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Sample records for ascorbic acid induces

  1. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  2. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  3. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  4. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Satoh, Kiyotoshi; Hamada, Hironobu; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2010-04-02

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related fatal disease with no effective cure. Recently, high dose of ascorbate in cancer treatment has been reexamined. We studied whether high dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of four human mesothelioma cell lines. High dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of all mesothelioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. We further clarified the cell killing mechanism that ascorbic acid induced reactive oxygen species and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo experiment, intravenous administration of ascorbic acid significantly decreased the growth rate of mesothelioma tumor inoculated in mice. These data suggest that ascorbic acid may have benefits for patients with mesothelioma.

  5. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer.

    PubMed

    Cherdyntseva, Nadezda V; Ivanova, Anna A; Ivanov, Vladimir V; Cherdyntsev, Evgeny; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan; Kagiya, Tsutomu V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorbic acid, brain glutathione level, as well as behavioral performance using open field apparatus were measured. Administration of high (non-therapeutic) doses of the nitrotriazole drug sanazole results in neurotoxicity in mice as evidenced from behavioral performance, emotional activity and depletion of the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, in the brain. The serum levels of ascorbic acid was also found reduced in high dose sanazole treated animals. Per os administration of ascorbic acid glucoside significantly reduced the neurotoxicity. This effect was associated with the prevention of glutathione depletion in mouse brain and restoring the ascorbic acid level in serum. Administration of ascorbic acid glucoside, but not ascorbic acid, before sanazole administration protected from sanazole-induced neurotoxicity by preventing the decrease in the brain reduced glutathione level and providing high level of ascorbic acid in plasma.

  6. Iron prevents ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation in copper contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2005-11-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation was measured in household drinking water and metal supplemented Milli-Q water by using the FOX assay. Here we show that ascorbic acid readily induces H(2)O(2) formation in Cu(II) supplemented Milli-Q water and poorly buffered household drinking water. In contrast to Cu(II), iron was not capable to support ascorbic acid induced H(2)O(2) formation during acidic conditions (pH: 3.5-5). In 12 out of the 48 drinking water samples incubated with 2 mM ascorbic acid, the H(2)O(2) concentration exceeded 400 microM. However, when trace amounts of Fe(III) (0.2 mg/l) was present during incubation, the ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation was totally blocked. Of the other common divalent or trivalent metal ions tested, that are normally present in drinking water (calcium, magnesium, zinc, cobalt, manganese or aluminum), only calcium and magnesium displayed a modest inhibitory activity on the ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) formation. Oxalic acid, one of the degradation products from ascorbic acid, was confirmed to actively participate in the iron induced degradation of H(2)O(2). Ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) formation during acidic conditions, as demonstrated here in poorly buffered drinking water, could be of importance in host defense against bacterial infections. In addition, our findings might explain the mechanism for the protective effect of iron against vitamin C induced cell toxicity.

  7. Beta-glycerophosphate accelerates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Noh, A Long Sae Mi; Yim, Mijung

    2011-03-01

    Despite numerous reports of the synergistic effects of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid in inducing the differentiation of osteoblasts, little is known about their roles in osteoclastic differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-glycerophosphate on osteoclastogenesis in the presence of ascorbic acid using primary mouse bone marrow cultures treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Beta-Glycerophosphate dose-dependently increased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid. This stimulatory effect was apparent when beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid were only added during the late stages of the culture period, indicating that they influence later events in osteoclastic differentiation. While the combination of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid inhibited RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK and p38, and degradation of IkappaB, it increased the induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. In addition, beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid together enhanced the induction of COX-2 following RANKL stimulation. Taken together, our data suggest that beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid have synergistic effects on osteoclast formation, increasing RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos, NFATc1 and COX-2 in osteoclast precursors.

  8. Inhibition of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis by 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Kaji, Hiroaki; Ichiyama, Kenji; Makino, Kazutaka; Gohda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Itaru; Tai, Akihiro

    2007-10-15

    Inhibitory effects of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S), on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were studied and were compared with those of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidants. The order of the inhibition efficiency was AA-2S> or =Trolox=uric acid> or =AA-2P> or =AA-2G=AA>glutathione. Although the reactivity of the AA derivatives against AAPH-derived peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) was much lower than that of AA, the derivatives exerted equal or more potent protective effects on AAPH-induced hemolysis and membrane protein oxidation. In addition, the AA derivatives were found to react per se with ROO(*), not via AA as an intermediate. These findings suggest that secondary reactions between the AA derivative radical and ROO(*) play a part in hemolysis inhibition. Delayed addition of the AA derivatives after AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes had already proceeded showed weaker inhibition of hemolysis compared to that of AA. These results suggest that the AA derivatives per se act as biologically effective antioxidants under moderate oxidative stress and that AA-2G and AA-2P may be able to act under severe oxidative stress after enzymatic conversion to AA in vivo.

  9. Ascorbic Acid Protects Against Restraint Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raju Suresh; Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Nayak, Satheesha

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic stress has been shown to cause oxidative damage in the central nervous system. Although stress-induced impairments in learning and memory have been studied extensively, very few studies have investigated possible ways to prevent their ill effects. The present work was designed to study the protective effects of ascorbic acid in memory loss induced by chronic restraint stress. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were designated into the following groups: (i) Normal control, (ii) Ascorbic acid treatment, (iii) Vehicle control, (iv) Restraint stress, (v) Restraint stress + vehicle, and (vi) Restraint stress + ascorbic acid treatment. At the end of 21 days, animals of all groups were subjected to memory tests using Morris water maze and passive avoidance apparatus. Then, the results obtained were compared between the experimental groups. RESULTS: Rats exposed to restraint stress alone and those pretreated with vehicle solution before restrained stress showed deficits in learning and impaired memory retention in the memory tests when compared to animals in other experimental groups. Animals pretreated with ascorbic acid before restraining showed significant improvement in memory retention in the same memory tests. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest the possibility of using ascorbic acid as a dietary supplement to prevent stress-induced memory impairments. PMID:20037710

  10. Arsenic-induced toxicity and the protective role of ascorbic acid in mouse testis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo Im; Jin, Bohwan; Youn, Pilju; Park, Changbo; Park, Jung-Duck; Ryu, Doug-Young . E-mail: dyryu@snu.ac.kr

    2007-01-15

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major cause of male reproductive failure. Here, we investigated whether arsenic, which impairs male reproductive functions in rodent models, acts by inducing oxidative stress. Male 8-week-old ICR mice were given drinking water containing 20 or 40 mg/l sodium arsenite with or without 0.75 or 1.5 g/l of the antioxidant ascorbic acid for 5 weeks. The arsenic-treated mice showed decreased epididymidal sperm counts and testicular weights compared to untreated mice. These effects were reversed in mice that were co-treated with ascorbic acid. Similarly, arsenic treatment lowered the activities of testicular 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17{beta}-HSD, which play important roles in steroidogenesis, and this was reversed by co-treatment with ascorbic acid. The testicles of arsenic-treated mice had decreased glutathione (GSH) levels (which correlate inversely with the degree of cellular oxidative stress) and elevated levels of protein carbonyl (a marker of oxidative damage to tissue proteins). Ascorbic acid co-treatment reversed both of these effects. Thus, ascorbic acid blocks both the adverse effects of arsenic on male reproductive functions and the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative changes. These observations support the notion that arsenic impairs male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress.

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid on the monosodium glutamate-induced neurobehavioral changes in periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Nayak, Satheesha

    2010-01-01

    In the current study we evaluated adverse effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on memory formation and its retrieval as well as the role of ascorbic acid (Vitamin-C) in prevention of MSG-induced alteration of neurobehavioral performance in periadolescent rats. Healthy male albino Wistar rats (4-6 weeks old), were randomly allotted in four groups. Group I: normal control, who remained in their homecage throughout the experimental period. Group II: vehicle control, who were orally administered with normal saline for three weeks. Group III: MSG, who were orally administered with aqueous solution of MSG (2 mg/g b.w/day), for three weeks. Group IV: MSG+AA, who were administered with aqueous solution of MSG, and subsequently by ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg b.w/day) orally for three weeks. After the experimental period, all animals from all groups were first tested for anxiety followed by passive avoidance behavior. MSG significantly altered the neurobehavioral performance in rats. The alteration manifested as less time spent on the open arm during the EPM test and shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment during the passive avoidance task. All behavioral changes were significantly prevented by simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid with MSG. The present data point to the neuroprotective role of ascorbic acid. The ascorbic acid can be used as a therapeutic agent in various cognitive deficits (Fig. 5, Ref. 25). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  12. Protective role of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on arsenic-induced microsomal dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, K; Shila, S; Kumaran, S; Panneerselvam, C

    2003-03-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring element, is present in food, soil, air and water. All human populations are exposed to arsenic and its compounds through occupational or environmental processes. Since arsenic compounds have been shown to exert their toxicity chiefly by generating reactive oxygen species, we have evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on oxidative damage, antioxidant status and on xenobiotic metabolizing systems in arsenic-exposed rat liver and kidney microsomes. Arsenic exposure increases oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and decreases the levels of antioxidants and the activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Coadministration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to arsenic-exposed rats resulted in a reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and hydrogen peroxide and an elevation in the levels of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol treatment decreases the activity of haem oxygenase, whereas it increases the levels/ activity of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in arsenic-intoxicated rats. The results of this study provide evidence that ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation can improve the arsenic-induced altered microsomal functions in liver and kidney.

  13. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Mancozeb-Induced Toxicity in Rat Thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, V; Cekic, S; Kamenov, B; Ciric, M; Krtinic, D

    2015-01-01

    Mancozeb, as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, has been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in different cells, mainly by generation of free radicals which may alter antioxidant defence systems in cells. The effect of mancozeb on the cells of a primary lymphoid organ has not been studied. In the present study, the effects of mancozeb (0.2, 2 and 5 μg/ml) or mancozeb+ascorbic acid (100 μg/ml), or ascorbic acid alone or control medium alone on the levels of cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species production (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP levels in rat thymocytes were examined in vitro. Cells treated with mancozeb displayed a concentration-dependent increase of hypodiploid cells and ROS production followed by markedly decreased viability of the cells, MMP and ATP levels. Application of ascorbic acid significantly reduced cytotoxicity in cell cultures treated with 0.2 and 2 μg/ml of mancozeb, together with significantly decreased ROS levels and increased MMP and ATP levels. In cells treated with 5 μg/ml of mancozeb, ascorbic acid failed to reduce toxicity while simultaneously increasing the apoptosis rate of thymocytes. These results suggest that ROS plays a significant role in mancozeb-induced toxicity, through alteration of mitochondrial function. Ascorbic acid administration reduced the toxicity rate in cells treated with lower mancozeb concentrations, while it may have the ability to shift cells from necrosis to apoptosis in the presence of highest mancozeb concentrations.

  14. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Pancreatic Damage Induced by Dibutyltin Dichloride (DBTC) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan-Hua; Fu, Yan-Biao; Qian, Ke-Da

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Because previous studies have reported depleted antioxidant capacity in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), prevention of free radical production has gained importance in antifibrotic treatment strategies for CP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid on oxidative capacity and pancreatic damage in experimental CP. Materials and Methods CP was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by infusion of dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) into the tail vein. Ascorbic acid was given intraperitoneally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. The treatment groups were as follows: group 1, DBTC plus intraperitoneal physiologic saline; group 2, DBTC plus intraperitoneal ascorbic acid; group 3, solvent plus intraperitoneal physiologic saline; group 4, no operation plus intraperitoneal physiologic saline. Each group contained 15 animals. Treatment was started after CP was established. After 4 weeks of treatment, serum hyaluronic acid and laminin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay, pancreatic tissue oxidative stress was analyzed, and the degree of pancreatic damage was determined. Results Ascorbic acid treatment markedly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in pancreatic tissue (p < 0.01 for both). Significant serum hyaluronic acid and laminin reductions were observed in group 2 as compared with group 1 (p < 0.05). However, the serum hyaluronic acid and laminin levels remained elevated when compared with those of groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Histopathologic scores were also lower in animals with CP that underwent ascorbic acid-treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion Ascorbic acid treatment alleviated the degree of oxidative stress and pancreatic damage in rat CP. Antioxidant treatment might be considered a potential option to improve the pathologic process in CP. PMID:18159597

  15. Synergistic protective effects of ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid against subacute deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic class II pyrethroid acaricide and insecticide widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. However, its animal and human exposure leads to nephrotoxicity. Our experimental objective was to evaluate protective effects of ceftriaxone and/or ascorbic acid against DLM-induced renal injury in male Wistar albino rats. DLM-treated animals revealed significant alterations in serum biochemical parameters related to renal injury; urea, uric acid and creatinine. There was a significant increase in renal lipid peroxidation and a significant inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Moreover, DLM significantly reduced serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In addition, It induced serum and kidney tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Both ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid protect against DLM-induced biochemical alterations in serum and renal tissue when used alone or in combination along with DLM-intoxication. Furthermore, both ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid produced synergetic nephroprotective and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it could be concluded that ceftriaxone and/or ascorbic acid administration able to minimize the toxic effects of DLM through their free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  16. Ascorbic acid protects against colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Chongshan; Gao, Ruixia; Li, Jichang

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced neurotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress, a potential mechanism. An in vitro neurotoxicity model was established with PC12 cells exposed to 125 µg/mL colistin sulfate for 24 h. PC12 cells were treated with colistin (125 µg/mL) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µM/mL) for 24 h. Both 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were carried out to evaluate cell viability. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed. Moreover, we tested the level of DNA fragmentation, the release of cytochrome-c and the expressions of caspase-9 and -3 mRNA. The results showed that 1 and 10 µM/mL ascorbic acid significantly increased the cell viability and the levels of SOD and GSH (both p<0.05), while 0.1, 1 and 10 µM/mL ascorbic acid significantly decreased the generation of ROS, the release of cytochrome-c, formation of DNA fragmentation and the expressions of caspase-9 and -3 mRNA in colistin-treated PC12 cells, compared with the colistin model group. These results suggest that ascorbic acid could reduce colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity through the resistance of oxidative stress and the prevention of apoptosis mediated via mitochondria pathway. They also highlight the potential of coadministering ascorbic acid to widen the therapeutic dose of colistin.

  17. Ascorbic acid combats arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mice liver.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pathikrit; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Bhattacharjee, Nandini; Pathak, Surajit; Boujedaini, Naoual; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2009-02-01

    Repeated injections of arsenic trioxide induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in mice as revealed from elevated levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, glutamate pyruvate transaminases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipid peroxidation along with reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione content, glutathione reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activities. The present investigation was undertaken to test whether simultaneous feeding of vitamin C can combat hepatotoxicity in arsenic intoxicated mice. Hepatoprotective potential of vitamin C was indicated by its ability to restore GSH, SOD, CAT, AcP, AlkP and GRD levels towards near normal. Electron microscopic studies further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of ascorbic acid. Besides, cytogenetical endpoints (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head anomaly) were also analyzed. Administration of vitamin C alone did not show any sign of toxicity of its own. Based on the present findings, ascorbic acid appears to have protective effects against arsenic toxicity and oxidative stress.

  18. Ascorbic acid and beta-carotene reduce stress-induced oxidative organ damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Esrefoglu, M; Akinci, A; Taslidere, E; Elbe, H; Cetin, A; Ates, B

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined. The histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels for the groups treated with antioxidants were lower than those for the stressed and stressed + saline groups. Mean tissue superoxide dismutase activities for groups that received antioxidants were higher than those for the stressed + saline group for most organs evaluated. Ascorbic acid and β-carotene can reduce stress-induced organ damage by both inhibiting lipid oxidation and supporting the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  19. Protective role of ascorbic acid against asbestos induced toxicity in rat lung: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khan, S G; Ali, S; Rahman, Q

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos fibers adsorb cytochrome P-450 and P-448 proteins from rat lung micosomal fractions and liberate heme from cytochrome P-448 on prolonged incubation in vitro. further, fibers, decrease the activities of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and glutathione-S-transferase in microsomal and cytosolic fractions respectively. Mineral fibers also stimulate both the enzymatic (NADPH-induced) and non-enzymatic (Fe2(+)-induced) lipid peroxidation in microsomal fractions. Preincubation of microsomal and cytosolic fractions with a physiological concentration of ascorbic acid ameliorates, to a large extent, the changes induced by asbestos fibers.

  20. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) induced hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water: role of bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Asplund, Klara U M; Mäkelä, Johanna C; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2003-08-01

    We have previously shown that Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can trigger hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water. We report here that the capacity of ascorbic acid to catalyze hydroxyl radical generation in the drinking water samples is strongly dependent on the bicarbonate concentration (buffer capacity and pH) of the samples. We found that at least 50 mg/l bicarbonate was required in the water samples to maintain the pH over 5.0 after ascorbic acid addition. At this pH, that is higher than the pKa1 4.25 of ascorbic acid, a hydroxyl radical generating redox cycling reaction involving the mono-anion of vitamin C and copper could take place. The ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical generating reaction could easily be mimicked in Milli-Q water by supplementing the water with copper and bicarbonate. Our results demonstrate that ascorbic acid can induce a pH dependent hydroxyl radical generating reaction in copper contaminated household tap water that is buffered with bicarbonate. The impact of consuming ascorbic acid together with copper and bicarbonate containing drinking water on human health is discussed.

  1. Chemistry of ascorbic acid radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of ascorbic acid free radicals is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on identification and characterization of ascorbate radicals by spectrophotometric and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques, the kinetics of formation and disappearance of ascorbate free radicals in enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions, the effect of pH upon the spectral and kinetic properties of ascorbate anion radical, and chemical reactivity of ascorbate free radicals.

  2. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  3. Radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells is suppressed by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukawa, M.; Terasima, T.; Seki, M. )

    1989-12-01

    X-ray induced transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by administration of ascorbic acid after irradiation (0.1-20 micrograms/ml for the first week) in the culture medium. The dose-response curve was shifted about 60% downward and was slightly steeper in the presence of ascorbic acid (5 micrograms/ml for the first week) than in its absence. The 1-week treatment procedure revealed that cells initiated by radiation remained susceptible to ascorbic acid until the time of morphological phenotype expression. The neoplastically transformed phenotype expressed after incubation for 8 weeks could no longer be suppressed by ascorbic acid even after culture transfer. Similarly, the neoplastically transformed phenotype suppressed for 8 weeks by ascorbic acid treatment was not subsequently expressed in the absence of ascorbic acid. On the basis of the oxygen-detoxifying nature of ascorbic acid, we postulated that expression of the neoplastically transformed phenotype is promoted by reactive oxygen species and peroxy radicals generated in cells during the whole assay period. The data may be useful as a guide for chemopreventive efforts against radiation carcinogenesis.

  4. Ultraviolet-induced oxidation of ascorbic acid in a model juice system: identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Tikekar, Rohan V; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Elias, Ryan J; LaBorde, Luke F

    2011-08-10

    Degradation products of ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) treated ascorbic acid (AA) are reported. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) conducted in a 0.5% malic acid model juice system (pH 3.3) demonstrated increased degradation of AA above untreated controls with concomitant increases in dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and 2,3-diketogulonic acid (DKGA) levels. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies, conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to increase detection sensitivity, demonstrated that ascorbyl radical (AA•) formation occurs simultaneously with AA degradation. Consistent with a previous study in which UV treatments were shown to accelerate dark storage degradation, AA• radicals continued to form for up to 200 min after an initial UV treatment. Results from this study suggest that the mechanism for UV-induced degradation is the same as the general mechanism for metal-catalyzed oxidation of AA in juice.

  5. Kolaviron and L-Ascorbic Acid Attenuate Chlorambucil-Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorambucil (4-[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]butanoic acid) is an alkylating agent, indicated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola, and L-ascorbic acid (AA) are known to protect against oxidative damage in vivo. This study evaluates the protective capacity of KV and AA on chlorambucil-induced oxidative stress in the testes of rat. Twenty male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into four groups: I: control, II: chlorambucil (0.2 mg/kg b.w.), III: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg KV, and IV: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg AA. After 14 days of treatments, results indicated that chlorambucil caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) in testicular vitamin C and glutathione by 32% and 39%, respectively, relative to control. Similarly, activities of testicular GST, SOD, and CAT reduced significantly by 48%, 47%, and 49%, respectively, in chlorambucil-treated rats relative to control. Testicular MDA and activities of ALP, LDH, and ACP were increased significantly by 53%, 51%, 64%, and 70%, respectively, in the chlorambucil-treated rat. However, cotreatment with KV and AA offered protection and restored the levels of vitamin C, GSH, and MDA as well as SOD, CAT, GST, ACP, ALP, and LDH activities. Overall, kolaviron and L-ascorbic acid protected against chlorambucil-induced damage in the testes of the rat. PMID:25309592

  6. Failure of ascorbic acid to inhibit FANFT-induced bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Soloway, M S; Cohen, S M; Dekernion, J B; Persky, L

    1975-04-01

    L-ascorbic acid has been shown to reduce the elevated level of urinary chemiluminescence found in patients with bladder cancer. Thus, it has been suggested that vitamin C might be efficacious in bladder tumor prophylaxis. However, there is no clinical evidence to support this thesis. We evaluated whether L-ascorbic acid given concomitantly with the urinary carcinogen FANFT was capable of reducing the incidence of subsequent bladder tumors. No inhibitory effect was observed. Unless evidence is obtained demonstrating bladder tumor prevention by L-ascorbic acid its routine administration to patients with bladder cancer is not indicated.

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  8. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  9. Ascorbic acid attenuates scopolamine-induced spatial learning deficits in the water maze.

    PubMed

    Harrison, F E; Hosseini, A H; Dawes, S M; Weaver, S; May, J M

    2009-12-28

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) has important antioxidant functions that can help protect against oxidative stress in the brain and damage associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. When administered parenterally ascorbate can bypass saturable uptake mechanisms in the gut and thus higher tissue concentrations can be achieved than by oral administration. In the present study we show that ascorbate (125 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1-h before testing, partially attenuated scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg i.p.) cognitive deficits in Morris water maze performance in young mice. Cumulative search error, but not escape latency nor path length, was significantly improved during acquisition in ascorbate plus scopolamine-treated mice although performance did not equal that of control mice. During the probe trial, scopolamine led to increased search error and chance level of time spent in the platform quadrant, whereas mice pre-treated with ascorbate prior to scopolamine did not differ from control mice on these measures. Ascorbate had no effect on unimpaired, control mice and neither did it reduce the peripheral, activity-increasing effects of scopolamine. Ascorbate alone increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the medial forebrain area but had no effect in cortex or striatum. This change, and its action against the amnestic effects of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, suggest that ascorbate may be acting in part via altered cholinergic signaling. However, further investigation is necessary to isolate the cognition-enhancing effects of ascorbate.

  10. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM) macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og) and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM). The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity. PMID:22220218

  11. Ascorbic acid enhances iron-induced ferritin translation in human leukemia and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Toth, I; Rogers, J T; McPhee, J A; Elliott, S M; Abramson, S L; Bridges, K R

    1995-02-10

    Ascorbate is an important cofactor in many cellular metabolic reactions and is intimately linked to iron homeostasis. Continuously cultured cells are ascorbate deficient due to the lability of the vitamin in solution and to the fact that daily supplementation of media with ascorbate is unusual. We found that ascorbate repletion alone did not alter ferritin synthesis. However, ascorbate-replete human hepatoma cells, Hep3B and HepG2, as well as K562 human leukemia cells achieved a substantially higher cellular ferritin content in response to a challenge with iron than did their ascorbate-deficient counterparts grown under standard culture conditions. Most of the elevation in ferritin content was due to an increase in de novo ferritin synthesis of greater than 50-fold, as shown by in vivo labeling with [35S]methionine and immunoprecipitation. RNA-blot analysis showed only minor changes in steady state levels of ferritin mRNA, suggesting that ascorbate enhances iron-induced ferritin synthesis primarily by post-transcriptional events. Transient gene expression experiments using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene constructs showed that the ascorbate effect on ferritin translation is not mediated through the stem-loop near the translational start site that transduces ferritin synthesis in response to cytokines. The data suggest that ascorbate possibly modifies the action of the iron-responsive element on ferritin translation, although more precise structure-function studies are needed to clarify this issue. These data demonstrate a novel role of ascorbate as a signaling molecule in post-transcriptional gene regulation. The mechanism by which ascorbate modulates cellular iron metabolism is complex and requires additional detailed investigation.

  12. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Garlic Administration on Lead-Induced Neural Damage in Rat Offspring’s Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Akram; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Alipour, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate ascorbic acid and garlic protective effects on lead-induced neurotoxicity during rat hippocampus development. Materials and Methods: 90 pregnant wistar rats were divided randomly into nine groups: 1- Animals received leaded water (L). 2- Rats received leaded water and ascorbic acid (L+AA). 3- Animals received leaded water and garlic juice (L+G). 4-Animals received leaded water, ascorbic acid and garlic juice (L+G+AA). 5- Rats treated with ascorbic acid (AA). 6- Rats treated with garlic juice (G). 7- Rats treated with ascorbic acid and garlic juice (AA+G). 8- Rats treated with tap water plus 0.4 ml/l normal hydrogen chloride (HCl) and 0.5 mg/l Glucose (Sham). 9- Normal group (N). Leaded water (1500 ppm), garlic juice (1 ml/100g/day, gavage) and ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg/day, IP) were used. Finally, blood lead levels (BLL) were measured in both rats and their offspring. The rat offspring brain sections were stained using Toluidine Blue and photographed. Dark neurons (DNs) were counted to compare all groups. Results: BLL significantly increased in L group compared to control and sham groups and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups in comparison to the L group (P<0.05). the number of DNs in the CA1, CA3, and DG of rat offspring hippocampus significantly increased in L group in comparison to control and sham groups (P<0.05) and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups compared to L group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Garlic juice and ascorbic acid administration during pregnancy and lactation may protect lead-induced neural damage in rat offspring hippocampus. PMID:24298384

  13. Modulating Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Transport-Induced Immunosuppression in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats. PMID:23738106

  14. Ascorbic acid, catalase and chlorpromazine reduce cryopreservation-induced damages to crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Kumar, S; Meur, S K; Kumaresan, A

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ascorbic acid, catalase, chlorpromazine and their combinations in reducing the cryodamages to crossbred bull (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) spermatozoa. A total of 32 ejaculates (eight each from four bulls) were diluted in Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender. Each ejaculate was split into six parts (five treatment and one control). Treatment groups included 10 mm ascorbic acid, 0.1 mm chlorpromazine, 200 IU/ml catalase, 10 mm ascorbic acid + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine or 200 IU/ml catalase + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine in the extender. Fluorescent probes (Fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin + Propidium iodide) were used for the assessment of spermatozoa viability and acrosomal status. The proportion of acrosome intact live (AIL), acrosome intact dead, acrosome reacted live and acrosome reacted dead sperm was assessed in fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. The functional status of the sperm was assessed using hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test (HOSST). Activities of acrosin and hyaluronidase enzyme were also determined. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed based on the melonaldehyde (MDA) production. In cryopreserved semen, the values of AIL spermatozoa, HOSST response, hyaluronidase and acrosin activity were reduced by 53%, 47%, 34% and 54%, respectively from their initial values in fresh semen. However, MDA level was threefold higher in the frozen-thawed sperm compared with fresh sperm. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motility, viability, HOSST response, retention of hyaluonidase and acrosin and reduction in MDA was recorded in ascorbic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine and catalase + chlorpromazine incorporated groups. The percentage of AIL sperm was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine incorporated groups compared with the control. Chlorpromazine alone did not improve the post-thaw semen quality but when combined

  15. Reversal of alcohol induced testicular hyperlipidemia by supplementation of ascorbic acid and its comparison with abstention in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Madambath, Indira

    2014-02-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure causes hyperlipidemia. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid supplementation on ethanol induced hyperlipidemia in testis and to compare it with that of abstinence from taking alcohol. Thirty-six male guinea pigs were divided into two groups and were maintained for 90 days as follows (1) control (C) (2) ethanol treated group (E) (4 g/kg body wt/day). Ethanol was administered for 90 days and on 90th day, alanine amino transaminase (ALT), aspartate amino transaminase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in serum was assayed. The animals in the ethanol group were further divided into an ascorbic acid supplemented group (25 mg/100 g body wt/day) (E+AA) and an ethanol abstention group (EAG) and those in the control group were divided into a control group and a control+ascorbic acid group (C+AA). There was significant increase in levels of testicular cholesterol, free fatty acid, phospholipids and triglycerides in the ethanol group. There was also a significant increase in the activity of HMG CoA reductase and decrease in activity of testicular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme in ethanol-ingested animals that further led to decreased levels of serum testosterone. Alcohol administration also enhanced the activity of testicular alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Ascorbic acid supplementation and abstention altered all these parameters induced by chronic alcohol administration. Histological studies were also in line with the above results. Ascorbic acid was able to reinstate the cholesterol homeostasis in testis which could have further restored the testicular steroidogenesis. The present study demonstrated that ascorbic acid is effective in reducing the hyperlipidemia induced by chronic alcohol administration and produced a better recovery than abstention.

  16. Comparative study of the efficacy of ascorbic acid, quercetin, and thiamine for reversing ethanol-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ambadath, Vidhya; Venu, Renju Gopal; Madambath, Indira

    2010-12-01

    This study compares the curative effect of three antioxidants-ascorbic acid, quercetin, and thiamine-on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. Administration of ethanol at a dose of 4 g/kg of body weight/day for 90 days initiated chronic alcohol-induced oxidative stress as shown by increased malondialdehyde level and DNA fragmentation in liver and brain. Ethanol administration also led to a decrease in DNA content. Activities of toxicity marker enzymes-alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-in liver and serum increased progressively upon ethanol administration. After ethanol administration for 90 days, the efficacy of antioxidant treatment of the alcohol-induced toxicity was studied by supplementing ascorbic acid (200 mg/100 g of body weight/day), quercetin (50 mg/kg of body weight/day), and thiamine (25 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 30 days. These groups were compared with the abstention group (not treated with ethanol). All the alterations induced by alcohol were reduced significantly by the supplementation of antioxidants and also with abstention. The regression by antioxidants was greater that of abstention. Antioxidants significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by ethanol intoxication, increased membrane integrity, and also increased organ regeneration. Ascorbic acid was shown to be more effective than quercetin and thiamine in treating both hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity induced by alcohol administration. This may be due to the higher antioxidant potential of ascorbic acid in physiological conditions.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin B-complex on the biological activities induced by Bothrops venom.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carlos Henrique de Moura; Assaid Simão, Anderson; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds have been widely studied with the aim of complementing antiophidic serum therapy. The present study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ascorbic acid and a vitamin complex, composed of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and all the B-complex vitamins, on the biological activities induced by snake venoms. The effect of vitamins was evaluated on the phospholipase, proteolytic, coagulant, and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae), B. jararacussu, and B. alternatus snake venoms, and the hemagglutinating activity induced by B. jararacussu venom. The vitamin complex (1:5 and 1:10 ratios) totally inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activity and partially the phospholipase activity and proteolytic activity on azocasein induced by the evaluated venoms. Significant inhibition was observed in the coagulation of human plasma induced by venoms from B. alternatus (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid) and B. moojeni (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid inhibited 100% of the proteolytic activities of B. moojeni and B. alternatus on azocasein, at 1:10 ratio, the effects of all the venoms on fibrinogen, the hemagglutinating activity of B. jararacussu venom, and also extended the plasma coagulation time induced by all venoms analyzed. The vitamins analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms, suggesting their interaction with toxins belonging to the phospholipase A2, protease, and lectin classes. The results can aid further research in clarifying the possible mechanisms of interaction between vitamins and snake enzymes.

  18. Synergistic protective role of ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid against subacute diazinon-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2016-03-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a synthetic organophosphrus acaricide and insecticide widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. However, its animal and human exposure leads to nephrotoxicity. Our experimental objective was to evaluate protective effects of ceftriaxone and/or ascorbic acid-vitamin C against DZN-induced renal injury in male Wistar albino rats. DZN-treated animals revealed significant elevation in serum biochemical parameters related to renal injury: urea, uric acid and creatinine. DZN intoxication significantly increased renal lipid peroxidation, and significant inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers including, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, DZN significantly reduced serum acetylcholinestrase level. Moreover, It induced serum and kidney tumor necrosis factor-α level. Both ceftriaxone and vitamin C protect against DZN-induced serum as well as renal tissue biochemical parameters when used alone or in combination along with DZN-intoxication. Furthermore, both ceftriaxone and vitamin C produced synergetic nephroprotective and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it could be concluded that ceftriaxone and/or vitamin C administration are able to minimize the toxic effects of DZN by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  19. Ascorbic acid treatment, similarly to fluoxetine, reverses depressive-like behavior and brain oxidative damage induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Morgana; Colla, André; de Oliveira Balen, Grasiela; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Budni, Josiane; de Freitas, Andiara Espíndola; Farina, Marcelo; Severo Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia

    2012-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Taking into account that experimental chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induces depressive-like behavior and that ascorbic acid has antidepressant-like effect in animals, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on depressive-like behavior induced by CUS paradigm, serum corticosterone levels and markers of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Animals were submitted to CUS procedure during 14 days. From the 8th to the 14th day mice received ascorbic acid (10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, conventional antidepressant, positive control) once a day by oral route. On 15th day behavioral and biochemical parameters were analyzed. CUS exposure caused a depressive-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in the tail suspension test and decreased time in which mice spent grooming in the splash test. Depressive-like behavior induced by CUS was accompanied by a significant increased lipid peroxidation (cerebral cortex and hippocampus), decreased catalase (CAT) (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) and glutathione reductase (GR) (hippocampus) activities and reduced levels of glutathione (cerebral cortex). Repeated ascorbic acid or fluoxetine administration significantly reversed CUS-induced depressive-like behavior and oxidative damage. No alteration was observed in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. These findings indicate a rapid and robust effect of ascorbic acid in reversing behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by CUS in mice, suggesting that this vitamin may be an alternative approach for the management of depressive symptoms.

  20. Cadmium stress tolerance in wheat seedlings induced by ascorbic acid was mediated by NO signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Qien; Wu, Weiguo; Guo, Jie; Yang, Yingli

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well known and widespread antioxidants and gaseous molecules that regulate plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the relationship between them in plant response to stress, especially heavy stress, is largely unclear. This study demonstrated that both AsA and NO could enhance the tolerance of wheat seedlings to cadmium stress evidenced by root length change, which resulted from their roles in maintaining the balance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reducing the absorption of Cd. Furthermore, exogenous AsA led to a significant increase of NO content and endogenous AsA content in wheat roots, which could be weakened by the NO scavenger c-PTIO. In addition, c-PTIO also inhibits the NO-induced production of endogenous AsA. Although the AsA synthesis inhibitor lycorine significantly inhibited the inductive effect of exogenous AsA on endogenous AsA production, it has little effect on NO content. In addition, we found that the protective effects of NO and AsA on Cd stress were removed by c-PTIO and lycorine. These results indicated that NO accumulation could be necessary for exogenous AsA-induced cadmium tolerance and endogenous AsA production, and the exogenous AsA-induced endogenous AsA production was likely mediated by NO signaling pathways and together they induced the tolerance of wheat to cadmium stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant defense and apoptotic effectors in ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Machado, Daisy; Yano, Cláudia Lumy; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima

    2011-01-01

    MC3T3-E1 cells grown in the presence of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA/β-GP) express alkaline phosphatase and produce an extensive collagenous extracellular matrix. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells are more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress than undifferentiated cells. In this study, we compared the profile of antioxidant enzymes and molecular markers of apoptosis in undifferentiated and differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells (cell differentiation was induced by treatment with AA/β-GP). Differentiated osteoblasts showed lower expression and activity of catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. The total superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase were also lower, while the expression of Mn superoxide dismutase was higher in differentiated osteoblasts. The level of malondialdehyde, a widely used marker for oxidative stress, was lower in the AA/β-GP group compared with control cells, but this difference was not significant. Western blotting showed that treatment with AA/β-GP increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio used as an index of cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. In addition, the activities of caspases 3, 8 and 9 and cleaved poly (ADP) ribose polymerase were significantly higher in differentiated cells. These findings provide new insights into how changes in the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and in the signaling pathways associated with apoptosis may influence the susceptibility of bone cells to oxidative stress.

  2. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/β-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Milani, Renato; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reports on the ability of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA/β-GP) to induce osteoblast differentiation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this work, we used a peptide array containing specific consensus sequences (potential substrates) for protein kinases and traditional biochemical techniques to examine the signaling pathways modulated during AA/β-GP-induced osteoblast differentiation. The kinomic profile obtained after 7 days of treatment with AA/β-GP identified 18 kinase substrates with significantly enhanced or reduced phosphorylation. Peptide substrates for Akt, PI3K, PKC, BCR, ABL, PRKG1, PAK1, PAK2, ERK1, ERBB2, and SYK showed a considerable reduction in phosphorylation, whereas enhanced phosphorylation was observed in substrates for CHKB, CHKA, PKA, FAK, ATM, PKA, and VEGFR-1. These findings confirm the potential usefulness of peptide microarrays for identifying kinases known to be involved in bone development in vivo and in vitro and show that this technique can be used to investigate kinases whose function in osteoblastic differentiation is poorly understood.

