokaryotic strain, we examined the mating-type genes present in individual asexual spores. Further, we determined the distribution ratio of the different mating-type genes among a sample of asexual spores and the growth rate of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic strains of C. militaris. The distribution ratio of 3 groups of asexual spores from C. militaris heterokaryotic strains was determined as 1:1:1 by statistical analysis, whereas that of the two types of nuclei among asexual spores was 1:1. Nearly two-thirds of the asexual spore isolates were homokaryon, which showed a growth speed similar to the heterokaryon. However, the homokaryon (bearing mating-type MAT-HMG) grew significantly faster at times compared with the heterokaryon. Therefore, the purity of the spawn was difficult to establish. C. militaris heterokaryotic strains can transform into a homokaryotic strain following continued subculture. PMID:26756296

  18. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26559699

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of ascomycete yeasts that form coenzyme Q-9 and the proposal of the new genera Babjeviella, Meyerozyma, Millerozyma, Priceomyces and Scheffersomyces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species assigned to the genera Debaryomyces, Lodderomyces, Spathaspora and Yamadazyma, as well as selected species of Pichia and Candida that also form coenzyme Q-9, were phylogenetically analyzed from the combined sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit and the small subunit rRNA genes....

  20. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x.

  1. Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

    2014-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application.

  2. Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chang, Shih-Liang; Hsieh, Changwei; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Ho, Wai-Jane; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes. PMID:25271979

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Ascomycetous Filamentous Fungus Cadophora malorum Mo12 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Reveals Its Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rédou, Vanessa; Kumar, Abhishek; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Barbier, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Cadophora malorum Mo12 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We present the draft genome sequence of this filamentous fungal strain, which has high biotechnological potentials as revealed by the presence of genes encoding biotechnologically important enzymes and genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:27389260

  4. SPORE-EXPULSION RATES AND EXTENTS OF BLADE OCCUPATION BY ASCOMYCETES OF THE SMOOTH-CORDGRASS STANDING-DECAY SYSTEM. (R825147)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Molecular Markers to Detect the Formation of Heterokaryon and Homokaryon from Asexual Spores of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Cai, Tao; Wei, Jing; Feng, Aiping; Lin, Nan; Bao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is widely cultivated on artificial media in China; however, the cultures often are afflicted with the degeneration of nonfruiting strains. To understand the mechanism of degeneration of C. militaris, from the heterokaryotic strain into the homokaryotic strain, we examined the mating-type genes present in individual asexual spores. Further, we determined the distribution ratio of the different mating-type genes among a sample of asexual spores and the growth rate of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic strains of C. militaris. The distribution ratio of 3 groups of asexual spores from C. militaris heterokaryotic strains was determined as 1:1:1 by statistical analysis, whereas that of the two types of nuclei among asexual spores was 1:1. Nearly two-thirds of the asexual spore isolates were homokaryon, which showed a growth speed similar to the heterokaryon. However, the homokaryon (bearing mating-type MAT-HMG) grew significantly faster at times compared with the heterokaryon. Therefore, the purity of the spawn was difficult to establish. C. militaris heterokaryotic strains can transform into a homokaryotic strain following continued subculture.

  6. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (Drosophila and Daphnia), and fungus (Podospora anserina). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already pronounced retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 66 of 96 animals (dogs, cats and horses) who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled into eyes prevent the loss of sight in rabbits suffering from experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind due to this pathology. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nM SkQ1 significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. As a result, the lifespan increases. SkQs look like promising drugs to treat aging and age-related diseases.

  7. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits α-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g−1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g−1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg−1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative α-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., α-l-rhamnopyranoside and α-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  8. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U L⁻¹ was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Hughes, C A; Engstrom, S M; Johnson, R C

    1993-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during June 1991 at the Saint Croix National Riverway in Wisconsin, and one isolate, WI91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (Melospiza melodia). This isolate was shown to be infectious for Peromyscus leucopus and Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). Isolate WI91-23 was confirmed as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay by using species-specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 and anti-OspB antibody H5TS. Isolate WI91-23 was compared with Borrelia anserina Es, Borrelia hermsii MAN-1, and other B. burgdorferi strains (ATCC 53210, CT-1, and Catharus fuscescens [veery] liver 10293). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed spirochetes revealed that the DNA plasmid profile of WI91-23 was most similar to those of plasmids from B. burgdorferi and most different from those of plasmids from B. anserina and B. hermsii. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the protein profile of WI91-23 was like that of other B. burgdorferi strains studied, with dominant proteins corresponding to OspA and OspB, and that it differed from the protein profiles of B. anserina and B. hermsii. These findings indicate that passerine birds may serve as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:8370728

  10. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  11. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina from multigene sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most known species of the subphylum Saccharomycotina (budding ascomycetous yeasts) have now been placed in phylogenetically defined clades following multigene sequence analysis. Terminal clades, which are usually well supported from bootstrap analysis, are viewed as phylogenetically circumscribed ge...

  12. [Ultrastructure of the cell walls and septa in glucuronate-positive species of Candida].

    PubMed

    Golubev, V I; Loginova, T M; Tiurin, V S

    1980-01-01

    According to the ultrastructure of cell walls, glucuronate-positive species of the genus Candida include both ascomycetous organisms (C. ciferrii, C. incommunis, C. steatolytica) and basidiomycetous organisms (C. bogoriensis, C. curiosa, C. diffluens, C. javanica, C. marina). The character of budding and the structure of septa suggest that the perfect forms of glucuronate-positive ascomycetous Candida species should be looked for within the family Ascoideaceae.

  13. Rearrangements of the transcriptional regulatory networks of metabolic pathways in fungi.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Hugo; Hogues, Hervé; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2009-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that transcriptional regulatory networks in many organisms are highly flexible. Here, we discuss the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks governing the metabolic machinery of sequenced ascomycetes. In particular, recent work has shown that transcriptional rewiring is common in regulons controlling processes such as production of ribosome components and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. We note that dramatic rearrangements of the transcriptional regulatory components of metabolic functions have occurred among ascomycetes species.

  14. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kovačič, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative

  15. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP53 family in fungi: comparative structural and evolutionary analysis and its role as a common alternative anti-fungal drug target.

    PubMed

    Jawallapersand, Poojah; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Kovačič, Lidija; Stojan, Jure; Komel, Radovan; Pakala, Suresh Babu; Kraševec, Nada; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative

  16. Fungal biomass in saltmarsh grass blades at two contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Newell, S Y; Wall, V D; Maruya, K A

    2000-04-01

    Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination of a Georgia saltmarsh by mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) revealed little or no influence of the toxicants on living standing crops or sexual productivities of cordgrass ascomycetes. Extension of the examination of saltmarsh-ascomycete response to sites containing other toxic pollutants (the chlorinated organocyclic insecticide toxaphene; chromium, copper, and lead; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) has shown that none of the additional toxicants engendered saltmarsh-fungal responses in the form of reduced living standing crops or sexual productivities. Thus the ascomycetes of the cordgrass-decay system appear to be as resistant to anthropogenic-pollutant poisoning as smooth cordgrass itself. Unless the fungal and plant resistance mechanisms involve degradation of the toxicants, this may imply that saltmarshes are especially dangerous as receiving sites for toxic waste because they may have the potential to readily move toxicants into the food web. PMID:10667923

  17. Isolation, characterization, and systematic significance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, S; Glasl, H

    2001-10-01

    2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid was isolated from Potentilla anserina. Until now this substance was only found in bacteria and not in higher plants. By sterile cultivation it was verified that this compound is genuine also in plants. In addition the systematic relevance of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid within the Rosaceae was tested. The compound seems to be a chemotaxonomic marker for the Rosoideae sensu stricto proposed by Morgan et al. (Morgan, D.R., Soltis, D.E., Robertson, K.R., 1994. Systematic and evolutionary implications of rbcL sequence variation in Rosaceae. American Journal of Botany 81, 890-903).

  18. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  19. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs.

  20. The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ∼13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion

  1. In vitro decomposition of Sphagnum by some microfungi resembles white rot of wood.

    PubMed

    Rice, Adrianne V; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

    2006-06-01

    The abilities of some ascomycetes (Myxotrichaceae) from a Sphagnum bog in Alberta to degrade cellulose, phenolics, and Sphagnum tissue were compared with those of two basidiomycetes. Most Myxotrichaceae degraded cellulose and tannic acid, and removed cell-wall components simultaneously from Sphagnum tissues, whereas the basidiomycetes degraded cellulose and insoluble phenolics, and preferentially removed the polyphenolic matrix from Sphagnum cell walls. Mass losses from Sphagnum varied from up to 50% for some ascomycetes to a maximum of 35% for the basidiomycetes. The decomposition of Sphagnum by the Myxotrichaceae was analogous to the white rot of wood and indicates that these fungi have the potential to cause significant mineralization of carbon in bogs.

  2. The phylogeny of yeasts—A cladistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wu, Baoling

    1992-12-01

    Cladistic analysis was used to clarify the phylogeny of 16 genera of yeasts whose great morphological differences and inclusion in different classification systems resulted in controversies over the taxonomy of seven genera such as Crypeococcus. etc. Some scholars suggest that they belong to Ascomycetes, but others think they belong to fungi imperfecti. After comprehensive cladistic analysis of many genetic characters, the authors consider that the above-mentioned seven genera of yeasts developed in parallel with Ascomycetes so that they should belong to one and the same developmental system.

  3. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Li, D W; Kendrick, B

    1995-11-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa and highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  4. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  5. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes. PMID:26904051

  6. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  7. Kodamaea Y. Yamada, T. Suzuki, Matsuda & Mikata emend. Rosa, Lachance, Starmer, Barker, Bowles & Schlag-Edler (1999)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Kodamaea and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Kodamaea has five assigned species and all are associated with wood boring insects. Many of the species appear worldwide in distribution. One of the species, K...

  8. Genome Sequence and Annotation of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a Causal Agent of Crucifer Anthracnose Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampounis, Antonios; Pigné, Sandrine; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Wittenberg, Alexander H. J.; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an ascomycete fungus causing anthracnose disease on numerous cultivated plants in the family Brassicaceae, as well as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report an assembly of the nuclear genome and gene annotation of this pathogen, which was obtained using a combination of PacBio long-read sequencing and optical mapping. PMID:27540062

  9. Ogataea Y. Yamada, K. Maeda & Mikata (1994)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Ogataea and is to be published in TheYeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Ogataea includes 31 species, many described in the last few years as a result of the availability of species-specific gene sequence databases. All but one of the ...

  10. MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

  11. Trigonopsis Schachner emend. Kurtzman & Robnett (2007)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter describes the asexual ascomycete yeast genus Trigonopsis and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Trigonopsis has four known species and T. variabilis is famous for producing triangular cells, whereas the other described species do not. Multigen...

  12. Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a ToxA-like gene from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ToxA, the first discovered fungal proteinaceous host-selective toxin, was originally identified from the tan spot fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Homologues of the PtrToxA gene have not been identified from any other ascomycetes except the leaf/glume blotch fungus Stagonospora nodorum, w...

  14. Tubulin modulating antifungal and antiproliferative pyrazinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Taggi, Andrew E; Stevenson, Thomas M; Bereznak, James F; Sharpe, Paula L; Gutteridge, Steven; Forman, Robert; Bisaha, John J; Cordova, Daniel; Crompton, Martina; Geist, Lora; Kovacs, Patrick; Marshall, Eric; Sheth, Ritesh; Stavis, Courtney; Tseng, Chi-Ping

    2016-02-01

    A novel class of synthetic tubulin polymerization disruptors, based on a substituted pyrazin-2-one core, has been discovered. These molecules have proven to be potent broad spectrum fungicides, with activity on agriculturally important ascomycete and basidiomycete pathogens. They have also been found to be particularly potent against human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Using an efficient synthetic route, the agricultural and medicinal activity was explored.

  15. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on Callery pear in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon (Ascomycetes, Erysiphales) is the etiological agent of a powdery mildew disease that occurs on rosaceous plants, primarily Malus and Pyrus. This fungus is nearly circumglobal. In May 2009, leaves of Bradford pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.), some di...

  16. Two new species of Brachytrycherus Arrow, 1920 from China (Coleoptera, Endomychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling-Xiao; Bi, Wen-Xuan; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Brachytrycherus from China, Brachytrycherus conaensis sp. n. and Brachytrycherus curviantennae sp. n. are described and illustrated. Brachytrycherus conaensis sp. n. is the first species of the Handsome Fungus Beetles recorded feeding on Ascomycetes. A key to the species of Brachytrycherus known in China is provided. PMID:27408570

  17. Influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of Colletotrichum cereale lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season grasses of the Pooideae subfamily. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera cultivated as turfgrass. DNA fingerprinting has revealed two distinct C. c...

  18. Wickerhamiella van der Walt (1973)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous yeast genus Wickerhamiella, which has five described species and has been defined from multigene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The species reproduce by multilateral budding but do not form hyphae or pseudohyphae. Asci typically form a single a...

  19. Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Strain W29

    PubMed Central

    Pomraning, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the dimorphic ascomycete yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain W29 (ATCC 20460). Y. lipolytica is a commonly employed model for the industrial production of lipases, small molecules, and more recently for its ability to accumulate lipids. PMID:26607882

  1. Genome sequences of three phytopathogenic species of the Magnaporthaceae family of fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnaporthaceae is a family of ascomycetes that includes three fungi of great economic importance: Magnaporthe oryzae, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, and Magnaporthe poae. These three fungi cause widespread disease and loss in cereal and grass crops, including rice blast disease (M. oryzae), ...

  2. Cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli, and characterization of a thermostable fungal acetylxylan esterase from Talaromyces emersonii.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Murray, Patrick G; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T; Tuohy, Maria G; Faulds, Craig B

    2012-05-01

    The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

  3. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Pezizomycete Pyronema confluens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the ascomycete Pyronema confluens has been sequenced. The circular genome has a size of 191 kb and contains 48 protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. Of the protein-coding genes, 14 encode conserved mitochondrial proteins, and 31 encode predicted homing endonuclease genes. PMID:27174271

  4. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  5. Detection and Identification of Decay Fungi in Spruce Wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Genes Encoding rRNA†

    PubMed Central

    Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Ostrofsky, Andrea; Jellison, Jody

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and organic extractions, was amplified by the PCR using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We surveyed 14 species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes (brown-rot and white-rot fungi), as well as 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes). DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi and also from spruce wood blocks colonized by individual isolates of wood decay basidiomycetes or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) was shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood. Basidiomycetes were identified to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the internal transcribed spacer region. PMID:11055916

  6. Understanding the coevolution of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta and Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AVR-Pita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae remains to be one of the most serious threats for food security globally. Using resistance (R) genes in integrated cultural practices has been the most powerful practice for rice crop protection. Genetic analysis s...

  7. Ascosphaera subglobosa, a new species from North America associated with the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascosphaera is a widespread ascomycetous genus of mostly obligate associates of bees. These fungi have diversified to exploit seemingly every possible substrate available in their bee-associated habitat, occurring as pathogens of the bees, or as saprotrophs on honey, cocoons, nesting materials, poll...

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many arthropods, including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium...

  9. Genetic relationships of boxwood (Buxus L.) accessions based on genic simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boxwood (Buxus L. spp., Buxaceae) are popular woody landscape shrubs grown for their diverse forms and broad-leaved evergreen foliage. Boxwood plants grown in temperate zones are now threatened by a destructive new blight disease caused by the ascomycete fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata Henricot ...

  10. Registration of 42 blast resistant medium grain rice genetic stocks with suitable agronomic, yield, milling yield, and grain characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Cav. [Magnaporthe grisea (Herbert) Barr.] is one of the most threatening rice diseases in the southern United States. In the present study, 42 rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast resistant genetic stocks (GSOR102501 to 201542...

  11. Cephaloascus Hanawa (1920)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Cephaloascus and is to be published in “The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition.” The genus Cephaloascus has two species. One, C. albidus, has been isolated from spoiled cranberry pumace, and the second, C. fragrans, is predominantly isolated fr...

  12. Elucidation of the biosynthesis and degradation of allantofuranone by isotopic labelling and fermentation of modified precursors.