  3. Diferential gene expression and adiposity reduction induced by ascorbic acid supplementation in a cafeteria model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Campión, J; Milagro, F I; Fernández, D; Martínez, J A

    2006-06-01

    Obesity is considered as an inflammatory disease, in which free radical-induced oxidative stress and excessive intake of macronutrients exacerbate their symptoms. In this context, we assessed in rats the possible preventive effect of the supplementation with an antioxidant molecule, ascorbic acid, in order to reduce the adiposity induced by the intake of a high-fat diet. For this purpose, during 56 days, three groups of male Wistar rats were fed on: a) standard pelleted diet, b) Cafeteria diet, c) ascorbate-supplemented (750 mg/kg of body weight) Cafeteria diet. At the end of the experimental period, microarray analysis was used to identify genes transcriptionally induced or repressed by both experimental dietary models (Cafeteria diet supplemented or not with ascorbic acid) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dietary ascorbic acid was able to protect against high fat diet effects, reducing the increase of body weight, total body fat and enlargement of different adipose depots induced by the Cafeteria diet without affecting food intake. An association analysis accurately and differentially allowed the detection of gene expression changes related with adiposity and insulin resistance. The genes that more strongly correlated with body fat and HOMA insulin resistance index were involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucocorticoid metabolism, cell cycle regulation, as well as in several insulin-induced processes. Some other transcripts are regulated by the vitamin C-mediated reduction of adiposity, such as genes that participate in glucocorticoid metabolism, adipogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, or tricarboxylic acid cycle. This strategy was able to link variations in adipose tissue gene expression with markers of diet-induced obesity in rats, such as insulin resistance and body fat content.

  4. Prospective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in attenuating hexavalent chromium-induced functional and cellular damage in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Mahmood, Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals may render industrial workers with thyroid-related problems. Here, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against hexavalent chromium Cr (VI)-induced damage in rat thyroid gland. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and ascorbic acid doses were 60 microg and 120 mg kg(-1) body wt (intraperitoneally [i.p.]) respectively. Treatment regimens were group I rats, saline treated control; group II, only K2Cr2O7; group III, ascorbic acid 1 hour prior K2Cr2O7; group IV, simultaneous doses of ascorbic acid and K2Cr2O7, and group V, a combined premix dose of ascorbic acid and K2 Cr2O7 (2:1 ratio). Blood samples were taken before dosing the animals and 48 hours post exposure to determine the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. Toward end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and thyroid glands were processed to evaluate the extent of cellular insult. Results showed significantly increased TSH and decreased FT3 and FT4 concentrations in groups II, III and IV rats as compared to control levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, in group V rats, serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 concentrations neared control concentrations. Histopathologically, protective effect of ascorbic acid was found in group V rats only, where thyroid gland structure neared control thyroid except the follicular size that was decreased (p < 0.05). Follicular density was no different from control. Basal laminae were intact, interfollicular spaces were normal. Colloid retraction and/or reabsorption were reduced maximally. Epithelial cell height was no different from control; epithelial follicular index increased only 1.3 fold, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was decreased by 14% only. The study indicates that the ascorbic acid may have the potential to protect thyroid gland from chromium toxicity; however, the study warrants further in-depth experimentation to precisely elucidate this role.

  5. Relief of delayed oxidative stress by ascorbic acid can suppress radiation-induced cellular senescence in mammalian fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, Shinko; Kashino, Genro; Mori, Hiromu; Watanabe, Masami

    2015-03-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence is thought to be caused by nuclear DNA damage that cannot be repaired. However, here we found that radiation induces delayed increase of intracellular oxidative stress after irradiation. We investigated whether the relief of delayed oxidative stress by ascorbic acid would suppress the radiation-induced cellular senescence in Syrian golden hamster embryo (SHE) cells. We observed that the level of oxidative stress was drastically increased soon after irradiation, then declined to the level in non-irradiated cells, and increased again with a peak on day 3 after irradiation. We found that the inductions of cellular senescence after X-irradiation were reduced along with suppression of the delayed induction of oxidative stress by treatment with ascorbic acid, but not when oxidative stress occurred immediately after irradiation. Moreover, treatment of ascorbic acid inhibited p53 accumulation at 3 days after irradiation. Our data suggested a delayed increase of intracellular oxidative stress levels plays an important role in the process of radiation-induced cellular senescence by p53 accumulation.

  6. Antioxidant protective effect of flavonoids on linoleic acid peroxidation induced by copper(II)/ascorbic acid system.

    PubMed

    Beker, Bilge Yıldoğan; Bakır, Temelkan; Sönmezoğlu, Inci; Imer, Filiz; Apak, Reşat

    2011-11-01

    Antioxidants are compounds that can delay or inhibit lipid oxidation. The peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ion-ascorbate combinations was investigated in aerated and incubated emulsions at 37°C and pH 7. LA peroxidation induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid system followed first order kinetics with respect to hydroperoxides concentration. The extent of copper-initiated peroxide production in a LA system assayed by ferric thiocyanate method was used to determine possible antioxidant and prooxidant activities of the added flavonoids. The effects of three different flavonoids of similar structure, i.e. quercetin (QR), morin (MR) and catechin (CT), as potential antioxidant protectors were studied in the selected peroxidation system. The inhibitive order of flavonoids in the protection of LA peroxidation was: morin>catechin≥quercetin, i.e. agreeing with that of formal reduction potentials versus NHE at pH 7, i.e. 0.60, 0.57 and 0.33V for MR, CT, and QR, respectively. Morin showed antioxidant effect at all concentrations whereas catechin and quercetin showed both antioxidant and prooxidant effects depending on their concentrations. The structural requirements for antioxidant activity in flavonoids interestingly coincide with those for Cu(II)-induced prooxidant activity, because as the reducing power of a flavonoid increases, Cu(II)-Cu(I) reduction is facilitated that may end up with the production of reactive species. The findings of this study were evaluated in the light of structure-activity relationships of flavonoids, and the results are believed to be useful to better understand the actual conditions where flavonoids may act as prooxidants in the preservation of heterogeneous food samples containing traces of transition metal ions.

  7. Administration of ascorbic acid to prevent bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity: a randomized triple-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de Paula, E A; Kossatz, S; Fernandes, D; Loguercio, A D; Reis, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, 500 mg every eight hours, on bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. A triple-blind, parallel design, and placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted on 39 adults. The pills (placebo or ascorbic acid) were administered three times per day for 48 hours; the first dose was given one hour prior to each bleaching session. Two bleaching sessions with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel were performed with a one-week interval. Tooth sensitivity was recorded up to 48 hours after bleaching. The color evaluation was performed before and 30 days after bleaching. The absolute risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity were evaluated by Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Color changes were evaluated by unpaired t-test (α=0.05). There were no significant differences in the absolute risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and color change between the groups. Both groups showed a similar risk of tooth sensitivity (p>0.05). The perioperative use of an antioxidant, such as ascorbic acid (500 mg, three times daily) perorally, was not able to prevent bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity or reduce its intensity.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.3013 Section 582.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.8013 Section 182.8013 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  4. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Garlic Administration on Lead-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Offspring's Eye Retina

    PubMed Central

    Khordad, Elnaz; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lead toxicity induces retinal cell apoptosis. Vitamin C and garlic may decrease lead-induced apoptosis. This study was undertaken to investigate vitamin C and garlic protective effects on lead-induced apoptosis in eye retina. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats (n = 72) were divided randomly into 9 groups: (L) treated rats with lead acetate in drinking water and (L+AA) with leaded water and vitamin C intraperitoneally;(L+G), the rats received leaded-water and garlic juice via gavage; (L+AA+G) treated rats with leaded water, ascorbic acid, and garlic juice, (AA) with ascorbic acid, and (G) with garlic juice; (AA+G) treated rats with vitamin C and garlic juice and (Sh) with tap water plus normal hydrogen chloride (HCl) and glucose; normal (N). After 21-day lactation, blood lead level (BLL) in rats was measured, and then their offspring and the rat offspring's eyes were removed and processed for using TUNEL method. TUNEL positive cells in the eye retina were counted and all groups were compared. Results: BLL increased in L group compared to the control groups and decreased significantly in L + G, L + AA, and L+ AA + G groups compared to L group (P<0.05). TUNELL positive cell number in eye retina significantly increased in L group compared to control groups (P<0.05) and decreased in L+ G, L+ AA, and L+AA + G groups compared to L group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Garlic juice and ascorbic acid administration during pregnancy and lactation may protect lead-induced apoptosis in rat offspring's eye retina. PMID:23999717

  5. Pro-oxidative vs antioxidative properties of ascorbic acid in chromium(VI)-induced damage: an in vivo and in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, B; Gazdag, Z; Jenko-Brinovec, S; Fujs, S; Pesti, M; Bélagyi, J; Plesnicar, S; Raspor, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) pretreatment on chromium(VI)-induced damage was investigated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The objective of this study was to pretreat yeast cells with the antioxidant ascorbic acid in an effort to increase cell tolerance against reactive chromium intermediates and reactive oxygen species formed during chromium(VI) reduction. Intracellular oxidation was estimated using the fluorescence indicators dihidro-2,7-dichlorofluorescein, dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123. The role of ascorbic acid pretreatment on chromium(VI) toxicity was determined by measuring mitotic gene conversion, reverse mutations, 8-OHdG, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and chromium(V) formation. The chromium content in the biomass was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of chromium, ascorbic acid effectively protected the cells against endogenous reactive oxygen species formed during normal cellular metabolism. In vitro measurements employing EPR and the results of supercoiled DNA cleavage revealed that the pro-oxidative action of ascorbic acid during Cr(VI) reduction was concentration-dependent and that harmful hydroxyl radical and Cr(V) had formed following Cr(VI) reduction. However, the in vivo results highlighted the important role of increased cytosol reduction capacity related to modification of Cr(V) formation, increased chromium accumulation, better scavenging ability of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, and consequently decreased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in ascorbic acid pretreated cells. Ascorbic acid influenced Cr(VI) toxicity both as a reducing agent, by decreasing Cr(V) persistence, and as an antioxidant, by decreasing intracellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation and by quenching free radicals formed during Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduction. Increased 8-OHdG and decreased reduced glutathione in ascorbic acid-treated cells might induce an

  6. Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine ..cap alpha..-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 ..mu..M ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system.

  7. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.

  8. The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gaafa, Khadiga Mohammed; Badawy, Mohammed M; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    . Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or microscopic pathological effects were observed in either mice, rats, or guinea pigs in short-term studies. Male guinea pigs fed a control basal diet and given up to 250 mg Ascorbic Acid orally for 20 weeks had similar hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum iron, liver iron, and liver glycogen levels compared to control values. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were fed diets containing up to 100,000 ppm Ascorbic Acid for 13 weeks with little toxicity. Chronic Ascorbic Acid feeding studies showed toxic effects at dosages above 25 mg/kg body weight (bw) in rats and guinea pigs. Groups of male and female rats given daily doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw Ascorbic Acid for 2 years had no macro- or microscopically detectable toxic lesions. Mice given Ascorbic Acid subcutaneous and intravenous daily doses (500 to 1000 mg/kg bw) for 7 days had no changes in appetite, weight gain, and general behavior; and histological examination of various organs showed no changes. Ascorbic Acid was a photoprotectant when applied to mice and pig skin before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The inhibition of UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity was also noted. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate administration immediately after exposure in hairless mice significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronic exposure to UV radiation. Pregnant mice and rats were given daily oral doses of Ascorbic Acid up to 1000 mg/kg bw with no indications of adult-toxic, teratogenic, or fetotoxic effects. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate were not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems, consistent with the antioxidant properties of these chemicals. In the presence of certain enzyme systems or metal ions, evidence of genotoxicity was seen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted a 2-year oral

  10. Ascorbic acid requirements and metabolism in relation to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Street, J C; Chadwick, R W

    1975-09-30

    Those organochlorine pesticides which possess both high lipoid solubility and high resistance to biodegradation are prone to accumulation in animal tissues and produce relatively long-term effects as toxicants. Such compounds, typified by DDT, Dieldrin, and Lindane, are profound inducers of hepatic microsomal enzymes, including parts of the glucuronic acid and ascorbic acid biosynthetic pathways. Consequently, administering such pesticides to rats in accompanied by enhanced formation and excretion of D-glucuronic acid and L-ascorbic acid, or D-glucaric acid in the case of guinea pigs. Secondarily, the efficiency in biodegrading the pesticides is reduced in ascorbic-acid-deficient guinea pigs with correspondingly greater residue accumulation in tissue. This would aggravate chronic toxic effects of the compounds. Finally, the capacity of the liver to adapt to the presence of such toxicants through enhanced microsomal enzymatic levels appears to be sensitive to its ascorbate status. Impaired enzyme induction is apparent quite early during ascorbic acid depletion in guinea pigs. The enhanced turnover of ascorbate produced by such pesticides, the poor enzymatic adaptation to them during ascorbate depletion and the dependency of the oxidase system upon adequate ascorbate, all point to the central significance of ascorbate status in the liver, and possibly other tissues, as a determinant of their chronic toxicity.

  11. Beneficial role of ascorbic and folic acids antioxidants against thyroxin-induced testicular dysfunction in hyperthyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Beltagy, Doha M; Mohamed, Tarek M; El Said, Ahmed S; Tousson, Ehab

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism of almost all mammalian tissue including the reproductive system. Hyperthyroidism in early life may cause delayed sexual maturation, although physical development is normal and skeletal growth may be accelerated. Hyperthyroidism after puberty influences reproductive functions and increases testosterone level. The aim of this work is to study the effect of induced hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine sodium administration on the testis of rats and to evaluate the ameliorating role of different antioxidants as ascorbic acid and folic acid on the hyperthyroid state via the assessment of different biochemical markers, histopathological and immunochemical sections. DNA analysis of the D1 deiodinase was performed to determine genetic mutation due to hyperthyroidism. The results showed partially disrupted in the measured biochemical parameters and spermatogenesis in hyperthyroid rats. Post-administration of both folic and ascorbic acids together in hyperthyroid rats showed the best ameliorating effects on the thyroid hormones, testosterone, testicular GGT and ALP, and all oxidative stress markers. There is no genetic mutations that occurred in D1 deiodinase due to hyperthyroidism. These findings were indicated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) studies of testes.

  12. Intracellular ascorbic acid enhances the DNA single-strand breakage and toxicity induced by peroxynitrite in U937 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guidarelli, A; De Sanctis, R; Cellini, B; Fiorani, M; Dachà, M; Cantoni, O

    2001-01-01

    A well-established protocol to increase the intracellular content of ascorbic acid was used to investigate the effects of the vitamin on DNA single-strand breakage and toxicity mediated by authentic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in U937 cells. This protocol involved exposure for 60 min to 100 microM dehydroascorbic acid, which was taken up by the cells and converted into ascorbic acid via a GSH-independent mechanism. At the time of exposure to ONOO(-), which was performed in fresh saline immediately after loading with dehydroascorbic acid, the vitamin present in the cells was all in its reduced form. It was found that, in cells that are otherwise ascorbate-deficient, an increase in their ascorbic acid content does not prevent, but rather enhances, the DNA-damaging and lethal responses mediated by exogenous ONOO(-). These results therefore suggest that acute supplementation of ascorbic acid can be detrimental for individuals with pathologies associated with a decrease in ascorbic acid and in which ONOO(-) is known to promote deleterious effects. PMID:11368779

  13. Ascorbic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by ameliorating glutathione recovery and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Lee, Jaeyong; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Homma, Takujiro; Kang, Eun Sil; Saito, Yuka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-15

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) plays a role in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA), and AKR1A-deficient mice produce about 10-15% of the AsA that is produced by wild-type mice. We found that acetaminophen (AAP) hepatotoxicity was aggravated in AKR1A-deficient mice. The pre-administration of AsA in the drinking water markedly ameliorated the AAP hepatotoxicity in the AKR1A-deficient mice. Treatment of the mice with AAP decreased both glutathione and AsA levels in the liver in the early phase after AAP administration, and an AsA deficiency delayed the recovery of the glutathione content in the healing phase. While in cysteine supply systems; a neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1, a cystine transporter xCT, enzymes for the transsulfuration pathway, and autophagy markers, were all elevated in the liver as the result of the AAP treatment, the AsA deficiency suppressed their induction. Thus, AsA appeared to exert a protective effect against AAP hepatotoxicity by ameliorating the supply of cysteine that is available for glutathione synthesis as a whole. Because some drugs produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in the consumption of glutathione during the metabolic process, the intake of sufficient amounts of AsA would be beneficial for protecting against the hepatic damage caused by such drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol prevents arsenic-induced protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, R; Sundaram, K; Mani, S; Samuel, S; Elango, N; Panneerselvam, C

    2007-12-01

    Contamination of arsenic in drinking water is associated with several human diseases including cancer. It has been reported that oxidative stress plays a vital role in arsenic-induced biochemical and molecular alterations. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of arsenic-induced oxidative damage to proteins and to DNA and the role of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in alleviating arsenic-induced damages in experimental rats. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation, DNA strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links was observed in blood, liver, and kidney of rats exposed to arsenic (100 ppm in drinking water) for 30 days. Co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to arsenic-exposed rats showed a substantial reduction in the levels of arsenic-induced oxidative products of protein and DNA. The results of this study support that free radical-mediated toxic manifestations of arsenic and also suggest that ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation can improve the arsenic-induced molecular alterations.

  15. Aluminium-induced deterioration in reproductive performance and seminal plasma biochemistry of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I; El-Morsy, Ahmed M A; Hassan, Mervat S

    2005-11-05

    Aluminium (Al) has been proposed as an environmental factor that may contribute to some diseases, affect several enzymes and other biomolecules and induced free radical-mediated cytotoxicity. Also, Al induced reproductive toxicity and exerted a significant adverse effect on the steroidogenesis. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an important role in various physiological processes in the body including detoxification of different toxic materials. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to elucidate possible protective effects of AA in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on reproductive performance, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities in seminal plasma of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg AA and 0 mg AlCl3 /kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3 /kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (P<0.05) decreased libido (by increasing the reaction time), ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm output, sperm motility (%), total motile sperm per ejaculate (TMS), packed sperm volume (PSV), total functional sperm fraction (TFSF), normal and live sperm and semen initial fructose. While initial hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and dead and abnormal sperm were increased (P<0.05). Live body weight (LBW), feed intake (FI) and relative weights of testes (RTW) and epididymis (REW) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in seminal plasma of rabbits treated with AlCl3 compared with control. While, activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Ascorbic acid alone significantly increased LBW

  16. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 182.3013 Section 182.3013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  20. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress. Methods Effective concentration (EC50) values, which indicate the concentration of ascorbic acid that reduced the number of viable cells by 50%, were detected with the crystal violet assay. The level of intracellular catalase protein and enzyme activity was determined. Expression of catalase was silenced by catalase-specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA) in BT-20 breast carcinoma cells. Oxidative cell stress induced apoptosis was measured by a caspase luminescent assay. Results The tested human cancer cell lines demonstrated obvious differences in their resistance to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative cell stress. Forty-five percent of the cell lines had an EC50 > 20 mmol/L and fifty-five percent had an EC50 < 20 mmol/L. With an EC50 of 2.6–5.5 mmol/L, glioblastoma cells were the most susceptible cancer cell lines analysed in this study. A correlation between catalase activity and the susceptibility to ascorbic acid was observed. To study the possible protective role of catalase on the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative cell stress, the expression of catalase in the breast carcinoma cell line BT-20, which cells were highly resistant to the exposure to ascorbic acid (EC50: 94,9 mmol/L), was silenced with specific sh-RNA. The effect was that catalase-silenced BT-20 cells (BT-20 KD-CAT) became more susceptible to high concentrations of ascorbic acid (50 and 100 mmol/L). Conclusions Fifty-five percent of the human cancer cell lines tested were unable to protect

  1. Effect of cysteine, methionine, ascorbic acid and thiamine on arsenic-induced oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Nandi, D; Patra, R C; Swarup, D

    2005-07-01

    Oxidative stress due to enhanced production of free radicals has been incriminated as one of the several mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced toxic effects in different organs. In the present study, ameliorative potential of certain amino acids like cysteine, methionine and vitamins like ascorbic acid and thiamine on some of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and blood and of hepatic and renal infliction was investigated in arsenic exposed rats. Rats were given 0 ppm (group I healthy controls) or 10 ppm arsenic in drinking water ad lib for a period of 12 weeks. During oral exposure to arsenic rats of different groups received daily oral dose of placebo, cysteine, methionine, ascorbic acid or thiamine at 25mg/kg body weight. After the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed under light anesthesia and blood, liver and kidney were collected. Samples were processed for estimation of arsenic, biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress and hepatic and renal function. Arsenic exposure resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher accumulation of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. It was associated with significant (P<0.05) rise in lipid peroxide level and decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver and kidneys. However, alterations in biochemical parameters did not reach statistical (P>0.05) significance. Treatment with vitamins and amino acids resulted in reversal of oxidative stress with significant (P<0.05) decline in tissue arsenic burden. All the treatment produced tissue specific changes in lipid peroxide level, antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue arsenic burden.

  2. Ascorbic acid stimulates the resorption of canine articular cartilage induced by a factor derived from activated rabbit macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dean, D D; Sellers, A; Howell, D S; Kerwar, S S; Woessner, J F

    1985-01-01

    Articular cartilage explants from the knees of mongrel dogs release 5-10% of their proteoglycan content spontaneously when cultured for 4 days in serum-free modified Bigger's medium. A factor synthesized and secreted by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rabbit macrophages can stimulate this release of proteoglycan by 2 to 3-fold. The release of proteoglycan in response to macrophage factor is maximal in the presence of 1.5-50 micrograms/ml L-ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbate, or with high levels of ascorbate (150 micrograms/ml), the effect of the factor is diminished by 50%. D-isoascorbate, reduced glutathione, or dithiothreitol cannot substitute for L-ascorbate in producing this effect, while dehydroascorbate can.

  3. Ascorbic Acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease is commonplace among the Asian population, particularly among senior citizens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of ascorbic acid as a memory-enhancer. Swiss mice of either sex were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Ascorbic acid (60, 120 mg/kg) injected for 3 and 8 consecutive days improved learning and memory of aged mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. Furthermore, ascorbic acid provided protection to the young animals from scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment of memory. Ascorbic acid was found to be more potent than piracetam as reflected by the smaller dose, more pronounced effect, and quicker onset of action. Ascorbic acid has shown promise as a powerful memory-improving agent particularly effective in aged animals. Hence, ascorbic acid might prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly individuals. The underlying mechanism of action of ascorbic acid may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  4. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  5. Differences in the activities of resveratrol and ascorbic acid in protection of ethanol-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Mou, Yan-Hua; Wang, Li-Hui; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that ethanol induces oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. In the present study, protective effect of resveratrol and ascorbic acid on ethanol-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro were comparatively investigated. Pretreatments with resveratrol at 5, 25, and 50μM, which were in the concentration range of in vitro research, significantly inhibited ethanol-induced oxidative DNA damage in 24h, whereas ascorbic acid showed such DNA protective activity only in 1h. Further study showed that both compounds could directly scavenge hydroxyl radical produced during ethanol metabolism. Resveratrol significantly inhibited ethanol metabolism by regulating alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) mRNA expressions. Moreover, resveratrol also activated the base excision repair (BER) system in mRNA and protein levels in DNA auto-repair process. However, ascorbic acid showed no effect on ethanol metabolic pathway and BER system. Thus, the present study provided the first evidence that even though both resveratrol and ascorbic acid are anti-oxidants, they possessed differential mechanisms of action in protection against ethanol-induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The modifying effect of long-term administration of ascorbic acid with drinking water on asbestos-induced pleural carcinogenesis in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Stadnikova, N M; Vasil'eva, L A; Shelepov, V P; Pylev, L N

    1996-01-01

    Ascorbic acid administered with drinking water, in a concentration of 2.5%, together with sucrose (1%) was found to significantly inhibit the development of mesothelial and pleural tumors induced in Wistar rats by asbestos treatment. Said agents, however, failed to influence spontaneous carcinogenesis.

  7. Synergistic protective role of mirazid (Commiphora molmol) and ascorbic acid against tilmicosin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Ghazy, Emad W; Fayez, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic approved for the treatment of cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease. However, overdose of TIL has been reported to induce cardiotoxicity. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate the protective effects of Commiphora molmol (mirazid (MRZ); myrrh) and (or) ascorbic acid (AA) against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. MRZ and AA were orally administered using stomach gavage, either alone or in combination for 5 consecutive days, followed with a single TIL overdose. TIL overdose induced a significant increase in serum levels of cardiac damage biomarkers (AST, LDH, CK, CK-MB, and cTnT), as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, but cardiac levels of antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, SOD, CAT, and TAC) were decreased. Both MRZ and AA tended to normalize the elevated serum levels of cardiac injury biomarkers. Furthermore, MRZ and AA reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters. MRZ and AA combined produced a synergistic cardioprotective effect. We conclude that myrrh and (or) vitamin C administration minimizes the toxic effects of TIL through their free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  8. Methane protects against polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in maize by improving sugar and ascorbic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Duan, Xingliang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Kaikai; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ren; Hu, Huali; Qi, Fang; Pan, Jincheng; Yan, Yuanxin; Shen, Wenbiao

    2017-01-01

    Although aerobic methane (CH4) release from plants leads to an intense scientific and public controversy in the recent years, the potential functions of endogenous CH4 production in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress significantly increased CH4 production and soluble sugar contents in maize (Zea mays L.) root tissues. These enhancements were more pronounced in the drought stress-tolerant cultivar Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) than in the drought stress-sensitive cultivar Zhongjiangyu No.1 (ZJY1). Exogenously applied 0.65 mM CH4 not only increased endogenous CH4 production, but also decreased the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. PEG-induced water deficit symptoms, such as decreased biomass and relative water contents in both root and shoot tissues, were also alleviated. These beneficial responses paralleled the increases in the contents of soluble sugar and the reduced ascorbic acid (AsA), and the ratio of AsA/dehydroascorbate (DHA). Further comparison of transcript profiles of some key enzymes in sugar and AsA metabolism suggested that CH4 might participate in sugar signaling, which in turn increased AsA production and recycling. Together, these results suggested that CH4 might function as a gaseous molecule that enhances osmotic stress tolerance in maize by modulating sugar and AsA metabolism. PMID:28387312

  9. L-Ascorbic Acid Protected Against Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptosis Induced by Cobalt Nanoparticles Through ROS Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yake; Hong, Hongxiang; Lu, Xu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Fan; Yang, Huilin

    2017-02-01

    Currently, tissue damage induced by cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) and cobalt ions (Co(2+)) are the most serious syndrome in the patients with metal-on-metal hip prostheses. Therefore, an urgent need exists for the identification of the mechanisms and the development of therapeutic strategies to limit it. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of this damage and to demonstrate if L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) could protect against the cell toxicities induced by CoNPs and Co(2+) in vitro. With CoNPs and Co(2+) treatment, cell viability was significantly decreased; the ROS (reactive oxygen species) level in mitochondria was dramatically increased in CoNPs treated cells, but cobalt ions could barely induce the ROS. Consistently, the level of cell apoptosis was increased with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic factors (caspases 8, 9, and 3, and Bax) and the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Besides that, the levels of cytochrome c and AIF were increased and released from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. After the cells were pretreated with L-AA, the cell viability decreased by CoNPs was reversed and the ROS induced by CoNPs was suppressed. The level of cell apoptosis induced by CoNPs was decreased as well. But it could not reverse the effects induced by Co(2+). These studies demonstrated that CoNPs induce extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways via generation of ROS, and L-AA could prevent the cytotoxicity by reducing the level of ROS. While Co(2+) may induce cytotoxicity through other signals, it could not be protected by L-AA treatment.

  10. Ascorbic Acid Protects against Hypertension through Downregulation of ACE1 Gene Expression Mediated by Histone Deacetylation in Prenatal Inflammation-Induced Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Na; Deng, Youcai; Wei, Yanling; Huang, Yinhu; Pu, Xiaoyun; Li, Li; Zheng, Yingru; Guo, Jianxin; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Xiaohui; Yi, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to hypertension in a rat offspring. However, the mechanism is still unclear. This study unraveled epigenetic mechanism for this and explored the protective effects of ascorbic acid against hypertension on prenatal inflammation-induced offspring. Prenatal LPS exposure resulted in an increase of intrarenal oxidative stress and enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels in 6- and 12-week-old offspring, correlating with the augmentation of histone H3 acetylation (H3AC) on the ACE1 promoter. However, the prenatal ascorbic acid treatment decreased the LPS-induced expression of ACE1, protected against intrarenal oxidative stress, and reversed the altered histone modification on the ACE1 promoter, showing the protective effect in offspring of prenatal LPS stimulation. Our study demonstrates that ascorbic acid is able to prevent hypertension in offspring from prenatal inflammation exposure. Thus, ascorbic acid can be a new approach towards the prevention of fetal programming hypertension. PMID:27995995

  11. Protective role of ascorbic acid isolated from Cissus quadrangularis on NSAID induced toxicity through immunomodulating response and growth factors expression.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Mohan, Kunju Vijai

    2008-12-20

    The present study investigate the effect of ascorbic acid, the major bioactive component isolated from Cissus quadrangularis extract (CAA) on inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric ulcer. Analysis of serum cytokine profile using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a drastic increase in interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and decrease in IL-10, Il-4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in NSAID (aspirin) treated rats. The reduction of growth factors such as transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF)-alpha and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) by aspirin was determined by immunohistochemistry method. Administration of CAA produced significant protection against aspirin induced gastric toxicity by showing significant increase in PGE2, TGF-alpha, VEGF expression and accompanied by a significant inhibition of nitric oxide and regulating the levels of cytokines in rats. These findings suggest that CAA prevents gastric ulcer formation due to its immunomodulatory effect, antioxidant activity along with the ability to modulate PG synthesis and up-regulation of the growth factors.

  12. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be... the controlled reaction between ascorbic acid and nicotinamide, melting in the range 141 °C to 145 °C...

  13. Ascorbate-induced oxidative inactivation of Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Sok, D E

    1998-03-01

    Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase, responsible for the conversion of glycerophosphocholine into glycerol and phosphocholine, was inactivated during incubation with ascorbic acid at 38 degrees C. The inclusion of copper ions or Fe2+ accelerated the ascorbate-induced inactivation, with Cu2+ or Cu+ being much more effective than Fe2+, suggestive of ascorbate-mediated oxidation. Dehydroascorbic acid had no effect on the phosphodiesterase, but H2O2 inactivated the enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, the enzyme was inactivated partially by a superoxide anion-generating system but not an HOCl generator. In support of involvement of H2O2 in the ascorbate action, catalase and superoxide dismutase expressed a complete and a partial protection, respectively. However, hydroxy radical scavengers such as mannitol, benzoate, or dimethyl sulfoxide were incapable of preventing the ascorbate action, excluding the participation of extraneous .OH. Although p-nitrophenylphosphocholine exhibited a modest protection against the ascorbate action, a remarkable protection was expressed by amino acids, especially by histidine. In addition, imidazole, an electron donor, showed a partial protection. Separately, when Cu2+-induced inactivation of the phosphodiesterase was compared with the ascorbate-mediated one, the protection and pH studies indicate that the mechanism for the ascorbate action is different from that for the Cu2+ action. Here, it is proposed that Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase is one of brain membrane proteins susceptible to oxidative inactivation.

  14. [Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of the ascorbic acid, dihydroquercetine and mexidol in the radical reactions induced by the ionizing radiation and chemical reagents].

    PubMed

    Riabchenko, N I; Riabchenko, V I; Ivannik, B P; Dzikovskaia, L A; Sin'kova, R V; Grosheva, I P; Degtiareva, E S; Ivanova, T I

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of dihydroquercetine, mexidol and an ascorbic acid in reactions with participation of radicals OH* and O2(-)*, induced by gamma-irradiation, iron-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of reduced NADH by phenazine metosulfate are investigafed. The efficiency of scavenging of radicals OH* estimated by the results of the analysis of deoxyribose degradation, and the efficiency of scavenging of superoxide anion-radicals O2(-)* is estimated by the results of the analysis of occurrence the reduced nitrotetrazolium blue. The concentrations of analyzed compounds, scavenging on 50% (C50%) formation of radicals OH* and O2(-)* are certain. It is shown, that an ascorbic acid, dihydroquercetine and mexidol decrease the generating of superoxide anion-radicals O2(-)* in the gamma-irradiated solutions of sodium format and at oxidation of reduced NADH by phenazine metosulfate scavanged of superoxide anion-radicals O2(-)*. In the gamma-irradiated saline solutions an ascorbic acid, dihydroquercetine and mexidol protected deoxyribose from oxidizing action of hydroxyl radicals OH*. However at presence Fe(3+), EDTA and hydrogen peroxide addition of an ascorbic acid (0.1 mmol/l) increased generating of hydroxyl radicals OH* and in 2.8 times raised the maintenance of products of deoxyribose oxidation, reacting with thiobarbituric acid. Prooxidant action of an ascorbic acid is observed as well in absence of hydrogen peroxide. Obtained data testify that in various modelling systems reagents, in particular ions of iron, and the formed active intermediate products render significant influence on scavenging efficiency of investigated compounds.

  15. Ascorbic Acid Efflux from Human Brain Microvascular Pericytes: Role of Re-uptake

    PubMed Central

    May, James M.; Qu, Zhi-chao

    2015-01-01

    Microvascular pericytes take up ascorbic acid on the ascorbate transporter SVCT2. Intracellular ascorbate then protects the cells against apoptosis induced by culture at diabetic glucose concentrations. To investigate whether pericytes might also provide ascorbate to the underlying endothelial cells, we studied ascorbate efflux from human pericytes. When loaded with ascorbate to intracellular concentrations of 0.8–1.0 mM, almost two-thirds of intracellular ascorbate effluxed from the cells over 2 h. This efflux was opposed by ascorbate re-uptake from the medium, since preventing re-uptake by destroying extracellular ascorbate with ascorbate oxidase increased ascorbate loss even further. Ascorbate re-uptake occurred on the SVCT2, since its blockade by replacing medium sodium with choline, by the SVCT2 inhibitor sulfinpyrazone, or by extracellular ascorbate accelerated ascorbate loss from the cells. This was supported by finding that net efflux of radiolabeled ascorbate was increased by unlabeled extracellular ascorbate with a half-maximal effect in the range of the high affinity Km of the SVCT2. Intracellular ascorbate did not inhibit its efflux. To assess the mechanism of ascorbate efflux, known inhibitors of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) were tested. These potently inhibited ascorbate transport into cells on the SVCT2, but not its efflux. An exception was the anion transport inhibitor DIDS, which, despite inhibition of ascorbate uptake, also inhibited net efflux at 25–50 µM. These results suggest that ascorbate efflux from vascular pericytes occurs on a DIDS-inhibitable transporter or channel different from VRACs. Further, ascorbate efflux is opposed by re-uptake of ascorbate on the SVCT2, providing a potential regulatory mechanism. PMID:26340060

  16. Changes relevant to catecholamine metabolism in liver and brain of ascorbic acid deficient guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Deana, R; Bharaj, B S; Verjee, Z H; Galzigna, L

    1975-01-01

    A chronic deficiency of ascorbic acid was induced in guinea pig. The level of catecholamines, copper and the activities of ceruplasmin, catecholamine oxidase, monoamineoxidase and acetylcholinesterase were checked in brain, liver and serum. Also the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione were measured in the organs of ascorbic acid-deficient animals. The most important changes due to the ascorbic acid deficiency were observed in the brain were monoamineoxidase, catecholamineoxidase, acetylcholinesterase and the concentration of catecholamines were altered. The statement that brain is the organ most affected by the ascorbic acid deficiency is discussed.

  17. Combined α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuri; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee; Liu, Chun; Russell, Robert M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of low dose of β-carotene, α-tocopherol (AT), and ascorbic acid (AA). However, the role of a combination of AT and AA alone in the protective effect on lung carcinogenesis remains to be examined. In the present study, we investigated whether the combined AT (equivalent to ∼100 mg/day in the human) and AA (equivalent to ∼210 mg/day) supplementation prevents against SM (equivalent to 1.5 packs of cigarettes/day) induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets. Ferrets were treated for 6 weeks in the following three groups (9 ferrets/group): (i) Control (no SM, no AT+AA), (ii) SM alone, and (iii) SM+AT+AA. Results showed that SM significantly decreased concentrations of retinoic acid, AT, and reduced form of AA, not total AA, retinol and retinyl palmitate, in the lungs of ferrets. Combined AT+AA treatment partially restored the lowered concentrations of AT, reduced AA and retinoic acid in the lungs of SM-exposed ferrets to the levels in the control group. Furthermore, the combined AT+AA supplementation prevented SM-induced squamous metaplasia [0 positive/9 total ferrets (0%) vs. 5/8 (62%); p<0.05] and cyclin D1 expression (p<0.05) in the ferret lungs, in which both were positively correlated with expression of c-Jun expression. Although there were no significant differences in lung microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels among the three groups, we found a positive correlation between MDA levels and cyclin D1, as well as c-Jun expressions in the lungs of ferrets. These data indicate that the combination of antioxidant AT+AA alone exerts protective effects against SM-induced lung lesions through inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and partially restoring retinoic acid levels to normal

  18. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  19. Covalent immobilization of ascorbate oxidase onto polycarbonate strip for L-ascorbic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Kannoujia, Dileep Kumar; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

    2012-10-01

    Herein, a simple and rapid method is described for detection of L-ascorbic acid by ascorbate oxidase immobilized onto polycarbonate strip pre-activated by 1-fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene in photochemical reaction. Covalent attachment of ascorbate oxidase was confirmed by XPS studies. The immobilized-ascorbate oxidase shows higher pH, thermal and storage stability in comparison to free enzyme.

  20. Dietary ascorbic acid normalizes ribosomal efficiency for collagen production in skin of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schneir, M.; Imberman, M.; Ramamurthy, N.; Golub, L.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of both ribosome amount and ribosomal efficiency to decreased collagen production in skin of diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with dietary ascorbic acid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed equally into the following categories: non-diabetic controls; diabetics; ascorbic acid-treated diabetics. On day-20, all rats were injected with (/sup 3/H)proline and killed after 2 h. Absolute rate of collagen production, ribosome content, and ribosomal efficiency of collagen production were quantified. Also ribosomal efficiency was quantified for ribosomes in sucrose-gradient fractionated post-mitochondrial supernatants. The results indicate that decreased ribosomal efficiency was responsible for 70% of the decreased collagen production with 30% caused by decreased ribosome content, when measured for total skin or sucrose gradient-isolated ribosomes. At both levels of analysis, ascorbic acid treatment normalized ribosomal efficiency, indicating diabetes-mediated decreased ribosomal efficiency for collagen production is related to a co-translational event, such as procollagen underhydroxylation.

  1. Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric mucosal damage induced by intensive stress

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Aysin; Cetin, Asli; Ates, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress has been considered to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Material and methods Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + saline, stress + melatonin, stress + ascorbic acid and stress + β-carotene groups. The rats from stress groups were exposed to starvation, immobilization and cold by immobilizing for 8 h at +4°C following 72-hour food restriction. Following stress application, melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene were administered for 7 days. Specimens of gastric tissue were prepared for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results Mean histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased but mean tissue glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in treatment groups vs. stress groups in general. Mean histopathological damage scores of the stress + Mel group was lower than those of stress + D, stress + S, stress + β-car (p < 0.05) and stress + Asc groups (p < 0.005). Additionally, mean tissue catalase activity of the stress + Mel group was higher than that of stress + S (p < 0.005), stress + D (p < 0.05) and stress + β-car groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric damage induced by intensive stress. We suggest that as well as the direct antioxidant and free radical scavenging potency of melatonin, its indirect effect via the brain-gut axis might account for its greater beneficial action against stress-induced gastric damage. PMID:26528359

  2. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  4. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A; Miller, Wilson H; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L John

    2009-02-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at -30 degrees C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function.

  5. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and ascorbic acid against oxytetracycline-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Ghazy, Emad W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic widely used for treatment of a wide range of infections. However, its improper human and animal use leads to toxic effects, including hepatonephrotoxicity. Our objective was to evaluate protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and/or ascorbic acid (AA), against OTC-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Forty male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups of eight each. The 1st group (control) was given saline. The 2nd group was given OTC (200 mg/kg, orally). The 3rd and 4th groups were orally administered NSO and AA (2 ml/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively) 1 hr before OTC administration at the same dose regimen used for the 2nd group. Both NSO and AA were given in combination for the 5th group along with OTC administration. Serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney injury were evaluated, and lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant markers in hepatic and renal tissues were examined. Results: OTC-treated animals revealed significant alterations in serum biochemical hepato-renal injury markers, and showed a markedly increase in hepato-renal lipid peroxidation and inhibition in tissue antioxidant biomarkers. NSO and AA protect against OTC-induced serum and tissue biochemical alterations when each of them is used alone or in combination along with OTC treatment. Furthermore, both NSO and AA produced synergetic hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The present study revealed the preventive role of NSO and/or AA against the toxic effects of OTC through their free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activities. PMID:25945233

  6. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies.

  7. Quercetin and Ascorbic Acid Suppress Fructose-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Blocking Intracellular Shuttling of TXNIP in Human Macrophage Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to identify the role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and its interaction with antioxidants in the activation of the fructose-induced NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. The study was performed with U937 and THP-1 macrophage cell lines. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, NLRP3, TXNIP, and caspase-1 protein expression was detected using western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 gene expression. Intracellular shuttling of TXNIP was assessed by immunofluorescent staining with MitoTracker Red. Increased production of ROS and expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 genes and proteins were observed in U937 and THP-1 cells incubated with fructose and were effectively inhibited by quercetin and ascorbic acid. Intracellular shuttling of TXNIP from the nucleus into the mitochondria was detected under stimulation with fructose, which was also attenuated by antioxidants quercetin and ascorbic acid but not butylated hydroxyanisole. Treatment of macrophages with fructose promoted the association between TXNIP and NLRP3 in the cytosol, sequentially resulting in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study revealed that intracellular TXNIP protein is a critical regulator of activation of the fructose-induced NLRP3 inflammasome, which can be effectively blocked by the antioxidants quercetin and ascorbic acid.

  8. Effects of Iron Overload on Ascorbic Acid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Wapnick, A. A.; Lynch, S. R.; Krawitz, P.; Seftel, H. C.; Charlton, R. W.; Bothwell, T. H.

    1968-01-01

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid. PMID:5673960

  9. Effects of iron overload on ascorbic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wapnick, A A; Lynch, S R; Krawitz, P; Seftel, H C; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H

    1968-09-21

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid.

  10. Enterococcus faecalis grows on ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Solheim, Margrete; Nes, Ingolf F; Holo, Helge

    2013-08-01

    We show that Enterococcus faecalis can utilize ascorbate for fermentative growth. In chemically defined media, growth yield was limited by the supply of amino acids, and the cells showed a much higher demand for amino acids than when they were grown on glucose.

  11. Chromium-picolinate induced ocular changes: Protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Amany A; Karam, Sawsan H; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2006-09-21

    Chromium-picolinate (Cr-picolinate) is a popular nutritional supplement; however its safety has been questioned with regard to its ability to act as a clastogen. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical, histological and morphological changes in the cornea and lens following oral administration of Cr-picolinate and the possible protective effect of Vitamin C. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups included the control group, the groups treated with Cr-picolinate (0.8 and 1.5 mg/100 g b.w.) alone or in combination with Vitamin C (0.5 mg/100 g b.w.) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the high dose of Cr-picolinate induced a significant decrease in SOD, GSH, Na(+)-, K(+)-ATPase levels, and a significant increase in MDA level. Severe morphological and histological changes in the cornea and lens accompanied with a decrease in the total soluble protein of the lens homogenate and changes in the crystalline fractions in lens. Vitamin C supplementation succeeded to restore these changes to great extent. It could be concluded that consumption of Cr-picolinate for a long time induced several hazards to cornea and lens. Supplementation with extra amounts of Vitamin C may be useful to restrain the Cr-picolinate induced ocular changes.

  12. Ascorbic Acid and a Cytostatic Inhibitor of Glycolysis Synergistically Induce Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vuyyuri, Saleha B.; Rinkinen, Jacob; Worden, Erin; Shim, Hyekyung; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits significant anticancer activity at pharmacologic doses achievable by parenteral administration that have minimal effects on normal cells. Thus, AA has potential uses as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with other therapeutics that specifically target cancer-cell metabolism. We compared the effects of AA and combinations of AA with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3-PO) on the viability of three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to the effects on an immortalized lung epithelial cell line. AA concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM caused a complete loss of viability in all NSCLC lines compared to a <10% loss of viability in the lung epithelial cell line. Combinations of AA and 3-PO synergistically enhanced cell death in all NSCLC cell lines at concentrations well below the IC50 concentrations for each compound alone. A synergistic interaction was not observed in combination treatments of lung epithelial cells and combination treatments that caused a complete loss of viability in NSCLC cells had modest effects on normal lung cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Combination treatments induced dramatically higher ROS levels compared to treatment with AA and 3-PO alone in NSCLC cells and combination-induced cell death was inhibited by addition of catalase to the medium. Analyses of DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, annexin V-binding, and caspase activity demonstrated that AA-induced cell death is caused via the activation of apoptosis and that the combination treatments caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of AA against NSCLC cells and that combinations of AA with 3-PO synergistically induce apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. These results support further evaluation of pharmacologic concentrations of AA as an adjuvant treatment for NSCLC and that combination of AA with glycolysis

  13. Ascorbic acid reduces gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats through the control of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Miriam A; Nascimento, Marcos A; Bozzo, Tatiana A; Cintra, Alvaro; da Silva, Sônia M; Dalboni, Maria A; Mouro, Margaret G; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many forms of acute renal failure. The aim was examine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and its relationship with nitric oxide on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. We utilized 32 Wistar rats allocated in four groups of eight animals each: control (CTL), vitamin C (VIT C), gentamicin (GENTA), and GENTA + VIT C; all groups were treated during seven days. Serum urea and creatinine, serum and renal tissue malondialdehyde, blood superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in GENTA were increased vs CTL and vs VIT C, and decreased in GENTA + VIT C vs GENTA (all P < 0.05). Serum nitric oxide increased in GENTA vs CTL and vs VIT C, and reduced in GENTA + VIT C vs GENTA (P < 0.001). Urinary nitric oxide was reduced in GENTA vs CTL and vs VIT C and increased in GENTA + VIT C vs GENTA (P < 0.001). Severe degeneration of proximal tubules was present in GENTA, but only mild lesions were observed in GENTA + VIT C. This study suggests that VIT C is a valuable tool to protect against GENTA-induced nephrotoxicity, by reducing reactive oxygen species and increasing the nitric oxide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Berge, G E; Sund, R B

    2001-08-01

    Using a highly sensitive and selective analytical method and careful stability control, plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid were determined in German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers and Siberian Huskies, a total 99 animals. Mean concentration was 35.9 micromol l(-1)(range 18.2-50.7), and no significant variation was observed neither between breeds nor between females and males. These and previous reported data on plasma ascorbic acid levels in dogs are discussed in the light of methodological aspects. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) in Defence Feeding,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    k ARD-Ai25 944 ASCORBIC ACID ( VITAMIN C) IN DEFENCE FEEDING(U) ARMED I/i I FORCES FOOD SCIENCE ESTABLISHMENT SCOTTSDALE I NOSFE (AUSTRALIA) C H4...1963 A . , r ’ . - -~ . * u ,. l m -, -’ W - -r n UNCLASSIFIED l. ~kc 3 27 3 ’" * ASCORBIC ACID ( VITAMIN C) IN DEFENCE FEEDING by C. H. FORBES-EWAN...fresh vegetables could prevent and cure scurvy, it was not until the early 20th Century that the factor involved, vitamin C, was purified. Vitamin C

  16. ESR Study on Irradiated Ascorbic Acid Single Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Tuner, H.; Korkmaz, M.

    2007-04-23

    Food irradiation is a 'cold' process for preserving food and has been established as a safe and effective method of food processing and preservation after more than five decades of research and development. The small temperature increase, absence of residue and effectiveness of treatment of pre-packed food are the main advantages. In food industry, ascorbic acid and its derivatives are frequently used as antioxidant agents. However, irradiation is expected to produces changes in the molecules of food components and of course in the molecules of the agents added as preservation agents such as ascorbic acid. These changes in the molecular structures could cause decreases in the antioxidant actions of these agents. Therefore, the radiation resistance of these agents must be known to determine the amount of radiation dose to be delivered. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is one of the leading methods for identification of intermediates produced after irradiation. ESR spectrum of irradiated solid powder of ascorbic acid is fairly complex and determinations of involved radical species are difficult. In the present work, single crystals of ascorbic acid irradiated by gamma radiation are used to determine molecular structures of radiation induced radicalic species and four radicalic species related in pair with P21 crystal symmetry are found to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated single crystal of ascorbic acid.

  17. ESR Study on Irradiated Ascorbic Acid Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuner, H.; Korkmaz, M.

    2007-04-01

    Food irradiation is a ``cold'' process for preserving food and has been established as a safe and effective method of food processing and preservation after more than five decades of research and development. The small temperature increase, absence of residue and effectiveness of treatment of pre-packed food are the main advantages. In food industry, ascorbic acid and its derivatives are frequently used as antioxidant agents. However, irradiation is expected to produces changes in the molecules of food components and of course in the molecules of the agents added as preservation agents such as ascorbic acid. These changes in the molecular structures could cause decreases in the antioxidant actions of these agents. Therefore, the radiation resistance of these agents must be known to determine the amount of radiation dose to be delivered. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is one of the leading methods for identification of intermediates produced after irradiation. ESR spectrum of irradiated solid powder of ascorbic acid is fairly complex and determinations of involved radical species are difficult. In the present work, single crystals of ascorbic acid irradiated by gamma radiation are used to determine molecular structures of radiation induced radicalic species and four radicalic species related in pair with P21 crystal symmetry are found to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated single crystal of ascorbic acid.

  18. Pulmonary bioavailability of ascorbic acid in an ascorbate-synthesising species, the horse.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Christopher M; Marlin, David J; Smith, Nicola C; Roberts, Colin A; Harris, Pat A; Kelly, Frank J; Schroter, Robert C

    2003-04-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a non-enzymatic antioxidant important in protecting the lung against oxidative damage and is decreased in lung lining fluid of horses with airway inflammation. To examine possible therapeutic regimens in a species with ascorbate-synthesising capacity, we studied the effects of oral supplementation of two forms of ascorbic acid, (each equivalent to 20 mg ascorbic acid per kg body weight) on the pulmonary and systemic antioxidant status of six healthy ponies in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Two weeks supplementation with ascorbyl palmitate significantly increased mean plasma ascorbic acid concentrations compared to control (29 +/- 5 and 18 +/- 7 micromol/l, respectively; p < 0.05). Calcium ascorbyl-2-monophosphate, a more stable form of ascorbic acid, also increased mean plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, but not significantly (23 +/- 1 micromol/l; p = 0.07). The concentration of ascorbic acid in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in five out of six ponies following supplementation with either ascorbyl palmitate or calcium ascorbyl-2-monophosphate compared with control (30 +/- 10, 25 +/- 4 and 18 +/- 8 micromol/l, respectively; p < 0.01). Neither supplement altered the concentration of glutathione, uric acid or alpha-tocopherol in plasma or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, the concentration of lung lining fluid ascorbic acid is increased following ascorbic acid supplementation (20 mg/kg body weight) in an ascorbate-synthesising species.

  19. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  20. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 μM from 100 μM ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  3. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 172.315 - Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (a) The additive is the product of the controlled reaction between ascorbic acid and nicotinamide... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex. 172.315... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.315 Nicotinamide-ascorbic acid complex...

  5. Phase I safety trial of intravenous ascorbic acid in patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenterally administered ascorbic acid modulates sepsis-induced inflammation and coagulation in experimental animal models. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I trial was to determine the safety of intravenously infused ascorbic acid in patients with severe sepsis. Methods Twenty-four patients with severe sepsis in the medical intensive care unit were randomized 1:1:1 to receive intravenous infusions every six hours for four days of ascorbic acid: Lo-AscA (50 mg/kg/24 h, n = 8), or Hi-AscA (200 mg/kg/24 h, n = 8), or Placebo (5% dextrose/water, n = 8). The primary end points were ascorbic acid safety and tolerability, assessed as treatment-related adverse-event frequency and severity. Patients were monitored for worsened arterial hypotension, tachycardia, hypernatremia, and nausea or vomiting. In addition Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores and plasma levels of ascorbic acid, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and thrombomodulin were monitored. Results Mean plasma ascorbic acid levels at entry for the entire cohort were 17.9 ± 2.4 μM (normal range 50-70 μM). Ascorbic acid infusion rapidly and significantly increased plasma ascorbic acid levels. No adverse safety events were observed in ascorbic acid-infused patients. Patients receiving ascorbic acid exhibited prompt reductions in SOFA scores while placebo patients exhibited no such reduction. Ascorbic acid significantly reduced the proinflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. Unlike placebo patients, thrombomodulin in ascorbic acid infused patients exhibited no significant rise, suggesting attenuation of vascular endothelial injury. Conclusions Intravenous ascorbic acid infusion was safe and well tolerated in this study and may positively impact the extent of multiple organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial injury. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01434121. PMID

  6. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  7. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  8. Cytoprotective effects of amifostine, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Elbe, Hulya; Eris, Cengiz; Dogan, Zumrut; Toprak, Gulten; Otan, Emrah; Erdemli, Erman; Turkoz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of oxidative stress and the possible therapeutic effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amifostine (AMF) and ascorbic acid (ASC) in methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: An MTX-induced hepatotoxicity model was established in 44 male Sprague Dawley rats by administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg MTX. Eleven of the rats were left untreated (Model group; n = 11), and the remaining rats were treated with a 7-d course of 50 mg/kg per day NAC (MTX + NAC group; n = 11), 50 mg/kg per single dose AMF (MTX + AMF group; n = 11), or 10 mg/kg per day ASC (MTX + ASC group; n = 11). Eleven rats that received no MTX and no treatments served as the negative control group. Structural and functional changes related to MTX- and the various treatments were assessed by histopathological analysis of liver tissues and biochemical assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and xanthine oxidase activities and of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. RESULTS: Exposure to MTX caused structural and functional hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by significantly worse histopathological scores [median (range) injury score: control group: 1 (0-3) vs 7 (6-9), P = 0.001] and significantly higher MDA activity [409 (352-466) nmol/g vs 455.5 (419-516) nmol/g, P < 0.05]. The extent of MTX-induced perturbation of both parameters was reduced by all three cytoprotective agents, but only the reduction in hepatotoxicity scores reached statistical significance [4 (3-6) for NAC, 4.5 (3-5) for AMF and 6 (5-6) for ASC; P = 0.001, P = 0.001 and P < 0.005 vs model group respectively]. Exposure to MTX also caused a significant reduction in the activities of GSH and SOD antioxidants in liver tissues [control group: 3.02 (2.85-3.43) μmol/g and 71.78 (61.88-97.81) U/g vs model group: 2.52 (2.07-3.34) μmol/g and 61.46 (58

  9. EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS.

    PubMed

    Bursać-Mitrović, Marija; Milovanović, Dragan R; Mitić, Radoslav; Jovanović, Danijela; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Vasiljević, Perica; Tomović, Jovica; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect..

  10. Regeneration of ascorbic acid in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Bode, A.M. )

    1990-02-26

    The free radical scavenging function of ascorbic acid (AA) results in the formation of the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA). The enzymatic reduction of DHAA may be an important means of recycling and conserving ascorbic acid in various tissues. The role of the human placenta in the enzymatic reduction of the potentially toxic oxidized form was examined in tissue homogenized in 50 mM MOPs buffer. Assay of DHAA, AA, DKG (diketogulonic acid) were made by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting. Activity of the placental factor in reducing DHAA was dependent on the presence of both NADPH and GSH. Activity was reduced 81% by incubation with 2% trypsin and was unaffected by BSA, glycerol, EtOH, or Na-AZIDE. Inhibition was observed with 10 mM EDTA and 0.2M KCI but not with 1 mM EDTA or 0.1 M KCI or less. Studies are underway to further purify and characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for the observed activity.

  11. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  12. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  13. Protection of free radical-induced cytotoxicity by 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Yukako; Iomori, Atsuko; Ishii, Rie; Gohda, Eiichi; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    The stable ascorbic acid (AA) derivative, 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), exhibits vitamin C activity after enzymatic hydrolysis to AA. The biological activity of AA-2G per se has not been studied in detail, although AA-2G has been noted as a stable source for AA supply. The protective effect of AA-2G against the oxidative cell death of human dermal fibroblasts induced by incubating with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) for 24 h was investigated in this study. AA-2G showed a significant protective effect against the oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner. AA-2G did not exert a protective effect during the initial 12 h of incubation, but had a significant protective effect in the later part of the incubation period. Experiments using a α-glucosidase inhibitor and comparative experiments using a stereoisomer of AA-2G confirmed that AA-2G had a protective effect against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity without being converted to AA. Our results provide an insight into the efficacy of AA-2G as a biologically interesting antioxidant and suggest the practical use of AA-2G even before being converted into AA as a beneficial antioxidant.

  14. Evaluation of ascorbic acid in protecting labile folic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S D; Horne, D W

    1983-11-01

    The use of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to protect labile, reduced derivatives of folic acid has been evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic separations and Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay of eluate fractions. Upon heating for 10 min at 100 degrees C, solutions of tetrahydropteroylglutamic acid (H4PteGlu) in 2% sodium ascorbate gave rise to 5,10-methylene-H4PteGlu and 5-methyl-H4PteGlu. H2PteGlu acid gave rise to 5-methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu. 10-Formyl-H4PteGlu gave rise to 5-formyl-H4PteGlu and 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Formyl-H4-PteGlu gave rise to a small amount of 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu appeared stable to these conditions. These interconversions were not seen when solutions of these folate derivatives were kept at 0 degrees C in 1% ascorbate. These observations indicate that elevated temperatures are necessary for the interconversions of folates in ascorbate solutions. Assays of ascorbic acid solutions indicated the presence of formaldehyde (approximately equal to 6 mM). This was confirmed by the identification of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine by UV, visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy and by thin-layer chromatography of chloroform extracts of the reaction mixture of ascorbic acid solutions, acetylacetone, and ammonium acetate. These results indicate that solutions of sodium ascorbate used at elevated temperatures are not suitable for extracting tissue for the subsequent assay of the individual folic acid derivatives.

  15. Evaluation of ascorbic acid in protecting labile folic acid derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S D; Horne, D W

    1983-01-01

    The use of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to protect labile, reduced derivatives of folic acid has been evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic separations and Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay of eluate fractions. Upon heating for 10 min at 100 degrees C, solutions of tetrahydropteroylglutamic acid (H4PteGlu) in 2% sodium ascorbate gave rise to 5,10-methylene-H4PteGlu and 5-methyl-H4PteGlu. H2PteGlu acid gave rise to 5-methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu. 10-Formyl-H4PteGlu gave rise to 5-formyl-H4PteGlu and 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Formyl-H4-PteGlu gave rise to a small amount of 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu appeared stable to these conditions. These interconversions were not seen when solutions of these folate derivatives were kept at 0 degrees C in 1% ascorbate. These observations indicate that elevated temperatures are necessary for the interconversions of folates in ascorbate solutions. Assays of ascorbic acid solutions indicated the presence of formaldehyde (approximately equal to 6 mM). This was confirmed by the identification of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine by UV, visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy and by thin-layer chromatography of chloroform extracts of the reaction mixture of ascorbic acid solutions, acetylacetone, and ammonium acetate. These results indicate that solutions of sodium ascorbate used at elevated temperatures are not suitable for extracting tissue for the subsequent assay of the individual folic acid derivatives. PMID:6415653

  16. Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Pan, Diganta; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; Bhattacharya, Debasis; De, Sumanta; Sikdar, Sourav; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2010-04-01

    Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid and an essential vital food nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid against arsenic induced oxidative stress in blood of rat. In rat, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the increased serum enzymatic activity of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and LDH. In addition, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented elevated production of LPO, PC and NO and restored the depletion of reduced SOD and CAT activities. Interestingly, ascorbic acid markedly upregulated lymphocytes relative mRNA expression of lymphocytes SOD2 gene corresponding to GAPDH, house keeping candidate gene in arsenic-treated rat, which might provide anti-oxidative activity in the blood. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetically Engineered Ascorbic acid-deficient Live Mutants of Leishmania donovani induce long lasting Protective Immunity against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sneha; Madhubala, Rentala

    2015-06-02

    Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe systemic form of the disease. There are still no vaccines available for humans and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis. Recently, we reported functional importance of Arabino-1, 4-lactone oxidase (ALO) enzyme from L. donovani involved in ascorbate biosynthesis pathway. In this study, we have shown that ΔALO parasites do not affect the ability of null mutants to invade visceral organs but severely impair parasite persistence beyond 16 week in BALB/c mice and hence are safe as an immunogen. Both short term (5 week) and long term (20 week) immunization with ΔALO parasites conferred sustained protection against virulent challenge in BALB/c mice, activated splenocytes and resulted in induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Protection in immunized mice after challenge correlated with the stimulation of IFN-γ producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Antigen-mediated cell immunity correlated with robust nitrite and superoxide generation, macrophage-derived oxidants critical in controlling Leishmania infection. Our data shows that live attenuated ΔALO parasites are safe, induce protective immunity and can provide sustained protection against Leishmania donovani. We further conclude that the parasites attenuated in their anti-oxidative defence mechanism can be exploited as vaccine candidates.

  18. Antiviral effects of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Ayami; Uozaki, Misao; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Arita, Mikio; Koyama, A Hajime

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, ascorbic acid weakly inhibited the multiplication of viruses of three different families: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), influenza virus type A and poliovirus type 1. Dehydroascorbic acid, an oxidized form of ascorbic acid and hence without reducing ability, showed much stronger antiviral activity than ascorbic acid, indicating that the antiviral activity of ascorbic acid is due to factors other than an antioxidant mechanism. Moreover, addition of 1 mM Fe3+, which oxidizes ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid and also enhances the formation of hydroxyl radicals by ascorbic acid in the culture media, strongly enhanced the antiviral activity of ascorbic acid to a level significantly stronger than that of dehydroascorbic acid. Although both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid showed some cytotoxicity, the degree of cytotoxicity of the former was 10-fold higher than the latter, suggesting that the observed antiviral activity of ascorbic acid with and without ferric ion is, at least in part, a secondary result of the cytotoxic effect of the reagent, most likely due to the free radicals. However, the possibility that oxidation of ascorbic acid also contributed to the antiviral effects of ascorbic acid exists, in particular in the presence of ferric ion, since dehydroascorbic acid exhibited a very strong antiviral activity. Characterization of the mode of antiviral action of dehydroascorbic acid revealed that the addition of the reagent even at 11 h post infection almost completely inhibited the formation of progeny infectious virus in the infected cells, indicating that the reagent inhibits HSV-1 multiplication probably at the assembly process of progeny virus particles after the completion of viral DNA replication.

  19. ESR dosimetry of irradiated ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Basly, J P; Longy, I; Bernard, M

    1997-09-01

    As an alternative to heat and gas exposure sterilization, ionizing radiation is gaining interest as a sterilization process for medicinal products. The aim of this work was to develop equations to describe the ESR curves versus dose and storage time after gamma irradiation of ascorbic acid. Several ESR data sets previously acquired in this laboratory were adopted to check the performance of the models. Limit of detection and limit of discrimination are respectively 0.5 kGy and 2 kGy for ascorbic acid. Linear regression is applicable for doses lower than 25 kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the Degree of Sterility required (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137), doses in the range 5-25 kGy could be investigated and linear regression would appear to be the least expensive route to follow and gives good results. Quadratic fit, power function, exponential function and bi-exponential functions are of more general applicability to predict irradiation dose. Decay kinetics for radicals versus storage were considered. Nonhomogeneous kinetics with time-dependent rate (diffusion-controlled second-order reaction) and bi-exponential function appeared valid to reproduce the experimental data. Discrimination between irradiated and unirradiated ascorbic acid is possible after a storage of 800 days. It is worth noting that, at present, ESR is the only technique which proves to be suitable for identification and quantification purposes in irradiated pharmaceuticals. Moreover, other features such as sensitivity, precision, ease and non-destructive readout make ESR superior to other proposed analytical techniques.

  20. Structural rearrangements and interaction within H(II) mesophase induced by cosolubilization of vitamin E and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Bitan-Cherbakovsky, Liron; Yuli-Amar, Idit; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2009-11-17

    We investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) cosolubilized with vitamin E (VE) on reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase. The H(II) phase comprises monoolein (GMO)/d-alpha-tocopherol (VE) in a ratio of 90/10 by weight and 12.5 wt % water. The macrostructural characteristics of this system were determined by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. We used differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared to characterize the microstructure, the vibration of the functional groups, and the location of the AA guest molecule. AA was incorporated to the system in two steps: 1-4 wt % AA and 5-6 wt % AA. We compared this system to one containing tricaprylin as the oil phase, as previously reported. These measurements revealed that AA is localized first in the water rich-core and in the interface, and acts as a chaotropic molecule that decreases the water melting point. When a larger quantity of AA (5-6 wt %) is added, the system is saturated, and the AA is located in the inner cylinder and manifested by more moderate distortion. The addition of AA also causes alteration in the behavior of the GMO hydrocarbon chains and makes them more flexible. Further addition of AA caused the GMO hydrocarbon chain to be more solvated by the VE hydrocarbon chain and enabled additional migration of VE; hence a decrease in the hydrophobic melting temperature occurred (similar to tricaprylin). Increasing the amount of AA weakened the bonding between the GMO and water and created new bonds between AA and GMO and AA with water.

  1. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis by ascorbic acid: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor for lysyl hydroxylase and prolyl hydroxylase, enzymes essential for collagen biosynthesis. In addition, L-ascorbic acid preferentially stimulates collagen synthesis in a manner which appears unrelated to the effect of L-ascorbic acid on hydroxylation reactions. This reaction is stereospecific and unrelated to intracellular degradation of collagen. The effect apparently occurs at a transcriptional or translational level, since L-ascorbic acid preferentially stimulates collagen-specific mRNA. In addition, it stimulates lysyl hydroxylase activity but inhibits prolyl hydroxylase activity in human skin fibroblasts in culture. PMID:3008449

  2. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  3. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    PubMed

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  4. Effect of ascorbic acid and other adjuvants on manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Papaioannou, R.; Sohler, A.; Pfeiffer, C.C.

    1986-03-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated that manganese is poorly absorbed from the gut and that it is rapidly removed from the blood by liver uptake and bilary excretion. Zinc supplements which are readily absorbed can induce a Mn deficiency so that Mn supplementation is necessary. Supplementation with a diet rich in Mn (high in legumes, nuts, whole grains, tea) failed to influence blood Mn levels. The present study is concerned with the route of Mn administration and the effect of various adjuvants on the absorption and availability of Mn. Oral and sublingual administration of 20 mgs of Mn as the chloride failed to elicit a blood level rise. A rise was noted after the intramuscular injection of 2.5 mgs Mn as Mn Cl/sub 2/. Blood Mn levels rose to a maximum in thirty minutes and were back to basal levels within three hours. Adjuvants such as arginine, lecithin, taurine, biotin, bioflavinoids, were tested with essentially negative results. Mn orotate also failed to increase absorption. Oral absorption was obtained with ascorbic acid in five female subjects when 20 mgs of Mn as the chloride was given orally with 1 gm of ascorbic acid. This effect was not observed with five male subjects. A 30-40% increase in blood Mn after 2 hours was found when Mn was administered with ascorbic acid in the female subjects.

  5. Formulation of ascorbic acid microemulsions with alkyl polyglycosides.

    PubMed

    Pakpayat, N; Nielloud, F; Fortuné, R; Tourne-Peteilh, C; Villarreal, A; Grillo, I; Bataille, B

    2009-06-01

    Ascorbic acid microemulsions for topical application were developed. In this study, microemulsions were prepared using HLD (hydrophilic lipophilic deviation) concept to optimise the formulation. From this optimal formulation, the realisation of dilution ternary diagrams leads to obtain microemulsion zones. In addition, the effects of composition variable on the physicochemical characteristics of each system were investigated. After optimisation of the microemulsion systems, ascorbic acid was loaded in the formulations. Surface tension and small angle neutron scattering were used to characterise the surface properties and the structure of the microemulsions. Bicontinuous structure microemulsions were identified, and the influence of ascorbic acid localisation at the interface leading to modifications of the microemulsion structure was pointed out. The solubilisation of ascorbic acid, the stabilisation and in vitro transdermal penetration "Frantz cells" of ascorbic acid microemulsions were studied. Three different microemulsions were envisaged. The results confirmed that these microemulsion systems present a real interest for formulation and protection of ascorbic acid. Regarding their transcutaneous penetration behaviour, the different microemulsions studied could be useful for different topical applications. A major location of ascorbic acid found in the epidermis where the decomposition of melanin occurred indicates that microemulsion could be considered as a suitable carrier system for application of ascorbic acid as a whitening agent. In addition, a good passage of the drug in the dermis could be interesting for the relative oxygen matrix damage.

  6. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  7. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  8. Characteristics of the transport of ascorbic acid into leucocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Raghoebar, M.; Huisman, J.A.M.; van den Berg, W.B.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-02-02

    The degree and the mode of association of (/sup 14/C)-ascorbic acid with leucocytes are examined. The degree of association of ascorbic acid with polymorphonuclear leucocytes (1-3 %) is dependent on cell type, extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid, incubation temperature, intactness of the cells and the extracellular pH. All experiments are performed according to strict protocols as these compounds are labile in aqueous solutions. Further it is noticed that in all experiments an outward gradient of leucocyte endogenic ascorbic acid exists. The results suggest that the association process comprises at least one saturable pathway. The activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by phorbol myristate acetate increases the accumulation of ascorbic acid threefold. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Taurine suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells induced by beta-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid via the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiang; Li, Jian-ming; Liao, Xiao-bo; Hu, Ye-rong; Shang, Bao-peng; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Ling-qing; Xie, Hui; Sheng, Zhi-feng; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lu; Zhou, Xin-min

    2012-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.

  10. Pretreatment with ascorbic acid prevents lethal gastrointestinal syndrome in mice receiving a massive amount of radiation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Manabu; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Majima, Takashi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji

    2010-01-01

    While bone marrow or stem cell transplantation can rescue bone marrow aplasia in patients accidentally exposed to a lethal radiation dose, radiation-induced irreversible gastrointestinal damage (GI syndrome) is fatal. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced GI syndrome in mice. Ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to mice for 3 days, and then the mice underwent whole body irradiation (WBI). Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 24 h after irradiation rescued mice receiving a WBI dose of less than 12 Gy. No mice receiving 14 Gy-WBI survived, because of radiation-induced GI syndrome, even if they received BMT. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid significantly suppressed radiation-induced DNA damage in the crypt cells and prevented denudation of intestinal mucosa; therefore, ascorbic acid in combination with BMT rescued mice after 14 Gy-WBI. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that irradiation up-regulated expressions of apoptosis-related genes in the small intestine, including those related to the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway as well as the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway, and down-regulated expressions of these genes in ascorbic acid-pretreated mice. Thus, pretreatment with ascorbic acid may effectively prevent radiation-induced GI syndrome.

  11. Ascorbate Oxidase-Based Amperometric Biosensor for l-Ascorbic Acid Determination in Beverages.

    PubMed

    Csiffáry, Gábor; Fűtő, Péter; Adányi, Nóra; Kiss, Attila

    2016-03-01

    A novel biosensor for l-ascorbic acid determination in different beverages was elaborated. The ascorbate oxidase enzyme (AAO) from Cucurbita sp., EC 1.10.3.3, was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode with poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as a crosslinking agent. The standards and samples were measured first with a blank electrode. An inert protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was immobilized on the surface of this electrode with PEGDGE. The BSA mass was equivalent to the mass of 10 U of AAO enzyme immobilized on the electrodes (0.021 mg). The linear measuring range for l-ascorbic acid was between 5 and 150 µmol/L. As l-ascorbic acid is a vital vitamin and a common antioxidant used in food industry, fruit juices and vitamin C effervescent tablets were examined. The results were compared to HPLC measurements.

  12. Ascorbate Oxidase-Based Amperometric Biosensor for l-Ascorbic Acid Determination in Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Csiffáry, Gábor; Fűtő, Péter; Adányi, Nóra; Kiss, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Summary A novel biosensor for l-ascorbic acid determination in different beverages was elaborated. The ascorbate oxidase enzyme (AAO) from Cucurbita sp., EC 1.10.3.3, was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode with poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as a crosslinking agent. The standards and samples were measured first with a blank electrode. An inert protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was immobilized on the surface of this electrode with PEGDGE. The BSA mass was equivalent to the mass of 10 U of AAO enzyme immobilized on the electrodes (0.021 mg). The linear measuring range for l-ascorbic acid was between 5 and 150 µmol/L. As l-ascorbic acid is a vital vitamin and a common antioxidant used in food industry, fruit juices and vitamin C effervescent tablets were examined. The results were compared to HPLC measurements. PMID:27904390

  13. Mechanisms by which ascorbic acid increases ferritin levels in cultured lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goralska, M; Harned, J; Grimes, A M; Fleisher, L N; McGahan, M C

    1997-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated that ascorbic acid increased the concentration of the iron storage protein, ferritin. In cultured lens epithelial cells. The current study was designed to determine the mechanism by which ascorbic acid exerts this effect. Ascorbic acid increased both ferritin mRNA levels (by about 30%) and translation of ferritin (de novo synthesis was increased up to 15-fold) within 6 hr. Cycloheximide completely abolished the ability of ascorbic acid to increase ferritin levels, whereas actinomycin D only decreased it by about 30%. Therefore, the ascorbic-acid induced increase in ferritin concentration is due mainly to an increase in ferritin synthesis at the translational levels. This is a novel role for ascorbic acid. Addition of iron with ascorbic acid further increased de novo synthesis of ferritin, but this additive effect was only noted at a later time point (20 hr). Factors which decrease ferritin mRNA translation, such as the reducing agent dithiothreitol or the iron chelator desferrioxamine, reduced the ascorbic acid effect on de novo ferritin synthesis. The effects of ascorbic acid on ferritin mRNA levels may be mediated by its oxidation product, H2O2, since, like ascorbic acid, H2O2 increased ferritin mRNA levels by 30%. However, in contrast to the ascorbic acid-induced increase in translation of ferritin, H2O2 substantially decreased de novo ferritin synthesis. This effect of H2O2 could have physiological significance in eyes where concentrations of H2O2 in the aqueous humor are elevated. High levels of H2O2 could decrease the concentration of ferritin within the lens. Since ferritin sequesters iron and has been shown to decrease oxidative damage by limiting the availability of iron to catalyse free radical reactions, H2O2-induced reduction in ferritin concentration in the lens could have deleterious effects. The ability of ascorbic acid to increase ferritin concentration in lens epithelial cells could provide an additional protective

  14. Ascorbic acid conjugates isolated from the phloem of Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Chudek, John A; Walker, Paul G; Pont, Simon D A; Viola, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    Analysis of phloem exudates from the fruit of Cucurbitaceae revealed the presence of several compounds with UV-visible absorption spectra identical to that of l-ascorbic acid. In Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini), the compounds could be isolated from phloem exudates collected from aerial parts of the plant but were not detected in whole tissue homogenates. The compounds isolated from the phloem exudates of C. pepo fruit were eluted from strong anion exchange resin in the same fraction as l-ascorbic acid and were oxidised by ascorbate oxidase (E.C. 1.10.3.3). The major compound purified from C. pepo fruit exudates demonstrated similar redox properties to l-ascorbic acid and synthetic 6-O-glucosyl-l-ascorbic acid (6-GlcAsA) but differed from those of 2-O-glucosyl-l-ascorbic acid (2-GlcAsA) isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Parent and fragment ion masses of the compound were consistent with hexosyl-ascorbate in which the hexose moiety was attached to C5 or C6 of AsA. Acid hydrolysis of the major C. pepo compound resulted in the formation of l-ascorbic acid and glucose. The purified compound yielded a proton NMR spectrum that was almost identical to that of synthetic 6-GlcAsA. A series of l-ascorbic acid conjugates have, therefore, been identified in the phloem of Cucurbitaceae and the most abundant conjugate has been identified as 6-GlcAsA. The potential role of such conjugates in the long-distance transport of l-ascorbic acid is discussed.