    PubMed

    Schüffler, Anja; Liermann, Johannes C; Opatz, Till; Anke, Timm

    2011-01-01

    Feeding experiments with the ascomycete Allantophomopsis lycopodina indicated that the potent fungistatic allantofuranone is biosynthesized from phenylalanine. Further experiments with synthetic precursors gave evidence that the naturally occurring polyporic acid serves as a key intermediate in the biosynthesis. In addition to the formation of allantofuranone, its abiotic and metabolic degradation were investigated.

  13. Condition-dependent co-regulation of genomic clusters of virulence factors in the grapevine trunk pathogen Neofusicoccum parvum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete Neofusicoccum parvum, one of the causal agents of Botryosphaeria dieback, is a destructive wood-infecting fungus and a serious threat to grape production worldwide. The capability of colonizing woody tissue combined with the secretion of phytotoxic compounds is thought to underlie its...

  14. Molecular systematics of the Amphisphaeriaceae based on cladistic analyses of partial LSU rDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-12-01

    The Amphisphaeriaceae is an important family of ascomycetes within the Xylariales. There has been, however, disagreement regarding the taxonomic placement of many genera within this family and whether it should be confined to ascomycetes producing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs. In this study, phylogenetic relationships among members of the Amphisphaeriaceae are investigated using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Molecular data provided further evidence to support the association of several coelomycetous genera with the ascomycetous Amphisphaeriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses also show that all ascomycetous genera possessing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs are monophyletic and confirm the anamorphic-teleomorphic connections of some. There is, however, insufficient evidence to support the restriction of Amphisphaeriaceae to genera, which produce Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs, because the phylogenetic placement of Amphisphaeria umbrina is not fully resolved and its affinities with other members received low bootstrap support. The results also indicate that Iodosphaeria and Arecophila should be excluded from the Amphisphaeriaceae. The placement of Lanceispora in the Amphisphaeriaceae is doubtful. A broad concept of the family Amphisphaeriaceae is advocated until further data are available.

  15. Protomyces Unger (1833)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous fungal genus Protomyces and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." Species of the genus Protomyces are plant pathogens that attack asters, wild celery, coriander and certain other plants. Symptoms include disruption of stems, lea...

  16. Genome Sequence and Annotation of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a Causal Agent of Crucifer Anthracnose Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampounis, Antonios; Pigné, Sandrine; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C; Thon, Michael R; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an ascomycete fungus causing anthracnose disease on numerous cultivated plants in the family Brassicaceae, as well as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana We report an assembly of the nuclear genome and gene annotation of this pathogen, which was obtained using a combination of PacBio long-read sequencing and optical mapping. PMID:27540062

  17. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribe...

  18. Early detection of airborne inoculum of Magnaporthe oryzae in turfgrass fields using a quantitative LAMP assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray leaf spot (GLS) is a destructive disease of perennial ryegrass caused by a host specific pathotype of the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective disease management and the implementation of Integrated Pest Management practices. However, a rapid diagnostic protoc...

  19. Development of molecular markers for breeding for disease resistant crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycetes fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and sheath blight disease caused by the soil borne fungus Rhizocotonia solani are the two major rice diseases that threaten stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. These two diseases have been managed with a ...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Dimorphic Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Strain W29.

    PubMed

    Pomraning, Kyle R; Baker, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the dimorphic ascomycete yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain W29 (ATCC 20460). Y. lipolytica is a commonly employed model for the industrial production of lipases, small molecules, and more recently for its ability to accumulate lipids. PMID:26607882

  1. NRPS4 is responsible for the biosynthesis of destruxins in Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Destruxins (DTXs) are a family of cyclic depsipeptides that include > 35 members produced by Ascomycetous fungi belonging to several different taxa. These metabolites display a plethora of biological activities including toxicity against insects, depolarization of Ca2+ gradient across the plasma mem...

  2. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  3. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  4. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  5. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  6. [Species composition of food-spoiling mycelial fungi].

    PubMed

    Feofilova, E P; Kuznetsova, L S; Sergeeva, Ia E; Galanina, L A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the composition of the microflora that spoils foodstuffs (the surface of hard cheeses and sausages) at agribusiness factories. Mycelial fungi, mostly ascomycetes of the order Eurotiales belonging to the genus Penicillium play the main role in spoiling food. Most representatives of these fungi are mesophiles and possess the capacity for utilizing nutrient substrates in surface and submerged cultures.

  7. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Candida apicola NRRL Y-50540.

    PubMed

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Arrizon, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera. PMID:26067948

  8. Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

  9. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  10. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Candida apicola NRRL Y-50540

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera. PMID:26067948

  11. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  12. An analysis of sexual size dimorphism in goose.

    PubMed

    Parés-Casanova, P M

    2014-01-01

    1. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in animals. Rensch's rule states that larger species generally exhibit a higher male to female body size ratio than smaller ones. 2. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of the functional explanations of Rensch's rule and this was tested in a meta-analysis of SSD in 38 breeds of domestic geese compared among themselves and with their wild relatives (subfamily Anserinae, 35 species). 3. Domestic geese and wild Anser species taken together supported Rench's rule but the wild species did not. 4. The non-targeted sex selection hypothesis seems to provide the best intuitive explanation for the lack of SSD in geese.

  13. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  14. Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guohua; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Siwei; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shang, Yanfang; St Leger, Raymond J; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Chengshu; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. PMID:22761991

  15. Genomic perspectives on the evolution of fungal entomopathogenicity in Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guohua; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Siwei; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shang, Yanfang; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Chengshu; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. PMID:22761991

  16. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  17. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  18. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi. PMID:27143514

  19. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Wei; Kendrick, Bryce

    1995-06-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa had highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments and Epicoccum did not. Epicoccum and hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  20. [Influence of Lumbricus terrestris earthworms on the structure of the yeast community of forest litter].

    PubMed

    Iurkov, A M; Chernov, I Iu; Tiunov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The taxonomic structure of yeast communities was studied in forest litter and soil, as well as in substrates transformed by the activity of Lumbricus terrestris earthworms (tree waste from the hole mouths, the gut contents, and coproliths). The activity of L. terrestris has a weak effect on the total yeast abundance but results in substantial changes in their taxonomic composition. The share of ascomycetous yeasts is significantly higher in the substrates associated with the activity of earthworms. The teleomorphic ascomycetes Williopsis saturnus were isolated from the gut contents. The effect of earthworms on the composition of the yeast community in the process of forest litter destruction is more markedly pronounced than seasonal changes. PMID:18365730

  1. Camarosporium arezzoensis on Cytisus sp., an addition to sexual state of Camarosporium sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Camporesi, Erio; Yang, Jun-Bo; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    During a study of saprobic fungi from Bagno di Cetica Province, Italy, we collected a pleosporoid ascomycete on stems of Cytisus sp. In morphology, our collection is similar to Cucurbitaria species, but molecular analysis of SSU, LSU and ITS genes reveals it can be referred to Camarosporium. In this study we compare all other Cucurbitaria species from Cytisus sp. and based on both morphology and molecular data, we introduce our collection as a new species in Camarosporium viz. C. arezzoensis. PMID:26858532

  2. Spider, bacterial and fungal phospholipase D toxins make cyclic phosphate products.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2015-12-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) toxins from sicariid spiders, which cause disease in mammals, were recently found to convert their primary substrates, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, to cyclic phospholipids. Here we show that two PLD toxins from pathogenic actinobacteria and ascomycete fungi, which share distant homology with the spider toxins, also generate cyclic phospholipids. This shared function supports divergent evolution of the PLD toxins from a common ancestor and suggests the importance of cyclic phospholipids in pathogenicity.

  3. Preliminary checklist of fungi of the Fernow Experimental Forest. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, S.L.; Kumar, A.; Bhatt, R.; Dubey, T.; Landolt, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a checklist of fungi found on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia during 4 years of research and collecting by the authors. More than 500 fungi in seven major taxonomic groups (Acrasiomycetes, Myxomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes) are listed alphabetically by genus and species. Also provided is a general description of the forest vegetation of the Fernow Experimental Forest.

  4. Fungemia Caused by Zygoascus hellenicus in an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Mary E.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Pappas, Peter G.; Iqbal, Naureen; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A.; Lee-Yang, Wendy; Smith, Maudy T.

    2004-01-01

    Zygoascus hellenicus (Candida hellenica) was isolated from a blood culture from a patient who had received an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The isolate displayed an antifungal susceptibility pattern of decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and itraconazole, high susceptibility to voriconazole, and low susceptibility to caspofungin. The organism was misidentified by a commercial yeast identification system. This is the first reported case of human infection with this rare ascomycetous yeast. PMID:15243118

  5. Draft genome sequence of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, strain W29

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-11-25

    Here we present the draft genome sequence of the dimorphic ascomycete yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain W29 (ATCC20460TM). Y. lipolytica is a commonly employed model for industrial production of lipases, small molecules, and more recently for its ability to accumulate lipids. It has also been used to study genome evolution in yeast and filamentous fungi due to its position as an early diverging branch of the subphylum Sacchromycotina.

  6. Release of Dimethylsulfide from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate by Plant-Associated Salt Marsh Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, M. K.; Newell, S. Y.; Yoch, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The range of types of microbes with dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase capability (enzymatic release of dimethylsulfide [DMS] from DMSP) has recently been expanded from bacteria and eukaryotic algae to include fungi (a species of the genus Fusarium [M. K. Bacic and D. C. Yoch, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:106–111, 1998]). Fungi (especially ascomycetes) are the predominant decomposers of shoots of smooth cordgrass, the principal grass of Atlantic salt marshes of the United States. Since the high rates of release of DMS from smooth cordgrass marshes have a temporal peak that coincides with peak shoot death, we hypothesized that cordgrass fungi were involved in this DMS release. We tested seven species of the known smooth cordgrass ascomycetes and discovered that six of them exhibited DMSP lyase activity. We also tested two species of ascomycetes from other DMSP-containing plants, and both were DMSP lyase competent. For comparison, we tested 11 species of ascomycetes and mitosporic fungi from halophytes that do not contain DMSP; of these 11, only 3 were positive for DMSP lyase. A third group tested, marine oomycotes (four species of the genera Halophytophthora and Pythium, mostly from mangroves), showed no DMSP lyase activity. Two of the strains of fungi found to be positive for DMSP lyase also exhibited uptake of DMS, an apparently rare combination of capabilities. In conclusion, a strong correlation exists between a fungal decomposer’s ability to catabolize DMSP via the DMSP lyase pathway and the host plant’s production of DMSP as a secondary product. PMID:16349548

  7. Cerebral Aspergillosis Caused by Neosartorya hiratsukae, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kallas, Esper G.; Godoy, Patricio; Karenina, Anna; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2002-01-01

    We report the first case of infection by Neosartorya hiratsukae, an ascomycete in which the conidial state resembles Aspergillus fumigatus. The fungus caused a brain infection in a Brazilian woman, who died despite itraconazole treatment. Diagnosis was established by direct microscopic examination, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and repeated cultures from the lesions. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate is provided. PMID:12194781

  8. New peptaibols from Mycogone cervina.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Corinne; Anke, Heidrun; Flores, Yonny; Sterner, Olov

    2004-03-01

    From cultures of Mycogone cervina, a mycophilic fungus growing on the fruit bodies of ascomycete Paxina acetabulum, two new peptaibols (cervinin, N-Ac-Leu-Aib-Pro-Aib-Leu-Aib-Pro-Ala-Aib-Pro-Val-red-Leu (1) and the red-Leu O-acetylated derivative 2) were isolated. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. They exhibited weak antibacterial as well as cytotoxic activities. They are the first secondary metabolites described from M. cervina.

  9. Camarosporium arezzoensis on Cytisus sp., an addition to sexual state of Camarosporium sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Camporesi, Erio; Yang, Jun-Bo; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    During a study of saprobic fungi from Bagno di Cetica Province, Italy, we collected a pleosporoid ascomycete on stems of Cytisus sp. In morphology, our collection is similar to Cucurbitaria species, but molecular analysis of SSU, LSU and ITS genes reveals it can be referred to Camarosporium. In this study we compare all other Cucurbitaria species from Cytisus sp. and based on both morphology and molecular data, we introduce our collection as a new species in Camarosporium viz. C. arezzoensis. PMID:26858532

  10. Kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Gero

    2015-01-01

    The molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. It was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. Here, I show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. This difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.

  11. Structure Analysis Uncovers a Highly Diverse but Structurally Conserved Effector Family in Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André

    2015-01-01

    Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5–10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Chloroperoxidase-Producing Fungus Caldariomyces fumago Woronichin DSM1256

    PubMed Central

    Pecyna, Marek Jan; Buchhaupt, Markus; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10)-producing ascomycete Caldariomyces fumago. Its genome was assembled into 511 contigs with a total size of 25 Mb. The G+C content is 51.4%, and 9,806 putative protein-coding genes were predicted. Eight heme-thiolate peroxidase genes, including two chloroperoxidase genes, were found. PMID:27491999

  13. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation.

  14. Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: combining fossil and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2014-09-01

    The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualistic associations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as key innovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date the origin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack of satisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycete fossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils represent five major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 and RPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibration points solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages with a Bayesian approach. Our results suggest an initial diversification of the Pezizomycotina in the Ordovician, followed by repeated splits of lineages throughout the Phanerozoic, and indicate that this continuous diversification was unaffected by mass extinctions. We suggest that the ecological diversity within each lineage ensured that at least some taxa of each group were able to survive global crises and rapidly recovered.

  15. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  16. Signal exchange and integration during self-fusion in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Fleißner, André; Herzog, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Growth and propagation of filamentous ascomycete fungi commonly involves vegetative cell fusion. In the red bread mold Neurospora crassa and many other ascomycete species, fusion occurs between germinating spores during colony formation and between hyphal branches in established mycelia. Both fusion processes promote the development and behavior of the fungal colony as a supra-cellular network. Germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa rely on an unusual mode of cellular communication, in which the two fusion partners likely alternate between signal emission and reception, thereby establishing a kind of "cell dialog". In recent years, numerous molecular factors mediating this unique cellular behavior have been identified, including several conserved signal transmission pathways, as well as proteins specific for ascomycete fungi. Analysis of their molecular interactions revealed the presence of an intricate signaling network, whose sophisticated interconnections are still unfolding. Despite this complexity, germling and hyphal fusion provide experimentally easily amenable model systems and might therefore advance as paradigms for signal transmission and cell fusion. In this article, we strive to highlight some of the recent advances in this field of research and to discuss the current working model of the "cell dialog". PMID:27032478

  17. Signal exchange and integration during self-fusion in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Fleißner, André; Herzog, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Growth and propagation of filamentous ascomycete fungi commonly involves vegetative cell fusion. In the red bread mold Neurospora crassa and many other ascomycete species, fusion occurs between germinating spores during colony formation and between hyphal branches in established mycelia. Both fusion processes promote the development and behavior of the fungal colony as a supra-cellular network. Germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa rely on an unusual mode of cellular communication, in which the two fusion partners likely alternate between signal emission and reception, thereby establishing a kind of "cell dialog". In recent years, numerous molecular factors mediating this unique cellular behavior have been identified, including several conserved signal transmission pathways, as well as proteins specific for ascomycete fungi. Analysis of their molecular interactions revealed the presence of an intricate signaling network, whose sophisticated interconnections are still unfolding. Despite this complexity, germling and hyphal fusion provide experimentally easily amenable model systems and might therefore advance as paradigms for signal transmission and cell fusion. In this article, we strive to highlight some of the recent advances in this field of research and to discuss the current working model of the "cell dialog".

  18. Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, Bas; Guthrie, R. Dale; Altmann, Jens G.; Broekens, Peter; Bull, Ian D.; Gill, Fiona L.; Jansen, Boris; Nieman, Aline M.; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Dung from a mammoth was preserved under frozen conditions in Alaska. The mammoth lived during the early part of the Late Glacial interstadial (ca 12,300 BP). Microfossils, macroremains and ancient DNA from the dung were studied and the chemical composition was determined to reconstruct both the paleoenvironment and paleobiology of this mammoth. Pollen spectra are dominated by Poaceae, Artemisia and other light-demanding taxa, indicating an open, treeless landscape ('mammoth steppe'). Fruits and seeds support this conclusion. The dung consists mainly of cyperaceous stems and leaves, with a minor component of vegetative remains of Poaceae. Analyses of fragments of the plastid rbcL gene and trnL intron and nrITS1 region, amplified from DNA extracted from the dung, supplemented the microscopic identifications. Many fruit bodies with ascospores of the coprophilous fungus Podospora conica were found inside the dung ball, indicating that the mammoth had eaten dung. The absence of bile acids points to mammoth dung. This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung. Coprophagy might well have been a common habit of mammoths. Therefore, we strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies.

  19. De novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Esben H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R; Bünner, Camilla M; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R; Okkels, Finn T; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin beta-D-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity.

  20. Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

    2009-04-01

    Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their

  1. Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

    2010-04-01

    Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents.

  2. Manganese(IV) Oxide Production by Acremonium sp. Strain KR21-2 and Extracellular Mn(II) Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Naoyuki; Tani, Yukinori; Maruo, Kanako; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Sakata, Masahiro; Iwahori, Keisuke

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycetes that can deposit Mn(III, IV) oxides are widespread in aquatic and soil environments, yet the mechanism(s) involved in Mn oxide deposition remains unclear. A Mn(II)-oxidizing ascomycete, Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2, produced a Mn oxide phase with filamentous nanostructures. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the Mn phase was primarily Mn(IV). We purified to homogeneity a laccase-like enzyme with Mn(II) oxidase activity from cultures of strain KR21-2. The purified enzyme oxidized Mn(II) to yield suspended Mn particles; XANES spectra indicated that Mn(II) had been converted to Mn(IV). The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation was 7.0, and the apparent half-saturation constant was 0.20 mM. The enzyme oxidized ABTS [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (pH optimum, 5.5; Km, 1.2 mM) and contained two copper atoms per molecule. Moreover, the N-terminal amino acid sequence (residues 3 to 25) was 61% identical with the corresponding sequence of an Acremonium polyphenol oxidase and 57% identical with that of a Myrothecium bilirubin oxidase. These results provide the first evidence that a fungal multicopper oxidase can convert Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxide. The present study reinforces the notion of the contribution of multicopper oxidase to microbially mediated precipitation of Mn oxides and suggests that Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2 is a good model for understanding the oxidation of Mn in diverse ascomycetes. PMID:17021194

  3. Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are

  4. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    PubMed

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process. PMID:20872177

  5. Yeasts in an industrial malting ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Laitila, A; Wilhelmson, A; Kotaviita, E; Olkku, J; Home, S; Juvonen, R

    2006-11-01

    The malting ecosystem consists of two components: the germinating cereal grains and the complex microbial community. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but the composition and the effects of this microbial group have been largely unknown. In this study we surveyed the development of yeasts and yeast-like fungi in four industrial scale malting processes. A total of 136 malting process samples were collected and examined for the presence of yeasts growing at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C. More than 700 colonies were isolated and characterized. The isolates were discriminated by PCR-fingerprinting with microsatellite primer (M13). Yeasts representing different fingerprint types were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Furthermore, identified yeasts were screened for the production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase. A numerous and diverse yeast community consisting of both ascomycetous (25) and basidiomycetous (18) species was detected in the various stages of the malting process. The most frequently isolated ascomycetous yeasts belonged to the genera Candida, Clavispora, Galactomyces, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Williopsis and the basidiomycetous yeasts to Bulleromyces, Filobasidium, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Trichosporon. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi (black yeasts) belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Knowledge of the microbial diversity provides a basis for microflora management and understanding of the role of microbes in the cereal germination process. PMID:16758169

  6. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    PubMed

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process.

  7. Genomic Mechanisms Accounting for the Adaptation to Parasitism in Nematode-Trapping Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

    2013-01-01

    Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity

  8. The cell end marker Tea4 regulates morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Valinluck, Michael; Woraratanadharm, Tad; Lu, Ching-yu; Quintanilla, Rene H; Banuett, Flora

    2014-05-01

    Positional cues localized to distinct cell domains are critical for the generation of cell polarity and cell morphogenesis. These cues lead to assembly of protein complexes that organize the cytoskeleton resulting in delivery of vesicles to sites of polarized growth. Tea4, an SH3 domain protein, was first identified in fission yeast, and is a critical determinant of the axis of polarized growth, a role conserved among ascomycete fungi. Ustilago maydis is a badiomycete fungus that exhibits a yeast-like form that is nonpathogenic and a filamentous form that is pathogenic on maize and teozintle. We are interested in understanding how positional cues contribute to generation and maintenance of these two forms, and their role in pathogenicity. We identified a homologue of fission yeast tea4 in a genetic screen for mutants with altered colony and cell morphology and present here analysis of Tea4 for the first time in a basidiomycete fungus. We demonstrate that Tea4 is an important positional marker for polarized growth and septum location in both forms. We uncover roles for Tea4 in maintenance of cell and neck width, cell separation, and cell wall deposition in the yeast-like form, and in growth rate, formation of retraction septa, growth reversal, and inhibition of budding in the filamentous form. We show that Tea4::GFP localizes to sites of polarized or potential polarized growth in both forms, as observed in ascomycete fungi. We demonstrate an essential role of Tea4 in pathogencity in the absence of cell fusion. Basidiomycete and ascomycete Tea4 homologues share SH3 and Glc7 domains. Tea4 in basidiomycetes has additional domains, which has led us to hypothesize that Tea4 has novel functions in this group of fungi.

  9. Genomic mechanisms accounting for the adaptation to parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi.

    PubMed

    Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

    2013-11-01

    Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity

  10. [Characteristic of the yeast isolated from patients with leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Fedorovskaia, E A; Rybal'skaia, A P; Skachkova, N K; Mel'nik, E A; Nemirovskaia, L N; Nagornaia, S S; Babich, T V; Polishchuk, L V

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that biotopes of upper respiratory system and intestine were contaminated with yeast in 44.6% of patients with leukaemia (of 112 examined ones). Their quantity exceeds the boundary value for practically healthy people and is > or = 10(2) KOE/ml in the nasal activity and fauces and < or = 10(4) KOE/g in the intestine. It was established that in patients with leucemia the mycotic complications are mainly caused by anamorphous yeast of ascomycetic affinity. Candida albicans, as well as C. glabrata, C. rugosa and Candida sp. play the leading role. The Candida genus species are mainly sensitive to amphotericine B, clotrisamol and nistatin.

  11. First radiobiological results of LDEF-1 experiment A0015 with Arabidopsis seed embryos and Sordaria fungus spores.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M W; Gartenbach, K E; Kranz, A R

    1994-10-01

    This article highlights the first results of investigations on the general vitality and damage endpoints caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry, dormant plant seeds of the crucifer plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and the ascomycete Sordaria fimicola after 69 month stay in space. Wild-type and mutant gene marker lines were included in Free Flyer Biostack containers and exposed on earth and side tray of the LDEF-1 satellite. The damage in biological endpoints observed in the seeds increased in the side tray sample compared to the earth tray sample. For the ascospores we found different effects depending on the biological endpoints investigated for both expositions.

  12. Arthroderma olidum, sp. nov. A new addition to the Trichophyton terrestre complex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin K; Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Bridge, Paul D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2006-08-01

    In 1981, four fungal isolates from hair of the European badger (Meles meles) were examined by Dr Phyllis Stockdale at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, and deposited in the UK National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi as an undescribed member of the Trichophyton terrestre complex. The present paper formalizes the complete description of a new ascomycete taxon, Arthroderma olidum following successful recent attempts to re-isolate the same fungus from the soil of Badger holes in South West England. Furthermore, using ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we show that the asexual form of A. olidum is conspecific with the recently described Trichophyton eboreum1 isolated from a human skin specimen in Germany. PMID:16882612

  13. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  14. Arxula adeninivorans (Blastobotrys adeninivorans) — A Dimorphic Yeast of Great Biotechnological Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böer, Erik; Steinborn, Gerhard; Florschütz, Kristina; Körner, Martina; Gellissen, Gerd; Kunze, Gotthard

    The dimorphic ascomycetous yeast Arxula adeninivorans exhibits some unusual properties. Being a thermo- and halotolerant species it is able to assimilate and ferment many compounds as sole carbon and/or nitrogen source. It utilises n-alkanes and is capable of degrading starch. Due to these unusual biochemical properties A. adeninivorans can be exploited as a gene donor for the production of enzymes with attractive biotechnological characteristics. Examples of A. adeninivorans-derived genes that are overexpressed include the ALIP1 gene encoding a secretory lipase, the AINV encoding invertase, the AXDH encoding xylitol dehydrogenase and the APHY encoding a secretory phosphatase with phytase activity.

  15. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  16. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species.

  17. Invasive Mycotic Infections Caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a New Agent of Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Barron, M. A.; Sutton, D. A.; Veve, R.; Guarro, J.; Rinaldi, M.; Thompson, E.; Cagnoni, P. J.; Moultney, K.; Madinger, N. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first two cases of invasive human mycoses caused by the phaeoid ascomycete, Chaetomium perlucidum, and review the English literature regarding invasive Chaetomium infections. Fatal disseminated disease involving the brain, heart, lungs, and spleen is described in an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. A second patient with a history of asthma and chronic bronchiectasis experiencing right-middle-lobe syndrome grew C. perlucidum from lung tissue. This study adds C. perlucidum to the list of other known neurotropic Chaetomium species, C. atrobrunneum and C. strumarium, and also documents this organism's ability to disseminate beyond the central nervous system. PMID:14605190

  18. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  19. Large Scale Sequencing of Dothideomycetes Provides Insights into Genome Evolution and Adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Sajeet; Crous, Pedro; Binder, Manfred; Spatafora, Joseph; Grigoriev, Igor

    2015-03-16

    Dothideomycetes is the largest and most diverse class of ascomycete fungi with 23 orders 110 families, 1300 genera and over 19,000 known species. We present comparative analysis of 70 Dothideomycete genomes including over 50 that we sequenced and are as yet unpublished. This extensive sampling has almost quadrupled the previous study of 18 species and uncovered a 10 fold range of genome sizes. We were able to clarify the phylogenetic positions of several species whose origins were unclear in previous morphological and sequence comparison studies. We analyzed selected gene families including proteases, transporters and small secreted proteins and show that major differences in gene content is influenced by speciation.

  20. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases.

  1. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Eskew, Evan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  2. Detection of presumptive mycoparasites associated with Entomophaga maimaiga resting spores in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Louela A; Hajek, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga can provide high levels of control of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest defoliator. This fungus persists in the soil as resting spores and occurs naturally throughout many areas where gypsy moth is established. Studies on the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth population have shown high variability in infection levels, and one possible biological factor could be the variable persistence of E. maimaiga resting spores in the soil due to attacks by mycoparasites. We surveyed presumptive mycoparasites associated with parasitized E. maimaiga resting spores using baiting and molecular techniques and identified an ascomycete (Pochonia sp.) and oomycetes (Pythium spp.). PMID:25433313

  3. Mildew-Omics: How Global Analyses Aid the Understanding of Life and Evolution of Powdery Mildews

    PubMed Central

    Bindschedler, Laurence V.; Panstruga, Ralph; Spanu, Pietro D.

    2016-01-01

    The common powdery mildew plant diseases are caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. Their characteristic life style as obligate biotrophs renders functional analyses in these species challenging, mainly because of experimental constraints to genetic manipulation. Global large-scale (“-omics”) approaches are thus particularly valuable and insightful for the characterisation of the life and evolution of powdery mildews. Here we review the knowledge obtained so far from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies in these fungi. We consider current limitations and challenges regarding these surveys and provide an outlook on desired future investigations on the basis of the various –omics technologies. PMID:26913042

  4. β-Carbonic Anhydrases Play a Role in Fruiting Body Development and Ascospore Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO3−) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ζ-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of β-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding β-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Δcas1, Δcas2, and Δcas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Δcas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Δcas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and non-specific functions. PMID:19365544

  5. Taming a wild beast: Developing molecular tools and new methods to understand the biology of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Septoria blotch of wheat is one of the world's most serious plant diseases, which is difficult to control due to the absence of durable host resistance and the increasing frequency of fungicide-resistance. The ascomycete fungus that causes the disease, Zymoseptoria tritici, has been very challenging to study. This special issue of Fungal Genetics and Biology showcases an integrated approach to method development and the innovation of new molecular tools to study the biology of Z. tritici. When considered together, these new methods will have a rapid and dramatic effect on our ability to combat this significant disease.

  6. Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Kim, Young -Mo; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2016-02-25

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that stores lipids in response to limitation of nitrogen. Furthermore, while the enzymatic pathways responsible for neutral lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica are well characterized, regulation of these pathways has received little attention. We therefore sought to characterize the response to nitrogen limitation at system-wide levels, including the proteome, phosphoproteome and metabolome, to better understand how this organism regulates and controls lipid metabolism and to identify targets that may be manipulated to improve lipid yield.

  7. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  8. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the whistling duck (Dendrocygna javanica) and black swan (Cygnus atratus): dating evolutionary divergence in Galloanserae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Miao, Yongwang; Liang, Wei; Ye, Haiyan; Liu, Hailin; Liu, Bin

    2010-07-01

    Galloanserae is an ancient and diverse avian group, for which comprehensive molecular evidence relevant to phylogenetic analysis in the context of molecular chronology is lacking. In this study, we present two additional mitochondrial genome sequences of Galloanserae (the whistling duck, Dendrocygna javanica, and the black swan, Cygnus atratus) to broaden the scope of molecular phylogenetic reconstruction. The lengths of the whistling duck's and black swan's mitochondrial genomes are 16,753 and 16,748 bases, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Dendrocygna is more likely to be in a basal position of the branch consisting of Anatinae and Anserinae, an affiliation that does not conform to its traditional classification. Bayesian approaches were employed to provide a rough timescale for Galloanserae evolution. In general, a narrow range of 95% confidence intervals gave younger estimates than those based on limited genes and estimated that at least two lineages originated before the Coniacian epoch around 90 MYA, well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In addition, these results, which were compatible with estimates from fossil evidence, also imply that the origin of numerous genera in Anseriformes took place in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. Taken together, the results presented here provide a working framework for future research on Galloanserae evolution, and they underline the utility of whole mitochondrial genome sequences for the resolution of deep divergence. PMID:19823953

  9. A Naturally Occurring Repeat Protein with High Internal Sequence Identity Defines a New Class of TPR-like Proteins.

    PubMed

    Marold, Jacob D; Kavran, Jennifer M; Bowman, Gregory D; Barrick, Doug

    2015-11-01

    Linear repeat proteins often have high structural similarity and low (∼25%) pairwise sequence identities (PSI) among modules. We identified a unique P. anserina (Pa) sequence with tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) homology, which contains longer (42 residue) repeats (42PRs) with an average PSI >91%. We determined the crystal structure of five tandem Pa 42PRs to 1.6 Å, and examined the stability and solution properties of constructs containing three to six Pa 42PRs. Compared with 34-residue TPRs (34PRs), Pa 42PRs have a one-turn extension of each helix, and bury more surface area. Unfolding transitions shift to higher denaturant concentration and become sharper as repeats are added. Fitted Ising models show Pa 42PRs to be more cooperative than consensus 34PRs, with increased magnitudes of intrinsic and interfacial free energies. These results demonstrate the tolerance of the TPR motif to length variation, and provide a basis to understand the effects of helix length on intrinsic/interfacial stability.

  10. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  11. Variation in total polyphenolics contents of aerial parts of Potentilla species and their anticariogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 +/- 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 +/- 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 +/- 1.1 mg/g dw), calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble alpha-(1-->3)-, alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25-25 and 50-100 microg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. PMID:20657382

  12. Communities of endophytic sebacinales associated with roots of herbaceous plants in agricultural and grassland ecosystems are dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity.