  15. Reduction of DNA fragmentation and hydroxyl radical production by hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in iron plus ascorbate-induced oxidative stress in fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Campo, Salvatore; D'Ascola, Angela; Ferlazzo, Alida M; Calatroni, Alberto

    2004-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), components of extracellular matrix, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in the repair process of injured tissue. Oxidative stress is one of the most frequent causes of tissue and cell injury and the consequent lipid peroxidation is the main manifestation of free radical damage. It has been found to play an important role in the evolution of cell death. Since several reports have shown that hyaluronic acid (HYA) and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) are able to inhibit lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, We investigated the antioxidant capacity of these GAGs in reducing oxidative damage in fibroblast cultures. Free radicals production was induced by the oxidizing system employing iron (Fe2+) plus ascorbate. We evaluated cell death, membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, protein oxidation, hydroxyl radical (OH*) generation and endogenous antioxidant depletion in human skin fibroblast cultures. The exposition of fibroblasts to FeSO4 and ascorbate caused inhibition of cell growth and cell death, increased OH* production determined by the aromatic trap method; furthermore it caused DNA strand breaks and protein oxidation as shown by the DNA fragments analysis and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Moreover, it enhanced lipid peroxidation evaluated by the analysis of conjugated dienes (CD) and decreased antioxidant defenses assayed by means of measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. When fibroblasts were treated with two different doses of HYA or C4S a protective effect, following oxidative stress induction, was shown. In fact these GAGs were able to limit cell death, reduced DNA fragmentation and protein oxidation, decreased OH* generation, inhibited lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defenses. Our results confirm the antioxidant activity of HYA and C4S and this could represent a useful step in the understanding of the exact role played by GAGs in

  16. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid for bowel preparation in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Keum, Bora; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Kim, Myung Gyu; Jo, Sang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The safety of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid has not been fully investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. High-dose ascorbic acid could induce hyperoxaluria, thereby causing tubule-interstitial nephritis and renal failure. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid in patients with chronic kidney disease. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (n = 61) and 4 L polyethylene glycol (n = 80). The safety of the 2 groups was compared by assessing the differences in laboratory findings before and after bowel cleansing. The laboratory findings were not significantly different before and after the administration of 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 4 L polyethylene glycol. In both groups, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by the administration of the bowel-cleansing agent. Patients’ reports on tolerance and acceptability were better in the 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid group than in the 4 L polyethylene glycol group. The 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid solution is a safe choice for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:27603372

  17. Fluorescence probe for the convenient and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yuta; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive substances. The detection of ascorbic acid has traditionally been achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry assays. However, the development of fluorescence probes for this purpose is highly desired because they provide a much more convenient and highly sensitive technique for the detection of this material. OFF-ON-type fluorescent probes have been developed for the detection of non-fluorescent compounds. Photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer are the two main fluorescence quenching mechanisms for the detection of ascorbic acid, and several fluorescence probes have been reported based on redox-responsive metals and quantum dots. Profluorescent nitroxide compounds have also been developed as non-metal organic fluorescence probes for ascorbic acid. These nitroxide systems have a stable unpaired electron and can therefore react with ascorbic acid and a strong fluorescence quencher. Furthermore, recent synthetic advances have allowed for the synthesis of α-substituted nitroxides with varying levels of reactivity towards ascorbic acid. In this review, we have discussed the design strategies used for the preparation of fluorescent probes for ascorbic acid, with particular emphasis on profluorescent nitroxides, which are unique radical-based redox-active fluorescent probes. PMID:26798193

  18. Changes in catecholamine metabolism by ascorbic acid deficiency in spontaneously hypertensive rats unable to synthesize ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kaori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Hiroko; Takemori, Kumiko; Makino, Susumu; Horio, Fumihiko

    2003-02-28

    We have previously reported the establishment of a novel rat strain, SHR-od, with both spontaneous hypertension and a defect of ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Blood pressure in mature SHR-od fed an ascorbic acid-supplemented diet is over 190-200 mmHg, while it decreased to around 120 mmHg at 4-5 weeks after the cessation of ascorbic acid supplementation. With regard to possible mechanisms of blood pressure lowering, we focused on catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands, since catecholamine is a major factor for blood pressure regulation and ascorbic acid is a co-factor of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in catecholamine biosynthesis. Male SHR-od (25-week-old) and normotensive ODS rats with a defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis (25-week-old) were fed a Funabashi-SP diet with or without ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) for 28 days or 35 days. In SHR-od, systolic blood pressure (191 +/- 6 mmHg) began to decrease from day 21 in the ascorbic acid-deficient group, whereas no significant difference was found in ODS rats. In spite of significant lowering of blood pressure, no significant differences were found in catecholamine levels in serum, adrenal glands and brain on day 28. On day 35, however, urinary excretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od were higher at 490% (P < 0.05) and 460% (P < 0.05) of the respective control. Serum catecholamine concentrations and the adrenal catecholamine content tended to be higher in the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od than the control of SHR-od and reached to similar level in ODS rats. The administration of ascorbic acid (intraperitoneal injection, 60 mg ascorbic acid/kg body weight, once a day) to the ascorbic acid-deficient SHR-od restored blood pressure to the range 180-190 mmHg within two days. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid deficiency affects catecholamine metabolism in the adrenal glands of SHR-od in response to blood pressure lowering, suggesting catecholamines are not involved in

  19. Characterization of ascorbic acid uptake by isolated rat kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Komro, D.M.; McCormick, D.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Isolated kidney cells accumulated L(1-14C)ascorbic acid in a time-dependent manner and reached a steady state after 15 min at 37 degrees C. Initial velocity for uptake was over 300 pmol/mg protein per min when cells were separated from the bathing solution using a density gradient established during centrifugation. The uptake process was saturable with an apparent concentration at half maximal uptake of 36 mumols/L. Ascorbate uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and was temperature dependent. Although ascorbic acid is an acid anion at pH 7.4, uptake did not appear to be inhibited by other acid anions such as p-aminohippurate and probenecid; however, involvement of the ion gradient established by Na+, H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase could not be confirmed. Replacing the sodium ion with other monovalent ions reduced the accumulation of ascorbate significantly. Isoascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids inhibited ascorbate uptake (34 and 13 mmol/L, respectively), whereas high concentrations of glucose showed some stimulation. These findings indicated that ascorbic acid is reabsorbed by the kidney in a sodium-dependent active transport process that is not common to other acid anions and has some specificity for the ascorbic acid structure.

  20. Ascorbic acid does not influence consciousness recovery after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Talley V, Henry C; Wicks, Mona N; Carter, Michael; Roper, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have examined the influence of general anesthesia on changes in consciousness and unconscious cognitive processes. However, much remains to be learned about potential moderators of general anesthetic agents, such as antioxidants including ascorbic acid, and their influence on the recovery of consciousness following general anesthesia. General anesthesia potentially affects plasma ascorbic acid levels and may impair consciousness during the postoperative period; however, published literature regarding these relationships is equivocal. Ascorbic acid is important for brain function and may be related to the return of postoperative consciousness through action on the synaptic receptors in the brain. This study was designed as a pretest-posttest repeated measures investigation. Ascorbic acid levels were measured at four time periods in patients (N = 50) undergoing surgery and general anesthesia. Following surgery, patients were administered a paper-and-pencil measure of concentration that served as an index of post-anesthesia consciousness. The results suggest that changes occur in plasma ascorbic acid levels at different time points during the anesthesia regimen in nonemergent surgical patients. No statistically significant relationships were found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and improved post-anesthesia consciousness, suggesting that ascorbic acid does not influence recovery of consciousness following general anesthesia.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid ascorbic acid levels in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Brau, R H; García-Castiñeiras, S; Rifkinson, N

    1984-02-01

    The ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid system was analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 41 patients with different neurological disorders. The chi-square test of covariance analysis revealed in this sample significant differences in the CSF levels of total ascorbic acid when patients were classified by diagnostic categories. The population analyzed contained a group of 18 patients (back pain/sciatica group) in whom no overt neurological abnormalities were disclosed upon evaluation. Taking the CSF levels of total ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in these patients as the reference (3.57 +/- 0.87 (SD)/100 ml and 0.53 +/- 0.19 mg/100 ml, respectively), it was found that head-traumatized patients showed a significant reduction in the concentration of total ascorbic acid in the CSF. CSF ascorbic acid levels were also significantly lower in patients with increased intracranial pressure (noninfected hydrocephalus group) and in patients with cerebral tumors. Although the CSF concentration of dehydroascorbic acid did not correspondingly increase over the reference values in these three groups of patients, the tendency existed for dehydroascorbic acid to represent in them a higher percentage of total ascorbic acid. After examining different alternatives, it is concluded that the hypothesis of free radical damage to the central nervous system after certain types of injury (trauma, ischemia, and tumors) may provide a satisfactory explanation of our findings. A rationale for the use of vitamin C in the management of some neurological patients is also derived from this work.

  2. Induction of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid. A possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pinnel, S R; Murad, S; Darr, D

    1987-12-01

    L-Ascorbic acid stimulates procollagen synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts without appreciably altering noncollagen protein synthesis. The effect is unrelated to intracellular degradation of newly synthesized procollagen. Levels of mRNA for pro alpha 1(I), pro alpha 2(I), and pro alpha 1(III), measured by hybridization with the corresponding cDNA probes, are elevated in the presence of ascorbic acid, whereas the level of mRNA for fibronectin is unchanged. Levels of functional mRNA for procollagen, measured in a cell-free translation assay, are specifically increased in the presence of ascorbic acid. Thus, ascorbic acid appears to control the expression of three different procollagen genes, each of which is located on a separate chromosome. It is proposed that intracellularly accumulated procollagen in ascorbate deficiency may lead to a translational repression of procollagen synthesis. Ascorbic acid may relieve this block by promoting hydroxyproline formation and, consequently, secretion of procollagen from the cell. The increased level of procollagen mRNA under the influence of ascorbic acid may be secondary to increased synthesis of procollagen polypeptides; the control point may be gene transcription or mRNA degradation.

  3. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  4. alpha-Lipoic acid and ascorbate prevent LDL oxidation and oxidant stress in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Anup K; May, James M

    2008-02-01

    Both alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) have been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis. Since oxidant stress can cause endothelial dysfunction, we tested the interaction and efficacy of these antioxidants in preventing oxidant damage to lipids due to both intra- and extracellular oxidant stresses in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. LA spared intracellular ascorbate in culture and in response to an intracellular oxidant stress induced by the redox cycling agent menadione. Extracellular oxidant stress generated by incubating cells for 2 h in with 0.2 mg/ml LDL and 5 muM Cu2+ caused a time-dependent increase of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in both cells and LDL, preceded by rapid disappearance of; alpha-tocopherol in LDL. alpha-Lipoic acid at concentrations of 40-80 microM blunted these effects. Similarly, intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1-2 mM also prevented Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in LDL and cells. Cu2+-dependent oxidation of LDL in the presence of ascorbate-loaded cells decreased intracellular ascorbate by 20%, but this decrease was not reversed by LA. Both LA and ascorbate protect endothelial cells and LDL from either intra- or extracellular oxidant stress, but that LA does not spare ascorbate in oxidatively stressed cells.

  5. Effect of nitrogen deficiency on ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Yu, Hong Jun; Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yang, Xue Yong; Zhao, Wen Chao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-11-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA, ascorbate) is one of the most abundant natural antioxidants, and it is an important factor in the nutritional quality of cucumber. In this work, key enzymes involved in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings under nitrogen deficiency were investigated at the levels of transcription and enzyme activity. The activities of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) and transcript levels of MIOXs increased dramatically, while the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AO) and glutathione reductase (GR) and transcript levels of AOs and GR2 decreased significantly in N-limited leaves, as did the ascorbate concentration, in nitrogen-deficient cucumber seedlings. The activities of other enzymes and transcript levels of other genes involved in the ascorbate recycling pathway and ascorbate synthesis pathways decreased or remained unchanged under nitrogen deficiency. These results indicate that nitrogen deficiency induced genes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling and myo-inositol pathway in cucumber leaves. Thus, the AO, GR and MIOX involved in the pathways might play roles in AsA accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinetics of Methylene Blue Reduction by Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowry, Sarah; Ogren, Paul J.

    1999-07-01

    The redox reactions of methylene blue (MB+) often occur on a time scale of a few seconds to minutes. They may be followed visually for qualitative interpretations and spectrophotometrically for quantitative determinations. The experimental simplicity of MB+ reaction systems has also occasionally led to erroneous conclusions based upon oversimplified data treatment and assumptions. This paper compares spectrophotometric studies of MB+ reduction by ascorbic acid at low pH with previous conclusions based upon visual determinations of color loss. Spectrophotometric studies of the temporal decay of MB+ absorbance at 665 nm show that the reaction is first order in MB+, ascorbic acid, and HCl. A slower reaction occurs with only MB+ and ascorbic acid present. Regeneration of MB+ color by reaction with dissolved oxygen, the "blue bottle" reaction, is particularly significant when the reaction with ascorbic acid is slow. Methylene blue chemistry continues to provide a wealth of examples suitable for undergraduate kinetics studies.

  7. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  8. Ascorbic acid: Nonradioactive extracellular space marker in canine heart

    SciTech Connect

    Reil, G.H.; Frombach, R.; Kownatzki, R.; Quante, W.; Lichtlen, P.R. )

    1987-11-01

    The distribution pattern of ascorbic acid and L-({sup 14}C)ascorbic acid in myocardial tissue was compared with those of the classical radioactive extracellular space markers ({sup 3}H)-inulin, ({sup 3}H)sucrose, and Na{sup 82}Br. A new polarographic techniques was developed for analogue registration of ascorbic acid concentration in coronary venous blood. The kinetic data of the markers were studied in an open-chest canine heart preparation during a constant tracer infusion of up to 9 min. Distribution volumes were calculated based on the mean transit time method of Zierler. The distribution volume of ascorbic acid as well as of L-({sup 14}C)ascorbic acid in myocardial tissue agreed closely with those of ({sup 3}H)inulin and ({sup 3}H)sucrose as well as {sup 82}Br. The obtained kinetic data confirmed that ascorbic acid exhibits the physicochemical properties of an extracellular space marker, though this compound was shown to leak slowly into myocardial cells. Favorable attributes of this indicator are its low molecular weight, high diffusibility in interstitial fluid, low binding affinity to macromolecules, and high transcapillary as well as low transplasmalemmal penetration rate. Therefore, this nonradioactive marker can be applied in a safe and simple fashion, and without untoward side effects in experimental animals as well as in patients.

  9. Investigations of ascorbic acid interference in urine test strips.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Dietmar; Seiler, Dieter; Hohenberger, Ewald F; Ziegler, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid at higher concentration in urine samples can lead to false negative results in a number of urine tests, with a potential risk of clinical findings being overlooked, particularly with glucose and hemoglobin. For this reason, the ascorbic acid status of urine samples should always be routinely known so as to establish what adjustment needs to be made. A much better approach, however, is to use a test which is by design largely resistant to ascorbic acid. We compared five very common 10-parameter urine test strips from different manufacturers. The results of this study show that of the strips tested, only the product Combur-Test from Roche Diagnostics is largely resistant to ascorbic acid interference. Even lowest - but clinically relevant - concentrations of erythrocytes (10/microL), hemoglobin (0.03 mg/dL), and glucose (50 mg/dL) were correctly detected with concentrations of up to 400 mg/L ascorbic acid. Higher analyte concentrations correctly reacted positive even in the presence of up to 1000 mg/L ascorbic acid.

  10. Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts by ascorbic-induced lipid peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Geesin, J.C. Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products, Inc., Skillman, NJ ); Gordon, J.S. ); Gordon, J.S. ); Berg, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis through the induction of lipid peroxidation which leads to increased transcription of the collagen genes. To test the ability of aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation to mediate this effect, the authors treated cultured fibroblasts with 1-200{mu}M of malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal or hexenal in the presence of lipid peroxidation inducing or noninducing concentrations of ascorbic acid. The treatment process involved either pretreatment of cells for 66hrs with either concentration of ascorbate before a 6hr treatment in the presence of ascorbate and the aldehydes, or 6 or 72hr treatment of the cells in the presence of either concentration of ascorbate plus the aldehydes. No effect of any of these aldehydes was seen on ascorbate-stimulated collagen synthesis. Also, pretreatment of fibroblasts for 24hrs with 100nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which produces down regulation of protein kinase C(PKC), failed to alter the ascorbate-stimulation of collagen synthesis. Additionally, the authors tested the ability of benzamide, a poly ACP ribosylation inhibitor, to inhibit the ascorbate response with no specific effect noted. These results do not support the proposed roles for aldehydes, PKC, or poly ADP ribosylation in the mediation of the lipid peroxidation induced stimulation of collagen synthesis.

  11. EB1 levels are elevated in ascorbic Acid (AA)-stimulated osteoblasts and mediate cell-cell adhesion-induced osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pustylnik, Sofia; Fiorino, Cara; Nabavi, Noushin; Zappitelli, Tanya; da Silva, Rosa; Aubin, Jane E; Harrison, Rene E

    2013-07-26

    Osteoblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that function as the major bone-producing cells of the body. Differentiation cues including ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation provoke intracellular changes in osteoblasts leading to the synthesis of the organic portion of the bone, which includes collagen type I α1, proteoglycans, and matrix proteins, such as osteocalcin. During our microarray analysis of AA-stimulated osteoblasts, we observed a significant up-regulation of the microtubule (MT) plus-end binding protein, EB1, compared with undifferentiated osteoblasts. EB1 knockdown significantly impaired AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, as detected by reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Intracellular examination of AA-stimulated osteoblasts treated with EB1 siRNA revealed a reduction in MT stability with a concomitant loss of β-catenin distribution at the cell cortex and within the nucleus. Diminished β-catenin levels in EB1 siRNA-treated osteoblasts paralleled an increase in phospho-β-catenin and active glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a kinase known to target β-catenin to the proteasome. EB1 siRNA treatment also reduced the expression of the β-catenin gene targets, cyclin D1 and Runx2. Live immunofluorescent imaging of differentiated osteoblasts revealed a cortical association of EB1-mcherry with β-catenin-GFP. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed an interaction between EB1 and β-catenin. We also determined that cell-cell contacts and cortically associated EB1/β-catenin interactions are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Finally, using functional blocking antibodies, we identified E-cadherin as a major contributor to the cell-cell contact-induced osteoblast differentiation.

  12. Ascorbic acid protects against the nephrotoxicity and apoptosis caused by colistin and affects its pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Jumana M.; Chen, Gong; Hill, Prue A.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The use of colistin in the treatment of life-threatening Gram-negative infections is associated with a high rate of nephrotoxicity that is dose limiting. This study aimed to examine the nephroprotective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods Rats were treated intravenously twice daily with saline, colistin (cumulative dose of 36.5 mg/kg), a combination of ascorbic acid (50 or 200 mg/kg) and colistin, or ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) over 7 days. Colistin-induced apoptosis was examined in rats over 5 days and in vitro using rat renal proximal tubular cells NRK-52E over 24 h with and without ascorbic acid. The effect of co-administered ascorbic acid on colistin pharmacokinetics was investigated. Results The 24 h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a sensitive marker for tubular damage, was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the colistin/ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg group. Significant histological abnormalities (P < 0.01) were detected only in the kidneys of the colistin group, which also had the highest percentage (30.6 ± 7.8%) of apoptotic cells (P < 0.005). In the cell culture studies, the percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the presence of 0.1 mM colistin alone (51.8 ± 2.0%; P < 0.0001) than in the presence of ascorbic acid, which decreased the apoptotic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) altered colistin pharmacokinetics, as the total body clearance decreased from 3.78 ± 0.36 mL/min/kg (colistin group) to 2.46 ± 0.57 mL/min/kg (P = 0.0024). Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity and tubular apoptosis. Co-administration of ascorbic acid has the potential to increase the therapeutic index of colistin. PMID:22127588

  13. Reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with peroxyl radicals: protection and recovery by ascorbic acid and amino acids.

    PubMed

    López-Alarcón, Camilo; Rocco, Claudia; Lissi, Eduardo; Carrasco, Catalina; Squella, J Arturo; Nuñez-Vergara, Luis; Speisky, Hernan

    2005-10-01

    The aims of the study are to analyze the interaction between 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and peroxyl radicals and to evaluate the effect of some endogenous compounds such as ascorbic acid and amino acids on the oxidation of 5-ASA induced by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. The consumption and/or the recovery of 5-ASA (7.6 microM) exposed to a peroxyl radical source [2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)] was followed by techniques such as spectrofluorescence, high-performance liquid chromatography, and differential pulse voltammetry. 5-Aminosalicylic acid was found to readily react with peroxyl radicals at micromolar concentrations and to protect c-Phycocyanin in a very similar fashion to that shown by Trolox. Exposure of 5-ASA to peroxyl radicals led to its oxidation into the corresponding quinone-imine. Disappearance of 5-ASA was prevented by tryptophan, cysteine, glutathione, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, some of these compounds induced the partial (cysteine and glutathione) or total (ascorbic acid) recovery of 5-ASA when added after its almost total consumption. 5-Aminosalicylic acid is a very efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. The 5-ASA oxidation by peroxyl radicals was prevented by ascorbic acid, cysteine, and glutathione. In addition, 5-ASA can be regenerated by these endogenous compounds, which would be a valuable mechanism to preserve 5-ASA in tissues undergoing oxidative stress conditions.

  14. [Cystinuria therapy by ascorbic acid (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1982-01-01

    At the beginning of the four chapters on phenomena, analysis, pathophysiology and therapy of cystinuria the essentials of the published literature are summarized. The frequency of cystinuria is in the order of 1:10,000. Besides the cystine lithiasis occurring in nine tenths of all cystinuria patients neurological diseases may also be observed. All commonly applied methods to analyze cystine detect the sum of cystine and cysteine. Cystinuria is characterized by a higher cystine excretion, up to the 100-fold of the normal. Also the concentrations of lysine, arginine and ornithine in the urine of cystinuria patients are elevated, caused by intestinal and renal transport defects. Inevitable damage of renal parenchyma by multiple operations can drastically be reduced by the therapy with D-penicillamine or alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine. The disadvantages of that formation of soluble asymmetric disulfides are the side effects, such as nausea, gastric difficulties and dermatosis, occurring in up to 50% of the patients. Using the especially developed method with HPLC separation and electrochemical detector with a mercury electrode, cystine and cysteine are analyzed simultaneously. In the urine of healthy persons the molar concentration of cysteine is in the same order as cystine. But in cystinuria the cysteine concentration in urine is about a thousand times less than that of cystine. These results are evidence that a shifted redox-equilibrium of cystine-cysteine is also typical of cystinuria. The molar cysteine percentage of cysteine in healthy persons is increased from 30 to 50% by oral ascorbic acid administration. Therefore a vitamin C therapy for cystinuria is developed. 31 cystinuria patients who receive 5 g of vitamin C a day show a decrease in the cystine concentration of about 40%. Up to now, no side effects have been observed. The most obvious sign of the positive effect of the proposed vitamin C therapy for cystinuria is the missing cystine sediment in fresh

  15. MECHANISMS OF ASCORBATE-INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY IN PANCREATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Martin, Sean M.; Levine, Mark; Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.; Wang, Sih-han; Taghiyev, Agshin F.; Du, Changbin; Knudson, C. Michael; Cullen, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacological concentrations of ascorbate may be effective in cancer therapeutics. We hypothesized that ascorbate concentrations achievable with intravenous dosing would be cytotoxic in pancreatic cancer where the five-year survival is < 3%. Experimental Design Pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with ascorbate (0, 5, and 10 mM) for one hour, then viability and clonogenic survival were determined. Pancreatic tumor cells were delivered subcutaneously into the flank region of nude mice and allowed to grow at which time they were randomized to receive either ascorbate (4 g/kg) or osmotically equivalent saline (1 M) i.p. for two weeks. Results There was a time and dose-dependent increase in measured H2O2 production with increased concentrations of ascorbate. Ascorbate decreased viability in all pancreatic cancer cell lines, but had no effect on an immortalized pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line. Ascorbate decreased clonogenic survival of the pancreatic cancer cell lines, which was reversed by treatment of cells with scavengers of H2O2. Treatment with ascorbate induced a caspase-independent cell death that was associated with autophagy. In vivo, treatment with ascorbate inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival. Conclusions These results demonstrate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate, easily achievable in humans, may have potential for therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20068072

  16. Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example via the HIF system, as well as via the epigenetic landscape of cells and tissues. In fact, all known physiological and biochemical functions of ascorbate are due to its action as an electron donor. The ability to donate one or two electrons makes AscH− an excellent reducing agent and antioxidant. Ascorbate readily undergoes pH-dependent autoxidation producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the presence of catalytic metals this oxidation is accelerated. In this review, we show that the chemical and biochemical nature of ascorbate contribute to its antioxidant as well as its prooxidant properties. Recent pharmacokinetic data indicate that intravenous (i.v.) administration of ascorbate bypasses the tight control of the gut producing highly elevated plasma levels; ascorbate at very high levels can act as prodrug to deliver a significant flux of H2O2 to tumors. This new knowledge has rekindled interest and spurred new research into the clinical potential of pharmacological ascorbate. Knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological ascorbate bring a rationale to its use to treat disease especially the use of i.v. delivery of pharmacological ascorbate as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22728050

  17. Combined alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of carotene,...

  18. Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Clark, Andrew C; Prenzler, Paul D; Riponi, Claudio; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2011-04-27

    Glutathione was assessed individually, and in combination with ascorbic acid, for its ability to act as an antioxidant with respect to color development in an oxidizing model white wine system. Glutathione was utilized at concentrations normally found in wine (30 mg/L), as well as at concentrations 20-fold higher (860 mg/L), the latter to afford ascorbic acid (500 mg/L) to glutathione ratios of 1:1. The model wine systems were stored at 45 °C without sulfur dioxide and at saturated oxygen levels, thereby in conditions highly conducive to oxidation. Under these conditions the results demonstrated the higher concentration of glutathione could initially provide protection against oxidative coloration, but eventually induced color formation. In the period during which glutathione offered a protective effect, the production of xanthylium cation pigment precursors and o-quinone-derived phenolic compounds was limited. When glutathione induced coloration, polymeric pigments were formed, but these were different from those found in model wine solutions without glutathione. In the presence of ascorbic acid, high concentrations of glutathione were able to delay the decay in ascorbic acid and inhibit the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation products with the wine flavanol compound (+)-catechin. However, on depletion, the glutathione again induced the production of a range of different polymeric pigments. These results highlight new mechanisms through which glutathione can offer both protection and spoilage during the oxidative coloration of a model wine.

  19. Comparing the moisturizing effects of ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate against that of tocopherol in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Sensoy, D; Uner, M; Yener, G; Altinkurt, T

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ascorbate (CAAS), which is a hydrophilic and stable derivative of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (AA), is commonly used in foods as an antioxidative agent. There are very limited reports on its dermatological use in the literature. In this paper, it is reported that CAAS could be used in place of ascorbic acid, which has chemical stability problems in topicals due to degradation by oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin-hydrating effect of CAAS compared to those of ascorbic acid and tocopherol (vitamin E) (T), which is a potential skin moisturizer and commonly used in dermocosmetics. Vitamins are incorporated into two kinds of base creams (o/w and w/o emulsion creams), alone and in combinations. Formulations were applied to the inner forearms of volunteers, and skin conductance was measured by using a corneometer. Data obtained were statistically evaluated. It was found that the skin-hydrating effect of CAAS was higher than that of AA and lower than that of T. However, its effect was very close to that of T.

  20. Evaluation of the protective effect of ascorbic acid on nitrite- and nitrosamine-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human hepatoma line.

    PubMed

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Baydar, Terken

    2010-02-01

    Nitrites are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in drinking water and foods. Nitrosamines can be formed endogenously from nitrate and nitrite and secondary amines or may be present in food, tobacco smoke, and drinking water. The major goal of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing and genotoxic effects of nitrite and nitrosamines and the possible protection by ascorbic acid in HepG2 cells. It was found that nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) decreased cell viability, increased intracellular ROS production, and caused genotoxicity. Compared to untreated cells as determined by alkaline Comet assay, nitrite, NDMA, NDEA, and NMOR raised the tail intensity up to 1.18-, 3.79-, 4.24-, and 4.16-fold, respectively. Ascorbic acid (AA, 10 microM) increased cell viability and reduced ROS production significantly (p < 0.05). Additionally, AA treatment decreased the tail intensity caused by nitrite, NDMA, NDEA, and NMOR to 33.74%, 58.6%, 44.32%, and 43.97%, respectively. It can be concluded that ascorbic acid was able to reduce both tail intensity and tail moment in all of the nitrosamine treatments, particularly in NDMA. AA protected HepG2 cells against genotoxic effects caused by nitrosamines. This protection might be through different mechanisms, some of which are not still understood in depth. The future interest will be to understand which pathways are influenced by antioxidants, particularly by AA, and the outcomes of this prevention in other cell line types.

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid deficiency and of erythorbic acid on blood components in the Cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J D; Sauberlich, H E; Omaye, S T

    1979-01-01

    Eight male Cynomolgus monkeys were fed an ascorbic acid-free total liquid diet until plasma levels decreased from a mean of 1.1 mg/dl to 0.04 mg/dl at 8 weeks. They showed no visible signs of scurvy. The animals were then given a daily oral dose of 10 mg ascorbic acid/kg body weight for 4 weeks, when the experiment was ended. Four of the animals were given, in addition, 200 mg erythorbic acid/kg body weight orally each day. In all animals repletion was accomplished in two to three weeks using return to initial plasma ascorbic acid levels as the criterion. During deficiency, blood cellular elements were found to be more resistant to depletion than plasma. For erythrocytes, this may be explained at least partially by the observation that in vitro uptake of ascorbic acid tended to be related inversely to blood ascorbic acid levels. However, no such relationship was seen in leucocytes or platelets. Other measurements made on blood did not vary in response to changing ascorbic acid levels. These include serum cholesterol; erythrocyte, leucocyte, or platelet counts; leucocyte differential; hemoglobin concentration; and hematocrit. Urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratios were also unchanged. Erythorbic acid, a stereoisomer of ascorbic acid and a common food additive, has been cited as a possible interferent in the determination of whole blood or plasma ascorbic acid, since in the guinea pig it is absorbed from the gut and no commonly used ascorbic acid analysis can distinguish between the isomers. Under conditions of the present experiment, however, no elevation of apparent whole blood or plasma ascorbic acid was produced by inclusion of high levels of erythorbic acid in the diet. Animals given erythorbic acid in addition to ascorbic acid during repletion did not differ from those given ascorbic acid alone in any aspect mentioned above.

  2. Ascorbic acid ameliorates seizures and brain damage in rats through inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Wang, Shengjun; Zhang, Tongxia; Zhao, Xiuhe; Liu, Xuewu; Cao, Lili; Chi, Zhaofu

    2013-10-16

    Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures. Antioxidant compounds have neuroprotective effects due to their ability to inhibit free radical production. Autophagy is a process in which cytoplasmic components such as organelles and proteins are delivered to the lysosomal compartment for degradation, and plays an essential role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The activity of autophagy is enhanced during oxidative stress. The objectives of this work were first to study the inhibitory action of antioxidant ascorbic acid on behavioral changes and brain damage induced by high doses of pilocarpine, then to study the effect of ascorbic acid on oxidative stress (MDA and SOD were used to estimate oxidative stress) and activated autophagy (beclin 1 was used to estimate autophagy) induced by seizures, aiming to further clarify the mechanism of action of this antioxidant compound. In order to determinate neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p.) on the behavior and brain lesions observed after seizures induced by pilocarpine (340 mg/kg, i.p., P340 model) in rats. Ascorbic acid injections prior to pilocarpine suppressed behavioral seizure episodes by increasing the latency to the first myoclonic, clonic and tonic seizure and decreasing the percentage of incidence of clonic and tonic seizures as well as the mortality rate. These findings suggested that oxidative stress can be produced and autophagy is increased during brain damage induced by seizures. In the P340 model, ascorbic acid significantly decreased cerebral damage, reduced oxidative stress and inhibited autophagy by reducing de novo synthesis of beclin 1. Antioxidant compound can exert neuroprotective effects associated with inhibition of free radical production and autophagy. These results highlighted the promising therapeutic potential of ascorbic acid in treatment for seizures.

  3. Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Legume Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Coronado, Maria J.; Ramos, Javier; Sato, Shusei; Testillano, Pilar S.; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a major antioxidant and redox buffer, but is also involved in other critical processes of plants. Recently, the hypothesis has been proposed that legume nodules are unable to synthesize ascorbate and have to import it from the shoot or root, thus providing a means by which the plant regulates nodule senescence. The last step of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The mRNAs encoding GalLDH and three other enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are clearly detectable in nodules. Furthermore, an active membrane-bound GalLDH enzyme is present in nodule mitochondria. Biochemical assays on dissected nodules reveal that GalLDH activity and ascorbate are correlated in nodule tissues and predominantly localized in the infected zone, with lower levels of both parameters (relative to the infected tissues) in the apex (87%) and senescent region (43%) of indeterminate nodules and in the peripheral tissues (65%) of determinate nodules. In situ RNA hybridization showed that the GalLDH mRNA is particularly abundant in the infected zone of indeterminate and determinate nodules. Thus, our results refute the hypothesis that ascorbate is not synthesized in nodules and lend support to a previous conclusion that ascorbate in the infected zone is primarily involved in the protection of host cells against peroxide damage. Likewise, the high ascorbate and GalLDH activity levels found in the apex of indeterminate nodules strongly suggest a participation of ascorbate in additional functions during symbiosis, possibly related to cell growth and division and to molecular signaling. PMID:16766673

  4. Ascorbic acid improves postischemic vasodilatation impaired by infusion of soybean oil into canine iliac artery.

    PubMed

    Osanai, H; Okumura, K; Hayakawa, M; Harada, M; Numaguchi, Y; Mokuno, S; Murase, K; Matsui, H; Toki, Y; Ito, T; Hayakawa, T

    2000-12-01

    This study was conducted to (a) assess postischemic vasodilatation by changes in the vascular cross-sectional area using simultaneous intravascular two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound before and after the infusion of Intralipid (Pharmacia & Upjohn, Peapack, NJ, U.S.A.); (b) evaluate how antioxidant ascorbic acid modifies the effects of Intralipid on postischemic vasodilatation: and (c) clarify the changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx-) levels after the infusion of Intralipid with and without ascorbic acid. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were used to measure for vascular cross-sectional area and average instantaneous peak velocity in the iliac arteries after the 5-min occlusion of the arteries. Postischemic vasodilatation was impaired after the infusion of Intralipid (20%, 2 ml/kg) and this impaired response was reversed by the co-administration of ascorbic acid (30 mg/kg). NG-monomethyl-L-arginine completely abolished postischemic vasodilatation. Plasma NOx levels were significantly reduced after the infusion of Intralipid compared with baseline (11.6+/-0.4 vs. 12.9+/-0.3 microM, p = 0.025) and after infusion of Intralipid with ascorbic acid compared with baseline (11.8+/-0.5 vs. 13.1+/-0.4 microM, p = 0.047). We concluded that ascorbic acid reverses the endothelial dysfunction induced by Intralipid without increasing plasma NOx- levels and that deactivation of nitric oxide by oxidative stress is a primary contributor to Intralipid-induced impaired vasodilation.