  13. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. PMID:25764460

  14. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  15. Characterization of the arom gene in Rhizoctonia solani, and transcription patterns under stable and induced hypovirulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Liu, Chunyu; Mishra, Prashant K; Tavantzis, Stellos

    2006-03-01

    The quinate pathway is induced by quinate in the wild-type virulent Rhizoctonia solani isolate Rhs 1AP but is constitutive in the hypovirulent, M2 dsRNA-containing isolate Rhs 1A1. Constitutive expression of the quinate pathway results in downregulation of the shikimate pathway, which includes the pentafunctional arom gene in Rhs 1A1. The arom gene has 5,323 bp including five introns as opposed to a single intron found in arom in ascomycetes. A 199-bp upstream sequence has a GC box, no TATAA box, but two GTATTAGA repeats. The largest arom transcript is 5,108 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. It contains an open reading frame of 4,857 bases, coding for a putative 1,618-residue pentafunctional AROM protein. A Kozak sequence (GCGCCATGG) is present between +127 and +135. The 5'-end of the arom mRNA includes two nucleotides (UA) that are not found in the genomic sequence, and are probably added post-transcriptionally. Size and sequence heterogeneity were observed at both 5'- and 3'-end of the mRNA. Northern blot and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses showed that presence of a low amount of quinate, inducer of the quinate pathway, resulted in increased levels of arom mRNA, consistent with the compensation effect observed in ascomycetes.

  16. Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin--A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Peckmann, Jörn; Tehler, Anders; Broman, Curt; Bach, Wolfgang; Behrens, Katharina; Reitner, Joachim; Böttcher, Michael E; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III,VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  17. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant. PMID:25253264

  18. Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin – A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Peckmann, Jörn; Tehler, Anders; Broman, Curt; Bach, Wolfgang; Behrens, Katharina; Reitner, Joachim; Böttcher, Michael E.; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III,VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies. PMID:26181773

  19. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    PubMed Central

    Jeoh, Tina; Michener, William; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R; Adney, William S

    2008-01-01

    The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline) and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous) cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A) resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved. PMID:18471276

  20. Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin--A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Peckmann, Jörn; Tehler, Anders; Broman, Curt; Bach, Wolfgang; Behrens, Katharina; Reitner, Joachim; Böttcher, Michael E; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III,VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies. PMID:26181773

  1. The Ustilago maydis Nit2 homolog regulates nitrogen utilization and is required for efficient induction of filamentous growth.

    PubMed

    Horst, Robin J; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Voll, Lars M

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis. PMID:22247264

  2. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  3. The Ustilago maydis Nit2 Homolog Regulates Nitrogen Utilization and Is Required for Efficient Induction of Filamentous Growth

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Robin J.; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis. PMID:22247264

  4. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  5. Starmerella syriaca f.a., sp. nov., an osmotolerant yeast species isolated from flowers in Syria.

    PubMed

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Four strains of a novel asexual ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from Malva sp. flowers in Syria. Sequencing of the regions spanning the small subunit, 5.8S, and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed that the isolates were conspecific. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the corresponding sequences of the type strains of ascomycetous yeasts revealed that the novel species is phylogenetically related to members of the Starmerella clade. Its closest relative is Candida vaccinii. For the new species the name Starmerella syriaca is proposed. Its strains are osmotolerant and produce pseudohypha-like structures capable of penetrating agar media. The type strain is 2-1362(T) (=CBS 13909(T) = NCAIM Y.02138(T) = CCY 090-003-001(T)). The GenBank accession numbers for its nucleotide sequences are: JX515986 (D1/D2 LSU), JX515987 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and JX515988 (SSU). Mycobank: MB 810090.

  6. The tempo and modes of evolution of reproductive isolation in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, T; Gourbière, S

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is an essential ingredient of speciation, and much has been learned in recent years about the evolution of reproductive isolation and the genetics of reproductive barriers in animals and plants. Fungi have been neglected on these aspects, despite being tractable model eukaryotes. Here, we used a model fitting approach to look at the importance of different barriers to gene flow to explain the decrease of reproductive compatibility with genetic distance in fungi. We found support for the occurrence of reinforcement in the presyngamy compatibility among basidiomycetes. In contrast, no evidence for reinforcement was detected in ascomycetes, concurring with the idea that host/habitat adaptation in this group can pleiotropically cause reproductive isolation. We found no evidence of a snowballing accumulation of postsyngamic reproductive incompatibilities in either ascomycetes or the complex of anther smut fungi. Together with previous studies, our results suggest that ecologically based barriers to gene flow and karyotypic differences may have an important role in hybrid inviability and sterility in fungi. Interestingly, hybrid sterility appeared to evolve faster than hybrid inviability in fungi. PMID:22669076

  7. A WDR Gene Is a Conserved Member of a Chitin Synthase Gene Cluster and Influences the Cell Wall in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Silvestrini, Lucia; Obersriebnig, Michael; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ezcurra, Inés

    2016-01-01

    WD40 repeat (WDR) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. We identify a WDR gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in Ascomycetes. The WDR gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called Fungal Plant WD (FPWD). FPWD is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the Ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) comprising chsD, a Chs activator and a GH17 glucanase. The FPWD, AN1556.2 locus was deleted in Aspergillus nidulans strain SAA.111 by gene replacement and only heterokaryon transformants were obtained. The re-annotation of Aspergilli genomes shows that AN1556.2 consists of two tightly linked separate genes, i.e., the WDR gene and a putative beta-flanking gene of unknown function. The WDR and the beta-flanking genes are conserved genomic neighbors localized within a recently identified metabolic cell wall gene cluster in genomes of Aspergilli. The heterokaryons displayed increased susceptibility to drugs affecting the cell wall, and their phenotypes, observed by optical, confocal, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, suggest cell wall alterations. Quantitative real-time PCR shows altered expression of some cell wall-related genes. The possible implications on cell wall biosynthesis are discussed.

  8. House dust mites possess a polymorphic, single domain putative peptidoglycan d,l endopeptidase belonging to the NlpC/P60 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian H.; Stewart, Geoffrey A.; Chang, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    A 14 kDa protein homologous to the γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase members of the NlpC/P60 Superfamily has been described in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae but it is not clear whether other species produce homologues. Bioinformatics revealed homologous genes in other Sarcopteformes mite species (Psoroptes ovis and Blomia tropicalis) but not in Tetranychus urticae and Metaseiulus occidentalis. The degrees of identity (similarity) between the D. pteronyssinus mature protein and those from D. farinae, P. ovis and B. tropicalis were 82% (96%), 77% (93%) and 61% (82%), respectively. Phylogenetic studies showed the mite proteins were monophyletic and shared a common ancestor with both actinomycetes and ascomycetes. The gene encoding the D. pteronyssinus protein was polymorphic and intronless in contrast to that reported for D. farinae. Homology studies suggest that the mite, ascomycete and actinomycete proteins are involved in the catalysis of stem peptide attached to peptidoglycan. The finding of a gene encoding a P60 family member in the D. pteronyssinus genome together with the presence of a bacterial promotor suggests an evolutionary link to one or more prokaryotic endosymbionts. PMID:26566476

  9. A WDR Gene Is a Conserved Member of a Chitin Synthase Gene Cluster and Influences the Cell Wall in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Gea; Silvestrini, Lucia; Obersriebnig, Michael; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ezcurra, Inés

    2016-01-01

    WD40 repeat (WDR) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. We identify a WDR gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in Ascomycetes. The WDR gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called Fungal Plant WD (FPWD). FPWD is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the Ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) comprising chsD, a Chs activator and a GH17 glucanase. The FPWD, AN1556.2 locus was deleted in Aspergillus nidulans strain SAA.111 by gene replacement and only heterokaryon transformants were obtained. The re-annotation of Aspergilli genomes shows that AN1556.2 consists of two tightly linked separate genes, i.e., the WDR gene and a putative beta-flanking gene of unknown function. The WDR and the beta-flanking genes are conserved genomic neighbors localized within a recently identified metabolic cell wall gene cluster in genomes of Aspergilli. The heterokaryons displayed increased susceptibility to drugs affecting the cell wall, and their phenotypes, observed by optical, confocal, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, suggest cell wall alterations. Quantitative real-time PCR shows altered expression of some cell wall-related genes. The possible implications on cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:27367684

  10. The Ustilago maydis Nit2 homolog regulates nitrogen utilization and is required for efficient induction of filamentous growth.

    PubMed

    Horst, Robin J; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Voll, Lars M

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis.

  11. Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Stajich, Jason E; Rounsley, Steven D; Gardner, Malcolm J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Jordar, Vinita S; Maiti, Rama; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Neafsey, Daniel E; Zeng, Qiandong; Hung, Chiung-Yu; McMahan, Cody; Muszewska, Anna; Grynberg, Marcin; Mandel, M Alejandra; Kellner, Ellen M; Barker, Bridget M; Galgiani, John N; Orbach, Marc J; Kirkland, Theo N; Cole, Garry T; Henn, Matthew R; Birren, Bruce W; Taylor, John W

    2009-10-01

    While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales, including C. immitis and C. posadasii; a close, nonpathogenic relative, Uncinocarpus reesii; and a more diverged pathogenic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, were sequenced and compared with those of 13 more distantly related Ascomycetes. This analysis identified increases and decreases in gene family size associated with a host/substrate shift from plants to animals in the Onygenales. In addition, comparison among Onygenales genomes revealed evolutionary changes in Coccidioides that may underlie its infectious phenotype, the identification of which may facilitate improved treatment and prevention of coccidioidomycosis. Overall, the results suggest that Coccidioides species are not soil saprophytes, but that they have evolved to remain associated with their dead animal hosts in soil, and that Coccidioides metabolism genes, membrane-related proteins, and putatively antigenic compounds have evolved in response to interaction with an animal host. PMID:19717792

  12. Cryptons: a group of tyrosine-recombinase-encoding DNA transposons from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Timothy J D; Butler, Margaret I; Poulter, Russell T M

    2003-11-01

    A new group of transposable elements, which the authors have named cryptons, was detected in several pathogenic fungi, including the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, and the ascomycetes Coccidioides posadasii and Histoplasma capsulatum. These elements are unlike any previously described transposons. An archetypal member of the group, crypton Cn1, is 4 kb in length and is present at a low but variable copy number in a variety of C. neoformans strains. It displays interstrain variations in its insertion sites, suggesting recent mobility. The internal region contains a long gene, interrupted by several introns. The product of this gene contains a putative tyrosine recombinase near its middle, and a region similar in sequence to the DNA-binding domains of several fungal transcription factors near its C-terminus. The element contains no long repeat sequences, but is bordered by short direct repeats which may have been produced by its insertion into the host genome by recombination. Many of the structural features of crypton Cn1 are conserved in the other known cryptons, suggesting that these elements represent the functional forms. The presence of cryptons in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes suggests that this is an ancient group of elements (>400 million years old). Sequence comparisons suggest that cryptons may be related to the DIRS1 and Ngaro1 groups of tyrosine-recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. PMID:14600222

  13. Implications of Cellobiohydrolase Glycosylation for use in Biomass Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Jeoh, T.; Michener W.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina), is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline) and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous) cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A) resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  14. Five new species of yeasts from fresh water and marine habitats in the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Fell, Jack W; Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H

    2011-03-01

    Yeast populations in the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades, USA, were examined during a 3-year period (2002-2005) at six locations ranging from fresh water marshes to marine mangroves. Seventy-four described species (33 ascomycetes and 41 basidiomycetes) and an approximately equal number of undescribed species were isolated during the course of the investigation. Serious human pathogens, such as Candida tropicalis, were not observed, which indicates that their presence in coastal waters is due to sources of pollution. Some of the observed species were widespread throughout the fresh water and marine habitats, whereas others appeared to be habitat restricted. Species occurrence ranged from prevalent to rare. Five representative unknown species were selected for formal description. The five species comprise two ascomycetes: Candida sharkiensis sp. nov. (CBS 11368(T)) and Candida rhizophoriensis sp. nov. (CBS 11402(T)) (Saccharomycetales, Metschnikowiaceae), and three basidiomycetes: Rhodotorula cladiensis sp. nov. (CBS 10878(T)) in the Sakaguchia clade (Cystobasidiomycetes), Rhodotorula evergladiensis sp. nov. (CBS 10880(T)) in the Rhodosporidium toruloides clade (Microbotryomycetes, Sporidiobolales) and Cryptococcus mangaliensis sp. nov. (CBS 10870(T)) in the Bulleromyces clade (Agaricomycotina, Tremellales). PMID:20967499

  15. Distribution and evolution of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulases in nematodes and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been suggested as the mechanism by which various plant parasitic nematode species have obtained genes important in parasitism. In particular, cellulase genes have been acquired by plant parasitic nematodes that allow them to digest plant cell walls. Unlike the typical glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 cellulase genes which are found in several nematode species from the order Tylenchida, members of the GH45 cellulase have only been identified in a cluster including the families Parasitaphelenchidae (with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Aphelenchoididae, and their origins remain unknown. Results In order to investigate the distribution and evolution of GH45 cellulase genes in nematodes and fungi we performed a wide ranging screen for novel putative GH45 sequences. This revealed that the sequences are widespread mainly in Ascomycetous fungi and have so far been found in a single major nematode lineage. Close relationships between the sequences from nematodes and fungi were found through our phylogenetic analyses. An intron position is shared by sequences from Bursaphelenchus nematodes and several Ascomycetous fungal species. Conclusions The close phylogenetic relationships and conserved gene structure between the sequences from nematodes and fungi strongly supports the hypothesis that nematode GH45 cellulase genes were acquired via HGT from fungi. The rapid duplication and turnover of these genes within Bursaphelenchus genomes demonstrate that useful sequences acquired via HGT can become established in the genomes of recipient organisms and may open novel niches for these organisms to exploit. PMID:24690293

  16. Yeasts colonizing the leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sláviková, Elena; Vadkertiová, Renata; Vránová, Dana

    2007-08-01

    The yeasts were isolated from the leaf surfaces of ten species of trees. The study site was a forest park (Zelezná Studnicka) of the Small Carpathians mountain range. One hundred and thirty seven yeast strains belonging to 13 genera were isolated from 320 samples of leaves and needles. Seventeen yeast species were isolated, but only seven occurred regularly: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus laurentii, Pichia anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp., Lachancea thermotolerans, and Rhodotorula glutinis. The remaining species were isolated from the leaves and needles of three or less tree species. A. pullulans, Cr. laurentii, and P. anomala were the most frequently found species and they occurred on leaves and needles of all ten tree species. Saccharomyces sp. occurred in leaf samples collected from eight kinds of trees. M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were found in samples collected from six species of trees. Both these species occurred almost always on the leaves of deciduous trees. Rh. glutinis was the most frequently isolated carotenoids producing species. We have found out that the ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species were present in the leaf samples in approximately equal frequency, contrary to the soil samples taken from this forest park, where the ascomycetous species were found rarely.

  17. NFAP2, a novel cysteine-rich anti-yeast protein from Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Liliána; Kele, Zoltán; Borics, Attila; Nagy, László G; Váradi, Györgyi; Virágh, Máté; Takó, Miklós; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2016-12-01

    The increasing incidence of fungal infections and damages due to drug-resistant fungi urges the development of new antifungal strategies. The cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from filamentous ascomycetes provide a feasible base for protection against molds due to their potent antifungal activity on them. In contrast to this, they show no or weak activity on yeasts, hence their applicability against this group of fungi is questionable. In the present study a 5.6 kDa anti-yeast protein (NFAP2) is isolated, identified and characterized from the ferment broth of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, NFAP2 and its putative homologs represent a new group of ascomycetous cysteine-rich antifungal proteins. NFAP2 proved to be highly effective against tested yeasts involving clinically relevant Candida species. NFAP2 did not cause metabolic inactivity and apoptosis induction, but its plasma membrane disruption ability was observed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antifungal activity was maintained after high temperature treatment presumably due to the in silico predicted stable tertiary structure. The disulfide bond-stabilized, heat-resistant folded structure of NFAP2 was experimentally proved. After further investigations of antifungal mechanism, structure and toxicity, NFAP2 could be applicable as a potent antifungal agent against yeasts. PMID:27637945

  18. Isolation and immunological characterization of a novel Cladosporium herbarum allergen structurally homologous to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily.