  5. Ascorbic acid and protein glycation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2015-10-05

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro in the absence and in the presence of cell-dependent recycling. In a cell-free system, AA enhanced glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by glucose and induced BSA glycation in the absence of sugars. On the other hand, AA did not affect erythrocyte hemolysis, glycation of hemoglobin and erythrocyte membranes, and inactivation of catalase, protected against inactivation of acetylcholinesterase of erythrocytes incubated with high glucose concentrations and enhanced the loss of glutathione. These results can be explained by assumption that AA acts as a proglycating agent in the absence of recycling while is an antiglycating agent when metabolic recycling occurs.

  6. The cytochemical localization of ascorbic acid in root tip cells.

    PubMed

    JENSEN, W A; KAVALJIAN, L G

    1956-01-25

    The intracellular distribution of ascorbic acid was studied in frozen-dried root tips of Allium cepa and Vicia faba by the silver nitrate procedure. The sites of the ascorbic acid as indicated by the deposited silver appear as spherical (0.2 to 0.6 micro in diameter) cytoplasmic particles. The site appears to have small amounts of lipides and to be rich in ribonucleic acid. These particles are concluded to be submicroscopic in size and associated, in the elongating cell, with the cell surface. In the meristematic cells they appear fewer in number and are distributed throughout the cytoplasm.

  7. THE CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN ROOT TIP CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, William A.; Kavaljian, Leroy G.

    1956-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of ascorbic acid was studied in frozen-dried root tips of Allium cepa and Vicia faba by the silver nitrate procedure. The sites of the ascorbic acid as indicated by the deposited silver appear as spherical (0.2 to 0.6 µ in diameter) cytoplasmic particles. The site appears to have small amounts of lipides and to be rich in ribonucleic acid. These particles are concluded to be submicroscopic in size and associated, in the elongating cell, with the cell surface. In the meristematic cells they appear fewer in number and are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. PMID:13295313

  8. Osteoblast protects osteoclast devoid of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters from oxidative cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Kambe, Yuki; Sahara, Koichi; Kurokawa, Shintaro; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    The view that ascorbic acid indirectly benefits osteoclastogenesis through expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts is prevailing. In this study, we have examined the direct effect of ascorbic acid on osteoclastogenesis in cultured mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow precursors. The absence of alkaline phosphatase and osteoblastic marker genes validated the usefulness of isolation procedures. Sustained exposure to ascorbic acid, but not to dehydroascorbic acid, significantly reduced the number of multinucleated cells positive to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. In cultured osteoclasts, mRNA expression was seen for glucose transporter-1 involved in membrane transport of dehydroascorbic acid, but not for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters-1 and -2 that are both responsible for the transport of ascorbic acid. The inhibition by ascorbic acid was completely prevented by catalase, while ascorbic acid or hydrogen peroxide drastically increased the number of cells stained with propidium iodide and the generation of reactive oxygen species, in addition to inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured osteoclasts. In pre-osteoclastic cell line RAW264.7 cells, ascorbic acid similarly inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, with a significant decrease in RANKL-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Moreover, co-culture with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells significantly prevented the ascorbic acid-induced decrease in the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that ascorbic acid may play a dual repulsive role in osteoclastogenesis toward bone remodeling through the direct cytotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress to osteoclasts, in addition to the indirect trophism mediated by RANKL from osteoblasts.

  9. The physiologically induced release of ascorbate in rat brain is dependent on impulse traffic, calcium influx and glutamate uptake.

    PubMed

    Miele, M; Boutelle, M G; Fillenz, M

    1994-09-01

    Extracellular brain ascorbate fluctuates with neuronal activity. There is previous evidence that the release of ascorbate is triggered by the re-uptake of neuronally released glutamate. This hypothesis predicts that drugs which block the release and re-uptake of glutamate will also block the release of ascorbate. In the present experiments we have used a novel dialysis electrode which allows continuous monitoring of physiologically induced ascorbate release from the striatum in freely moving rats. An infusion of the enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase abolished the increase in oxidation current in response to tail-pinch, which identified it as an ascorbate current. Perfusion with tetrodotoxin reduced the response to 25% and with CdCl2 to 4% of control. Perfusion with the uptake blocker L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-di-carboxylate reduced the response to 24% of control. A neuroprotective function for this coupling of ascorbate and glutamate release is discussed.

  10. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  11. Ascorbic acid: a nonradioactive extracellular space marker in canine heart.

    PubMed

    Reil, G H; Frombach, R; Kownatzki, R; Quante, W; Lichtlen, P R

    1987-11-01

    The distribution pattern of ascorbic acid and L-[14C]ascorbic acid in myocardial tissue was compared with those of the classical radioactive extracellular space markers [3H]-inulin, [3H]sucrose, and Na82Br. A new polarographic technique was developed for analogue registration of ascorbic acid concentration in coronary venous blood. The kinetic data of the markers were studied in an open-chest canine heart preparation (n = 17 dogs) during a constant tracer infusion of up to 9 min. Distribution volumes were calculated based on the mean transit time method of Zierler (K. L. Zierler, Circ. Res. 10:393-407, 1962). The distribution volume of ascorbic acid (23.6 ml/100 g wet wt) as well as of L-[14C]ascorbic acid (24.5 ml/100 g wet wt) in myocardial tissue agreed closely with those of [3H]inulin (18.6 ml/100 g wet wt) and [3H]sucrose (22.0 ml/100 g wet wt), as well as 82Br- (27.3 ml/100 g wet wt). The obtained kinetic data confirmed that ascorbic acid exhibits the physicochemical properties of an extracellular space marker, though this compound was shown to leak slowly into myocardial cells. Favorable attributes of this indicator are its low molecular weight, high diffusibility in interstitial fluid, low binding affinity to macromolecules, and high transcapillary (1.8 X 10(-5) cm/s) as well as low transplasmalemmal penetration rate (3.7 X 10(-8) cm/s). Therefore, this nonradioactive marker can be applied in a safe and simple fashion, and without untoward side effects in experimental animals as well as in patients.

  12. Influence of daily diet on ascorbic acid supply to students.

    PubMed

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Seidler, Teresa; Stachowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Maria; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Researchers suspect that the accepted adequate ascorbic acid plasma concentration is not being met even after dietary intake of the recommended amount of vitamin C. Current dietary intake recommendation in Poland is 60 mg per day for women and 75 mg per day for man (EAR), while in Western Europe and North America is higher and amounts to 75-90 mg per day. The paper aimed at studying a correlation between composition of nutrients in daily diet and plasma vitamin C levels in university students. Materials and methods. This study examined diet composition and the nutritional status of ascorbic acid in plasma of 120 university students in Szczecin, Poland. Ascorbic acid was determined in blood plasma using HPLC method. The information concerning diet composition was collected using the method of "7-days food record" prior to blood collection. Plasma ascorbic acid deficiency (<40 μmol/L) was observed in 23% of women and 28% of men. The average plasma ascorbic acid concentration was 48.65 μmol/L in women and 45.61 μmol/L in men. The average intake of vitamin C in women with observed deficiency was average 46.55 mg/day, whereas in men it was 48.56 mg/day. The recommendation of dietary intake of vitamin C in Poland is low in comparison to other countries. Population- based studies are necessary to determine the actual demand for vitamin C in various population groups in Poland. Key words: nutrition, vitamins, dietary intake, diet, ascorbic acid, plasma.

  13. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit. PMID:28245268

  14. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  15. Cytotoxicity of copper(II) complexes of N-salicylidene-L-glutamate: modulation by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Paulikova, H; Kadlecikova, E; Suchanova, M; Valkova, Z; Rauko, P; Hudecova, D; Valent, A

    2008-01-01

    Cytotoxic/cytostatic activity of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato diaqua copper(II) complex (CuC) against mice leukemia cells L1210 has been estimated and their bioactivity was enhanced by addition of ascorbic acid. The Cu-complex with isoquinoline ligand (IQ-CuC) had stronger cytostatic effect (IC50 =15.6 microM) than parental complex (CuC) and its cytotoxicity several times increased in the presence of 0.1 mM ascorbic acid (IC50 =1.0 microM). The cytotoxicity has been caused by oxidative stress, enhanced creation of TBARS has been confirmed, and formation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein from 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein has been observed, also. Some hallmarks of apoptotic/necrotic death of L1210 cells have been observed by fluorescent microscopy after dyeing of cell with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. In addition, it was confirmed that both complexes in the presence of ascorbic acid cleavaged of pDNA. Although these copper complexes were initially prepared as substances with antioxidant properties we have showed that combined treatment of L1210 cells with IQCuC and ascorbic acid induced strong oxidative stress and death of cells. Our results confirmed that physiological concentration of ascorbic acid increases the cytostatic/cytotoxic efficiency of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato diaqua copper(II) complexes.

  16. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise: ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, C; Timm, M; Meyer, A S

    2001-08-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil-water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8-4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced due to the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) that rapidly catalyzes lipid oxidation via lipid hydroperoxide decomposition at the oil-water interface in mayonnaise.

  17. Ascorbic acid efflux and re-uptake in endothelial cells: maintenance of intracellular ascorbate.

    PubMed

    May, James M; Qu, Zhi-chao

    2009-05-01

    Entry of vitamin C or ascorbate into most tissues requires its movement across the endothelial cell barrier of vessels. If trans-cellular ascorbate movement occurs, then it should be evident as ascorbate efflux from endothelial cells. Cultured EA.926 endothelial cells that had been loaded to about 3.5 mM intracellular ascorbate lost 70-80% of ascorbate to the medium over several hours at 37 degrees C via a non-saturable process that was insensitive to anion transport inhibitors and thiol reagents. Oxidation of this extracellular ascorbate by ascorbate oxidase or ferricyanide enhanced apparent ascorbate efflux, suggesting that efflux of the vitamin was countered in part by its re-uptake on ascorbate transporters. Although basal ascorbate efflux was not calcium-dependent, increased entry of calcium into the cells enhanced ascorbate release. These results support the hypothesis that ascorbate efflux reflects trans-endothelial cell ascorbate movement out of the blood vessel.

  18. Ascorbic acid participates in a general mechanism for concerted glucose transport inhibition and lactate transport stimulation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Maite A; Angulo, Constanza; Brauchi, Sebastián; Nualart, Francisco; Concha, Ilona I

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we present a novel function for ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is an important water-soluble antioxidant and cofactor in various enzyme systems. We have previously demonstrated that an increase in neuronal intracellular ascorbic acid is able to inhibit glucose transport in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Because of the presence of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, ascorbic acid is highly concentrated in brain, testis, lung, and adrenal glands. In this work, we explored how ascorbic acid affects glucose and lactate uptake in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Using immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the expression of glucose and ascorbic acid transporters in non-neuronal cells was studied. Like neurons, HEK293 cells expressed GLUT1, GLUT3, and SVCT2. With radioisotope-based methods, only intracellular ascorbic acid, but not extracellular, inhibits 2-deoxyglucose transport in HEK293 cells. As monocarboxylates such as pyruvate and lactate, are important metabolic sources, we analyzed the ascorbic acid effect on lactate transport in cultured neurons and HEK293 cells. Intracellular ascorbic acid was able to stimulate lactate transport in both cell types. Extracellular ascorbic acid did not affect this transport. Our data show that ascorbic acid inhibits glucose transport and stimulates lactate transport in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Mammalian cells frequently present functional glucose and monocarboxylate transporters, and we describe here a general effect in which ascorbic acid functions like a glucose/monocarboxylate uptake switch in tissues expressing ascorbic acid transporters.

  19. Ascorbic acid enhances differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Lord, Bernadette; Schulze, P Christian; Fryer, Ryan M; Sarang, Satinder S; Gullans, Steven R; Lee, Richard T

    2003-04-15

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into cellular derivatives of all 3 germ layers. In appropriate culture conditions, ES cells can differentiate into specialized cells, including cardiac myocytes, but the efficiency is typically low and the process is incompletely understood. We evaluated a chemical library for its potential to induce cardiac differentiation of ES cells in the absence of embryoid body formation. Using ES cells stably transfected with cardiac-specific alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), 880 compounds approved for human use were screened for their ability to induce cardiac differentiation. Treatment with ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, markedly increased the number of EGFP-positive cells, which displayed spontaneous and rhythmic contractile activity and stained positively for sarcomeric myosin and alpha-actinin. Furthermore, ascorbic acid induced the expression of cardiac genes, including GATA4, alpha-MHC, and beta-MHC in untransfected ES cells in a developmentally controlled manner. This effect of ascorbic acid on cardiac differentiation was not mimicked by the other antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine, Tiron, or vitamin E. Ascorbic acid induces cardiac differentiation in ES cells. This study demonstrates the potential for chemically modifying the cardiac differentiation program of ES cells.

  20. Protective effect of ascorbic acid against double-strand breaks in giant DNA: Marked differences among the damage induced by photo-irradiation, gamma-rays and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yue; Ogawa, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Mori, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The protective effect of ascorbic acid against double-strand breaks in DNA was evaluated by single-molecule observation of giant DNA (T4 DNA; 166 kbp) through fluorescence microscopy. Samples were exposed to three different forms of radiation: visible light, γ-ray and ultrasound. With regard to irradiation with visible light, 1 mM AA reduced the damage down to ca. 30%. Same concentration of AA decreased the damage done by γ-ray to ca. 70%. However, AA had almost no protective effect against the damage caused by ultrasound. This significant difference is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical mechanism of double-strand breaks depending on the radiation source.

  1. An Inquiry into the Effect of Heating on Ascorbic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations that study the effect of heating on ascorbic acid are commonly performed in schools, but the conclusions obtained are quite variable and controversial. Some results indicate that heating may destroy vitamin C, but others suggest that heating may have no effect. This article reports an attempt to resolve this confusion through a…

  2. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  3. An Inquiry into the Effect of Heating on Ascorbic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations that study the effect of heating on ascorbic acid are commonly performed in schools, but the conclusions obtained are quite variable and controversial. Some results indicate that heating may destroy vitamin C, but others suggest that heating may have no effect. This article reports an attempt to resolve this confusion through a…

  4. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  5. Effect of ascorbic acid on storage of Greyhound erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Jorge A; Banerjee, Uddyalok; Iazbik, M Cristina; Marín, Liliana M; Couto, C Guillermo; Palmer, Andre F

    2015-09-01

    To assess changes in biochemical and biophysical properties of canine RBCs during cold (1° to 6°C) storage in a licensed RBC additive solution (the RBC preservation solution designated AS-1) supplemented with ascorbic acid. Blood samples from 7 neutered male Greyhounds; all dogs had negative results when tested for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1. Blood was collected into citrate-phosphate-dextrose and stored in AS-1. Stored RBCs were supplemented with 7.1mM ascorbic acid or with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control samples). Several biochemical and biophysical properties of RBCs were measured, including percentage hemolysis, oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium, and the kinetic rate constants for O2 dissociation, carbon monoxide association, and nitric oxide dioxygenation. Greyhound RBCs stored in AS-1 supplemented with ascorbic acid did not have significantly decreased hemolysis, compared with results for the control samples, during the storage period. In this study, ascorbic acid did not reduce hemolysis during storage. Several changes in stored canine RBCs were identified as part of the hypothermic storage lesion.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  10. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  11. Protective role of ascorbic acid in the decontamination of cow milk casein by gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kouass Sahbani, Saloua; Klarskov, Klaus; Aloui, Amine; Kouass, Salah; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the protective role of ascorbic acid on irradiation-induced modification of casein. Casein stock solutions were irradiated with increasing doses 2-10 kGy using (60)Co Gamma rays at a dose rate D• = 136.73 Gy/min at room temperature. The total viable microorganism content of cow milk casein was evaluated by Plate Count Agar (PCA) incubation for 48 h at 37°C. Sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis were used to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on casein integrity. Gamma irradiation reduced the bacterial contamination of casein solutions at a lower irradiation dose when performed in the presence of ascorbic acid. The irradiation treatment of casein in the absence of ascorbic acid with a dose of 4 kGy could reduce 99% of the original amount of bacterial colonies. However, in the presence of ascorbic acid the irradiation treatment of casein with a dose lower than 2 kGy could reduce 99% of the original amount of bacterial colonies which suggested that the irradiation dose lower than 2 kGy achieved almost the entire decontamination result. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that ascorbic acid protected cow milk casein from degradation and subsequent aggregation probably by scavenging oxygen and protein radicals produced by the irradiation. It is demonstrated that the combination of gamma irradiation and ascorbic acid produce additive effects, providing acceptable hygienic quality of cow milk casein and protects caseins against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated, during the irradiation process.

  12. Kinetic studies on the reaction of compound II of myeloperoxidase with ascorbic acid. Role of ascorbic acid in myeloperoxidase function.

    PubMed

    Marquez, L A; Dunford, H B; Van Wart, H

    1990-04-05

    Ascorbic acid is known to stimulate leukocyte functions. In a recent publication it was suggested that the role of ascorbic acid is to reduce compound II of myeloperoxidase back to the native enzyme (Bolscher, B. G. J. M., Zoutberg, G. R., Cuperus, R. A., and Wever, R. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 784, 189-191). In this paper we report rapid spectral scan and transient state kinetic results on the reaction of three myeloperoxidase compounds II, namely, human neutrophil myeloperoxidase, canine myeloperoxidase, and bovine spleen heme protein with ascorbate. We show by rapid scan spectra that compound II does not pass through any other intermediate when ascorbic acid reduces it back to native form. We also show that the reactions of all three compounds II involve a simple binding interaction before enzyme reduction with an apparent dissociation constant of 6.3 +/- 0.9 x 10(-4) to 2.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(-3)M and a first-order rate constant for reduction of 12.6 +/- 0.6 to 18.8 +/- 1.3 s-1. The optimum pH is 4.5, and at this pH the activation energy for the reaction is 13.2 kJ mol-1. Results of this work lend further evidence that the spleen green heme protein is very similar if not identical to leukocyte myeloperoxidase based on a comparison of spectral scans, pH-rate profiles, and kinetic parameters. We demonstrate that chloride cannot reduce compound II whereas iodide reduces compound II to native enzyme at a rate comparable to that of ascorbate. This explains why ascorbate accelerates chlorination but inhibits iodination. Formation of compound II is a dead end for the generation of hypochlorous acid; ascorbate regenerates more native enzyme to enhance the chlorination reaction namely: myeloperoxidase + peroxide----compound I followed by compound I + chloride----HOCl. On the other hand, ascorbate is a competitor with iodide for both compounds I and II and so inhibits iodination.

  13. Ascorbic acid modulates collagen type I gene expression by cells from an eye tissue--trabecular meshwork.

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, S; Yue, B Y; Chang, I L; Wong, F; Higginbotham, E J

    1992-09-01

    The trabecular meshwork, a specialized tissue in the anterior chamber of the eye, plays a major role in the regulation of aqueous humor outflow. We studied the effects of ascorbic acid, a significant component in the aqueous humor, on gene expression of type I collagen in cultures of bovine trabecular meshwork cells. These cells were plated for 6 days, exposed to ascorbic acid in concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 micrograms/ml for 3 days and labeled with (3H)proline for the last 24 hrs. Cultures that did not receive ascorbic acid served as controls. Bacterial collagenase assays showed enhanced incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenous proteins in cultures treated with 100 and 250 micrograms/ml of ascorbic acid. Gel electrophoresis and fluorography revealed that ascorbic acid caused a 2.6- to 4.9-fold increase in production of alpha 1 (I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains by trabecular meshwork cells. Such an increase was found, using a cDNA probe specific for pro alpha 1(I) chains, to be accompanied by an increase in steady-state mRNA levels. Similar findings were also yielded from in situ hybridization experiments. These results, coupled with previously demonstrated ascorbate-induced effects on glycosaminoglycan, fibronectin and laminin synthesis, suggest that ascorbic acid is a key mediator of the extracellular matrix production by trabecular meshwork cells. Fluctuations in its concentration may lead to alterations in the makeup and assembly of matrices underlying the cells.

  14. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Amani; Ali, Noroozzadeh; Reza, Badalzadeh; Ali, Khoshbaten

    2010-04-01

    Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water), lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water), and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water) groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip) and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOchi)). After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOchi levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOchi oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  15. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Amani; Ali, Noroozzadeh; Reza, Badalzadeh; Ali, Khoshbaten

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water), lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water), and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water) groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip) and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOχ)). Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOχ levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOχ oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO. PMID:20711370

  16. Determination of L- Ascorbic Acid in Plasma by Voltammetric Method

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdol Azim; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Voltammetric techniques have been considered as important methods among the analytical techniques used for the identification and determination of trace concentrations of many biological molecules such as L-ascorbic acid (AA). L-ascorbic acid is an electro-active molecule, though it is difficult to determine its value directly with a majority of electrodes made of carbon and transition metals, because of electrode surface problems. The present study is based on I-E curves for AA analysis at various pH. Furthermore, the effects of the presence of other electro-active substances; such as copper, as well as the effect of the sweep rate of potential will be studied. The present study is based on analysis of the current-voltage curves for L-ascorbic acid at varying pH and sweep rate scan values. An analysis was also carried out to measure the influence of the concentration of some electro active species. The peak height of the first oxidation wave is used for L-ascorbic acid assay. L-ascorbic acid was determined in aqueous media by linear-scan voltammetry on a gold electrode; ranging between (1-175 μg/mL). In biologic samples, for elimination of uric acid or some sugars and effects, a significant interference of copper ions whose presence reduces the height of the L-ascorbic acid oxidation peak was used. The optimum pH and sweep rate were 3.2 and 7500mV/s, respectively. Under these conditions, the detection limit of the method was 0.3 μg/mL. Repeatability of the method based on relative standard deviation (RSD) 50, 10 and 1 μg/mL concentrations was 0.83, 2.1 and 10.3%, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range 1-175μg/mL (r2 = 0.9977, p < 0.001). The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the use of copper eliminates the interference of different substances such as uric acid. PMID:24363717

  17. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  18. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, J C; Loewus, F A

    1975-08-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-(14)C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants.

  19. Beneficial effects of garlic on learning and memory deficits and brain tissue damages induced by lead exposure during juvenile rat growth is comparable to the effect of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Simagol; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Feizpour, Azadeh; Alipour, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Akram; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Beheshti, Farimah

    2017-04-01

    The neuroprotective effects of both garlic and ascorbic acid (AA) have been documented. In this study the effects of garlic and ascorbic acid on memory deficits and brain tissue oxidative damages induced by lead exposure was investigated. The juvenile rats were divided and treated: (1) Control, (2) Lead (lead acetate in drinking water, 8 weeks), (3) Lead - Ascorbic Acid (Lead-AA), (4)  Lead - Garlic (100 mg/kg, daily, gavage) (Lead-Gar). In Morris water maze (MWM), the escape latency and traveled path in the Lead group were significantly higher while, the time spent in the target quadrant (Q1) was lower than Control. Both Lead-Gar and Lead-AA groups spent more times in Q1than to lead group. There were no significant differences in swimming speed between the groups. In passive avoidance (PA) test, the time latency for entering the dark compartment by Lead group was lower than Control. Treatment of the animals by AA and garlic significantly increased the time latency. In Lead group, the total thiol concentration in brain tissues was significantly lower while, MDA was higher than Control. Treatment by both garlic and AA increased total thiol concentrations and decreased MDA. Both garlic and AA decreased the lead content of brain tissues. It is suggested that treatment with garlic attenuates the learning and memory impairments due to lead exposure during juvenile rat growth which is comparable to AA. The possible mechanism may be due to its protective effects against brain tissues oxidative damage as well the lowering effects of brain lead content.

  20. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    PubMed

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation.

  1. Crystalline silica incubated in ascorbic acid acquires a higher cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Giovine, Marco; Pozzolini, Marina; Fenoglio, Ivana; Scarfi, Sonia; Ghiazza, Mara; Benatti, Umberto; Fubini, Bice

    2002-06-01

    Quartz incubated in an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid is partially dissolved and the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide is enhanced. In order to investigate whether the surface activation triggered by the treatment with ascorbic acid would also involve an enhancement in cell toxicity, a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to untreated and ascorbic acid-treated quartz. Ascorbic acid pretreated quartz was more toxic than untreated quartz and all cells died within 24 hours after exposure. Tetrandrine (a Chinese drug employed to retard or reverse fibrotic lesions of silicosis in humans) partially reduced cell toxicity generated by ascorbic acid pretreated quartz.

  2. Ascorbic acid oxidation of thiol groups from dithiotreitol is mediated by its conversion to dehydroascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Nilda B.V.; Lissner, Leandro A.; Klimaczewski, Cláudia V.; Colpo, Elisangela; Rocha, Joao B.T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the in vitro pro-oxidant effect of ascorbic acid towards thiol groups could be mediated by free radicals formed during its auto-oxidation and/or by a direct oxidation of -SH groups by its oxidized form (dehydroascorbic acid). This hypothesis was examined by measuring the rate of AA (ascorbic acid) oxidation in MOPS (3-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid buffer) and phosphate buffer (PB). Here we have used dithiothreitol (DTT) as model of vicinal thiol-containing enzymes, namely δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. The rate of AA and DTT oxidation was more pronounced in the presence of PB than in the MOPS. AA oxidation induced by iron/EDTA complex was significantly reduced by addition of superoxide dismutase, catalase and DTT to the reaction medium. H2O2 alone did not stimulate the oxidation of AA; however, AA oxidation was enhanced significantly with the addition of crescent concentrations of iron. Conversely, in DTT oxidation assay (without AA) the addition of iron, EDTA and H2O2, did not promote the oxidation of -SH groups. Our findings suggest that in the presence of physiological concentrations of AA and thiols, the oxidation of -SH groups is mediated by AA conversion to dehydroascorbic acid with the participation of iron. Furthermore, free radical species formed during the auto-oxidation of AA apparently did not oxidize thiol groups to a significant extent. PMID:27847448

  3. Oxidation of cumene in an aprotic medium in the presence of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. V.; Efimova, I. V.; Opeida, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    The process of the initiated oxidation of cumene (IPB) with oxygen under homophase conditions in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) used over a wide range of concentrations is studied. It is shown that in this system, ascorbic acid is consumed in two ways: the auto-oxidation and the inhibition of the oxidation of cumene. The amount of ascorbic acid that participates in inhibiting the oxidation of cumene falls from 28.5 to 16.6% with a rise in the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range of 0.003-0.3 mol/L. The contribution from the rate of the oxidation of ascorbic acid to the total rate of the oxidation of the IPB-AA-DMSO-AIBN system grows from 67.2 to 92.5% with a rise in the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range of 0.01-0.3 mol/L. It is established that the most effective inhibition of the oxidation of cumene with ascorbic acid in aprotic media occurs at concentrations of ascorbic acid of up to 0.01 mol/L. A scheme for the initiated radical-chain oxidation of cumene with ascorbic acid in the aprotic medium that considers the inhibition of the oxidation of cumene with ascorbic acid and the auto-oxidation of ascorbic acid is proposed.

  4. Chlorambucil and ascorbic acid-mediated anticancer activity and hematological toxicity in Dalton's ascites lymphoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Suravi; Verma, Akalesh Kumar; Prasad, Surya Bali

    2014-02-01

    Chlorambucil is an anticancer drug with alkylating and immunosuppressive activities. Considering various reports on the possible antioxidant/protective functions of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), it was aimed at to explore the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity induced by chlorambucil. Dalton's ascites lymphoma tumor serially maintained in Swiss albino mice were used for the present experiments. The result of antitumor activity showed that combination treatment with ascorbic acid and chlorambucil exhibited enhanced antitumor activity with 170% increase in life span (ILS), which is significantly higher as compared to chlorambucil alone (ILS 140%). Analysis of apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma tumor cells revealed a significantly higher apoptotic index after combination treatment as compared to chlorambucil alone. Blood hemoglobin content, erythrocytes and leukocytes counts were decreased after chlorambucil treatment, however, overall recovery in these hematological values was noted after combination treatment. Chlorambucil treatment also caused morphological abnormalities in red blood cells, majority of which include acanthocytes, burr and microcystis. Combination treatment of mice with ascorbic acid plus chlorambucil showed less histopathological changes in kidney as compared to chlorambucil treatment alone, thus, ascorbic acid is effective in reducing chlorambucil-induced renal toxicity in the hosts. Based on the results, for further development, hopefully into the clinical usage, the administration of ascorbic acid in combination with chlorambucil may be recommended.

  5. Skin tumorigenic potential of benzanthrone: prevention by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neelam; Kumar, Sandeep; Ansari, Kausar M; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity.

  6. Ascorbic acid does not reduce the anticancer effect of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Saga, Ryo; Monzen, Satoru; Terashima, Shingo; Tsuruga, Eichi

    2017-01-01

    The present study hypothesized that the therapeutic use of ascorbic acid (AsA) in combination with radiation may reduce therapy-related side effects and increase the antitumor effects. The aim of the study was to examine the association between the scavenged activity of AsA and the biological anticancer effect of hydroxyl (OH) radicals generated by X-ray irradiation. Cell survival, DNA fragmentation of human leukemia HL60 cells and the amount of OH radicals were investigated following X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment. The number of living cells decreased, and DNA fragmentation increased at AsA concentrations >1 mM. Electron spin resonance spectra revealed that X-ray irradiation generated OH radicals, which were scavenged by AsA at concentrations >75 µM. The AsA concentration inside the cell was 75 µM when cells underwent extracellular treatment with 5 mM AsA, which significantly induced HL60 cell death even without irradiation. No increase in the number of viable HL60 cells was observed following AsA treatment with irradiation when compared to irradiation alone. In conclusion, the disappearance of the radiation anticancer effects with AsA treatment in combination with radiotherapy for cancer treatment is not a cause for concern. PMID:28123717

  7. Combined metoprolol and ascorbic acid treatment prevents intrinsic damage to the heart during diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Saran, Varun; Sharma, Vijay; Wambolt, Richard; Yuen, Violet G; Allard, Michael; McNeill, John Hugh

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress have been highlighted as potential causative factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The β-blocker metoprolol is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart and ameliorates the sequelae associated with oxidative stress, without lowering oxidative stress. The antioxidant ascorbic acid is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart. We tested whether a combination of ascorbic acid and metoprolol treatment would improve function further than each drug individually. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats were treated with metoprolol (15 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via an osmotic pump) and (or) ascorbic acid (1000 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via their drinking water). To study the effect of treatment on the development of dysfunction, we examined time points before (5 weeks diabetic) and after (7 weeks diabetic) development of overt systolic dysfunction. Echocardiography and working-heart-perfusion were used to assess cardiac function. Blood and tissue samples were collected to assess the severity of disease and oxidative stress. While both drugs improved function, only ascorbic acid had effects on oxidative damage. Combination treatment had a more pronounced improvement in function. Our β-blocker + antioxidant treatment strategy focused on oxidative stress, not diabetes specifically; therefore, it may prove useful in other diseases where oxidative stress contributes to the pathology.

  8. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Rezaei, B.; Movahedinia, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6×10 -6 M and calibration rang is 8×10 -6-1.2×10 -3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8×10 -6 and 2×10 -5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  9. Ascorbate-induced generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is unaffected by varying levels of iron and 2-oxoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kevin M; Gustafson, Christopher B; Young, Juan I; Züchner, Stephan; Wang, Gaofeng

    2013-10-04

    Tet (ten-eleven translocation) methylcytosine dioxygenases, which belong to the iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in DNA. We recently reported that ascorbate (vitamin C) induces Tet-mediated generation of 5hmC. To initially delineate the role of ascorbate on 5hmC generation, we analyzed whether the effect of ascorbate is dependent upon the conditions of other components involved in the hydroxylation of 5mC catalyzed by Tet. We found that removing iron from the culture medium did not affect the induction of 5hmC by ascorbate (10 μM) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The effect of ascorbate did not involve an increased expression of Tet1-3 or isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH1-2), the enzymes responsible for producing 2OG. Interestingly, MEFs cultured with different concentrations of glucose, a major precursor of 2OG, exhibited nearly identical responses to ascorbate treatment. Further, blocking the uptake of the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, through the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) inhibited the effect of ascorbate on 5hmC. However, inhibition of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), which mediate the incorporation of the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), did not modify the ability of ascorbate to induce 5hmC generation. These results indicate that the effect of ascorbate on 5hmC is not dependent upon iron uptake, the expression of Tet and IDH, or the production of 2OG, suggesting that ascorbate may directly participate in the generation of 5hmC, most likely as a cofactor of Tet.

  10. Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid retrieve activity of antioxidative enzymes and structure of Caralluma tuberculata calli on PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz U; Zia, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad F

    2017-02-02

    Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images. From our results we conclude that application of PEG (a drought causative agent) leads to an increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes and also deformation of cellular organelles. However, application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid eradicate drought effect induced by PEG.

  11. Production of ascorbic acid releasing biomaterials for pelvic floor repair

    PubMed Central

    Mangır, Naşide; Bullock, Anthony J.; Roman, Sabiniano; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Objective An underlying abnormality in collagen turnover is implied in the occurrence of complications and recurrences after mesh augmented pelvic floor repair surgeries. Ascorbic acid is a potent stimulant of collagen synthesis. The aim of this study is to produce ascorbic acid releasing poly-lactic acid (PLA) scaffolds and evaluate them for their effects on extracellular matrix production and the strength of the materials. Materials and methods Scaffolds which contained either l-ascorbic acid (AA) and Ascorbate-2-Phosphate (A2P) were produced with emulsion electrospinning. The release of both drugs was measured by UV spectrophotometry. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 2 weeks. Cell attachment, viability and total collagen production were evaluated as well as mechanical properties. Results No significant differences were observed between AA, A2P, Vehicle and PLA scaffolds in terms of fibre diameter and pore size. The encapsulation efficiency and successful release of both AA and A2P were demonstrated. Both AA and A2P containing scaffolds were significantly more hydrophilic and stronger in both dry and wet states compared to PLA scaffolds. Fibroblasts produced more collagen on scaffolds containing either AA or A2P compared to cells grown on control scaffolds. Conclusion This study is the first to directly compare the two ascorbic acid derivatives in a tissue engineered scaffold and shows that both AA and A2P releasing electrospun PLA scaffolds increased collagen production of fibroblasts to similar extents but AA scaffolds seemed to be more hydrophilic and stronger compared to A2P scaffolds. Statement of significance Mesh augmented surgical repair of the pelvic floor currently relies on non-degradable materials which results in severe complications in some patients. There is an unmet and urgent need for better pelvic floor repair materials. Our current understanding suggests that the ideal material should be able to better

  12. Preliminary Clinical Study of the Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Colistin-Associated Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirijatuphat, Rujipas; Limmahakhun, Samornrod; Sirivatanauksorn, Vorapan; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting factor of colistin, a last-line therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. An earlier animal study revealed a protective effect of ascorbic acid against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present randomized controlled study was conducted in 28 patients and aimed to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of intravenous ascorbic acid (2 g every 12 h) against colistin-associated nephrotoxicity in patients requiring intravenous colistin. Thirteen patients received colistin plus ascorbic acid, whereas 15 received colistin alone. Nephrotoxicity was defined by the RIFLE classification system. Additionally, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) were measured as markers of renal damage, and plasma colistin concentrations were quantified. The baseline characteristics, clinical features, and concomitant treatments of the patients in the two groups were comparable. The incidences of nephrotoxicity were 53.8% (7/13) and 60.0% (9/15) in the colistin-ascorbic acid group and the colistin group, respectively (P = 0.956; relative risk [RR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 1.72). In both groups, the urinary excretion rates of NGAL and NAG on day 3 or 5 of colistin treatment and at the end of colistin treatment were significantly higher than those at the respective baselines (P < 0.05). However, the urinary excretion rates of these biomarkers at the various times during colistin treatment did not differ significantly between the groups (P > 0.05). The plasma colistin concentrations in the two groups were not significantly different (P > 0.28). The clinical and microbiological outcomes and mortality of the patients in the two groups were not significantly different. This preliminary study suggests that ascorbic acid does not offer a nephroprotective effect for patients receiving intravenous colistin. (This study has been registered at Clinical

  13. Effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on methyl mercury dicyandiamide toxicosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yamini, B; Sleight, S D

    1984-07-01

    Methylmercury dicyandiamide (MMD) when given intraperitoneally at a dosage of 4 mg/kg of body weight at weekly intervals for 3 weeks resulted in death of guinea pigs fed an ascorbic acid deficient diet. Controls fed an ascorbic acid deficient diet survived during this period as did guinea pigs given MMD and fed an ascorbic acid adequate diet. In a second experiment, guinea pigs fed an ascorbic acid deficient diet containing 22 ppm of MMD died within 26 days and had severe hemorrhagic and ulcerative gastroenteritis and coagulative necrosis of the liver. Ascorbic acid deficient controls died at 34 days. The MMD-containing ascorbic acid adequate diet killed guinea pigs in 150 days. Guinea pigs fed an ascorbic acid deficient diet with 44 ppm of MMD died within 20 days with acute neurologic signs. Pathologic changes were mostly in the gray matter. Guinea pigs fed MMD and a diet with adequate ascorbic acid survived for 38 days whereas the ascorbic acid deficient controls survived for 47 days. Results indicate that ascorbic acid deficiency can be a factor in the location and severity of clinical signs and lesions of MMD.

  14. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Given the importance of ascorbic acid to human nutrition, several technologies have been developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways. This paper provides an overview of these approaches as well as the consequences that changes in ascorbic acid content have on plant growth and function. Discussed is the capacity of plants to tolerate changes in ascorbic acid content. The many functions that ascorbic acid serves in plants, however, will require highly targeted approaches to improve their nutritional quality without compromising their health. PMID:24278786

  15. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  16. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    ABSTRACT

    Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  17. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    ABSTRACT

    Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  18. Arsenic trioxide and Ascorbic Acid Demonstrates Promising Activity against Primary Human CLL Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Xiaobin B.; Mone, Andrew P; Mo, Xiaokui; Vargo, Melissa; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    The compromised antioxidant defense system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggested a potential use for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generating Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) and Ascorbic Acid. While both ATO and ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity in CLL B cells as single agents, the efficacy of ATO is enhanced by ascorbic acid. This effect is dependent on increased ROS accumulation, as pretreatment of B-CLL cells with a glutathione reducing buthionine sulfoximine or catalase inhibiting aminotriazole, enhanced ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Petreatment with reducing agents such as catalase, or thiol anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or GSH also abrogated ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Hu1D10 mediated cell death was enhanced with ATO and ascorbic acid, thus justifying potential combination of ATO/arsenic trioxide therapy with antibodies such as Hu1D10 that also cause accumulation of ROS. PMID:20171736

  19. Arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid demonstrate promising activity against primary human CLL cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Xiaobin; Mone, Andrew P; Mo, Xiaokui; Vargo, Melissa; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2010-07-01

    The compromised antioxidant defense system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggested a potential use for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating arsenic trioxide (ATO) and ascorbic acid. While both ATO and ascorbic acid mediate cytotoxicity in CLL B cells as single agents, the efficacy of ATO is enhanced by ascorbic acid. This effect is dependent on increased ROS accumulation, as pretreatment of B-CLL cells with a glutathione reducing buthionine sulfoximine or catalase inhibiting aminotriazole, enhanced ATO/ascorbic acid-mediated cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with reducing agents such as catalase, or thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or GSH also abrogated ATO/ascorbic acid-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Hu1D10-mediated cell death was enhanced with ATO and ascorbic acid, thus justifying potential combination of ATO/arsenic trioxide therapy with antibodies such as Hu1D10 that also cause accumulation of ROS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ros, J R; Rodríguez-López, J N; García-Cánovas, F

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid on the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, using tyrosine as substrate, has been studied. Over the ranges of ascorbic acid concentration used, no direct effect on the enzyme is found. However, a shortening of the characteristic induction period of the hydroxylation reaction is observed. The evolution of the reaction is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. Low concentrations permit the system to reach the steady state when all ascorbic acid is consumed, whereas high concentrations do not. In the light of these results it is proposed that the influence of ascorbic acid on the reaction is due to its ability to reduce the enzymically generated o-quinones. A relationship between the ascorbic acid concentration, and the induction period generated by it, with the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase is established, which can be used as a basis for the determination of trace amounts of this reducing agent. PMID:8216233

  1. Ascorbic acid in cultured tissue of briar rose, Rosa rugosa Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wegg, S M; Townsley, P M

    1983-04-01

    Ascorbic acid synthesis was studied using suspension cultured cells from the fleshy portion of the fruit of the rose, Rosa rugosa Thunb. Cells cultured in the dark contained ascorbic acid at a level of 13 mg/100 g wet wt. This value increased several fold when the cells were grown under light. Ascorbic acid does not accumulate in the growth medium possibly due to its rapid oxidation. L-galactono-1,4-lactone was readily converted to ascorbic acid whereas L-gulono-1,4-lactone was used to a much lesser degree. D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose. D-glucurono-1,4-lactone and myoinositol did not stimulate increased ascorbic acid synthesis. Reducing the sucrose content of the medium reduced the ascorbic acid content of the cells without altering cell yield.

  2. Ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast by reducing DNA and mitochondrial damages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won-Sang; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Hong-Jun; Kim, Min-Ju; Oh, Soo-Jin; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Jaebong; Kim, Sung Chan; Lee, Jae-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has been reported to extend replicative life span of human embryonic fibroblast (HEF). Since the detailed molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been investigated, we attempted to elucidate. Continuous treatment of HEF cells with ascorbic acid (at 200 microM) from 40 population doubling (PD) increased maximum PD numbers by 18% and lowered SA-beta-gal positive staining, an aging marker, by 2.3 folds, indicating that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells. Ascorbic acid treatment lowered DCFH by about 7 folds and Rho123 by about 70%, suggesting that ascorbic acid dramatically decreased ROS formation. Ascorbic acid also increased aconitase activity, a marker of mitochondrial aging, by 41%, indicating that ascorbic acid treatment restores age-related decline of mitochondrial function. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased G1 population up to 12%. Further western blot analysis showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased levels of p53, phospho-p53 at ser 15, and p21, indicating that ascorbic acid relieved senescence-related G1 arrest. Analysis of AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites showed that ascorbic acid treatment decreased AP site formation by 35%. We also tested the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment, as an additional oxidative stress. Continuous treatment of 20 microM of hydrogen peroxide from PD 40 of HEF cells resulted in premature senescence due to increased ROS level, and increased AP sites. Taken together, the results suggest that ascorbic acid extends replicative life span of HEF cells by reducing mitochondrial and DNA damages through lowering cellular ROS.

  3. [Ascorbic Acid and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    PubMed

    Noto, Yu-ichi

    2015-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a disease for which no drug treatments are available. Passage et al. reported that ascorbic acid reduced the mRNA level of PMP22, improved motor function and increased the numbers of myelinated peripheral nerve axons in a mouse model of CMT1A. Based on these results, five clinical trials were undertaken at different centers worldwide. However, none of them demonstrated significant effectiveness. Although these outcomes were disappointing, these studies have provided many useful insights for conducting the next randomised controlled trial for CMT1A.

  4. Thermal stability of L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Makule, Edna Edward; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of vitamin C (including l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] and dehydroascorbic acid [DHAA]) in crushed broccoli was evaluated in the temperature range of 30 to 90 degrees C whereas that of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was evaluated in the temperature range of 20 to 95 degrees C. Thermal treatments (for 15 min) of crushed broccoli at 30 to 60 degrees C resulted in conversion of l-AA to DHAA whereas treatments at 70 to 90 degrees C retained vitamin C as l-AA. These observations indicated that enzymes (for example, AAO) could play a major role in the initial phase (that is, oxidation of l-AA to DHAA) of vitamin C degradation in broccoli. Consequently, a study to evaluate the temperature-time conditions that could result in AAO inactivation in broccoli was carried out. In this study, higher AAO activity was observed in broccoli florets than stalks. During thermal treatments for 10 min, AAO in broccoli florets and stalks was stable until around 50 degrees C. A 10-min thermal treatment at 80 degrees C almost completely inactivated AAO in broccoli. AAO inactivation followed 1st order kinetics in the temperature range of 55 to 65 degrees C. Based on this study, a thermal treatment above 70 degrees C is recommended for crushed vegetable products to prevent oxidation of l-AA to DHAA, the onset of vitamin C degradation. The results reported in this study are applicable for both domestic and industrial processing of vegetables into products such as juices, soups, and purees. In this report, we have demonstrated that processing crushed broccoli in a temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C could result in the conversion of l-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic (DHAA), a very important reaction in regard to vitamin C degradation because DHAA could be easily converted to other compounds that do not have the biological activity of vitamin C.

  5. [The Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931) of the National Institute of Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Kitajima, A; Yoshii, K; Komatsu, H; Ishimitsu, S; Okada, S

    1994-01-01

    Raw ascorbic acid material was tested for preparation of the "Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: infrared spectrum, the same as that of the JP Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard; optical rotation -alpha-20D, + 21.4 degrees; melting point, 190.3 degrees C (decomposition); loss on drying, 0.02%; assay result, 100.1% by iodometry. Based on the above findings, the raw material was authorized as the JP Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931).

  6. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  7. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  8. Antioxidant properties of 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Rie; Abe, Shigeki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of a provitamin C agent, 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2betaG), was compared to that of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and ascorbic acid (AA) using four in vitro methods, 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(*+))-scavenging assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis inhibition assay. AA-2betaG slowly and continuously scavenged DPPH radicals and ABTS(*+) in roughly the same reaction profiles as AA-2G, whereas AA quenched these radicals immediately. In the ORAC assay and the hemolysis inhibition assay, AA-2betaG showed similar overall activities to AA-2G and to AA, although the reactivity of AA-2betaG against the peroxyl radical generated in both assays was lower than that of AA-2G and AA. These data indicate that AA-2betaG had roughly the same radical-scavenging properties as AA-2G, and a comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity of AA-2betaG appeared to be comparable not only to that of AA-2G but also to that of AA.

  9. Oxygen-dependent chemical tumorigenesis in a Nicotiana hybrid: inhibition by ascorbic acid and dinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R A; Linney, T L

    1977-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of molecular oxygen, per se, or in combination with either pyrogallol or 6-azauracil increased tumorigenesis in Nicotiana suaveolens X Nicotiana langsdorffii seedlings relative to control seedlings. The biological activities of the organic chemicals were O2-dependent, because the substitution of N2 or O2 or the degassing of 0.1-1 mM solutions of the compounds eliminated or greatly reduced their tumorigenic effects. Rates of tumorigenesis exceeded 95% for 0.5 mM solutions of either pyrogallol or 6-azauracil solutions in the presence of l mM O2. Although tumors developed in 20% of seedlings in the presence of 1 mM O2, alone, 4-5 times more tumors were induced by the organic chemical--O2-H2O systems. Dinitrophenol and ascorbic acid, compounds which affect cellular respiration or redox systems, strongly inhibited the chemically-mediated tumorigenesis. Dinitrophenol was equally effective at one-tenth of the molar concentrations of ascorbic acid that were required for the suppressions of oncogenesis. Dehydroascorbic acid was much less inhibitory than ascorbic acid.

  10. Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samuel Z H; Ching, Biyun; Chng, You R; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2013-01-01

    L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress.

  11. Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samuel Z. H.; Ching, Biyun; Chng, You R.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (Gulo) catalyzes the last step of ascorbic acid biosynthesis, which occurs in the kidney of elasmobranchs. This study aimed to clone and sequence gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) from the kidney of the euryhaline freshwater stingray, Himantura signifer, and to determine the effects of acclimation from freshwater to brackish water (salinity 20) on its renal gulo mRNA expression and Gulo activity. We also examined the effects of brackish water acclimation on concentrations of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the kidney, brain and gill. The complete cDNA coding sequence of gulo from the kidney of H. signifer contained 1323 bp coding for 440 amino acids. The expression of gulo was kidney-specific, and renal gulo expression decreased significantly by 67% and 50% in fish acclimated to brackish water for 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in renal Gulo activity after 6 days of acclimation to brackish water. Hence, brackish water acclimation led to a decrease in the ascorbic acid synthetic capacity in the kidney of H. signifer. However, there were significant increases in concentrations of ascorbate and ascorbate + dehydroascorbate in the gills (after 1 or 6 days), and a significant increase in the concentration of ascorbate and a significant decrease in the concentration of dehydroascorbate in the brain (after 1 day) of fish acclimated to brackish water. Taken together, our results indicate that H. signifer might experience greater salinity-induced oxidative stress in freshwater than in brackish water, possibly related to its short history of freshwater invasion. These results also suggest for the first time a possible relationship between the successful invasion of the freshwater environment by some euryhaline marine elasmobranchs and the ability of these elasmobranchs to increase the capacity of ascorbic acid synthesis in response to hyposalinity stress. PMID:23825042

  12. Gamma-linoleic acid and ascorbate improves skeletal ossification in offspring of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Braddock, Rattana; Simán, C Martin; Hamilton, Katherine; Garland, Hugh O; Sibley, Colin P

    2002-05-01

    Maternal diabetes causes a range of complications in offspring, including reduced skeletal ossification. This study examined whether feeding gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) and ascorbate, alone or in combination, to diabetic pregnant rats improves skeletal development in their offspring. In addition, Ca(2+) concentration was monitored in maternal plasma and fetal tissue, as well as placental mRNA expression of calbindin-D(9k). Female rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin were fed GLA (500 mg/kg/d), ascorbate (290 mg/kg/d), ascorbyl-GLA (790 mg/kg/d), or GLA and ascorbate (500 and 290 mg/kg/d, respectively) throughout pregnancy. Fetal skeletons were studied after alizarin red staining. Fewer ossification centers were observed in offspring of diabetic rats compared with offspring of control rats (68 +/- 4% of control, p = 0.01). An almost complete restoration of ossification occurred with all the treatments (92-95 +/- 3% of control). The effects of treatment on fetal ossification could not be explained by altered maternal plasma Ca(2+) concentrations or by mRNA expression of the placental Ca(2+)-transporting protein calbindin-D(9K). We conclude that GLA and/or ascorbate treatment was effective against diabetes-induced fetal ossification defects by a mechanism not related to placental Ca(2+) supply.

  13. Ruthenium oxide modified nickel electrode for ascorbic acid detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Gee; Liao, Bo-Xuan; Weng, Yu-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Electrodes of ruthenium oxide modified nickel were prepared by a thermal decomposition method. The stoichiometry of the modifier, RuOx, was quantitatively determined to be a meta-stable phase, RuO5. The electrodes were employed to sense ascorbic acid in alkaline solution with a high sensitivity, 296 μAcm(-2) mM(-1), and good selectivity for eight kinds of disturbing reagents. We found that the ascorbic acid was oxidized irreversibly in solution. To match with the variation of the morphology, the sensitivity reached a maximum when the RuOx segregated with a nano-crystalline feature. We find that the substrate oxidized as the deposited RuOx grew thicker. The feature of the deposited RuOx changed from nano-particles to small islands resulting from the wetting effect of the substrate oxide, NiO; meanwhile the sensitivity decreased dramatically. The endurance of the RuOx/Ni electrode also showed a good performance after 38 days of successive test.

  14. Exogenously applied ascorbic acid ameliorates detrimental effects of NaCl and mannitol stress in Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mahmoud E; Hasaneen, Mohammed N A; Kazamel, Amany M S

    2010-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on growth, nitrogen content, and antioxidant system in Vicia faba seedlings were investigated. The role of exogenous ascorbic acid in increasing resistance to these stressors was also evaluated. Thus, with an increase in concentration of either NaCl or mannitol in culture media, a progressively greater significant decrease in percentage germination, in growth parameters, and in nitrogen constituents of the germinating beans, was observed. On the other hand, amide-, nitrate-, and total soluble-N contents appeared to show a progressive significant increase. Exogenous addition of ascorbic acid (4 mM) to the stressful media induced a pronounced significantly increased percentage germination and the growth attributes, whereas nitrogen constituents were variably changed in relation to values maintained in beans treated with either NaCl or mannitol. Furthermore, exogenous addition of ascorbic acid to NaCl or mannitol media induced a significant increase in the contents of ascorbate and glutathione and enzymatic antioxidant activities, in particular, in beans treated with the three highest concentrations of NaCl or mannitol, throughout the period of the experiments (12 days). Thus, ascorbic acid ameliorates the adverse effects of the stressful media; the magnitude of amelioration being a function of the type and the concentration of the stressful agent as well as of the duration of treatment. The importance of the above-mentioned changes in growth and metabolism to stress tolerance in broad bean is discussed.

  15. Dietary, serum and urine ascorbic acid status in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Hinkel, S; Klemp, C; Cufi, D; Keul, J

    1994-10-01

    The ascorbic acid (AA)-status of 14 marathon runners, 12 soccer players, 9 wrestlers, 9 basketball players and 16 controls was determined. A 7-day food weighed record was kept to quantify the AA-intake. In addition, the AA-serum concentrations and urinary ascorbate excretion were measured. The AA-intake of all 44 athletes (median, 26th-75th percentile) was 180.7 (188-239) mg/d, the serum concentration 70.6 (65.7-80.2 mumol/l) and the urine ascorbate excretion 1531 (391-2934) mumol/g creatine. No significant differences could be observed between the various sport groups, or between the sport groups and controls with respect to absolute (mg/d) and relative (mg/g body weight) AA-intake, serum and urine concentrations. Only a few of the athletes had AA-intake below the RDA or serum- or urine levels smaller than the decision limit. The absolute AA-intake (n = 44) from the 7-day record (r = 0.49, p < 0.0009) and the AA-intake on the last day (1-day) prior to urine collection (r = 0.90, p < 0.0000) correlate moderately/strongly with the urinary excretion. Between AA-intake (7-day) and serum concentration there is a correlation of r = 0.59, p < 0.0000. The AA-status of highly trained athletes does not differ significantly from the control group in spite of intensive daily training. Thus, AA-supplementation beyond the normal daily intake does not appear necessary.

  16. Effect of mitochondrial ascorbic acid synthesis on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Senn, M E; Gergoff Grozeff, G E; Alegre, M L; Barrile, F; De Tullio, M C; Bartoli, C G

    2016-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is synthesized in plant mitochondria through the oxidation of l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL) and then distributed to different cell compartments. AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (vtc2) and exogenous applications of l-GalL were used to generate plants with different AA content in their leaves. This experimental approach allows determining specific AA-dependent effects on carbon metabolism. No differences in O2 uptake, malic and citric acid and NADH content suggest that AA synthesis or accumulation did not affect mitochondrial activity; however, l-GalL treatment increased CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport rate in vtc2 (but not wt) leaves demonstrating a stimulation of photosynthesis after l-GalL treatment. Increased CO2 assimilation correlated with increased leaf stomatal conductance observed in l-GalL-treated vtc2 plants.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

  18. Enhancement of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3-3'-digallate induced apoptosis by ascorbic acid in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells and esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cells via MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Li, Wei; Jia, Lingyan; Li, Bo; Chen, Yi Charlie; Tu, Youying

    2013-08-23

    Tea polyphenols (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TF3) are two prospective compounds in cancer prevention and treatment. Ascorbic acid (Vc) is essential to a healthy diet as well as being a highly effective antioxidant. In this work, the effects of the combination of EGCG or TF3 with Vc on the apoptosis and caspases-3/9 activities in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells and esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cells were determined. Furthermore, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways in the apoptosis induced by TF3 or EGCG together with Vc were studied using three MAPK inhibitors (ERK inhibitor PD98059, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580). Our results showed that Vc could enhance the EGCG and TF3 induced apoptosis in SPC-A-1 and Eca-109 cells, and this effect involved the activation of caspase-3 and 9. EGCG, TF3 and Vc could activate MAPK pathways respectively, and each compound activated different MAPK subfamilies in different cells. This may explain the enhancement of EGCG and TF3 induced apoptosis by Vc in SPC-A-1 and Eca-109 cells, and will ultimately aid the design of more effective anti-cancer treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [The spectral and paramagnetic properties of oxyhemoglobin solutions UV-irradiated in the presence of ascorbic acid].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G

    1992-01-01

    Absorption spectra and ESR of aqueous and aqueous/glyceric solutions of oxyhemoglobin exposed to UV radiation (250-400 nm) at 293 and 77 K in the presence of ascorbic acid have been analyzed. Vitamin C (5 x 10(-5) M) has been shown to exert a photoprotective effect with regard to oxyhemoglobin (2 x 10(-6) M) UV-irradiated with a dose of 0.86 x 10(5) J/m2 at 293 K. The photoprotective effect of ascorbic acid is also displayed after UV irradiation of frozen (77 K) aqueous/glyceric oxyhemoglobin solutions (2.53 x 10(-5) M). It is concluded that ascorbic acid can be a scavenger with respect to active UV-induced particles in protein systems, including O2-. and OH. Proposed is a mode of processes leading to UV inactivation of hemoprotein molecules.

  20. The Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid by Hexacyanoferrate(III) Ion in Acidic Aqueous Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a kinetic and mechanistic investigation of ascorbic acid by a substitution-inert complex in acidic medium suitable for the undergraduate level. Discusses obtaining the second order rate constant for the rate determining step at a given temperature and comparison with the value predicted on the basis of the Marcus cross-relation. (CW)

  1. Mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in biochemical tests that use peroxide and peroxidase to generate chromophore.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Flávia; Luiz da Silva, Edson

    2006-11-01

    Ascorbic acid interferes negatively in peroxidase-based tests (Trinder method). However, the precise mechanism remains unclear for tests that use peroxide, a phenolic compound and 4-aminophenazone (4-AP). We determined the chemical mechanism of this interference, by examining the effects of ascorbic acid in the reaction kinetics of the production and reduction of the oxidized chromophore in urate, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests. Reaction of ascorbic acid with the Trinder method constituents was also verified. Ascorbic acid interfered stoichiometrically with all tests studied. However, it had two distinct effects on the reaction rate. In the urate test, ascorbic acid decreased the chromophore formation with no change in its production kinetics. In contrast, in cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests, an increase in the lag phase of color development occurred. Of all the Trinder constituents, only peroxide reverted the interference. In addition, ascorbic acid did not interfere with oxidase activity nor reduce significantly the chromophore formed. Peroxide depletion was the predominant chemical mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in the Trinder method with phenolics and 4-AP. Distinctive effects of ascorbic acid on the reaction kinetics of urate, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride might be due to the rate of peroxide production by oxidases.

  2. Ozone affects ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis as well as amino acid contents in three Euramerican poplar genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Jennifer; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Keinänen, Markku; Cohen, David; Ningre, Nathalie; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Baldet, Pierre; Gibon, Yves; Dizengremel, Pierre; Vaultier, Marie-Noëlle; Jolivet, Yves; Oksanen, Elina; Le Thiec, Didier

    2014-03-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant that causes oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the leaf. The capacity to detoxify ROS and repair ROS-induced damage may contribute to ozone tolerance. Ascorbate and glutathione are known to be key players in detoxification. Ozone effects on their biosynthesis and on amino acid metabolism were investigated in three Euramerican poplar genotypes (Populus deltoides Bartr. × Populus nigra L.) differing in ozone sensitivity. Total ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased in response to ozone in all genotypes, with the most resistant genotype (Carpaccio) showing an increase of up to 70%. Reduced ascorbate (ASA) concentration at least doubled in the two most resistant genotypes (Carpaccio and Cima), whereas the most sensitive genotype (Robusta) seemed unable to regenerate ASA from oxidized ascorbate (DHA), leading to an increase of 80% of the oxidized form. Increased ascorbate (ASA + DHA) content correlated with the increase in gene expression in its biosynthetic pathway, especially the putative gene of GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase VTC2. Increased cysteine availability combined with increased expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) and glutathione synthetase (GSH2) genes allows higher glutathione biosynthesis in response to ozone, particularly in Carpaccio. In addition, ozone caused a remobilization of amino acids with a decreased pool of total amino acids and an increase of Cys and putrescine, especially in Carpaccio. In addition, the expression of genes encoding threonine aldolase was strongly induced only in the most tolerant genotype, Carpaccio. Reduced ascorbate levels could partly explain the sensitivity to ozone for Robusta but not for Cima. Reduced ascorbate level alone is not sufficient to account for ozone tolerance in poplar, and it is necessary to consider several other factors including glutathione content.

  3. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  4. Ascorbic acid inhibits PMP22 expression by reducing cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ferdinand; Belin, Sophie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Micaleff, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Fontés, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMT] syndrome is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy. CMT1A, which accounts for 50% of all CMT cases, usually results from triploidy of the PMP22 gene. Preclinical trials using an animal model show that disabled mice force-fed with high doses of ascorbic acid partially recover muscular strength after a few months of treatment, and suggest that high doses of ascorbic acid repress PMP22 expression. In this study, we demonstrated that ascorbic acid represses PMP22 gene expression by acting on intracellular cAMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity. This action is dose dependent and specific to ascorbic acid, since repression is not observed after treatment with other antioxidants. The new properties of ascorbic acid are discussed, along with the implications of these findings for CMT disease treatment.

  5. Assessing the reductive capacity of cells by measuring the recycling of ascorbic and lipoic acids

    PubMed Central

    May, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Most mammalian cells cannot synthesize vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, and thus must have efficient mechanisms for its intracellular recycling. Ascorbate can be recycled from both its oxidized forms using electrons from several intracellular reducing co-factors, including GSH and the reduced pyridine nucleotides. Methods have been developed to assess the ability of intact cells to recycle ascorbate, which include assay of extracellular ferricyanide reduction and measurement of the ability of the cells to reduce dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate. Lipoic acid, a disulfide containing medium chain fatty acid, is also taken up by cells and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid, which can be measured upon efflux from the cells using Ellman’s reagent. Together, these assays provide an estimate of the ability of different cell types to recycle ascorbate, and to generate intracellular reducing equivalents to required to maintain the redox status of the cells. PMID:20013182

  6. Light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) is the first committed gene for AsA synthesis. Our research examined AsA levels, regulation of GGP gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of Actinidia (kiwifruit). When leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, ABA or MeJA, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of GGP mRNA and AsA concentrations. In transformed tobacco plants, activity of the GGP promoter was induced by all of these treatments. However, the degree of inducibility in the two kiwifruit species differed among the GGP promoter deletions. We deduced that the G-box motif, a light-responsive element, may have an important function in regulating GGP transcripts under various light conditions in both A. deliciosa and A. eriantha. Other elements such as ABRE, the CGTCA motif, and HSE might also control the promoter activities of GGP in kiwifruit. Altogether, these data suggest that GGP expression in the two kiwifruit species is regulated by light or abiotic stress via the relative cis-elements in their promoters. Furthermore, GGP has a critical role in modulating AsA concentrations in kiwifruit species under abiotic stresses.

  7. "Turn-Off-On" Fluorescence Switching of Ascorbic Acid-Reductive Silver Nanoclusters: a Sensor for Ascorbic Acid and Arginine in Biological Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; He, Yu; Ge, Yili; Song, Gongwu

    2017-01-01

    In this report, a novel one-step chemical reduction method was reported for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent glutathione-templated silver nanocluster (GSH-Ag NCs) with ascorbic acid as an environmental-friendly reducing agent. On the basis of an oxidoreduction-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, the prepared GSH-Ag NCs found to act as a cheap, non-toxic and highly sensitive "turn-off" fluorophore for ascorbic acid (AA). Furthermore, the fluorescence of the fluorophore/AA system could be recovered through addition of arginine (Arg), which made the system function as a highly selective "turn-on" sensor for arginine. Therefore, a "turn-off-on" switch sensor was proposed for detection of AA and Arg. Under optimized conditions, the probe gives a fluorescent response that is linear in the 2-300 μM concentration range of AA, with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The probe for Arg, in turn, has a linear range in the 10-180 μM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 0.5 μM. In addition, the developed method showed great accuracy when employed to detect AA and Arg in human urine and serum, which shows its great potential in biological molecular recognition applications.

  8. Developmental aspects and factors influencing the synthesis and status of ascorbic Acid in the pig.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Ching, S; Dabrowski, K

    2004-01-01

    Ascorbic acid synthesis in the pig occurs at mid-pregnancy, but activity of the enzyme l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GLO) declines thereafter during gestation and remains low when the pig nurses the sow. During late gestation the ascorbic acid concentration in the fetus increases, but serum and liver ascorbic acid concentration in the sow declines without affecting the dam's liver GLO activity. It is presumed that as gestation progresses an increased amount of maternal ascorbic acid is transferred to the fetus and to the mammary gland. Colostrum and milk are rich sources of the vitamin and supply the nursing pig with ascorbic acid. The available data suggest that high amounts of ascorbic acid appear to suppress liver GLO activity in the pig. Upon weaning, when exogenous vitamin C is generally not provided, liver GLO activity and serum ascorbic acid increases. During the initial periods postweaning, some reports have indicated growth benefits of supplemental vitamin C. Body tissues differ in their concentrations of ascorbic acid, but tissues of high metabolic need generally have greater concentrations. The corpus luteum in the female, the testis in the male, and the adrenal glands in all pigs contain greater concentrations of the vitamin. Knockout genes preventing ascorbic acid synthesis in pigs have demonstrated poor skeletal and collagen formation and poor antioxidant protection. Under periods of stress ascorbic acid declines in the adrenal, but the pig rapidly recovers to its resting state once the stressor agent is removed. Although there are periods when supplemental vitamin C has been shown to promote pig performance (e.g., during high environmental stress and early postweaning), supplemental vitamin C has not been shown to routinely enhance pig performance.

  9. Thermal stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in african cowpea leaves ( Vigna unguiculata ) of different maturities.

    PubMed

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis; Njoroge, Charles; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2011-03-09

    Cowpea, an African leafy vegetable ( Vigna unguiculata ), contains a high level of vitamin C. The leaves harvested at 4-9 weeks are highly prone to vitamin C losses during handling and processing. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), total vitamin C content (l-ascorbic acid, l-AA), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves harvested at different maturities (4, 6, and 8 weeks old). The results showed that AAO activity, total vitamin C content, and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves increased with increasing maturity (up to 8 weeks). Eight-week-old leaves were the best source of total vitamin C and showed a high ratio of l-AA/DHAA (4:1). Thermal inactivation of AAO followed first-order reaction kinetics. Heating at temperatures above 90 °C for short times resulted in a complete AAO inactivation, resulting in a protective effect of l-AA toward enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. Total vitamin C in young leaves (harvested at 4 and 6 weeks) was predominantly in the form of DHAA, and therefore temperature treatment at 30-90 °C for 10 min decreased the total vitamin C content, whereas total vitamin C in 8-week-old cowpea leaves was more than 80% in the form of l-AA, so that a high retention of the total vitamin C can be obtained even after heating and/or reheating (30-90 °C for 10 min) before consumption. The results indicated that the stability of total vitamin C in situ was strongly dependent on the plant maturity stage and the processing conditions applied.

  10. Influence of ascorbic acid on the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine and nitrofurans studied by SOS chromotest.

    PubMed

    Vojteková, H; Miertus, S

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenicity inhibition of MNNG*, NFAA* as well as of nitrovin by ascorbic acid was observed. The influence of ascorbic acid on these compounds was parallelly studied also by spectroscopy. Mutagenicity inhibition was characterized by SOS chromotest. Inhibition degree was evaluated quantitatively introducing the coefficient of inhibition. The influence of ascorbic acid was expressed most markedly in MNNG. It has been found that the decrease of mutagenicity should be mainly caused by acceleration of MNNG decomposition by ascorbic acid.

  11. Ascorbic acid levels of aqueous humor of dogs after experimental phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    De Biaggi, Christianni P; Barros, Paulo S M; Silva, Vanessa V; Brooks, Dennis E; Barros, Silvia B M

    2006-01-01

    Phacoemulsification has been successfully employed in humans and animals for lens extraction. This ultrasonic extracapsular surgical technique induces hydroxyl radical formation in the anterior chamber, which accumulates despite irrigation and aspiration. In this paper we determined the total antioxidant status of aqueous humor after phacoemulsification by measuring aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 11; weighing about 10 kg) with normal eyes as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy had phacoemulsification performed in one eye with the other eye used as a control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after surgery. Total aqueous humor antioxidant status was inferred from the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis (2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by anova followed by the paired t-test. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 48 to 27 min during the first 24 h with a gradual increase thereafter, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 7 days postoperatively. Reduced levels of ascorbic acid followed this reduction in antioxidant capacity (from 211 to 99 microm after 24 h), remaining lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Protein concentration in aqueous humor increased from 0.62 mg/mL to 30.8 mg/mL 24 h after surgery, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Paracentesis alone did not significantly alter the parameters measured. These results indicate that after phacoemulsification, the aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels and antioxidant defenses in aqueous humor are reduced, indirectly corroborating free radical

  12. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Brewer, Paul; Dickton, Darby; Pardini, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant

  13. Expression of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Shiou; Varner, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity and mRNA level were highest in the epidermis, and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, we have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall “loosening.” ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668145

  14. Tomato fruit ascorbic acid content is linked with monodehydroascorbate reductase activity and tolerance to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R; Page, D; Gouble, B; Garchery, C; Zamir, D; Causse, M

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a step towards the identification of factors regulating traits such as fruit ascorbic acid content. A previously identified QTL controlling variations in tomato fruit ascorbic acid has been fine mapped and reveals that the QTL has a polygenic and epistatic architecture. A monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) allele is a candidate for a proportion of the increase in fruit ascorbic acid content. The MDHAR enzyme is active in different stages of fruit ripening, shows increased activity in the introgression lines containing the wild-type (Solanum pennellii) allele, and responds to chilling injury in tomato along with the reduced/oxidized ascorbate ratio. Low temperature storage of different tomato introgression lines with all or part of the QTL for ascorbic acid and with or without the wild MDHAR allele shows that enzyme activity explains 84% of the variation in the reduced ascorbic acid levels of tomato fruit following storage at 4 degrees C, compared with 38% at harvest under non-stress conditions. A role is indicated for MDHAR in the maintenance of ascorbate levels in fruit under stress conditions. Furthermore, an increased fruit MDHAR activity and a lower oxidation level of the fruit ascorbate pool are correlated with decreased loss of firmness because of chilling injury.

  15. Ascorbic acid inhibits the squamous metaplasia that results from treatment of tracheal explants with asbestos or benzo[a]pyrene-coated asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holtz, G; Bresnick, E

    1988-01-01

    Hamster tracheal explants were maintained in culture in the presence or absence of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), crocidolite asbestos, or BP-coated crocidolite. Dose-dependent squamous metaplasia was observed in the treated samples. L-Ascorbic acid and DL-alpha-tocopherol were able to partially protect the tracheal explants from the metaplastic response induced by crocidolite. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced the extent of metaplasia observed in hamster tracheal explants that were exposed to BP-crocidolite.

  16. Synergistic chondroprotective effect of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and selenium as well as glucosamine and chondroitin on oxidant induced cell death and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-3--studies in cultured chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Graeser, Anne-Christi; Giller, Katri; Wiegand, Heike; Barella, Luca; Boesch Saadatmandi, Christine; Rimbach, Gerald

    2009-12-24

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defence accompanied by chronic inflammatory processes may impair joint health. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulate the expression of metalloproteinases which degrade the extracellular matrix. Little is known regarding the potential synergistic effects of natural compounds such as alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc), ascorbic acid (AA) and selenium (Se) on oxidant induced cell death. Furthermore studies regarding the metalloproteinase-3 inhibitory activity of glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the effect of alpha-toc (0.1-2.5 micromol/L), AA (10-50 micromol/L) and Se (1-50 nmol/L) on t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP, 100-500 micromol/L)-induced cell death in SW1353 chondrocytes. Furthermore we have determined the effect of GS and CS alone (100-500 micromol/L each) and in combination on MMP3 mRNA levels and MMP3 secretion in IL-1beta stimulated chondrocytes. A combination of alpha-toc, AA, and Se was more potent in counteracting t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity as compared to the single compounds. Similarly a combination of CS and GS was more effective in inhibiting MMP3 gene expression and secretion than the single components. The inhibition of MMP3 secretion due to GS plus CS was accompanied by a decrease in TNF-alpha production. Combining natural compounds such as alpha-toc, AA, and Se as well as GS and CS seems to be a promising strategy to combat oxidative stress and cytokine induced matrix degradation in chondrocytes.

  17. Bioavailability of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid as ascorbic acid in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-06-01

    2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA2G) is a stable glycoside, but its conversion to bioavailable ascorbic acid (AsA) in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify that AA2G is hydrolyzed by human intestinal maltase and AA2G by oral ingestion is physiologically utilized the same as AsA in human subjects. The hydrolyzing activities to AA2G by human or rat intestinal homogenates were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a human experiment eight healthy female subjects (23.5 +/- 0.5 y old, body mass index 20.1 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) ingested 3.84 g of AA2G (equivalent to 2 g of AsA) and 2 g of AsA. Blood was collected 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after ingestion. The concentrations of serum AsA were compared with those of rats administered 76.8 mg of AA2G (equivalent to 40 mg of AsA). AA2G was hydrolyzed by maltase using human intestinal homogenate the same as that of rat. When AA2G was orally administered to human subjects, the changed value of the serum concentration of AsA was 1.6 mg/100 mL from baseline at 2 h and then maintained until 4 h after administration. These concentrations were not significantly different from those after ingestion of AsA. In the case of rat, the AsA concentrations in serum were linearly increased to 1.7 mg/100 mL until 3 h after administration. AA2G is hydrolyzed by intestinal maltase and acts as AsA in humans. The present results will contribute to the development of functional food with health claims to supply AsA.

  18. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  19. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells stimulated with cyclic AMP and NGF by 6-acylated ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucosides (6-Acyl-AA-2G), novel lipophilic ascorbate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohua; Tai, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2003-03-01

    It has been shown that ascorbate (AsA) and its stable derivative, ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside (AA-2G), do not elicit neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. However, these ascorbates are synergistically enhanced by both dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt(2)cAMP)- and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in this model. In the present study, the effects of a series of novel lipophilic ascorbate derivatives, 6-acylated ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucosides (6-Acyl-AA-2G), on neurite outgrowth induced by Bt(2)cAMP and NGF were examined in PC12 cells. We found that all the tested acylated ascorbate derivatives enhanced neurite formation induced by both agents in a dose-dependent manner. Of the 6-Acyl-AA-2G derivatives, 6-octanoyl ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside (6-Octa-AA-2G) enhanced the Bt(2)cAMP-induced phosphorylated MAPK p44 and p42 expression. A alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine, completely abrogated the promotion of neurite outgrowth and MAPK expression by 6-Octa-AA-2G. Addition of 6-Octa-AA-2G (0.5 mM) to PC12 cells caused a rapid and significant increase in intracellular AsA content, which reached a maximum and was maintained from 12 to 24 h after the culture. These findings suggest that 6-Acyl-AA-2G is rapidly hydrolyzed to AsA within the cell and enhances neurite differentiation through the interaction with the inducer-activated MAPK pathway.