    PubMed

    Rid, Raphaela; Onder, Kamil; Hawranek, Thomas; Laimer, Martin; Bauer, Johann W; Holler, Claudia; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Breitenbach, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Because the ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum embodies one of the most important, world-wide occurring fungal species responsible for eliciting typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract, a more comprehensive definition of its detailed allergen repertoire is unquestionably of critical medical as well as therapeutic significance. By screening a C. herbarum cDNA library with IgE antibodies pooled from 3 mold-reactive sera, we were able to identify, clone and affinity-purify a novel allergen candidate (29.9 kDa) exhibiting considerable (three-dimensional) homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily. The latter covers a collection of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin as well as catalytic activity (operating in countless biological contexts) that in general exhibit only little sequence similarity yet show a remarkable conservation of structural topology. Our present study (i) characterizes recombinant non-fusion C. herbarum hydrolase as a natively folded, minor mold allergen that displays a prevalence of IgE reactivity of approximately 17% in our in vitro immunoblot experiments, (ii) proposes the existence of several putative (speculatively cross-reactive) ascomycete orthologues as determined via genome-wide in silico predictions, and (iii) finally implies that C. herbarum hydrolase could be included in forthcoming minimal testing sets when fungal allergy is suspected.

  19. Rapid and effective DNA extraction method with bead grinding for a large amount of fungal DNA.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Lee, K; Goto, K; Kumagai, S; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Hara-Kudo, Y

    2010-06-01

    To identify a rapid method for extracting a large amount of DNA from fungi associated with food hygiene, extraction methods were compared using fungal pellets formed rapidly in liquid media. Combinations of physical and chemical methods or commercial kits were evaluated with 3 species of yeast, 10 species of ascomycetous molds, and 4 species of zygomycetous molds. Bead grinding was the physical method, followed by chemical methods involving sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and benzyl chloride and two commercial kits. Quantity was calculated by UV absorbance at 260 nm, quality was determined by the ratio of UV absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, and gene amplifications and electrophoresis profiles of whole genomes were analyzed. Bead grinding with the SDS method was the most effective for DNA extraction for yeasts and ascomycetous molds, and bead grinding with the CTAB method was most effective with zygomycetous molds. For both groups of molds, bead grinding with the CTAB method was the best approach for DNA extraction. Because this combination also is relatively effective for yeasts, it can be used to extract a large amount of DNA from a wide range of fungi. The DNA extraction methods are useful for developing gene indexes to identify fungi with molecular techniques, such as DNA fingerprinting.

  20. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult lichen-forming fungi: an example from morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Johnson, Leigh A; Goward, Trevor; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests many morphology-based species circumscriptions in lichenized ascomycetes misrepresent fungal diversity. The lichenized ascomycete genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 described species displaying a considerable range of morphological and chemical variation. Species circumscriptions in this genus have traditionally been based on thallus morphology, medullary chemistry, and the presence or absence of sexual or asexual reproductive structures. Notwithstanding concerted effort on the part of taxonomists to arrive at a natural classification, modern taxonomic concepts for the most part remain unclear. Here we assess the evolution of characters traditionally regarded as taxonomically important by reconstructing a phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data from four nuclear ribosomal markers as well as fragments from two protein-coding nuclear loci. A total of 414 individuals were tested, representing 19 currently accepted species. Most sampled species, as currently circumscribed, were recovered as polyphyletic, suggesting that major diagnostic characters have evolved in a homoplasious manner. The vagrant growth form, distinct medullary chemistries, and production of vegetative diaspores appear to have evolved independently multiple times. Application of a population assignment test resulted in the recognition of 21 species-level genetic clusters, each of which was supported by a comparison of genetic distances as well as a Bayesian species delimitation method calculating probabilities associated with speciation events. Inferred clusters are largely incongruent with traditionally circumscribed species due to the prevalence of cryptic diversity and, in some cases, high levels of intraspecific morphological and chemical variation. These results call for a major taxonomic revision of Xanthoparmelia species in western North America.

  1. Identification of novel and robust internal control genes from Volvariella volvacea that are suitable for RT-qPCR in filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yongxin; van Peer, Arend Frans; Huang, Qianhui; Shao, Yanping; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Bin; Jiang, Yuji; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Baogui

    2016-01-01

    The selection of appropriate internal control genes (ICGs) is a crucial step in the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Housekeeping genes are habitually selected for this purpose, despite accumulating evidence on their instability. We screened for novel, robust ICGs in the mushroom forming fungus Volvariella volvacea. Nine commonly used and five newly selected ICGs were evaluated for expression stability using RT-qPCR data in eight different stages of the life cycle of V. volvacea. Three different algorithms consistently determined that three novel ICGs (SPRYp, Ras and Vps26) exhibited the highest expression stability in V. volvacea. Subsequent analysis of ICGs in twenty-four expression profiles from nine filamentous fungi revealed that Ras was the most stable ICG amongst the Basidiomycetous samples, followed by SPRYp, Vps26 and ACTB. Vps26 was expressed most stably within the analyzed data of Ascomycetes, followed by HH3 and β-TUB. No ICG was universally stable for all fungal species, or for all experimental conditions within a species. Ultimately, the choice of an ICG will depend on a specific set of experiments. This study provides novel, robust ICGs for Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Together with the presented guiding principles, this enables the efficient selection of suitable ICGs for RT-qPCR. PMID:27405087

  2. Illumina MiSeq investigations on the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense infected soil during and after reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-12-01

    Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after RSD remains poorly understood. MiSeq pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) infected soil during RSD and at the simulative banana cultivation after RSD. The results showed that RSD significantly increased soil microbial populations and a different microbial community with the pathogenic soil was established after RSD. Specifically, the number of Firmicutes mainly containing Ruminococcus and Coprococcus followed by a small part of Clostridium which were the dominant bacterial genera significantly increased during RSD. In contrast, Symbiobacterium and Flavisolibacter were the dominant genera in the flooding soil. When the soils were recovered under aerobic condition, the relative abundances of the bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes increased as alternatives to the reducing Firmicutes. For fungi, the population of F. oxysporum significantly decreased during RSD accompanied with the pH decline, which resulted in the significant decrease of relative abundance in the phylum Ascomycota. Alternatively, the relative abundances of some other fungal species increased, such as Chaetomium spp. and Penicillium spp. belonging to Ascomycota and the family Clavulinaceae belonging to Basidiomycota. Then, the relative abundance of Ascomycota re-increased after RSD with Podospora and Zopfiella as dominant genera, whereas the relative abundance of Fusarium further decreased. Overall, the microbial populations and community re-established by RSD made the soil more disease-suppressive and beneficial to the soil nutrient cycling and plant growth compared with the previous pathogenic soil. PMID:26640050

  3. Illumina MiSeq investigations on the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense infected soil during and after reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-12-01

    Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after RSD remains poorly understood. MiSeq pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) infected soil during RSD and at the simulative banana cultivation after RSD. The results showed that RSD significantly increased soil microbial populations and a different microbial community with the pathogenic soil was established after RSD. Specifically, the number of Firmicutes mainly containing Ruminococcus and Coprococcus followed by a small part of Clostridium which were the dominant bacterial genera significantly increased during RSD. In contrast, Symbiobacterium and Flavisolibacter were the dominant genera in the flooding soil. When the soils were recovered under aerobic condition, the relative abundances of the bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes increased as alternatives to the reducing Firmicutes. For fungi, the population of F. oxysporum significantly decreased during RSD accompanied with the pH decline, which resulted in the significant decrease of relative abundance in the phylum Ascomycota. Alternatively, the relative abundances of some other fungal species increased, such as Chaetomium spp. and Penicillium spp. belonging to Ascomycota and the family Clavulinaceae belonging to Basidiomycota. Then, the relative abundance of Ascomycota re-increased after RSD with Podospora and Zopfiella as dominant genera, whereas the relative abundance of Fusarium further decreased. Overall, the microbial populations and community re-established by RSD made the soil more disease-suppressive and beneficial to the soil nutrient cycling and plant growth compared with the previous pathogenic soil.

  4. De Novo Biosynthesis of Vanillin in Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Esben H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R.; Bünner, Camilla M.; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R.; Okkels, Finn T.; Olsen, Carl E.; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin β-d-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity. PMID:19286778

  5. How past and present influence the foraging of clonal plants?

    PubMed

    Louâpre, Philipe; Bittebière, Anne-Kristel; Clément, Bernard; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants spreading horizontally and forming a network structure of ramets exhibit complex growth patterns to maximize resource uptake from the environment. They respond to spatial heterogeneity by changing their internode length or branching frequency. Ramets definitively root in the soil but stay interconnected for a varying period of time thus allowing an exchange of spatial and temporal information. We quantified the foraging response of clonal plants depending on the local soil quality sampled by the rooting ramet (i.e. the present information) and the resource variability sampled by the older ramets (i.e. the past information). We demonstrated that two related species, Potentilla reptans and P. anserina, responded similarly to the local quality of their environment by decreasing their internode length in response to nutrient-rich soil. Only P. reptans responded to resource variability by decreasing its internode length. In both species, the experience acquired by older ramets influenced the plastic response of new rooted ramets: the internode length between ramets depended not only on the soil quality locally sampled but also on the soil quality previously sampled by older ramets. We quantified the effect of the information perceived at different time and space on the foraging behavior of clonal plants by showing a non-linear response of the ramet rooting in the soil of a given quality. These data suggest that the decision to grow a stolon or to root a ramet at a given distance from the older ramet results from the integration of the past and present information about the richness and the variability of the environment.

  6. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) and Implications for Anseriformes Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Zijun; Xu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis), which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three–TAA, TAG, and T- –commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer(AGY) and tRNALeu(CUN), which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data. PMID:23717412

  7. An altitudinal cline in UV floral pattern corresponds with a behavioral change of a generalist pollinator assemblage.

    PubMed

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in pollinator communities or behaviors can underlie floral diversification. Floral traits in the UV spectrum are common and mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but the role of pollinators in driving or maintaining their geographic variation has not been fully explored. We identify an altitudinal cline of increasing relative size of the UV bullseye pattern in Argentina anserina (Rosaceae) flowers, and assess whether pollination context contributes to clinal variation. At four sites that varied in altitude, we document the pollinator assemblage, and pollinator preference and visitation behavior. We then determine how pollinator visits affected pollen receipt and export. Finally, we describe how the functional relationship between UV floral phenotype and pollen receipt changed with altitude. Floral UV bullseye size increased with altitude, which corresponded with a change from a hymenopteran- to a dipteran-dominated pollinator assemblage. While dipteran and hymenopteran preferences for bullseye size were similar, flowers with large bullseyes received more foraging visits than those with small bullseyes at higher altitude. The reverse was observed at the lower altitudes; pollinators approached large-bullseye flowers often but rarely foraged. These differences are expected to affect fitness because foraging visits increased pollen export and receipt. Indeed, when natural variation in bullseye size was considered, it had a stronger effect on pollen receipt than other traits (flower size, display, or color). Plants with larger bullseyes tended to receive more pollen at the highest-altitude site, while those with smaller ones received more pollen at the lowest-altitude site. Results suggest that altitudinal changes in preference and behavior of the overall pollinator assemblage, but not differential preferences of pollinator taxonomic groups, could contribute to clinal variation in a UV floral trait for a generalist-pollinated plant. PMID:26909439

  8. An altitudinal cline in UV floral pattern corresponds with a behavioral change of a generalist pollinator assemblage.

    PubMed

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in pollinator communities or behaviors can underlie floral diversification. Floral traits in the UV spectrum are common and mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but the role of pollinators in driving or maintaining their geographic variation has not been fully explored. We identify an altitudinal cline of increasing relative size of the UV bullseye pattern in Argentina anserina (Rosaceae) flowers, and assess whether pollination context contributes to clinal variation. At four sites that varied in altitude, we document the pollinator assemblage, and pollinator preference and visitation behavior. We then determine how pollinator visits affected pollen receipt and export. Finally, we describe how the functional relationship between UV floral phenotype and pollen receipt changed with altitude. Floral UV bullseye size increased with altitude, which corresponded with a change from a hymenopteran- to a dipteran-dominated pollinator assemblage. While dipteran and hymenopteran preferences for bullseye size were similar, flowers with large bullseyes received more foraging visits than those with small bullseyes at higher altitude. The reverse was observed at the lower altitudes; pollinators approached large-bullseye flowers often but rarely foraged. These differences are expected to affect fitness because foraging visits increased pollen export and receipt. Indeed, when natural variation in bullseye size was considered, it had a stronger effect on pollen receipt than other traits (flower size, display, or color). Plants with larger bullseyes tended to receive more pollen at the highest-altitude site, while those with smaller ones received more pollen at the lowest-altitude site. Results suggest that altitudinal changes in preference and behavior of the overall pollinator assemblage, but not differential preferences of pollinator taxonomic groups, could contribute to clinal variation in a UV floral trait for a generalist-pollinated plant.

  9. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  10. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  11. Overwintering of Vineyard Yeasts: Survival of Interacting Yeast Communities in Grapes Mummified on Vines

    PubMed Central

    Sipiczki, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of grape must into wine involves the development and succession of yeast populations differing in species composition. The initial population is formed by vineyard strains which are washed into the must from the crushed grapes and then completed with yeasts coming from the cellar environment. As the origin and natural habitat of the vineyard yeasts are not fully understood, this study addresses the possibility, that grape yeasts can be preserved in berries left behind on vines at harvest until the spring of the next year. These berries become mummified during the winter on the vines. To investigate whether yeasts can survive in these overwintering grapes, mummified berries were collected in 16 localities in the Tokaj wine region (Hungary-Slovakia) in early March. The collected berries were rehydrated to recover viable yeasts by plating samples onto agar plates. For the detection of minority species which would not be detected by direct plating, an enrichment step repressing the propagation of alcohol-sensitive yeasts was also included in the process. The morphological, physiological, and molecular analysis identified 13 basidiomycetous and 23 ascomycetous species including fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance among the 3879 isolates. The presence of viable strains of these species demonstrates that the grapes mummified on the vine can serve as a safe reservoir of yeasts, and may contribute to the maintenance of grape-colonizing yeast populations in the vineyard over years, parallel with other vectors and habitats. All basidiomycetous species were known phylloplane yeasts. Three Hanseniaspora species and pigmented Metschnikowia strains were the most frequent ascomycetes. Other fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance were detected only in the enrichment cultures. Saccharomyces (S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae, and S. uvarum) were recovered from 13% of the samples. No Candida zemplinina was found. The isolates with Aureobasidium morphology

  12. Essential Gene Discovery in the Basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans for Antifungal Drug Target Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ianiri, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungal diseases represent a major burden to health care globally. As with other pathogenic microbes, there is a limited number of agents suitable for use in treating fungal diseases, and resistance to these agents can develop rapidly. Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete fungus that causes cryptococcosis worldwide in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals. As a basidiomycete, it diverged from other common pathogenic or model ascomycete fungi more than 500 million years ago. Here, we report C. neoformans genes that are essential for viability as identified through forward and reverse genetic approaches, using an engineered diploid strain and genetic segregation after meiosis. The forward genetic approach generated random insertional mutants in the diploid strain, the induction of meiosis and sporulation, and selection for haploid cells with counterselection of the insertion event. More than 2,500 mutants were analyzed, and transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertions in several genes required for viability were identified. The genes include those encoding the thioredoxin reductase (Trr1), a ribosome assembly factor (Rsa4), an mRNA-capping component (Cet1), and others. For targeted gene replacement, the C. neoformans homologs of 35 genes required for viability in ascomycete fungi were disrupted, meiosis and sporulation were induced, and haploid progeny were evaluated for their ability to grow on selective media. Twenty-one (60%) were found to be required for viability in C. neoformans. These genes are involved in mitochondrial translation, ergosterol biosynthesis, and RNA-related functions. The heterozygous diploid mutants were evaluated for haploinsufficiency on a number of perturbing agents and drugs, revealing phenotypes due to the loss of one copy of an essential gene in C. neoformans. This study expands the knowledge of the essential genes in fungi using a basidiomycete as a model organism. Genes that have no mammalian homologs and are essential

  13. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J Bruce; Gillies, Laura A; Almada, Luis A G; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2013-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  14. Geosmithia morbida sp. nov., a new phytopathogenic species living in symbiosis with the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) on Juglans in USA.