  20. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  1. Flow injection fluorometric determination of ascorbic acid using perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide.

    PubMed

    Maki, Tomoharu; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-09-30

    A simple and sensitive flow injection fluorometric method for the determination of ascorbic acid is described. Perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide (PBILN) is used as a fluorescent reagent, which permits the selective determination of ascorbic acid. The fluorescence of the perylenebisimide moiety in PBILN is quenched by the nitroxide moiety, which is linked to the perylenebisimide. When a stream of a solution of ascorbic acid is merged with a stream of PBILN, the ascorbic acid reacts with the nitroxide moiety of PBILN to form hydroxylamine, and the fluorescence properties of the perylenebisimide moiety are recovered. As a result, a peak-shaped fluorescence signal is produced, which can be observed by a fluorescence detector located downstream. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship between the concentration of ascorbic acid and peak height in the concentration range from 0.5 to 10 μmol L(-1) was found and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 0.28 μmol L(-1). The relative standard deviation for the determination of 4.0 μmol L(-1) ascorbic acid samples was 1.0% (n=5). The proposed method was applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in several soft drink beverages and the analytical results were in good agreement with those obtained using a conventional method.

  2. Effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin wrinkles and pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Mi; An, Hyo Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Chi Ho; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lim, Joo Hyuck; Choi, Joon-Hun; Song, Hyunnam; Moon, Sung Ho; Park, Young Jun; Chang, Shin-Jae; Choi, Sun Young

    2017-03-16

    Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial. Our results confirmed that the expression of type Ι collagen in dermal fibroblast cells treated with palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid (0.1-4 μg/mL) increased in a dose-dependent manner. In B16F1 cells, treatment with 20 μg/mL palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid reduced the melanin content by approximately 20% compared to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone treatment. In the clinical trial, application of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream led to an improvement in skin roughness and lightness in 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. Our data show that palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid is an effective anti-aging agent that reduces wrinkles and abnormal skin pigmentation.

  3. Oral intake and serum levels of ascorbic acid in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, S L; Lee, E J; Myint, C C; Ong, K T; Tay, M E; Yusuf, N; Ong, C N

    2001-01-01

    Oral intake of ascorbic acid is essential for optimum health in human beings. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have an increased need for ascorbic acid, because of increased loss through dialysate, reduced intake owing to nausea and loss of appetite, and increased oxidative stress. However, optimum intake is still controversial. We studied 50 clinically stable patients to determine the relationship between oral ascorbic acid intake and serum ascorbic acid (SAA) level. Total oral intake ranged from 28 mg daily to 412 mg daily. Only one patient had an oral intake of ascorbic acid below 60 mg per day. The SAA levels ranged from 1 mg/L to 36.17 mg/L. Although a strong correlation existed between intake and SAA (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.47), the variation in SAA at any given intake level was wide. Of the studied patients, 62% had an SAA < 8.7 mg/L, 40% had an SAA < 5.1 mg/L (below the level in a healthy population), and 12% had a level below 2 mg/L (scorbutic). None of the patients demonstrated clinical manifestations of scurvy. Our results show that, in CAPD patients, ascorbic acid deficiency can be reliably detected only with SAA measurements, and oral intake may influence SAA level. To maintain ascorbic acid in the normal range for healthy adults, daily oral intake needs to be increased above the U.S. recommended dietary allowance to 80-140 mg.

  4. Detection of in vivo genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds and suppression by ascorbic acid, teas and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Koh-ichi; Nakagawa, Shin-ya; Kimura, Masaaki; Shimada, Chihiro; Tsuda, Shuji; Kabasawa, Kazumi; Kawaguchi, Satomi; Sasaki, Yu F

    2003-08-05

    The genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosamines from secondary amines and sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) was evaluated in multiple organs of mice, using comet assay. Groups of four male mice were orally given dimethylamine, proline, and morpholine simultaneously with NaNO(2). The stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung, brain, and bone marrow were sampled 3 and 24 h after these compounds had been ingested. Although secondary amines and the NaNO(2) tested did not yield DNA damage in any of the organs tested, DNA damage was observed mainly in the liver following simultaneous oral ingestion of these compounds. The administration within a 60 min interval also yielded hepatic DNA damage. It is considered that DNA damage induced in mouse organs with the coexistence of amines and nitrite in the acidic stomach is due to endogenously formed nitrosamines. Ascorbic acid reduced the liver DNA damage induced by morpholine and NaNO(2). Reductions in hepatic genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosomorpholine by tea polyphenols, such as catechins and theaflavins, and fresh apple, grape, and orange juices were more effective than was by ascorbic acid. In contrast with the antimutagenicity of ascorbic acid in the liver, ascorbic acid yielded stomach DNA damage in the presence of NaNO(2) (in the presence and absence of morpholine). Even if ascorbic acid acts as an antimutagen in the liver, nitric oxide (NO) formed from the reduction of NaNO(2) by ascorbic acid damaged stomach DNA.

  5. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2004-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a priority pollutant in the USA and many other countries. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is environmentally favorable as the latter species is not toxic to most living organisms and also has a low mobility and bioavailability. Reduction of Cr(VI) by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a reductant was studied using potassium dichromate solution as the model pollutant. Effects of concentration of vitamin C, pH, temperature, irradiation and reaction time on the reduction of Cr(VI) were examined. Cr(VI) might be reduced by vitamin C not only in acidic conditions but also in weakly alkaline solutions. The reduction of Cr(VI) by vitamin C might occur not only under irradiation but also in the dark. Vitamin C is an important biological reductant in humans and animals, and not toxic. It is water-soluble and can easily permeate through various types of soils. The results indicate that vitamin C could be used in effective remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils and groundwater in a wide range of pH, with or without sunlight. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Use of an electrochemically etched platinum microelectrode for ascorbic acid mapping in oranges.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Thiago R L C; Lowinsohn, Denise; Bertotti, Mauro

    2006-04-19

    A positionable platinum microelectrode fabricated by electrochemical etching was used to monitor the concentration of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables. Studies carried out with ascorbate oxidase confirmed the suitability of the amperometric sensor to measure selectively the ascorbic acid content. The results obtained with the proposed method for ascorbic acid determination in orange juices compared well with those found by iodimetry with coulometrically generated iodine. The standard deviation calculated by measuring limiting current values in voltammograms was found to be 3% (n = 150). The sensor allowed the evaluation of the spatial distribution of ascorbic acid concentration in oranges by in-situ measurements. Ascorbic acid concentration maps show that in a perpendicular cut the concentration is higher near the peel to the center of the fruit. In a parallel cut, the concentration increases with the distance to the stem. A correlation between the ripening stage and the ascorbic acid concentration was also observed from electrochemical measurements, the content being higher in mature fruits.

  7. Indirect potentiometric titration of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparations using copper based mercury film electrode.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kamal Nazer, Meeran Mohideen; Hameed, Abdul Rahman Shahul; Riyazuddin, Patel

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid potentiometric method for the estimation of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. The method is based on treating ascorbic acid with iodine and titration of the iodide produced equivalent to ascorbic acid with silver nitrate using Copper Based Mercury Film Electrode (CBMFE) as an indicator electrode. Interference study was carried to check possible interference of usual excipients and other vitamins. The precision and accuracy of the method was assessed by the application of lack-of-fit test and other statistical methods. The results of the proposed method and British Pharmacopoeia method were compared using F and t-statistical tests of significance.

  8. Optical properties of chitosan in aqueous solution of L- and D-ascorbic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinkina, Olga N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.; Kazmicheva, Olga F.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of aqueous chitosan solutions in L- and D-ascorbic acids were studied by optical rotatory dispersion and spectrophotometry. The specific optical rotation [α] of all chitosan solutions tested was positive, in contrast to aqueous solutions of the ascorbic acid enantiomers, which exhibit an inverse relationship of [α] values. Significant differences in the absolute values of [α] of the chitosan solutions at polymer-acid ratios exceeding the equimolar one were found.

  9. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  10. Formation of furan and methylfuran from ascorbic acid in model systems and food.

    PubMed

    Limacher, A; Kerler, J; Conde-Petit, B; Blank, I

    2007-01-01

    Previous model studies have suggested ascorbic acid as one of the major sources of furan, a possibly hazardous compound found in thermally processed foods (e.g. canned products, jars). The study showed that about 2 mmol mol(-1) furan was obtained when dry-heating ascorbic acid, while much lower amounts were formed upon pressure cooking, i.e. 58 micromol mol(-1) at pH 4 and 3.7 micromol mol(-1) at pH 7. Model reactions also generated 2-methylfuran (MF). However, the MF levels were generally very low with the exception of the binary mixture ascorbic acid/phenylalanine (1 mmol mol(-1)). Studies with 13C-labelled ascorbic acid indicated that furan comprises an intact C4 unit, mainly C-3 to C-6, generated by splitting off two C1 units, i.e. CO2 and formic acid. Possible intermediates are 2-deoxyaldoteroses, 2-furoic acid and 2-furaldehyde, which are known as ascorbic acid degradation products. The mechanism of furan formation from ascorbic acid was validated based on the labelling pattern of furan and the identification of 13CO2 and H13COOH. Furan formation is significantly slowed down in binary mixtures, e.g. the presence of erythrose led to 80% less furan under roasting conditions. This is most likely due to competing reactions in complex systems, thus disfavouring furan formation. The mitigation effect is because furan, contrary to MF, is formed without recombination of ascorbic acid fragments. Therefore, furan levels are definitely much lower in foods than expected from trials with pure ascorbic acid. Consequently, conclusions should be drawn with much caution from model reactions, avoiding extrapolation from oversimplified model systems to food products.

  11. Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in un-pasteurized Iranian lemon juice during regular storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Niakousari, M

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life stability of un-pasteurized lemon juice filled in clear or dark green glass bottles. Presence of light, time and temperature affect the ascorbic acid retention in citrus juices. Bottles were stored at room temperature (27 +/- 3 degrees C) and in the refrigerator (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and pH value were measured every three weeks and analysis was carried out on ascorbic acid content by means of titration method in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The study was carried out for 12 weeks after which slight changes in color, taste and apparent texture in some samples were observed and ascorbic acid content reduced by 50%. Soluble solids content, pH value and total acidity were 5.5 degrees Brix, 2.73 and 5 g/100 mL, respectively which appeared not to be significantly influenced by storage time or conditions. Ascorbic acid content initially at 38.50 mg/100 mL was sharply reduced to about 22 mg/100 mL within the first three weeks of storage. The final ascorbic acid content of all samples was about 15 mg/100 mL. The deteriorative reaction of ascorbic acid in the juice at all conditions followed a first-order kinetic model with activation energy of 137 cal mol(-1).

  12. Identification and thermal degradation kinetics of chlorophyll pigments and ascorbic acid from ditax nectar (Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel).

    PubMed

    Diop Ndiaye, Nafissatou; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Cisse, Mady; Dornier, Manuel

    2011-11-23

    Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel (ditax) is a forest tree found in Senegal the fruits of which are characterized by an attractive green flesh with a high amount in ascorbic acid. It is generally consumed as a nectar in Senegal. In this study, the main pigments of ditax pulp were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Pheophytin a (128 mg/kg), which represents 58% of the total pigments, followed by hydroxypheophytin a' (33 mg/kg), chlorophyll b (24 mg/kg), and chlorophyll a (20 mg/kg) was the major pigment of ditax pulp. Lutein and β-carotene were present in lower amounts (4.6 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively). The thermal degradation kinetics of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a', and ascorbic acid were determined at temperatures ranging from 60 to 95 °C in ditax nectar. Pheophytin a was the most heat sensitive. Thermal processing induced the formation of degradation products such as pyropheophytin a and pyropheophytin b. The kinetics parameters have been calculated according to the models of Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. Following the Arrhenius relation, activation energies of pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a', and ascorbic acid were, respectively, 79, 74, and 46 kJ mol(-1). Losses calculated during isothermal treatments were close to experimental losses in pheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a', and ascorbic acid. The Eyring model can then be used to predict chlorophyll pigments and vitamin C losses during pasteurization of the nectar (<10%).

  13. Influence of ascorbic acid on BUN, creatinine, resistive index in canine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Myung-jin; Park, Chang-sik

    2006-01-01

    Renal ischemia as a course of renal transplantation is a common cause of renal dysfunction as renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and resistive index (RI) for dog models with renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Renal ischemia was induced on 6 Beagle dogs. The left kidney was exposed to normothermic ischemia for a short period at 30 min followed by reperfusion. On the blood Cr level and RI, there was no significant difference comparing both groups. 14 days after I/R injury a significant reduction on the blood BUN level was observed in the vehicle group (34.06 mg/dl) compared to that of ischemia induced treated group (10.3mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid for renal ischemic-reperfusion injury had influence on blood BUN level, but it was not revealed the influence on blood Cr and RI. PMID:16434855

  14. Influence of ascorbic acid on BUN, creatinine, resistive index in canine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Myung-jin; Park, Chang-sik; Kim, Myung-cheol

    2006-03-01

    Renal ischemia as a course of renal transplantation is a common cause of renal dysfunction as renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and resistive index (RI) for dog models with renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Renal ischemia was induced on 6 Beagle dogs. The left kidney was exposed to normothermic ischemia for a short period at 30 min followed by reperfusion. On the blood Cr level and RI, there was no significant difference comparing both groups. 14 days after I/R injury a significant reduction on the blood BUN level was observed in the vehicle group (34.06 mg/dl) compared to that of ischemia induced treated group (10.3 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid for renal ischemic-reperfusion injury had influence on blood BUN level, but it was not revealed the influence on blood Cr and RI.

  15. THE PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PURIFIED ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Wendell H.; Lewis, Stanley; Dawson, Charles R.

    1944-01-01

    1. A method is described for the preparation of a highly purified ascorbic acid oxidase containing 0.24 per cent copper. 2. Using comparable activity measurements, this oxidase is about one and a half times as active on a dry weight basis as the hitherto most highly purified preparation described by Lovett-Janison and Nelson. The latter contained 0.15 per cent copper. 3. The oxidase activity is proportional to the copper content and the proportionality factor is the same as that reported by Lovett-Janison and Nelson. 4. When dialyzed free of salt, the blue concentrated oxidase solutions precipitate a dark green-blue protein which carries the activity. This may be prevented by keeping the concentrated solutions about 0.1 M in Na2HPO4. 5. When highly diluted for activity measurements the oxidase rapidly loses activity (irreversibly) previous to the measurement, unless the dilution is made with a dilute inert protein (gelatin) solution. Therefore activity values obtained using such gelatin-stabilized dilute solutions of the oxidase run considerably higher than values obtained by the Lovett-Janison and Nelson technique. 6. The effect of pH and substrate concentration on the activity of the purified oxidase in the presence and absence of inert protein was studied. PMID:19873382

  16. Ascorbic acid against reperfusion injury in human renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Norio, Karri; Wikström, Mårten; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Lindgren, Leena

    2003-08-01

    The cadaveric renal graft is exposed to ischaemic injury during preservation and to oxidative damage during reperfusion. Both these mechanisms are known to cause cell damage, which may impair graft function. Reperfusion injury (RPI) is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent physiological extracellular scavenger of ROS. We perfused 31 renal grafts immediately before implantation with a solution of Euro-Collins containing 0.5 mg/ml of AA to diminish RPI. From every donor, the contralateral kidney served as a control. The control grafts were perfused with the same perfusion as those of the AA group, only without the AA substitution. We assessed the effect of AA by recording serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, initial graft function and early rejections. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 32% in the AA group, and 29% in the control group. Other parameters were also similar in both groups, except for the length of DGF, which showed a trend towards a shorter duration in the AA group. The pre-operative systemic AA concentration was significantly ( P=0.01) lower in the haemodialysis patients than in those on peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, this clinical study could not demonstrate significant benefits of AA in renal transplantation.

  17. Antidepressant-like effects of ascorbic acid and ketamine involve modulation of GABAA and GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Priscila B; Neis, Vivian B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Moretti, Morgana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that dysregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neurotransmission is involved in the etiology of major depressive disorder and in the action of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine. Considering that recent evidence has suggested that ascorbic acid may exert an antidepressant-like effect through mechanisms similar to ketamine, this study evaluated the involvement of GABAA and GABAB receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid, comparing the results with those obtained with ketamine. To investigate the involvement of GABAA in the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid and ketamine in the tail suspension test (TST), mice were treated with a sub-effective dose of ascorbic acid (0.1mg/kg, po), ketamine (0.1mg/kg, ip) or vehicle and 30minutes later, a sub-effective dose of muscimol (0.1mg/kg, ip, GABAA receptor agonist) or vehicle was administered. In another set of experiments, mice were treated with ascorbic acid (1mg/kg, po, active dose in the TST) or vehicle and 30minutes later, baclofen (1mg/kg, ip, GABAB receptor agonist) was administered. A similar experimental protocol was performed with ketamine (1mg/kg, ip). The administration of muscimol combined with ascorbic acid or ketamine produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Moreover, the antidepressant-like effects of ascorbic acid and ketamine were abolished by baclofen. There was no alteration in spontaneous locomotion in any experimental group. Results indicate that the anti-immobility effect of ascorbic acid and ketamine in TST may involve an activation of GABAA receptors and a possible inhibition of GABAB receptors. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  19. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  20. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias-Pinto, Adriana; Acuña, Aníbal Ignacio; Beltrán, Felipe Andrés; Torres-Díaz, Leandro; Castro, Maite Aintzane

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26633354

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid on sperm motility, viability, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity in teratozoospermic samples

    PubMed Central

    Fanaei, Hamed; Khayat, Samira; Halvaei, Iman; Ramezani, Vahid; Azizi, Yaser; Kasaeian, Amir; Mardaneh, Jalal; Parvizi, Mohammad Reza; Akrami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress in teratozoospermic semen samples caused poor assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcomes. Among antioxidants, ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring free radical scavenger and as such its presence assists various other mechanisms in decreasing numerous disruptive free radical processes. Objective: The main goal of this study was to evaluate potential protective effects of ascorbic acid supplementation during in vitro culture of teratozoospermic specimens. Materials and Methods: Teratozoospermic semen samples that collected from 15 volunteers were processed, centrifuged and incubated at 37oC until sperm swimmed-up. Supernatant was divided into four groups and incubated at 37oC for one hour under different experimental conditions: Control, 10 µm A23187, 600µm ascorbic acid and 10 µm A23187+600 µm ascorbic acid. After incubation sperm motility, viability, acrosome reaction, DNA damage and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated. Results: Our results indicated that after one hour incubation, ascorbic acid significantly reduced malondialdehyde level in ascorbic acid group (1.4±0.11 nmol/ml) compared to control group (1.58±0.13 nmol/ml) (p<0.001). At the end of incubation, progressive motility and viability in ascorbic acid group (64.5±8.8% and 80.3±6.4%, respectively) were significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) higher than the control group (54.5±6.8% and 70.9±7.3%, respectively). A23187 significantly (p<0.0001) increased acrosome reaction in A23187 group (37.3±5.6%) compared to control group (8.5±3.2%) and this effect of A23187 attenuated by ascorbic acid in ascorbic acid+A23187 group (17.2±4.4%). DNA fragmentation in ascorbic acid group (20±4.1%) was significantly (p<0.001) lower than controls (28.9±4.6%). Conclusion: In vitro ascorbic acid supplementation during teratozoospermic semen processing for ART could protect teratozoospermic specimens against oxidative stress, and it could improve ART outcome. PMID

  2. Mucolysis by ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide on compact mucin secreted in pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2012-05-15

    This study examines the potential efficacy of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in the dissolution of mucinous ascites from pseudomyxoma peritonei. The mucolytic action of both ascorbic acid (0%-0.2%) and hydrogen peroxide (0%-3%) are investigated as single agent on mucin samples derived from patient. This was followed by examining the joint action of ascorbic acid (0.2%) and hydrogen peroxide (0%-3.0%) on mucin. To lower the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the mixture, the action of equal concentration of ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide ranging from 0%-0.3% are then examined. Finally, the pH (4.5-7.0) effect on mucolytic properties of equal concentration (0.2%) of ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide was studied. At the concentrations examined (0%-0.2%), ascorbic acid showed highest mucolytic activity at 0.2%. Similarly, hydrogen peroxide as a single agent (0%-3.0%) showed highest mucolytic activity at 3.0%. The mucolytic action of hydrogen peroxide (0%-3.0%) containing 0.2% ascorbic acid demonstrated synergistic effects. At equal concentration of the two agents, ranging from 0%-0.5%, maximal mucolytic action was observed at 0.2%. The mucolytic property of the final mixture (0.2% ascorbic acid/0.2% hydrogen peroxide) was pH-dependent and showed maximal degradation at pH 4.5 and declined as it reached towards neutral pH. The current study introduces the potential applicability of a formulation that holds promise as a mucolytic agent in patients with mucinous ascites from pseudomyxoma peritonei. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  4. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Water Stress in Young Peach Trees and Improves Their Performance after Rewatering

    PubMed Central

    Penella, Consuelo; Calatayud, Ángeles; Melgar, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars (‘Scarletprince’ and ‘CaroTiger’). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity. Upon rewatering, CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees sprayed with ascorbic acid (one or two applications) were similar to those of well-irrigated trees, but water-stressed trees that had not received ascorbic acid did not recover photosynthetical functions. Also, water status in sprayed water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees was improved to values similar to control trees. On the other hand, water-stressed ‘CaroTiger’ trees needed two applications of ascorbic acid to reach values of CO2 assimilation similar to control trees but these applications did not improve their water status. In general terms, different response mechanisms to cope with water stress in presence of ascorbic acid were found in each cultivar, with ‘Scarletprince’ trees preferentially using proline as compatible solute and ‘CaroTiger’ trees relying on stomatal regulation. The application of ascorbic acid reduced cell membrane damage and increased catalase activity in water-stressed trees of both cultivars. These results suggest that foliar applications of ascorbic acid could be used as a management practice for improving water stress tolerance of young trees under suboptimal water regimes.

  5. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Histochemical observation and cellular distribution of ascorbic acid in persimmon leaves.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, K; Hara, T; Fujita, M; Minari, Y; Tadokoro, T; Innami, S; Maekawa, A

    1998-02-01

    This study was carried out to resolve the discrepancy of data for the proportion of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in persimmon leaves at the final stage of the season and to clarify their cellular distributions using histochemical and biochemical techniques. Fresh persimmon leaves were collected and used on July 31, September 5 and October 7, 1996. Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in subcellular fractions were determined by the HPLC method that was found to be the most reliable for separation. The percent of dehydroascorbic acid in the total leaves was found to be almost constant (between 32 and 37%) in all preparations tested. In all preparations, more than 90% of the ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was found in the soluble fraction. The histochemical detection of ascorbic acid and an electron micrograph of persimmon leaf cells showed that the reactive color, after the reduction of silver nitrate under acidic conditions, in the leaves of all three preparations was mainly found on the face side of columned-type palisade parenchyma cells where chloroplasts were not rich and large vacuoles were seen. On the inner side of the palisade parenchyma cells where chloroplasts were the richest, only weak color development was observed. This study demonstrates that the percent of dehydroascorbic acid in persimmon leaves did not exceed 40% at least until October 7. It also shows that in persimmon leaf cells, ascorbic acid is mainly localized in the cytosol of palisade parenchyma tissue cells where large vacuoles are seen.

  7. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Jun, Sung Chul; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N=26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the Control group. The BMI of the Chito-vita group decreased significantly compared to the Chito group (Chito: -1.0 kg/m2 vs. Chito-vita: -1.6 kg/m2, p<0.05). The results showed that the chitosan enhanced reduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.

  8. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of L-ascorbic acid on physicochemical characteristics of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Radi, Mohsen; Farahnaky, Asgar; Tongdang, Tawee

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of l-ascorbic acid, as a permitted additive in bakery products, on characteristics of wheat starch. Suspensions of wheat starch (30%, w/w) in water containing 140 mg/kg ascorbic acid before and after gelatinization were prepared and studied using different techniques. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that some spots appeared on the surface of the starch granules as a result of the addition of ascorbic acid. However, no changes in the starch crystalline pattern and its degree of crystallinity were observed by X-ray diffraction technique. For ungelatinized samples, no difference in the pasting properties of the samples was determined by the rapid visco analyzer, whereas for the gelatinized samples, peak and final viscosities decreased for the samples contained ascorbic acid. Determination of the intrinsic viscosities of the samples showed that addition of ascorbic acid to the gelatinized samples reduced the intrinsic viscosity. In general, it was found that ascorbic acid had some degradation effects on wheat starch molecules particularly after gelatinization.

  10. Electrochemical evaluation of the interaction between ascorbic acid and the cardiotonic drug RS-82856.

    PubMed

    Visor, G C; Lin, L H; Kenley, R A; Venuti, M C; Alvarez, R

    1987-12-01

    The solution phase interaction between ascorbic acid and the cardiotonic drug N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-4(7-oxy 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroimidazol[2,1-b] quinazolin-2-one butyramide (RS-82856) was evaluated using a differential pulse voltammetric technique. Shifts in the peak potential of ascorbic acid to higher energy as well as decreases in peak current values were monitored as a function of RS-82856 concentration. The electrochemical data were obtained under conditions where both the drug and the ascorbic acid concentrations exhibited linear relationships with peak current values. The methodology was extended to the study of two other structurally related phosphodiesterase inhibitors cilostamide and anagrelide. The complexation of these drugs with ascorbic acid were also characterized by decreases in the diffusion currents of ascorbic acid as well as by anodic shifts in the peak potential. The significance of these observations may be related to the inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity by both the drugs tested and the ascorbic acid.

  11. A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) during cooking.

    PubMed

    Nisha, P; Singhal, Rekha S; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) as well as in pure ascorbic acid solutions at initial concentrations present in amla over a temperature range of 50-120 degrees C (steady-state temperature) has been studied. The ascorbic acid degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics where the rate constant increased with an increase in temperature. The temperature dependence of degradation was adequately modeled by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energies were found to be 4.09 kcal/mole for amla and 4.49 kcal/mole for pure vitamin solution. The degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid was also evaluated in normal open pan cooking, pressure-cooking and a newly developed and patented fuel-efficient EcoCooker (unsteady state heating process). A mathematical model was developed using the steady-state kinetic parameters obtained to predict the losses of ascorbic acid from the time-temperature data of the unsteady state heating processing method. The results obtained indicate the ascorbic acid degradation is of a similar order of magnitude in all the methods of cooking.

  12. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  13. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

    2014-06-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure.

  14. The effect of ascorbic acid on the nature and production of collagen and elastin by rat smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    de Clerck, Y A; Jones, P A

    1980-01-01

    1. The effects of various concentrations of ascorbic acid on the quality and quantity of the insoluble extracellular matrices produced by two strains of cultured rat smooth-muscle cells were studied. 2. Ascorbic acid was necessary for the appearance of insoluble collagen in the extracellular matrix. 3. Secretion of soluble collagen continued in the absence of ascorbic acid, but this soluble collagen was markedly underhydroxylated. 4. The amount of insoluble collagen present in the matrix was directly related to the ascorbic acid concentration. 5. The insoluble collagen that appeared in the matrix under conditions where ascorbic acid was limiting was no more than 7% underhydroxylated. 6. In contrast, the amount of insoluble elastin produced was inversely proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. 7. The elastin produced in the absence of ascorbic acid had the expected amino acid composition, but hydroxyproline was absent. 8. The hydroxyproline content of elastin was also directly dependent on the ascorbic acid concentration. 9. Ascorbic acid had variable effects on the quantity of glycoprotein(s) present in the matrix. 10. The appearance of insoluble collagen in the extracellular matrices produced by cultured human fibroblasts and calf endothelial cells was also completely dependent on the presence of ascorbic acid. PMID:7370010

  15. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  17. Effects of pharmacological ascorbate on hemoglobin-induced cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Ding, Yun; Tian, Rong; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Jianfa; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    The high heme content in red meat is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Pharmacologic concentrations of ascorbate can specifically kill a wide range of cancer cells. In this study, the impact of ascorbate at pharmacologic concentrations on hemoglobin (Hb)-modulated human hepatoma HepG2 cell survival was investigated. It was found that HepG2 cells were proliferated by Hb (5-25μM), but killed by high pharmacologic concentrations of ascorbate (2-10mM). Although ascorbate at the low pharmacologic concentration (0.5mM) alone exhibited insignificant effect on cell viability, it effectively inhibited Hb (10μM)-induced cancer cell proliferation. The mechanism of this cytotoxicity was based on the production of extracellular H2O2 and involved transition iron. The influence of ascorbate on Hb-dependent redox reactions (i.e. the oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate) was further investigated to illustrate the reaction mechanism of ascorbate toxicity, where H2O2 was generated in the reaction of ascorbate with Hb. Furthermore, circular dichroism demonstrated no significant change in the secondary structure of Hb after ascorbate addition and molecular docking revealed binding modes of ascorbate with Hb. These results demonstrated that ascorbate could possess anti-cancer activity through interfering in Hb-dependent redox reactions.

  18. Ascorbic acid metabolism in protection against free radicals: A radiation model

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C. )

    1990-06-15

    The role of ascorbic acid in scavenging free radicals was evaluated in a model of mammalian colonic epithelium homogenized in physiologic buffer and exposed to ionizing radiation. Ascorbic acid interacts with hydroxyl free radicals, resulting in production of the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Colonic mucosa contains a soluble factor that is heat sensitive, PCA precipitable and is contained within 1,000 MW dialysis tubing; it uses GSH and cysteine to reduce AFR. The factor from rat colon is fractionated between 55 and 70% saturation with solid (NH4)2SO4; a 3-4 fold increase in enzyme activity was achieved. We suggest that the factor is a cytosolic enzyme appropriately referred to as soluble AFR-reductase. This information provides insight into the mechanism by which ascorbic acid protects against damage by hydroxyl free radicals.

  19. Exploring isoxsuprine hydrochloride binding with human serum albumin in the presence of folic acid and ascorbic acid using multispectroscopic and molecular modeling methods.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Fereshteh; Shahraki, Somaye; Shahriyar, Amin; Majd, Mostafa Heidari

    2017-05-01

    Isoxsuprine hydrochloride (vasodilator drug), folic acid and ascorbic acid are medicines which can be utilized alone or simultaneously by pregnant women. In the present work the competitive binding of isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISO) with human serum albumin (HSA) in the absence and presence of folic acid (FOL) and ascorbic acid (AS) was investigated using different spectroscopic probes and molecular docking studies. The results of fluorescence suggested that isoxsuprine alone or in the presence of ascorbic acid can bind to HSA and quench the fluorescence of HSA with static mechanism but For HSA-folic acid-isoxsuprine system, dynamic type of quenching mechanisms is involved. The values of binding constants (KHSA-ISO~1.2×10(3)M(-1), KHSA-AS-ISO~2.1×10(3)M(-1)and KHSA-FOL-ISO~0.7×10(3)M(-1)) suggested that affinity of HSA to isoxsuprine increased in the presence of ascorbic acid while the presence of folic acid reduced the affinity of protein to isoxsuprine. The results of FT-IR and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the binding of isoxsuprine to HSA in the absence and the presence of folic acid and ascorbic acid may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of protein. Not only do these types of spectroscopy techniques provide all the information about the systems, molecular docking, also emphasizes the results and is employed for the identification of the active site residues, bioactive conformer of Isoxsuprine and their critical interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hemato-biochemical responses to packing in donkeys administered ascorbic acid during the harmattan season.

    PubMed

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (P<0.05) at the end of packing. In the experimental donkeys, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-packing values of PCV, erythrocyte count and Hb. In the control donkeys, the neutrophil and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased significantly (P<0.05) post packing, but in the experimental donkeys, the pre- and post-packing values were not significantly different. The eosinophil count increased significantly (P<0.05) in experimental and control donkeys post packing. In conclusion, packing exerted significant adverse effects on the hematological parameters ameliorated by AA administration. AA may modulate neutrophilia and induce a considerable alteration of erythroid markers in donkeys subjected to packing during the harmattan season.

  1. Hemato-biochemical responses to packing in donkeys administered ascorbic acid during the harmattan season

    PubMed Central

    OLAIFA, Folashade; AYO, Joseph Olusegun; AMBALI, Suleiman Folorunsho; REKWOT, Peter Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (P<0.05) at the end of packing. In the experimental donkeys, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-packing values of PCV, erythrocyte count and Hb. In the control donkeys, the neutrophil and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased significantly (P<0.05) post packing, but in the experimental donkeys, the pre- and post-packing values were not significantly different. The eosinophil count increased significantly (P<0.05) in experimental and control donkeys post packing. In conclusion, packing exerted significant adverse effects on the hematological parameters ameliorated by AA administration. AA may modulate neutrophilia and induce a considerable alteration of erythroid markers in donkeys subjected to packing during the harmattan season. PMID:23154452

  2. [Effects of ascorbic acid on the free radical formations of isoniazid and its metabolites].

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Akazawa, M; Tsuchiya, K; Sakurai, H; Kiwada, H; Goromaru, T

    1991-10-01

    By the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and of spin-trapping technique, the effects of ascorbic acid on the formation of the free radical intermediates due to isoniazid (INAH) and its metabolites were investigated with a microsomal system. When alpha-(4-pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert butylnitrone (4-POBN) was used as a spin trapping agent, the ESR signal due to hydrazine (Hy) was formed to be most intensive among others. Therefore, it was presumed that Hy is a potent intermediate to cause an INAH-induced hepatic injury. In the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), the free radical formation of Hy, INAH and acetyl hydrazine was significantly inhibited, suggesting that AA may affect the INAH-hepatitis. By the addition of inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 like metyrapone and CO, the generation of the radical from Hy decreased, confirming that the radical is formed by the cytochrome P-450 dependent microsome systems. The 4-POBN-trapped radical species generated from Hy was presumed to be the hydrazyl radical by the results of mass spectrometry.

  3. Biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid and conversion of carbons 1 and 2 of L-ascorbic acid to oxalic acid occurs within individual calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts.

    PubMed

    Kostman, T A; Tarlyn, N M; Loewus, F A; Franceschi, V R

    2001-02-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA) and its metabolic precursors give rise to oxalic acid (OxA) found in calcium oxalate crystals in specialized crystal idioblast cells in plants; however, it is not known if AsA and OxA are synthesized within the crystal idioblast cell or transported in from surrounding mesophyll cells. Isolated developing crystal idioblasts from Pistia stratiotes were used to study the pathway of OxA biosynthesis and to determine if idioblasts contain the entire path and are essentially independent in OxA synthesis. Idioblasts were supplied with various (14)C-labeled compounds and examined by micro-autoradiography for incorporation of (14)C into calcium oxalate crystals. [(14)C]OxA gave heavy labeling of crystals, indicating the isolated idioblasts are functional in crystal formation. Incubation with [1-(14)C]AsA also gave heavy labeling of crystals, whereas [6-(14)C]AsA gave no labeling. Labeled precursors of AsA (L-[1-(14)C]galactose; D-[1-(14)C]mannose) also resulted in crystal labeling, as did the ascorbic acid analog, D-[1-(14)C]erythorbic acid. Intensity of labeling of isolated idioblasts followed the pattern OxA > AsA (erythorbic acid) > L-galactose > D-mannose. Our results demonstrate that P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts synthesize the OxA used for crystal formation, the OxA is derived from the number 1 and 2 carbons of AsA, and the proposed pathway of ascorbic acid synthesis via D-mannose and L-galactose is operational in individual P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts. These results are discussed with respect to fine control of calcium oxalate precipitation and the concept of crystal idioblasts as independent physiological compartments.