    PubMed

    Kolarík, Miroslav; Freeland, Emily; Utley, Curtis; Tisserat, Ned

    2011-01-01

    Widespread morbidity and mortality of Juglans nigra has occurred in the western USA over the past decade. Tree mortality is the result of aggressive feeding by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and subsequent canker development around beetle galleries caused by a filamentous ascomycete in genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Thirty-seven Geosmithia strains collected from J. californica, J. hindsii, J. major and J. nigra in seven USA states (AZ, CA, CO, ID, OR, UT, WA) were compared with morphological and molecular methods (ITS rDNA sequences). Strains had common characteristics including yellowish conidia en masse, growth at 37 C and absence of growth on Czapek-Dox agar and belonged to a single species described here as G. morbida. Whereas Geosmithia are common saprobes associated with bark beetles attacking hardwoods and conifers worldwide, G. morbida is the first species documented as a plant pathogen.

  15. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. PMID:25011009

  16. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus. PMID:25506308

  17. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature. PMID:27364626

  18. The effect of acetylated xylan and sugar beet pulp on the expression and secretion of enzymes by Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Mario; Callegari, Eduardo; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a natural carbon source composed mainly of pectin and cellulose, which is utilized and degraded by the ascomycete Penicillium purpurogenum. The fungus also grows on and degrades acetylated xylan which lacks cellulose and pectin. Both carbon sources have been used in our laboratory to grow the fungus and to purify different enzymes secreted to the medium. The enzymes involved in the complex process of degradation of these carbon sources by the fungus have been explored previously under non-denaturing conditions; multienzyme complexes were separated and some subunits identified by Western blots and mass spectrometry. In this work, proteomic profiles show that the secretome is composed of numerous proteins varying in pI and molecular weight. Some enzymes are common to both growth conditions, while others are specific for each carbon source. The results show that the carbon sources utilized exert strong regulatory control over the proteins secreted. This is the first secretome study from a lignocellulolytic Penicillium.

  19. Characterization and structure of the mitochondrial small rRNA gene of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, D D; Pfeifer, T A; Mulyk, D S; Khachatourians, G G

    1998-06-01

    The entire mitochondrial (mt) small ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was sequenced. Alignment of the sequence to those of other filamentous fungi revealed gross length differences in their respective products. Construction of a secondary structural model showed that these differences were restricted to known variable srRNA subdomains. Several features were identified that were common only to the hyphomycetous fungi examined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the anamorph B. bassiana was more closely related to the pyrenomycete than to the plectomycete ascomycetous fungi. Based on our previous comparison of mt gene arrangement in filamentous fungi, this was unexpected. The possibility that the smaller mt genomes reflect the ancestral arrangement of genes is discussed.

  20. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement.

  1. The importance of molecular analyses for understanding the genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vite-Garín, Tania; Estrada-Bárcenas, Daniel Alfonso; Cifuentes, Joaquín; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the classification of the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) (ascomycete) are sustained by the results of several genetic analyses that support the high diversity of this dimorphic fungus. The present mini-review highlights the great genetic plasticity of H. capsulatum. Important records with different molecular tools, mainly single- or multi-locus sequence analyses developed with this fungus, are discussed. Recent phylogenetic data with a multi-locus sequence analysis using 5 polymorphic loci support a new clade and/or phylogenetic species of H. capsulatum for the Americas, which was associated with fungal isolates obtained from the migratory bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  2. Fungal flora and ochratoxin a production in grapes and musts from france.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Krivobok, Serge; Delbos, Emilie; Seigle-Murandi, Françoise; Creppy, Edmond E

    2002-02-27

    Eleven samples of grapes and musts used in red table wines were investigated for the occurrence of potential ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing molds. From these samples, 59 filamentous fungi and 2 yeasts were isolated. Among the 30 genera isolated, Deuteromycetes were the most frequent (70%) followed by Ascomycetes (10%). Six of the eleven grapes samples were contaminated by potentially ochratoxinogenic strains (Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus carbonarius). When cultivated in vitro on solid complex media, the 14 strains of A. carbonarius produced OTA. No other species produced OTA under the same conditions. Among must samples, eight of eleven were found to be contaminated by OTA (concentrations from <10 to 461 ng/L). There is a strong correlation between the presence of ochratoxin-producing strains on grapes and OTA in musts. These findings should be connected with the OTA contamination of human blood in these areas and in France.

  3. Searching for gold beyond mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Peñalva, Miguel A.; Galindo, Antonio; Abenza, Juan F.; Pinar, Mario; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana M.; Arst Jr, Herbert N.; Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2012-01-01

    The genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. More recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of A. nidulans cell biology studies. This review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in A. nidulans. The cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth of the multinucleated hyphal tip cells, whereas membrane traffic is adapted to the large intracellular distances. Recent work illustrates the usefulness of this fungus for morphological and biochemical studies on endosome and Golgi maturation, and on the role of microtubule-dependent motors in the long-distance movement of endosomes. The fungus is ideally suited for genetic studies on the secretory pathway, as mutations impairing secretion reduce apical extension rates, resulting in phenotypes detectable by visual inspection of colonies. PMID:22645705

  4. Searching for gold beyond mitosis: Mining intracellular membrane traffic in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Peñalva, Miguel A; Galindo, Antonio; Abenza, Juan F; Pinar, Mario; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana M; Arst, Herbert N; Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2012-01-01

    The genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. More recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of A. nidulans cell biology studies. This review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in A. nidulans. The cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth of the multinucleated hyphal tip cells, whereas membrane traffic is adapted to the large intracellular distances. Recent work illustrates the usefulness of this fungus for morphological and biochemical studies on endosome and Golgi maturation, and on the role of microtubule-dependent motors in the long-distance movement of endosomes. The fungus is ideally suited for genetic studies on the secretory pathway, as mutations impairing secretion reduce apical extension rates, resulting in phenotypes detectable by visual inspection of colonies. PMID:22645705

  5. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    PubMed

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted.

  6. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

  7. Molecular characterization of Morchella species from the Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Harpreet Kaur; Acharya, Karan; Ramesh, G; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2011-04-01

    The molecular diversity of thirty-two different Morchella cultures/fruiting bodies, collected from the Western Himalayan region was studied in this investigation. Considerable taxonomic confusion exists regarding many species of Morchella. Although classical taxonomy is helpful in identification for many ascomycetes, morels exhibit considerable morphological diversity and there is disagreement in the identification of morel species. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences could help in sorting out morel taxonomy which is essential to better define the morel diversity. In this study, sequence analysis revealed that in the Western Himalayan region of India, both yellow (M. crassipes, M. spongiola) and black morels (M. elata, M. angusticeps, and M. gigas) were prominent along with two Verpa species. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed two different clades and a clear distinction between yellow and black morels. PMID:21188589

  8. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  9. Phialosimplex salinarum, a new species of Eurotiomycetes from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Katrin; Peršoh, Derek; Weig, Alfons; Rambold, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    Salt mines represent an extreme environment with hypersaline conditions, complete darkness, and low nutrient availability. The diversity of filamentous fungi in such habitats is largely unknown. Eight strains of an unknown fungus were isolated from water samples of the salt mine in Berchtesgaden (Bavaria, Germany). They could be assigned to the ascomycete genus Phialosimplex, based on their common characteristics of producing conidia in chains or in heads on single phialides. Species of this genus are hitherto known to cause mycoses in dogs and have been found in mummies. Using molecular and morphological methods, the isolates are established as a new species, Phialosimplex salinarum sp. nov. Basipetospora halophila is also transferred to Phialosimplex as P. halophila comb. nov. PMID:25734026

  10. The yeast community of sap fluxes of Costa Rican Maclura (Chlorophora) tinctoria and description of two new yeast species, Candida galis and Candida ortonii.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A; Klemens, J A; Bowles, J M; Janzen, D H

    2001-07-01

    We report on the yeast community associated with sap fluxes of Maclura tinctoria, family Moraceae, in the dry forest of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Eleven samples yielded seven hitherto undescribed ascomycetous yeasts in the genera Candida and Myxozyma. We describe the two most abundant as new species. Candida galis utilizes very few carbon compounds limited to some alcohols and acids. Analysis of rDNA sequences suggests that it occupies a basal position with respect to the Pichia anomala clade, with no obvious sister species. Candida ortonii is also restricted in nutritional breadth, and growth is generally very slow. It is a sister species to Candida nemodendra. The type cultures are: C. galis, strain UWO(PS)00-159.2=CBS 8842; and C. ortonii, strain UWO(PS)00-159.3=CBS 8843.

  11. Structures of Cvnh Family Lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronenborn, Angela M.

    Members of the CVNH family are found in a restricted range of eukaryotic organisms as diverse as filamentous ascomycetes and seedless plants. All CVNH proteins so far exhibit a fold that matches the unique fold of the cyanobacterial protein. The CVNH domain is a versatile protein module, and, with some exceptions, comprises 101-150 aa with two sequential repeats of 50 amino acids. We determined high resolution structures of CVNHs from Tuber borchii, Ceratopteris richardii, Neurospora crassa, and Gibberella zeae, representing different phylogenetic groups. All proteins exhibit the same fold and the overall structures resemble that of the founding member of the family, CVN, albeit with noteworthy differences in loop conformation and detailed local structure.

  12. Biotransformation of the Antibiotic Danofloxacin by Xylaria longipes Leads to an Efficient Reduction of Its Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Marina; Kauschat, Annika; Spielmeyer, Astrid; Römpp, Andreas; Hausmann, Heike; Zorn, Holger; Hamscher, Gerd

    2015-08-12

    Fluoroquinolones are considered as critically important antibiotics. However, they are used in appreciable quantities in veterinary medicine. Liquid manure and feces can contain substantial amounts of unmetabolized antibiotics and, thus, antibiotics can enter the environment if manure is used for soil fertilization. In this study, the microbial biotransformation of the synthetic veterinary fluoroquinolone danofloxacin by the ascomycete Xylaria longipes was investigated. Fungal submerged cultures led to a regioselective and almost quantitative formation of a single metabolite within 3 days. The metabolite was unequivocally identified as danofloxacin N-oxide by high-resolution mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. An oxidation of the terminal nitrogen of the substituted piperazine moiety of the substance led to a remarkable reduction of 80% of the initial antibacterial activity. Thus, fungal enzymes involved in the biotransformation process might possess the potential to reduce the entrance of antibiotics via biotransformation of these compounds. PMID:26189577

  13. Myco-fluidics: The fluid dynamics of fungal chimerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Dressaire, Emilie; Roch, Sebastien

    2012-11-01

    Chimeras-fantastical creatures formed as amalgams of many animals-have captured the human imagination since Ancient times. But they are also surprisingly common in Nature. The syncytial cells of filamentous fungi harbor large numbers of nuclei bathed in a single cytoplasm. As a fungus grows these nuclei become genetically diverse, either from mutation or from exchange of nuclei between different fungal individuals, a process that is known to increase the virulence of the fungus and its adaptability. By directly measuring nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that the fungus' tolerance for internal genetic diversity is enabled by hydrodynamic mixing of nuclei acting at all length scales within the fungal mycelium. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a mutant with altered mycelial morphology reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create these mixing flows from spatially coarse pressure gradients.

  14. Fusarium graminearum and Its Interactions with Cereal Heads: Studies in the Proteomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fen; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jørgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph stage: Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley. This disease leads to significant losses of crop yield, and especially quality through the contamination by diverse fungal mycotoxins, which constitute a significant threat to the health of humans and animals. In recent years, high-throughput proteomics, aiming at identifying a broad spectrum of proteins with a potential role in the pathogenicity and host resistance, has become a very useful tool in plant-fungus interaction research. In this review, we describe the progress in proteomics applications toward a better understanding of F. graminearum pathogenesis, virulence, and host defense mechanisms. The contribution of proteomics to the development of crop protection strategies against this pathogen is also discussed briefly. PMID:23450732

  15. Evaluation of Paecilomyces variotii potential in bioethanol production from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Zerva, Anastasia; Savvides, Alexander L; Katsifas, Efstathios A; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

    2014-06-01

    The ascomycete Paecillomyces variotii was evaluated for the first time as a candidate species for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) approaches. The examined strain (ATHUM 8891) revealed all the necessary phenotypic characteristics required for 2nd generation biofuel production. The fungus is able to efficiently ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol, with yields close to the theoretical maximum. Nitrogen supplementation greatly affected ethanol production with nitrate-nitrogen presenting the best results. Notably, ethanol yield on xylose fermentation was higher than that of glucose, while in co-fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures no distinguished diauxic behavior was observed. Furthermore, the fungus seems to possess the necessary enzyme factory for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, as it was able to grow and produce ethanol on common agro-industrial derivatives. Overall, the results of our study indicate that P. variotii is a new and possibly powerful candidate for CBP applications.

  16. Untargeted Metabolic Profiling of Winery-Derived Biomass Waste Degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Avinash V; Beale, David J; Godhani, Nainesh B; Morrison, Paul D; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-12-16

    Winery-derived biomass waste was degraded by Penicillium chrysogenum under solid state fermentation over 8 days in a (2)H2O-supplemented medium. Multivariate statistical analysis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data resulted in the identification of 94 significant metabolites, within 28 different metabolic pathways. The majority of biomass sugars were utilized by day 4 to yield products such as sugars, fatty acids, isoprenoids, and amino acids. The fungus was observed to metabolize xylose to xylitol, an intermediate of ethanol production. However, enzyme inhibition and autolysis were observed from day 6, indicating 5 days as the optimal time for fermentation. P. chrysogenum displayed metabolism of pentoses (to alcohols) and degraded tannins and lignins, properties that are lacking in other biomass-degrading ascomycetes. Rapid fermentation (3-5 days) may not only increase the pentose metabolizing efficiency but also increase the yield of medicinally important metabolites, such as syringate.

  17. Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions

    PubMed Central

    Barba Cedillo, Víctor; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

  18. Marine Fungi: Their Ecology and Molecular Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  19. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity.

  20. Cellulases and beyond: the first 70 years of the enzyme producer Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Robert H; Ramoni, Jonas; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 years ago, the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma reesei was isolated on the Solomon Islands due to its ability to degrade and thrive on cellulose containing fabrics. This trait that relies on its secreted cellulases is nowadays exploited by several industries. Most prominently in biorefineries which use T. reesei enzymes to saccharify lignocellulose from renewable plant biomass in order to produce biobased fuels and chemicals. In this review we summarize important milestones of the development of T. reesei as the leading production host for biorefinery enzymes, and discuss emerging trends in strain engineering. Trichoderma reesei has very recently also been proposed as a consolidated bioprocessing organism capable of direct conversion of biopolymeric substrates to desired products. We therefore cover this topic by reviewing novel approaches in metabolic engineering of T. reesei. PMID:27287427

  1. Nutritional physiology and taxonomy of human-pathogenic Cladosporium-Xylohypha species.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, G S; Guého, E; Masclaux, F; Gerrits van den Ende, A H; Kwon-Chung, K J; McGinnis, M R

    1995-01-01

    Physiological profiles of type, authentic and some additional isolates of Cladosporium-Xylohypha species of purported herpotrichiellaceous relationship are established. This group comprises melanized catenate hyphomycetes which are prevalently found on the human host. The species are excluded from the genus Cladosporium and are classified in the genus Cladophialophora. Taeniolella boppii is also transferred to this genus. Cladosporium bantianum (= Xylohypha emmonsii) and C. trichoides are considered conspecific and are now referred to as Cladophialophora bantiana. Meso-erythritol, L-arabinitol, ethanol and growth at 40 degrees C are found to be the most useful criteria for species distinction. The species Cladosporium carrionii is found to be heterogeneous. The anamorph of the saprophytic ascomycete Capronia pilosella is morphologically similar to an authentic strain of Cladosporium carrionii, but physiologically distinct. A diagnostic key for the recognized Cladophialophora species and to morphologically similar taxa is provided.

  2. Fungal dimorphism: the switch from hyphae to yeast is a specialized morphogenetic adaptation allowing colonization of a host.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The ability of pathogenic fungi to switch between a multicellular hyphal and unicellular yeast growth form is a tightly regulated process known as dimorphic switching. Dimorphic switching requires the fungus to sense and respond to the host environment and is essential for pathogenicity. This review will focus on the role of dimorphism in fungi commonly called thermally dimorphic fungi, which switch to a yeast growth form during infection. This group of phylogenetically diverse ascomycetes includes Talaromyces marneffei (recently renamed from Penicillium marneffei), Blastomyces dermatitidis (teleomorph Ajellomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides species (C. immitis and C. posadasii), Histoplasma capsulatum (teleomorph Ajellomyces capsulatum), Paracoccidioides species (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) and Sporothrix schenckii (teleomorph Ophiostoma schenckii). This review will explore both the signalling pathways regulating the morphological transition and the transcriptional responses necessary for intracellular growth. The physiological requirements of yeast cells during infection will also be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the understanding of the role of iron and calcium acquisition during infection. PMID:26253139

  3. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems.

  4. Soil mycoflora from the Dead Sea Oases of Ein Gedi and Einot Zuqim (Israel).

    PubMed

    Steiman, R; Guiraud, P; Sage, L; Seigle-Murandi, F

    1997-10-01

    Samples were taken from the top 10 cm of soils from 24 points in the Ein Gedi area. Among 329 isolates, 142 species were identified: 11 genera of ascomycetes, one genus of coelomycetes, 28 genera of hyphomycetes, 7 genera of zygomycetes and one yeast, in addition to some unidentified basidiomycetes. The hyphomycetes were represented by 17 dematiaceous, 9 mucedinaceous and two tuberculariaceous. Melanconiaceous and stilbellaceous genera were not found. Two new varieties of Microascus recently described were reisolated. No strict thermophiles or halophiles were obtained. There is apparently no very characteristic or specific fungal flora of the Dead Sea Oases although it was different from that found in the desert soil surrounding this area.

  5. Comparative genomics of Taphrina fungi causing varying degrees of tumorous deformity in plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Isheng J; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-04-01

    Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species-Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina-which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

  6. Fungal Sex and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human fungal pathogens are associated with diseases ranging from dandruff and skin colonization to invasive bloodstream infections. The major human pathogens belong to the Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus clades, and infections have high and increasing morbidity and mortality. Many human fungal pathogens were originally assumed to be asexual. However, recent advances in genome sequencing, which revealed that many species have retained the genes required for the sexual machinery, have dramatically influenced our understanding of the biology of these organisms. Predictions of a rare or cryptic sexual cycle have been supported experimentally for some species. Here, I examine the evidence that human pathogens reproduce sexually. The evolution of the mating-type locus in ascomycetes (including Candida and Aspergillus species) and basidiomycetes (Malassezia and Cryptococcus) is discussed. I provide an overview of how sex is suppressed in different species and discuss the potential associations with pathogenesis. PMID:20065328

  7. Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied. PMID:25369054

  8. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J Bruce; Gillies, Laura A; Almada, Luis A G; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2013-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified.

  9. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes. PMID:26787874

  10. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    PubMed

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems. PMID:25588128

  11. Genome sequence of Wickerhamomyces anomalus DSM 6766 reveals genetic basis of biotechnologically important antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jessica; Rupp, Oliver; Trost, Eva; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Passoth, Volkmar; Goesmann, Alexander; Tauch, Andreas; Brinkrolf, Karina

    2012-05-01

    The ascomycetous yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala and Hansenula anomala) exhibits antimicrobial activities and flavoring features that are responsible for its frequent association with food, beverage and feed products. However, limited information on the genetic background of this yeast and its multiple capabilities are currently available. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the neotype strain W. anomalus DSM 6766. On the basis of pyrosequencing, a de novo assembly of this strain resulted in a draft genome sequence with a total size of 25.47 Mbp. An automatic annotation using RAPYD generated 11 512 protein-coding sequences. This annotation provided the basis to analyse metabolic capabilities, phylogenetic relationships, as well as biotechnologically important features and yielded novel candidate genes of W. anomalus DSM 6766 coding for proteins participating in antimicrobial activities. PMID:22292503

  12. [Yeast Communities of Formica aquilonia Colonies].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, A; Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Yu; Panteleeva, S N; Reznikova, Zh I

    2016-01-01

    Yeast abundance and species diversity in the colonies of Formica aquilonia ants in birch-pine forbs forest, Novosibirsk oblast, Russia, was studied. The average yeast number in the anthill material was 10³-10⁴CFU/g, reaching 10⁵ CFU/g in the hatching chambers. Typical litter species (Trichosporon monilfiforme and Cystofilobasidium capitatum) were predominant in soil and litter around the anthills. Apart from these species, ascomycete species of the family Debaryomycetaceae, Debaryomyces hansenii and Schwanniomyces vanrijiae, were predominant in the anthill material. Yeast population of the ants consisted exclusively of the members of these two species. Thus, highly specific yeast communities formed in the colonies of Formica aquilonia ants differ from the communities of surrounding soil. These differences are an instance of environment-forming activity of the ants. PMID:27301134

  13. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi.

  14. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  15. Candida riodocensis and Candida cellae, two new yeast species from the Starmerella clade associated with solitary bees in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mariana R C; Antonini, Yasmine; Martins, Rogério P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2005-06-01

    Two new ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the Starmerella clade were discovered in nests of two solitary bee species in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. Candida riodocensis was isolated from pollen-nectar provisions, larvae and fecal pellets of nests of Megachile sp., and Candida cellae was found in pollen-nectar provisions of Centris tarsata. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 large-subunit ribosomal DNA showed that C. riodocensis is phylogenetically related to C. batistae, and the closest relative of C. cellae is C. etchellsii. The type strains are C. riodocensis UFMG-MG02 (=CBS 10087(T) = NRRL Y-27859(T)) and C. cellae UFMG-PC04 (=CBS 10086(T) = NRRL Y-27860(T)). PMID:15925316

  16. The crystal structure of samarosporin I at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Axford, Danny; Evans, Gwyndaf; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2012-11-01

    The atomic resolution structures of samarosporin I have been determined at 100 and 293 K. This is the first crystal structure of a natural 15-residue peptaibol. The amino acid sequence in samarosporin I is identical to emerimicin IV and stilbellin I. Samarosporin is a peptide antibiotic produced by the ascomycetous fungus Samarospora rostrup and belongs to peptaibol subfamily 2. The structures at both temperatures are very similar to each other adopting mainly a 3₁₀-helical and a minor fraction of α-helical conformation. The helices are significantly bent and packed in an antiparallel fashion in the centered monoclinic lattice leaving among them an approximately 10-Å channel extending along the crystallographic twofold axis. Only two ordered water molecules per peptide molecule were located in the channel. Comparisons have been carried out with crystal structures of subfamily 2 16-residue peptaibols antiamoebin and cephaibols. The repercussion of the structural analysis of samarosporin on membrane function is discussed.

  17. Pichia insulana sp. nov., a novel cactophilic yeast from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Ganter, Philip F.; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

    2010-01-01

    A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Pichia insulana sp. nov., is described from necrotic tissue of columnar cacti on Caribbean islands. P. insulana is closely related to and phenotypically very similar to Pichia cactophila and Pichia pseudocactophila. There are few distinctions between these taxa besides spore type, host preference and locality. Sporogenous strains of P. insulana that produce asci with four hat-shaped spores have been found only on Curaçao, whereas there was no evidence of sporogenous P. cactophila from that island. In addition, sequences of the D1/D2 fragment of the large-subunit rDNA from 12 Curaçao strains showed consistent differences from the sequences of the type strains of P. cactophila and P. pseudocactophila. The type strain of P. insulana is TSU00-106.5T (=CBS 11169T =UCD-FST 09-160T). PMID:19661524

  18. Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella, one of the largest genera of ascomycetes, encompasses several thousand species and has anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera. Although previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS rDNA locus supported the monophyly of the genus, DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant species need to be disposed to the genus Teratosphaeria, for which a new family, the Teratosphaeriaceae, is introduced. Other distinct clades represent the Schizothyriaceae, Davidiellaceae, Capnodiaceae, and the Mycosphaerellaceae. Within the two major clades, namely Teratosphaeriaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, most anamorph genera are polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts need to be derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the Mycosphaerella complex. PMID:18490994

  19. Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

  20. Sympatric genetic differentiation of a generalist pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, on two different host plants, grapevine and bramble.

    PubMed

    Fournier, E; Giraud, T

    2008-01-01

    Prime candidates for sympatric ecological divergence include parasites that differentiate via host shifts, because different host species exert strong disruptive selection and because both hosts and parasites are continually co-evolving. Sympatric divergence may be fostered even more strongly in phytopathogenic fungi, in particular those where sex must occur on the host, which allows adaptation alone to restrict gene flow between populations developing on different hosts. We sampled populations of Botrytis cinerea, a generalist ascomycete fungus, on sympatric grapes and brambles in six regions in France. Microsatellite data were analyzed using standard population genetics, a population graph analysis and a Bayesian approach. In addition to confirming that B. cinerea reproduces sexually, our results showed that the fungal populations on the two hosts were significantly differentiated, indicating restricted gene flow, even in sympatry. In contrast, only weak geographical differentiation could be detected. These results support the possibility of sympatric divergence associated with host use in generalist parasites. PMID:18028352

  1. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  2. Entomotoxic and nematotoxic lectins and protease inhibitors from fungal fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Sabotič, Jerica; Ohm, Robin A; Künzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fruiting bodies or sporocarps of dikaryotic (ascomycetous and basidiomycetous) fungi, commonly referred to as mushrooms, are often rich in entomotoxic and nematotoxic proteins that include lectins and protease inhibitors. These protein toxins are thought to act as effectors of an innate defense system of mushrooms against animal predators including fungivorous insects and nematodes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the structures, target molecules, and regulation of the biosynthesis of the best characterized representatives of these fungal defense proteins, including galectins, beta-trefoil-type lectins, actinoporin-type lectins, beta-propeller-type lectins and beta-trefoil-type chimerolectins, as well as mycospin and mycocypin families of protease inhibitors. We also present an overview of the phylogenetic distribution of these proteins among a selection of fungal genomes and draw some conclusions about their evolution and physiological function. Finally, we present an outlook for future research directions in this field and their potential applications in medicine and crop protection.

  3. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  4. Culture independent PCR: an alternative enzyme discovery strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Lydolph, Magnus; Lange, Lene

    2005-01-01

    Degenerate primers were designed for use in a culture-independent PCR screening of DNA from composite fungal communities, inhabiting residues of corn stovers and leaves. According to similarity searches and alignments amplified clone sequences affiliated with glycosyl hydrolase family 7 and glycosyl hydrolase family 45 though significant sequence divergence was observed. Glycosyl hydrolases from families 7 and 45 play a crucial role in biomass conversion to fuel ethanol. Research in this renewable energy source has two objectives: (i) To contribute to development of a renewable alternative to world's limited crude fossil oil reserves and (ii) to reduce air pollution. Amplification with 18S rDNA-specific primers revealed species within the ascomycetous orders Sordariales and Hypocreales as well as basidiomycetous order Agaricales to be present in these communities. Our study documents the value of culture-independent PCR in microbial diversity studies and could add to development of a new enzyme screening technology. PMID:15567226

  5. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    PubMed

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  6. Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2003-11-01

    We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers.

  7. Fungi as a source of natural coumarins production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tania Maria; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; de Oliveira, Débora

    2016-08-01

    Natural coumarins and derivatives are compounds that occur naturally in several organisms (plant, bacteria, and fungi) consisting of fused benzene and α-pyrone rings. These compounds show high technological potential applications in agrochemical, food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics industries. Therefore, the need for bulk production of coumarins and the advancement of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries led to the development of synthetic coumarin. However, biotransformation process, synthetic bioengineering, metabolic engineering, and bioinformatics have proven effective in the production of natural products. Today, these biological systems are recognized as green chemistry innovation and business strategy. This review article aims to report the potential of fungi for synthesis of coumarin. These microorganisms are described as a source of natural products capable of synthesizing many bioactive metabolites. The features, classification, properties, and industrial applications of natural coumarins as well as new molecules obtained by basidiomycetes and ascomycetes fungi are reported in order to explore a topic not yet discussed in the scientific literature.

  8. Protein kinase A signaling and calcium ions are major players in PAF mediated toxicity against Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Ulrike; Benčina, Mojca; Fizil, Ádám; Batta, Gyula; Chhillar, Anil K.; Marx, Florentine

    2015-01-01

    The Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein PAF is toxic against potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes. We used the highly sensitive aequorin-expressing model Aspergillus niger to identify a defined change in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ dynamics in response to PAF. This Ca2+ signature depended on an intact positively charged lysine-rich PAF motif. By combining Ca2+ measurements in A. niger mutants with deregulated cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, we proved the interconnection of Ca2+ perturbation and cAMP/PKA signaling in the mechanistic function of PAF. A deep understanding of the mode of action of PAF is an invaluable prerequisite for its future application as new antifungal drug. PMID:25882631

  9. Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Noronha, Eliane F; Miller, Robert N G; Costa, Fabio T; Pereira, Caroline D; Mehta, Angela; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L

    2008-12-01

    Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds. Entomopathogenic organisms can offer an alternative to conventional pesticides for pest control, producing hydrolases that degrade insect exoskeleton. In this study, protein secretions of the ascomycete Metarhizium anisopliae, which conferred bioinsecticidal activity against Callosobruchus maculatus, were characterized via 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteases, reductases and acetyltransferase enzymes were detected. These may be involved in degradation and nutrient uptake from dehydrated C. maculatus. Proteins identified in this work allowed description of metabolic pathways. Their potential applications in biotechnology include both novel compound development and production of genetically modified plants resistant to insect pests.

  10. The importance of molecular analyses for understanding the genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vite-Garín, Tania; Estrada-Bárcenas, Daniel Alfonso; Cifuentes, Joaquín; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the classification of the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) (ascomycete) are sustained by the results of several genetic analyses that support the high diversity of this dimorphic fungus. The present mini-review highlights the great genetic plasticity of H. capsulatum. Important records with different molecular tools, mainly single- or multi-locus sequence analyses developed with this fungus, are discussed. Recent phylogenetic data with a multi-locus sequence analysis using 5 polymorphic loci support a new clade and/or phylogenetic species of H. capsulatum for the Americas, which was associated with fungal isolates obtained from the migratory bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252830

  11. Screening for fungi intensively mineralizing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M; Herre, A; Michels, J; Fritsche, W

    1997-04-01

    Within a screening program, 91 fungal strains belonging to 32 genera of different ecological and taxonomic groups (wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes, saprophytic micromycetes) were tested for their ability to metabolize and mineralize 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). All these strains metabolized TNT rapidly by forming monoaminodinitrotoluenes (AmDNT). Micromycetes produced higher amounts of AmDNT than did wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes. A significant mineralization of [14C]TNT was only observed for certain wood- and litter-decaying basidiomycetes. The most active strains, Clitocybula dusenii TMb12 and Stropharia rugosa-annulata DSM11372 mineralized 42% and 36% respectively of the initial added [14C]TNT (100 microM corresponding to 4.75 microCi/l) to 14CO2 within 64 days. Micromycetes (deuteromycetes, ascomycetes, zygomycetes) proved to be unable to mineralize [14C]TNT significantly.

  12. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  13. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi.

  14. Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Giavasis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly β-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition.

  15. Ontology-based cross-species integration and analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical community for annotation and integration of databases. Formal definitions can relate classes from different ontologies and thereby integrate data across different levels of granularity, domains and species. We have applied this methodology to the Ascomycete Phenotype Ontology (APO), enabling the reuse of various orthogonal ontologies and we have converted the phenotype associated data found in the SGD following our proposed patterns. We have integrated the resulting data in the cross-species phenotype network PhenomeNET, and we make both the cross-species integration of yeast phenotypes and a similarity-based comparison of yeast phenotypes across species available in the PhenomeBrowser. Furthermore, we utilize our definitions and the yeast phenotype annotations to suggest novel functional annotations of gene products in yeast. PMID:23046642

  16. Ontology-based cross-species integration and analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2012-09-21

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical community for annotation and integration of databases. Formal definitions can relate classes from different ontologies and thereby integrate data across different levels of granularity, domains and species. We have applied this methodology to the Ascomycete Phenotype Ontology (APO), enabling the reuse of various orthogonal ontologies and we have converted the phenotype associated data found in the SGD following our proposed patterns. We have integrated the resulting data in the cross-species phenotype network PhenomeNET, and we make both the cross-species integration of yeast phenotypes and a similarity-based comparison of yeast phenotypes across species available in the PhenomeBrowser. Furthermore, we utilize our definitions and the yeast phenotype annotations to suggest novel functional annotations of gene products in yeast.

  17. Turgor regulation in hyphal organisms.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Levina, Natalia N; Walker, Sophie K; Garrill, Ashley

    2004-11-01

    Turgor regulation in two saprophytic hyphal organisms was examined directly with the pressure probe technique. The ascomycete Neurospora crassa, a terrestrial fungi, regulates turgor after hyperosmotic treatments when growing in a minimal medium containing K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), and sucrose. Turgor recovery by N. crassa after hyperosmotic treatment is concurrent with changes in ion transport: hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane potential and a decline in transmembrane ion conductance. In contrast the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, a freshwater hyphal organism, does not regulate turgor after hyperosmotic treatment, although small transient increases in turgor were occasionally observed. We also monitored turgor in both organisms during hypoosmotic treatment and did not observe a turgor increase, possibly due to turgor regulation. Both hyphal organisms grow with similar morphologies, cellular expansion rates and turgor (0.4-0.7 MPa), yet respond differently to osmotic stress. The results do not support the assumption of a universal mechanism of tip growth driven by cell turgor.

  18. Fungal sex and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens are associated with diseases ranging from dandruff and skin colonization to invasive bloodstream infections. The major human pathogens belong to the Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus clades, and infections have high and increasing morbidity and mortality. Many human fungal pathogens were originally assumed to be asexual. However, recent advances in genome sequencing, which revealed that many species have retained the genes required for the sexual machinery, have dramatically influenced our understanding of the biology of these organisms. Predictions of a rare or cryptic sexual cycle have been supported experimentally for some species. Here, I examine the evidence that human pathogens reproduce sexually. The evolution of the mating-type locus in ascomycetes (including Candida and Aspergillus species) and basidiomycetes (Malassezia and Cryptococcus) is discussed. I provide an overview of how sex is suppressed in different species and discuss the potential associations with pathogenesis. PMID:20065328

  19. Culture independent PCR: an alternative enzyme discovery strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Lydolph, Magnus; Lange, Lene

    2005-01-01

    Degenerate primers were designed for use in a culture-independent PCR screening of DNA from composite fungal communities, inhabiting residues of corn stovers and leaves. According to similarity searches and alignments amplified clone sequences affiliated with glycosyl hydrolase family 7 and glycosyl hydrolase family 45 though significant sequence divergence was observed. Glycosyl hydrolases from families 7 and 45 play a crucial role in biomass conversion to fuel ethanol. Research in this renewable energy source has two objectives: (i) To contribute to development of a renewable alternative to world's limited crude fossil oil reserves and (ii) to reduce air pollution. Amplification with 18S rDNA-specific primers revealed species within the ascomycetous orders Sordariales and Hypocreales as well as basidiomycetous order Agaricales to be present in these communities. Our study documents the value of culture-independent PCR in microbial diversity studies and could add to development of a new enzyme screening technology.

  20. A cyanase is transcriptionally regulated by arginine and involved in cyanate decomposition in Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2008-11-01

    Cyanase degrades toxic cyanate to NH3 and CO2 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. High concentrations of cyanate are fairly toxic to organisms. Here, we characterize a eukaryotic cyanase for the first time. We have isolated the cyn1 gene encoding a cyanase from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora and functionally characterized the cyn1 product after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed a predicted catalytic centre of three conserved amino-acids. A Deltacyn1 knockout in S. macrospora was totally devoid of cyanase activity and showed an increased sensitivity to exogenously supplied cyanate in an arginine-depleted medium, defects in ascospore germination, but no other obvious morphological phenotype. By means of real-time PCR we have demonstrated that the transcriptional level of cyn1 is markedly elevated in the presence of cyanate and down-regulated by addition of arginine. The putative functions of cyanase in fungi are discussed.

  1. Unisexual reproduction enhances fungal competitiveness by promoting habitat exploration via hyphal growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Sujal S; Feretzaki, Marianna; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unisexual reproduction is a novel homothallic sexual cycle recently discovered in both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous pathogenic fungi. It is a form of selfing that induces the yeast-to-hyphal dimorphic transition in isolates of the α mating type of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Unisexual reproduction may benefit the pathogen by facilitating sexual reproduction in the absence of the opposite a mating type and by generating infectious propagules called basidiospores. Here, we report an independent potential selective advantage of unisexual reproduction beyond genetic exchange and recombination. We competed a wild-type strain capable of undergoing unisexual reproduction with mutants defective in this developmental pathway and found that unisexual reproduction provides a considerable dispersal advantage through hyphal growth and sporulation. Our results show that unisexual reproduction may serve to facilitate access to both nutrients and potential mating partners and may provide a means to maintain the capacity for dimorphic transitions in the environment.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

  3. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes.

  4. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  5. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  6. Polyphasic identification of yeasts isolated from bark of cork oak during the manufacturing process of cork stoppers.

    PubMed

    Villa-Carvajal, Mercedes; Coque, Juan José R; Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luísa; Uruburu, Federico; Belloch, Carmela

    2004-05-01

    A two-step protocol was used for the identification of 52 yeasts isolated from bark of cork oak at initial stages of the manufacturing process of cork stoppers. The first step in the identification was the separation of the isolates into groups by their physiological properties and RFLPs of the ITS-5.8S rRNA gene. The second step was the sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene of selected isolates representing the different groups. The results revealed a predominance of basidiomycetous yeasts (11 species), while only two species represented the ascomycetous yeasts. Among the basidiomycetous yeasts, members representing the species Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae and Rhodotorula nothofagi, that have been previously isolated from plant material, were the most abundant. Yeasts pertaining to the species Debaryomyces hansenii var. fabryii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Trichosporon mucoides were isolated in small numbers.

  7. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii. PMID:27142089

  8. Bacterial, archaeal and eukaryal community structures throughout soil horizons of harvested and naturally disturbed forest stands.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Lee, Sangwon; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2009-12-01

    Disturbances caused by timber harvesting have critical long-term effects on the forest soil microbiota and alter fundamental ecosystem services provided by these communities. This study assessed the effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on microbial community structures in different soil horizons 13 years after timber harvesting at the long-term soil productivity site at Skulow Lake, British Columbia. A harvested stand was compared with an unmanaged forest stand. Ribosomal intergenic spacer profiles of bacteria, archaea and eukarya indicated significantly different community structures in the upper three soil horizons of the two stands, with differences decreasing with depth. Large-scale sequencing of the ribosomal intergenic spacers coupled to small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes allowed taxonomic identification of major microbial phylotypes affected by harvesting or varying among soil horizons. Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were the predominant phylotypes in the bacterial profiles, with the relative abundance of these groups highest in the unmanaged stand, particularly in the deeper soil horizons. Predominant eukaryal phylotypes were mainly assigned to known mycorrhizal and saprotrophic species of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Harvesting affected Basidiomycetes to a minor degree but had stronger effects on some Ascomycetes. Archaeal profiles had low diversity with only a few predominant crenarchaeal phylotypes whose abundance appeared to increase with depth. Detection of these effects 13 years after harvesting may indicate a long-term change in processes mediated by the microbial community with important consequences for forest productivity. These effects warrant more comprehensive investigation of the effects of harvesting on the structure of forest soil microbial communities and the functional consequences. PMID:19659501

  9. Mating Type Locus of Chinese Black Truffles Reveals Heterothallism and the Presence of Cryptic Species within the T. indicum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco; Rubini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T. melanosporum. PMID

  10. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-04-20

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on

  11. The Cryptococcus neoformans alkaline response pathway: identification of a novel rim pathway activator.

    PubMed

    Ost, Kyla S; O'Meara, Teresa R; Huda, Naureen; Esher, Shannon K; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The Rim101/PacC transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular pH signals. First characterized in ascomycete fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rim/Pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline pH signals and micronutrient deprivation. However, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, where it controls surface capsule expression. Moreover, disruption of the Rim pathway central transcription factor, Rim101, results in a strain that causes a hyper-inflammatory response in animal infection models. Using targeted gene deletions, we demonstrate that several genes encoding components of the classical Rim/Pal pathway are present in the C. neoformans genome. Many of these genes are in fact required for Rim101 activation, including members of the ESCRT complex (Vps23 and Snf7), ESCRT-interacting proteins (Rim20 and Rim23), and the predicted Rim13 protease. We demonstrate that in neutral/alkaline pH, Rim23 is recruited to punctate regions on the plasma membrane. This change in Rim23 localization requires upstream ESCRT complex components but does not require other Rim101 proteolysis components, such as Rim20 or Rim13. Using a forward genetics screen, we identified the RRA1 gene encoding a novel membrane protein that is also required for Rim101 protein activation and, like the ESCRT complex, is functionally upstream of Rim23-membrane localization. Homologs of RRA1 are present in other Cryptococcus species as well as other basidiomycetes, but closely related genes are not present in ascomycetes. These findings suggest that major branches of the fungal Kingdom developed different mechanisms to sense and respond to very elemental extracellular signals such as changing pH levels.

  12. Viral Repression of Fungal Pheromone Precursor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Baasiri, Rudeina A.; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    1998-01-01

    Biological control of chestnut blight caused by the filamentous ascomycete Cryphonectria parasitica can be achieved with a virus that infects this fungus. This hypovirus causes a perturbation of fungal development that results in low virulence (hypovirulence), poor asexual sporulation, and female infertility without affecting fungal growth in culture. At the molecular level, the virus is known to affect the transcription of a number of fungal genes. Two of these genes, Vir1 and Vir2, produce abundant transcripts in noninfected strains of the fungus, but the transcripts are not detectable in virus-infected strains. We report here that these two genes encode the pheromone precursors of the Mat-2 mating type of the fungus; consequently, these genes have been renamed Mf2/1 and Mf2/2. To determine if the virus affects the mating systems of both mating types of this fungus, the pheromone precursor gene, Mf1/1, of a Mat-1 strain was cloned and likewise was found to be repressed in virus-infected strains. The suppression of transcription of the pheromone precursor genes of this fungus could be the cause of the mating defect of infected strains of the fungus. Although published reports suggest that a Gαi subunit may be involved in this regulation, our results do not support this hypothesis. The prepropheromone encoded by Mf1/1 is structurally similar to that of the prepro-p-factor of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first description of the complete set of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a filamentous ascomycete. PMID:9447992

  13. A rock-inhabiting ancestor for mutualistic and pathogen-rich fungal lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gueidan, C.; Villaseñor, C. R.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gorbushina, A. A.; Untereiner, W. A.; Lutzoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Rock surfaces are unique terrestrial habitats in which rapid changes in the intensity of radiation, temperature, water supply and nutrient availability challenge the survival of microbes. A specialised, but diverse group of free-living, melanised fungi are amongst the persistent settlers of bare rocks. Multigene phylogenetic analyses were used to study relationships of ascomycetes from a variety of substrates, with a dataset including a broad sampling of rock dwellers from different geographical locations. Rock-inhabiting fungi appear particularly diverse in the early diverging lineages of the orders Chaetothyriales and Verrucariales. Although these orders share a most recent common ancestor, their lifestyles are strikingly different. Verrucariales are mostly lichen-forming fungi, while Chaetothyriales, by contrast, are best known as opportunistic pathogens of vertebrates (e.g. Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala dermatitidis, both agents of fatal brain infections) and saprophytes. The rock-dwelling habit is shown here to be key to the evolution of these two ecologically disparate orders. The most recent common ancestor of Verrucariales and Chaetothyriales is reconstructed as a non-lichenised rock-inhabitant. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest Verrucariales as one of the independent ascomycetes group where lichenisation has evolved on a hostile rock surface that might have favored this shift to a symbiotic lifestyle. Rock-inhabiting fungi are also ancestral to opportunistic pathogens, as they are found in the early diverging lineages of Chaetothyriales. In Chaetothyriales and Verrucariales, specific morphological and physiological traits (here referred to as extremotolerance) evolved in response to stresses in extreme conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. These factors facilitated colonisation of various substrates including the brains of vertebrates by opportunistic fungal pathogens, as well as helped establishment of a stable lichen symbiosis. PMID

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management. PMID:22747707

  15. The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina

    PubMed Central

    Schmoll, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling) proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as a lack of microbial opsins was detected

  16. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  17. Evolutionary Origins of the Eukaryotic Shikimate Pathway: Gene Fusions, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Endosymbiotic Replacements†

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Thomas A.; Dacks, Joel B.; Campbell, Samantha A.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.; Foster, Peter G.; McLeod, Rima; Roberts, Craig W.

    2006-01-01

    Currently the shikimate pathway is reported as a metabolic feature of prokaryotes, ascomycete fungi, apicomplexans, and plants. The plant shikimate pathway enzymes have similarities to prokaryote homologues and are largely active in chloroplasts, suggesting ancestry from the plastid progenitor genome. Toxoplasma gondii, which also possesses an alga-derived plastid organelle, encodes a shikimate pathway with similarities to ascomycete genes, including a five-enzyme pentafunctional arom. These data suggests that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom either had an ancient origin in the eukaryotes or was conveyed by eukaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We expand sampling and analyses of the shikimate pathway genes to include the oomycetes, ciliates, diatoms, basidiomycetes, zygomycetes, and the green and red algae. Sequencing of cDNA from Tetrahymena thermophila confirmed the presence of a pentafused arom, as in fungi and T. gondii. Phylogenies and taxon distribution suggest that the arom gene fusion event may be an ancient eukaryotic innovation. Conversely, the Plantae lineage (represented here by both Viridaeplantae and the red algae) acquired different prokaryotic genes for all seven steps of the shikimate pathway. Two of the phylogenies suggest a derivation of the Plantae genes from the cyanobacterial plastid progenitor genome, but if the full Plantae pathway was originally of cyanobacterial origin, then the five other shikimate pathway genes were obtained from a minimum of two other eubacterial genomes. Thus, the phylogenies demonstrate both separate HGTs and shared derived HGTs within the Plantae clade either by primary HGT transfer or secondarily via the plastid progenitor genome. The shared derived characters support the holophyly of the Plantae lineage and a single ancestral primary plastid endosymbiosis. Our analyses also pinpoints a minimum of 50 gene/domain loss events, demonstrating that loss and replacement events have been

  18. Horizontal gene transfer and functional diversification of plant cell wall degrading polygalacturonases: Key events in the evolution of herbivory in beetles.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Roy; Gramzow, Lydia; Theißen, Günter; Siegfried, Blair D; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

    2014-09-01

    Plant cell walls are the largest reservoir of organic carbon on earth. To breach and utilize this carbohydrate-rich protective barrier, microbes secrete plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) targeting pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. There is a growing body of evidence that genomes of some herbivorous insects also encode PCWDEs, raising questions about their evolutionary origins and functions. Among herbivorous beetles, pectin-degrading polygalacturonases (PGs) are found in the diverse superfamilies Chrysomeloidea (leaf beetles, long-horn beetles) and Curculionoidea (weevils). Here our aim was to test whether these arose from a common ancestor of beetles or via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and whether PGs kept their ancestral function in degrading pectin or evolved novel functions. Transcriptome data derived from 10 beetle species were screened for PG-encoding sequences and used for phylogenetic comparisons with their bacterial, fungal and plant counterparts. These analyses revealed a large family of PG-encoding genes of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea sharing a common ancestor, most similar to PG genes of ascomycete fungi. In addition, 50 PGs from beetle digestive systems were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized, showing a set of lineage-specific consecutively pectin-degrading enzymes, as well as conserved but enzymatically inactive PG proteins. The evidence indicates that a PG gene was horizontally transferred ∼200 million years ago from an ascomycete fungus to a common ancestor of Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea. This has been followed by independent duplications in these two lineages, as well as independent replacement in two sublineages of Chrysomeloidea by two other subsequent HGTs. This origin, leading to subsequent functional diversification of the PG gene family within its new hosts, was a key event promoting the evolution of herbivory in these beetles.

  19. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen–host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus–animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  20. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816.