  4. Ascorbic acid derivatives as a new class of antiproliferative molecules.

    PubMed

    Bordignon, Benoit; Chiron, Julien; Fontés, Michel

    2013-09-28

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has long been described as an antiproliferative agent. However, the molecule has to be used at a very high concentrations, which necessitates i.v. injection, and the tight regulation of in-blood and in-cell AA concentrations making it impossible to hold very high concentrations for any substantial length of time. Here we report evidence that AA derivates are antiproliferative and cytotoxic molecules at an IC50 lower than AA itself. Among these new molecules, we selected K873 that has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on different human tumor cells at tenth micromolar concentration. In a further step, we demonstrated that K873 selectively to kills only cancer cells without being toxic for normal non-dividing (or poorly dividing) cells. Finally, we tested the effect of treatment with K873 (5-10 mg/kg/d by i.p. route) on tumor progression in xenografted immunodeficient mice (BALB/c Nude). Our data suggest that K873 administration strongly inhibits tumor progression. In a previous study using microarrays, we demonstrated that AA decreases the expression of two genes families involved in cell cycle progression, i.e. initiation factor of translation and tRNA synthetases. Here we show that K873 treatment also decreases the expression of four of these genes in xenografted tumors, in proportions similar to that previously observed with AA. Taken together, our data suggest that AA and K873 share similar action. Our findings suggest that AA derivatives could be a promising new class of anti-cancer drugs, either alone or in combination with other molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  6. Ascorbic acid in cancer chemoprevention: translational perspectives and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Hussain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, S M

    2012-12-01

    Chemoprevention, which is referred to as the use of nontoxic natural or synthetic chemicals to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis has since decades attracted a considerable interest in plant-derived chemical constituents often termed as "phytochemicals" or sometimes as "Nutraceuticals" in case they are derived from dietary sources. A comprehensive search of the literature show that such an interest in natural product pharmacology has surged in the last 25 years and particularly risen at exponential rates since the last one decade. Phytochemicals such as curcumin (from spice turmeric), resveratrol (from red wine) and genistein (from soy) share the major efforts as indicated by overwhelming publications, despite skepticism concerning their bioavailability. Ascorbic acid (AA), the popular anti-oxidant in fruits and vegetables, has even a longer historical perspective than these dietary agents as for more than 35 years; there had been lingering questions about the efficacy of AA in cancer therapy. The footprints of AA from "scurvy" to "cancer" though complex seems to carry potential provided the puzzle could be set right. The use of AA in cancer treatment has been debated extensively as evident from the literature but surprisingly the complementing early phase bench work on the mechanistic studies for anticancer action was rather retarded. Proposed mechanisms of action for AA in the prevention and treatment of cancer includes antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties, stimulation of the immune system, altering carcinogen metabolism, enhancement of collagen synthesis necessary for tumor encapsulation and interference with cancer cell signaling. The observation that the intravenous administration of AA enhances its bioavailability to the extent of deriving pharmacological benefits against cancer has in recent years partially supported the clinical plausibility (efficacy) of AA towards realizing its translational advantage. Here, we provide an overview of AA with

  7. Dynamic aspects of ascorbic acid metabolism in the circulation: analysis by ascorbate oxidase with a prolonged in vivo half-life.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Emiko; Kashiba, Misato; Jikumaru, Mika; Kuratsune, Daisuke; Orita, Kumi; Yamate, Yurika; Hara, Kenjiro; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Sato, Eisuke F; Inoue, Masayasu

    2009-06-26

    Because AA (L-ascorbic acid) scavenges various types of free radicals to form MDAA (monodehydroascorbic acid) and DAA (dehydroascorbic acid), its regeneration from the oxidized metabolites is critically important for humans and other animals that lack the ability to synthesize this antioxidant. To study the dynamic aspects of AA metabolism in the circulation, a long acting AOase (ascorbate oxidase) derivative was synthesized by covalently linking PEG [poly(ethylene glycol)] to the enzyme. Fairly low concentrations of the modified enzyme (PEG-AOase) rapidly decreased AA levels in isolated fresh plasma and blood samples with a concomitant increase in their levels of MDAA and DAA. In contrast, relatively high doses of PEG-AOase were required to decrease the circulating plasma AA levels of both normal rats and ODS (osteogenic disorder Shionogi) rats that lack the ability to synthesize AA. Administration of 50 units of PEG-AOase/kg of body weight rapidly decreased AA levels in plasma and the kidney without affecting the levels in other tissues, such as the liver, brain, lung, adrenal grand and skeletal muscles. PEG-AOase slightly, but significantly, decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver without affecting those in other tissues. Suppression of hepatic synthesis of GSH by administration of BSO [L-buthionin-(S,R)-sulfoximine] enhanced the PEG-AOase-induced decrease in plasma AA levels. These and other results suggest that the circulating AA is reductively regenerated from MDAA extremely rapidly and that hepatic GSH plays important roles in the regeneration of this antioxidant.

  8. Fat transforms ascorbic acid from inhibiting to promoting acid‐catalysed N‐nitrosation

    PubMed Central

    Combet, E; Paterson, S; Iijima, K; Winter, J; Mullen, W; Crozier, A; Preston, T; McColl, K E L

    2007-01-01

    Background The major potential site of acid nitrosation is the proximal stomach, an anatomical site prone to a rising incidence of metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Nitrite, a pre‐carcinogen present in saliva, can be converted to nitrosating species and N‐nitroso compounds by acidification at low gastric pH in the presence of thiocyanate. Aims To assess the effect of lipid and ascorbic acid on the nitrosative chemistry under conditions simulating the human proximal stomach. Methods The nitrosative chemistry was modelled in vitro by measuring the nitrosation of four secondary amines under conditions simulating the proximal stomach. The N‐nitrosamines formed were measured by gas chromatography–ion‐trap tandem mass spectrometry, while nitric oxide and oxygen levels were measured amperometrically. Results In absence of lipid, nitrosative stress was inhibited by ascorbic acid through conversion of nitrosating species to nitric oxide. Addition of ascorbic acid reduced the amount of N‐nitrosodimethylamine formed by fivefold, N‐nitrosomorpholine by >1000‐fold, and totally prevented the formation of N‐nitrosodiethylamine and N‐nitrosopiperidine. In contrast, when 10% lipid was present, ascorbic acid increased the amount of N‐nitrosodimethylamine, N‐nitrosodiethylamine and N‐nitrosopiperidine formed by approximately 8‐, 60‐ and 140‐fold, respectively, compared with absence of ascorbic acid. Conclusion The presence of lipid converts ascorbic acid from inhibiting to promoting acid nitrosation. This may be explained by nitric oxide, formed by ascorbic acid in the aqueous phase, being able to regenerate nitrosating species by reacting with oxygen in the lipid phase. PMID:17785370

  9. Expression of ascorbic acid oxidase in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. )

    1991-05-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zuchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, the authors have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall loosening.

  10. Drought-Induced Changes in the Redox State of α-Tocopherol, Ascorbate, and the Diterpene Carnosic Acid in Chloroplasts of Labiatae Species Differing in Carnosic Acid Contents1

    PubMed Central

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Alegre, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    To assess antioxidative protection by carnosic acid (CA) in combination with that of other low-molecular weight (Mr) antioxidants (α-tocopherol [α-T] and ascorbate [Asc]) in chloroplasts, we measured endogenous concentrations of these antioxidants, their redox states, and other indicators of oxidative stress in chloroplasts of three Labiatae species, differing in their CA contents, exposed to drought stress in the field. Damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was observed neither in CA-containing species (rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis]) and sage [Salvia officinalis]) nor in CA-free species (lemon balm [Melissa officinalis]) at relative leaf water contents between 86% and 58%, as indicated by constant maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry ratios and malondialdehyde levels in chloroplasts. The three species showed significant increases in α-T, a shift of the redox state of α-T toward its reduced state, and increased Asc levels in chloroplasts under stress. Lemon balm showed the highest increases in α-T and Asc in chloroplasts under stress, which might compensate for the lack of CA. Besides, whereas in rosemary and sage, the redox state of CA was shifted toward its oxidized state and the redox state of Asc was kept constant, lemon balm displayed a shift of the redox state of Asc toward its oxidized state under stress. In vitro experiments showed that both CA and Asc protect α-T and photosynthetic membranes against oxidative damage. These results are consistent with the contention that CA, in combination with other low-Mr antioxidants, helps to prevent oxidative damage in chloroplasts of water-stressed plants, and they show functional interdependence among different low-Mr antioxidants in chloroplasts. PMID:12692341

  11. Comparative effect of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) and ascorbic acid in oxidative stress induced by on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  12. Comparative Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) and Ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity was higher (P < 0.05) in both grape seed and Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:28074795

  13. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L−1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as μA and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L−1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L−1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L−1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L−1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L−1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183

  14. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The history of ascorbic acid (AA) and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multi organ failure (MOF), has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a) maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b) protection from sepsis in animal models; and c) direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis. PMID:21375761

  15. Ascorbic acid for the treatment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Gess, Burkhard; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Pareyson, Davide; Young, Peter

    2015-12-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) comprises a large group of different forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. The molecular basis of several CMT subtypes has been clarified during the last 20 years. Since slowly progressive muscle weakness and sensory disturbances are the main features of these syndromes, treatments aim to improve motor impairment and sensory disturbances to improve abilities. Pharmacological treatment trials in CMT are rare. This review was derived from a Cochrane review, Treatment for Charcot Marie Tooth disease, which will be updated via this review and a forthcoming title, Treatments other than ascorbic acid for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. To assess the effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) treatment for CMT. On 21 September 2015, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatment for CMT. We also checked clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs of any ascorbic acid treatment for people with CMT. Where a study aimed to evaluate the treatment of general neuromuscular symptoms of people with peripheral neuropathy including CMT, we included the study if we were able to identify the effect of treatment in the CMT group. We did not include observational studies or case reports of ascorbic acid treatment in people with CMT. Two review authors (BG and JB) independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Six RCTs compared the effect of oral ascorbic acid (1 to 4 grams) and placebo treatment in CMT1A. In five trials involving adults with CMT1A, a total of 622 participants received ascorbic acid or placebo. Trials were largely at low risk of bias. There is high-quality evidence that ascorbic acid does not improve the course of CMT1A in adults as measured by the CMT neuropathy score (0 to 36 scale) at 12 months (mean difference (MD) -0.37; 95

  16. l-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) supplementation to optimize health and reproduction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Ranjan, A; Dhaliwal, G S; Patra, R C

    2012-01-01

    Cattle can synthesize L-ascorbic acid (or Vitamin C) from either D-glucose or D-galactose through glucuronic acid pathway in the liver. L-Ascorbic acid present in cattle diet is almost totally destroyed by rumen microorganisms making them essentially dependent on its endogenous synthesis, which is assumed sufficient to meet the physiological requirement. Therefore, the role of vitamin C in cattle health and disease has remained widely overlooked. However, there is mounting evidence that the level of L-ascorbic acid in blood and other tissues decreases in association with stress and disease, and Vitamin C supplementation revealed favorable response as evident from early recovery. The present review is an attempt to summarize the existing literature pertaining to the physiological role of L-ascorbic acid and the scope of its supplementation in the prevention and treatment of diseases in cattle. It should be realized that the aqueous solution of vitamin C is highly acidic and subcutaneous or intramuscular administration may cause tissue irritation and inflammation, whereas the sodium ascorbate solution is less acidic and might be used for intramuscular administration.

  17. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  18. Effect of high-dose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Mohadeseh Hosseini; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Ramezani, Masoud; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Effects of ascorbic acid on hemodynamic parameters of septic shock were evaluated in nonsurgical critically ill patients in limited previous studies. In this study, the effect of high-dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor drug requirement was evaluated in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. Methods: Patients with septic shock who required a vasopressor drug to maintain mean arterial pressure >65 mmHg were assigned to receive either 25 mg/kg intravenous ascorbic acid every 6 h or matching placebo for 72 h. Vasopressor dose and duration were considered as the primary outcomes. Duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and 28-day mortality has been defined as secondary outcomes. Findings: During the study period, 28 patients (14 in each group) completed the trial. Mean dose of norepinephrine during the study period (7.44 ± 3.65 vs. 13.79 ± 6.48 mcg/min, P = 0.004) and duration of norepinephrine administration (49.64 ± 25.67 vs. 71.57 ± 1.60 h, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the groups regarding the length of ICU stay. However, 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the ascorbic acid than the placebo group (14.28% vs. 64.28%, respectively; P = 0.009). Conclusion: High-dose ascorbic acid may be considered as an effective and safe adjuvant therapy in surgical critically ill patients with septic shock. The most effective dose of ascorbic acid and the best time for its administration should be determined in future studies. PMID:27162802

  19. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Iron Bioavailability from Reconstituted Ferritin Measured by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  20. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  1. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  3. The effect of ascorbic acid and ferric ammonium citrate on iron uptake and storage in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goralska, M; Harned, J; Fleisher, L N; McGahan, M C

    1998-06-01

    Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein which has been shown to protect cells against oxidative damage. Recent reports that an inherited abnormality in human ferritin synthesis is associated with early bilateral cataracts underscore the importance of understanding ferritin synthesis and iron storage in lens epithelial cells. We previously demonstrated that ascorbic acid greatly increases de novo synthesis of ferritin in lens epithelial cells. The objectives of the present study were to determine: (1) the effects of ascorbic acid and ferric ammonium citrate on iron uptake by canine lens epithelial cells from iron bound to transferrin and from ferric chloride and (2) the incorporation of this element into ferritin. Iron uptake by lens epithelial cells from 59ferric chloride was 20 times higher than from 59iron-transferrin and iron deposition into ferritin was 8-fold higher when 59ferric chloride was the source. Ascorbic acid had a stimulatory effect on iron uptake from transferrin and on incorporation of this element into ferritin. The ascorbic acid-induced increase of iron uptake required de novo protein synthesis but not specifically de novo ferritin biosynthesis. Although ferritin is not directly involved in iron uptake, the level of ferritin protein could control the pool of intracellular iron. The present results indicate that iron homeostasis in lens epithelial cells is affected mainly by changes in apoferritin synthesis, which is greatly stimulated by ascorbic acid, rather than by altering the rate of protein degradation, which is very slow in these cells under all circumstances. Ferric ammonium citrate activates iron uptake from transferrin in a wide range of cell lines by generation of free radicals. Ferric ammonium citrate also increased iron uptake from Tf in lens epithelial cells. Ferric ammonium citrate treated cells incorporated 5 times more iron and deposited 2 times more iron into ferritin than control cells. Increased incorporation

  4. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid mixture in their pure forms and combined dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Tamer Z.

    2016-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC separation was performed on Phenomenex C18 analytical column with 0.1% v/v acetic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), as mobile phase. The separation was done at ambient temperature with flow rate of 1 mL·min- 1 in isocratic mode. HPLC measurements were carried out using ultraviolet detection wavelength at 257 nm. The average retention times were 2.72 and 7.00 min for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 5.0-30.0 for ascorbic acid and 10.0-60.0 μg·mL- 1 for rutin. The limits of detection were 1.06 and 1.89 μg·mL- 1 and limits of quantification were 3.54 and 6.31 μg·mL- 1 for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The proposed HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of ascorbic acid in its tablets and for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference method show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in respect to accuracy and precision.

  5. Inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism enhance ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Olney, K E; Du, J; van 't Erve, T J; Witmer, J R; Sibenaller, Z A; Wagner, B A; Buettner, G R; Cullen, J J

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate, via its oxidation, has been proposed as a pro-drug for the delivery of H(2)O(2) to tumors. Pharmacological ascorbate decreases clonogenic survival of pancreatic cancer cells, which can be reversed by treatment with scavengers of H(2)O(2). The goal of this study was to determine if inhibitors of intracellular hydroperoxide detoxification could enhance the cytotoxic effects of ascorbate. Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with ascorbate alone or in combination with inhibitors of hydroperoxide removal including the glutathione disulfide reductase inhibitor 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea (BCNU), siRNA targeted to glutathione disulfide reductase (siGR), and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which inhibits glucose metabolism. Changes in the intracellular concentration of H(2)O(2) were determined by analysis of the rate of aminotriazole-mediated inactivation of endogenous catalase activity. Pharmacological ascorbate increased intracellular H(2)O(2) and depleted intracellular glutathione. When inhibitors of H(2)O(2) metabolism were combined with pharmacological ascorbate the increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) was amplified and cytotoxicity was enhanced. We conclude that inclusion of agents that inhibit cellular peroxide removal produced by pharmacological ascorbate leads to changes in the intracellular redox state resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity.

  6. INHIBITORS OF HYDROPEROXIDE METABOLISM ENHANCE ASCORBATE-INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Kristen E.; Du, Juan; van 't Erve, Thomas J.; Witmer, Jordan R.; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.; Cullen, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate, via its oxidation, has been proposed as a pro-drug for the delivery of H2O2 to tumors. Pharmacological ascorbate decreases clonogenic survival of pancreatic cancer cells, which can be reversed by treatment with scavengers of H2O2. The goal of this study was to determine if inhibitors of intracellular hydroperoxide detoxification could enhance the cytotoxic effects of ascorbate. Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with ascorbate alone or in combination with inhibitors of hydroperoxide removal including the glutathione disulfide reductase inhibitor 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea (BCNU), siRNA targeted to glutathione disulfide reductase (siGR), and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which inhibits glucose metabolism. Changes in the intracellular concentration of H2O2 were determined by analysis of the rate of aminotriazole-mediated inactivation of endogenous catalase activity. Pharmacological ascorbate increased intracellular H2O2 and depleted intracellular glutathione. When inhibitors of H2O2 metabolism were combined with pharmacological ascorbate the increase in intracellular H2O2 was amplified and cytotoxicity was enhanced. We conclude that inclusion of agents that inhibit cellular peroxide removal produced by pharmacological ascorbate leads to changes in the intracellular redox state resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity. PMID:23205739

  7. Preparation of Co3O4/crumpled graphene microsphere as peroxidase mimetic for colorimetric assay of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sisi; Zhao, Minggang; Ding, Longjiang; Li, Hui; Chen, Shougang

    2017-03-15

    The well-dispersed Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated crumpled graphene microsphere (CGM) was successfully prepared by aerosol-assisted frying self-assembly and annealing process. It is found that the obtained Co3O4/CGM nanohybrid possessed enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and could catalytically oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2 to produce a typical blue product. But the presence of ascorbic acid could induce the reduction of oxTMB to TMB, resulting in a significant blue color fading. Therefore, a simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric method to detect ascorbic acid was established with a good linear relationship (30-140μM) and a low detection limit of 0.19μM. Meanwhile, the selectivity, stability and repeatability were acceptable. It is also a facile route to fabricate nanoparticles/CGM as high-performance enzyme mimetic for colorimetric biosensing.

  8. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  9. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport is mediated by a low-affinity form of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Montesino, Carola; Roa, Francisco J; Peña, Eduardo; González, Mauricio; Sotomayor, Kirsty; Inostroza, Eveling; Muñoz, Carolina A; González, Iván; Maldonado, Mafalda; Soliz, Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M; Vera, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Coralia I

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of the redox metabolism of mitochondria under normal and pathological conditions, our knowledge regarding the transport of vitamin C across mitochondrial membranes remains far from complete. We report here that human HEK-293 cells express a mitochondrial low-affinity ascorbic acid transporter that molecularly corresponds to SVCT2, a member of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter family 2. The transporter SVCT1 is absent from HEK-293 cells. Confocal colocalization experiments with anti-SVCT2 and anti-organelle protein markers revealed that most of the SVCT2 immunoreactivity was associated with mitochondria, with minor colocalization at the endoplasmic reticulum and very low immunoreactivity at the plasma membrane. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from highly purified mitochondrial fractions confirmed that SVCT2 protein was associated with mitochondria, and transport analysis revealed a sigmoidal ascorbic acid concentration curve with an apparent ascorbic acid transport Km of 0.6mM. Use of SVCT2 siRNA for silencing SVCT2 expression produced a major decrease in mitochondrial SVCT2 immunoreactivity, and immunoblotting revealed decreased SVCT2 protein expression by approximately 75%. Most importantly, the decreased protein expression was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport rate. Further studies using HEK-293 cells overexpressing SVCT2 at the plasma membrane revealed that the altered kinetic properties of mitochondrial SVCT2 are due to the ionic intracellular microenvironment (low in sodium and high in potassium), with potassium acting as a concentration-dependent inhibitor of SVCT2. We discarded the participation of two glucose transporters previously described as mitochondrial dehydroascorbic acid transporters; GLUT1 is absent from mitochondria and GLUT10 is not expressed in HEK-293 cells. Overall, our data indicate that intracellular SVCT2 is localized in mitochondria, is

  10. Self-powered biosensor for ascorbic acid with a Prussian blue electrochromic display.

    PubMed

    Zloczewska, Adrianna; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Dorota; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2014-04-15

    We report on the development of a nanocarbon based anode for sensing of ascorbic acid (AA). The oxidation of AA on this anode occurs at a quite low overpotential which enables the anode to be connected to a biocathode to form an ascorbic acid/O2 biofuel cell that functions as a self-powered biosensor. In conjunction with a Prussian blue electrochromic display the anode can also work as a truly self-powered sensor. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the anode leads to a reduction of the Prussian blue in the display. The reduced form of Prussian blue, called Prussian white, is transparent. The rate of change from blue to colourless is dependent on the concentration of ascorbic acid. The display can easily be regenerated by connecting it to the biocathode which returns the Prussian blue to its oxidized form. In this way we have created the first self-powered electrochromic sensor that gives quantitative information about the analyte concentration. This is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice. The reported quantitative read-out electrochromic display can serve as a template for the creation of cheap, miniturizable sensors for other relevant analytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correction of anemia and iron deficiency in vegetarians by administration of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Mathur, R

    1995-10-01

    Twenty-eight strict vegetarians were given 500 mg ascorbic acid twice daily after lunch and dinner for two months. Hemoglobin and certain iron status parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Ascorbate treatment increased mean hemoglobin by 8%, serum iron by 17% and transferrin saturation by 23% and decreased total iron binding capacity by 7%. All these changes were statistically significant. The rise in serum ferritin was 12%. The serum protein or copper level did not indicate their dietary deficiency, while initial serum ascorbate level were low which rose by 60% on therapy. It is concluded that ascorbate supplementation is a better method of improving hematologic and iron status than iron salt administration.

  12. Effects of ascorbic acid on oxidative system and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rabbits exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa; Köken, Tülay; Yilmaz, Deniz; Kahraman, Ahmet; Altuntaş, Ali

    2004-10-01

    groups, but reproducibility and signal-to-noise ratios were higher in the second group (P <.05). Ascorbic acid treatment inhibited both lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage of proteins in rabbits exposed to noise. The study data suggest, at least, that oxidative status should be included in the physiopathology of noise-induced hearing loss; in addition, a brief application of ascorbic acid before noise exposure appeared to play a protective role for cochlea.

  13. Chemical repair of base lesions, AP-sites, and strand breaks on plasmid DNA in dilute aqueous solution by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We report a novel mechanism of radiation protection of DNA by chemical activity of ascorbic acid. •The “chemical repair” of DNA damage was revealed using biochemical assay and chemical kinetics analysis. •We found that ascorbic acid significantly repairs precursors of nucleobase lesions and abasic sites. •However, ascorbic acid seldom repairs precursors of DNA-strand breaks. -- Abstract: We quantified the damage yields produced in plasmid DNA by γ-irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10–100 μM) of ascorbic acid, which is a major antioxidant in living systems, to clarify whether it chemically repairs radiation damage in DNA. The yield of DNA single strand breaks induced by irradiation was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis as conformational changes in closed circular plasmids. Base lesions and abasic sites were also observed as additional conformational changes by treating irradiated samples with glycosylase proteins. By comparing the suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, in addition to scavenging of the OH radicals derived from water radiolysis, it was found that ascorbic acid promotes the chemical repair of precursors of AP-sites and base lesions more effectively than those of single strand breaks. We estimated the efficiency of the chemical repair of each lesion using a kinetic model. Approximately 50–60% of base lesions and AP-sites were repaired by 10 μM ascorbic acid, although strand breaks were largely unrepaired by ascorbic acid at low concentrations. The methods in this study will provide a route to understanding the mechanistic aspects of antioxidant activity in living systems.

  14. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on bovine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Dalvit, G; Llanes, S P; Descalzo, A; Insani, M; Beconi, M; Cetica, P

    2005-04-01

    In vitro culture results in higher oxygen concentrations than in vivo environments, leading to an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes. Alpha-tocopherol (active form of vitamin E) is an antioxidant that protects mammalian cells against lipid peroxidation, which is regenerated by ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of alpha-tocopherol and/or ascorbic acid to the maturation medium on bovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequently on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in Medium 199 (control), and with the addition of alpha-tocopherol and/or ascorbic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in COCs was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). IVF and in vitro culture (IVC) were carried out in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF). The quantity of alpha-tocopherol naturally present in COCs diminished by half during IVM (p < 0.05), although in the presence of ascorbic acid it remained constant. A greater amount of alpha-tocopherol was detected in COCs matured in medium supplemented with this antioxidant (p < 0.05), but the addition of alpha-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid maintained higher levels of alpha-tocopherol (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not observed in the percentages of nuclear maturation and fertilization among different treatments. The presence of alpha-tocopherol or ascorbic acid in the maturation medium failed to modify the percentage of blastocysts obtained, unlike the addition of both antioxidants when a significant decrease was observed (p < 0.05). Absorbic acid maintained the antioxidant capacity of the alpha-tocopherol incorporated to COC membranes during IVM. The active form of vitamin E during maturation impaired the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  15. The Use of Ascorbate as an Oxidation Inhibitor in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO2-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO2 was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO2-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO2-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  16. The use of ascorbate as an oxidation inhibitor in prebiotic amino acid synthesis: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO(2)-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO(2) was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO(2)-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO(2)-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  17. Role of intracellular Ca2+ signal in the ascorbate-induced apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Soo

    2004-12-01

    Although ascorbate (vitamin C) has been shown to have anti-cancer actions, its effect on human hepatoma cells has not yet been investigated, and thus, the exact mechanism of this action is not fully understood. In this study, the mechanism by which ascorbate induces apoptosis using HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells is investigated. Ascorbate induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner in the cells, was assessed through flow cytometric analysis. Contrary to expectation, ascorbate did not alter the cellular redox status, and treatment with antioxidants (N-acetyl cysteine and N,N-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine) had no influence on the ascorbate-induced apoptosis. However, ascorbate induced a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator did not significantly alter the ascorbate-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase and apoptosis, whereas dantrolene, an intracellular Ca2+ release blocker, completely blocked these actions of ascorbate. In addition, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors (U-73122 and manoalide) significantly suppressed the intracellular Ca2+ release and apoptosis induced by ascorbate. Collectively, these results suggest that ascorbate induced apoptosis without changes in the cellular redox status in HepG2 cells, and that the PLC-coupled intracellular Ca2+ release mechanism may mediate ascorbate-induced apoptosis.

  18. Thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic Acid in aqueous protic ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL).

  19. Equilibrium studies of cellulase aggregates in presence of ascorbic and boric acid.

    PubMed

    Iram, Afshin; Amani, Samreen; Furkan, Mohammad; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2013-01-01

    The aggregate formation of cellulase was detected at 300 and 10 mM ascorbic and boric acid respectively. These aggregates showed reduced enzyme activity, loss in near-UV signal, decrease tryptophan and ANS fluorescence. They possess increase in non-native β-sheet structure as evident from far-UV CD and FTIR spectra, large hydrodynamic radii, increase thioflavin T fluorescence and shift in Congo red. Cellulase at 90 mM ascorbic acid exists as molten globule with retention of secondary structure, altered tryptophan environment, high ANS binding and loss in tertiary structure. Ascorbic acid acts as an antioxidant up to 90 mM and beyond this as a pro-oxidant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of iron (II) and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticas based on flow sandwich technique.

    PubMed

    Vakh, Christina; Freze, Elena; Pochivalov, Alexsey; Evdokimova, Ekaterina; Kamencev, Mihail; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The simple and easy performed flow system based on sandwich technique has been developed for the simultaneous separate determination of iron (II) and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals. The implementation of sandwich technique assumed the injection of sample solution between two selective reagents and allowed the carrying out in reaction coil two chemical reactions simultaneously: iron (II) with 1,10-phenanthroline and ascorbic acid with sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. For achieving of excellent repeatability and considerable reagent saving the various parameters such as flow rate, sample and reagent volumes, reaction coil length were also optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained by using the developed flow sandwich-type approach were 0.2 mg L(-1) for iron (II) and 0.7 mg L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The suggested approach was validated according to the following parameters: linearity and sensitivity, precision, recoveries and accuracy. The sampling frequency was 41 h(-1).

  1. Pharmacological ascorbic acid suppresses syngeneic tumor growth and metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Harvey B; Levine, Mark A; Eidelman, Ofer; Pollard, Morris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test for the influence of ascorbic acid on tumorigenicity and metastases of implanted PAIII prostate cancer adenocarcinoma cells in syngeneic LW rats. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer PAIII cells were implanted subcutaneously into immunologically intact, Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats. Intraperitoneal pharmacological doses of ascorbic acid were administered each day for the ensuing 30 days. On the 40th day, animals were sacrificed. Local tumor weights were measured, and metastases were counted. At the end of the 40 day experimental period, the primary tumors were found to be significantly reduced in weight (p=0.026). In addition, sub-pleural lung metastases were even more profoundly reduced in number and size (p=0.009). Grossly enlarged ipsilateral lymph node metastases declined from 7 of 15 rats to 1 of 15 rats. Pharmacological doses of ascorbic acid suppress tumor growth and metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  2. Thermodynamic and Ultrasonic Properties of Ascorbic Acid in Aqueous Protic Ionic Liquid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL). PMID:26009887

  3. Electrochemical impedance based chiral analysis of anti-ascorbutic drug: l-Ascorbic acid and d-ascorbic acid using C-dots decorated conductive polymer nano-composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Indu; Kant, Rama

    2016-03-15

    Clinical manifestations owing to l-ascorbic acid for scurvy as comparison to d-ascorbic acid and challenges of chiral purity are overcome by using chiral selective conductive polymer nanocomposite which mimics antibodies and enzymes. A novel chiral selective imprinted polyaniline-ferrocene-sulfonic acid film has been electrochemically fabricated on C-dots modified pencil graphite electrode. The performance of the obtained l-ascorbic acid or d-ascorbic acid chiral selective sensor was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. The surface characteristics of the C-dots, chiral sensor before and after the de-doping of chiral d- and l-ascorbic acid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Excellent recognition results were obtained by difference in electron transfer resistance. The proposed chiral sensor is capable of measuring d-ascorbic acid or l-ascorbic acid in aqueous as well as in real and commercial samples within the range of 0.020-0.187 nM and 0.003-0.232 nM with detection limit of 0.00073 nM and 0.00016 nM, respectively. The proposed method has also been examined for the chiral selective recognition of ascorbic acid isomers (d- and l-) quantitatively, in complicated matrices of real samples.

  4. The Use of Ascorbic Acid as a Food Additive: Technical-Legal Issues

    PubMed Central

    Varvara, Michele; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Giuseppe; Disanto, Chiara; Pagliarone, Cosimo Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is an organic compound belonging to the family of monosaccharide. It is highly soluble in water, and is often called one of the secrets of the Mediterranean diet. Its use is widespread in the food industry is also important, having always been exploited for its antioxidant and stabilising ability. Many indeed are the additive formulations that take advantage of these properties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the characteristics that make ascorbic acid an important food additive and to emphasise the technical and legal issues related to its use in food productions. In particular, in the course of this employment, laws and scientific studies have been applied to the resolution of a lawsuit, having as its object the use of ascorbic acid in preparations of ground beef sold at a butcher shop. The views expressed in court by the technical consultant have led to the acquittal of the accused, in the light of the demonstrated and proven non-toxicity of the molecule and the use of a mixture of additives for the production of sausage. The European and national legislations, supported by numerous scientific studies, define the possible use of ascorbic acid according to the principle of quantum satis, and it can be used in foods for children. Our work aims to represent further evidence of the safety of use of ascorbic acid as a food additive, and – as confirmed by the legal decision reported – it wants to bring out the prospects for use of ascorbic acid for technological purposes even by registered establishments. PMID:27800425

  5. Ascorbic acid modifies the surface of asbestos: possible implications in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Martra, Gianmario; Tomatis, Maura; Fenoglio, Ivana; Coluccia, Salvatore; Fubini, Bice

    2003-03-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the major components of the antioxidants defenses of the lung lining layer where inhaled asbestos fibers are deposited. Crocidolite fibers were incubated at 37 degrees C in a 0.01 M aqueous solution of ascorbic acid for 25 days in order to investigate modifications in surface reactivity. Iron (820 nmol/mg) and monomeric silica (470 nmol/mg) were released in the supernatant, while ascorbic acid was consumed. The amount of iron and silicon released, respectively, 17 and 6% (in atoms) of the total fiber content, exceeded what was expected at the surface, suggesting a partial disgregation of crocidolite promoted by ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbic acid but at the same pH, the release of iron and monomeric silica was minimal. At time intervals, aliquots of fibers were withdrawn to evidence chemical modifications progressively taking place. Three families of Fe(II) centers, differing in coordinative unsaturation and progressively removed during incubation, have been evidenced from the FTIR spectra of NO adsorbed onto the fibers. The most uncoordinated ones are removed first. New highly uncoordinated iron sites are exposed at the fiber surface as a consequence of the erosion of the outmost layers while hydration of silica tetrahedra yields new silanol groups. The activity in the Fenton-like reaction (*OH from H(2)O(2)) decreases following surface iron depauperation. Conversely, the homolytic cleavage of the C-H bond (CO(2)*-) from the formate ion) appears related to the small fraction of iron ions always present but easily quenched by the adsorption of ascorbic acid or its oxidation products.

  6. Mechanism of ascorbic acid enhancement of the bioavailability and diuretic effect of furosemide.

    PubMed

    Lee, M G; Chiou, W L

    1998-05-01

    The following possible explanations for the significant increases in the oral bioavailability and the diuretic and natriuretic effects of orally administered furosemide observed when ascorbic acid was coadministered to dogs were investigated: ascorbic acid might enhance the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of furosemide, might inhibit GI wall metabolism of furosemide, might enhance the reabsorption of furosemide from the renal tubules, and might increase the unionized fraction of furosemide at the receptor sites. The significant increase in the oral bioavailability with coadministration of ascorbic acid seemed to result from reduced gastric first-pass metabolism of furosemide and not enhanced GI absorption of furosemide. This might be supported by rat studies; the percentages of the oral doses of furosemide recovered from the GI tract at 8 hr after oral administration were similar (p < 0.583) without (39.5%) and with (44.7%) coadministration of ascorbic acid, and the amounts of furosemide remaining per gram of stomach after 30-min incubations of 50 micrograms of furosemide with 9000g supernatant fractions of stomach homogenates were increased significantly (48.5 vs. 42.4 micrograms) by the addition of 100 micrograms of ascorbic acid. The significant increases in the diuretic and natriuretic effects of furosemide with ascorbic acid could be the result of increases in the reabsorption of furosemide from renal tubules and increases in the unionized fraction of furosemide at the renal tubular receptor sites. This was supported by 1.5-4.2-fold increases in urine output and approximately 20% decreases in the time-averaged renal clearance of furosemide when the urine pH was decreased by 1.5-2.5 units by oral administration of ammonium chloride.

  7. Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

    1975-07-01

    1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied. 2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties. 3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59-Fe erythrocyte utlization method. 4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold in the ratio, ascorbic acid:Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:2, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold. 5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4.7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect. 6. Fe from FePO4.H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize. 7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooling or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum thiol oxidase deficiency leads to ascorbic acid depletion and noncanonical scurvy in mice.

    PubMed

    Zito, Ester; Hansen, Henning Gram; Yeo, Giles S H; Fujii, Junichi; Ron, David

    2012-10-12

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thiol oxidases initiate a disulfide relay to oxidatively fold secreted proteins. We found that combined loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding the ER thiol oxidases ERO1α, ERO1β, and PRDX4 compromised the extracellular matrix in mice and interfered with the intracellular maturation of procollagen. These severe abnormalities were associated with an unexpectedly modest delay in disulfide bond formation in secreted proteins but a profound, 5-fold lower procollagen 4-hydroxyproline content and enhanced cysteinyl sulfenic acid modification of ER proteins. Tissue ascorbic acid content was lower in mutant mice, and ascorbic acid supplementation improved procollagen maturation and lowered sulfenic acid content in vivo. In vitro, the presence of a sulfenic acid donor accelerated the oxidative inactivation of ascorbate by an H(2)O(2)-generating system. Compromised ER disulfide relay thus exposes protein thiols to competing oxidation to sulfenic acid, resulting in depletion of ascorbic acid, impaired procollagen proline 4-hydroxylation, and a noncanonical form of scurvy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Thiol Oxidase Deficiency Leads to Ascorbic Acid Depletion and Noncanonical Scurvy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Ester; Hansen, Henning Gram; Yeo, Giles S.H.; Fujii, Junichi; Ron, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thiol oxidases initiate a disulfide relay to oxidatively fold secreted proteins. We found that combined loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding the ER thiol oxidases ERO1α, ERO1β, and PRDX4 compromised the extracellular matrix in mice and interfered with the intracellular maturation of procollagen. These severe abnormalities were associated with an unexpectedly modest delay in disulfide bond formation in secreted proteins but a profound, 5-fold lower procollagen 4-hydroxyproline content and enhanced cysteinyl sulfenic acid modification of ER proteins. Tissue ascorbic acid content was lower in mutant mice, and ascorbic acid supplementation improved procollagen maturation and lowered sulfenic acid content in vivo. In vitro, the presence of a sulfenic acid donor accelerated the oxidative inactivation of ascorbate by an H2O2-generating system. Compromised ER disulfide relay thus exposes protein thiols to competing oxidation to sulfenic acid, resulting in depletion of ascorbic acid, impaired procollagen proline 4-hydroxylation, and a noncanonical form of scurvy. PMID:22981861

  10. Degradation of ascorbic acid and potassium sorbate by different Lactobacillus species isolated from packed green olives.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Alfredo; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Casado, Francisco Javier; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to ascertain the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the degradation of ascorbic acid and/or potassium sorbate, isolated from packed green olives where these additives had diminished. A total of 14 isolates were recovered from samples of different green olive containers. According to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding gene, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans were identified. With the exception of L. pentosus and L. paracollinoides, the other species had not been mentioned in table olives before this study. Only three of the 14 isolates metabolized ascorbic acid in MRS broth, and the products from ascorbic acid in modified MRS broth without carbon sources were acetic and lactic acids. Except for the two L. rapi and the two P. ethanolidurans strains, the remaining 10 isolates depleted potassium sorbate added into MRS broth to some extent. The product generated by three of these strains was confirmed to be trans-4-hexenoic acid. The degradation of ascorbate or sorbate by lactic acid bacteria should be taken into account when these additives are used in food products where this group of bacteria may be present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of ascorbic acid in transferrin-independent reduction and uptake of iron by U-937 cells.

    PubMed

    May, J M; Qu, Z C; Mendiratta, S

    1999-06-01

    The role of ascorbic acid in transferrin-independent ferric iron reduction and uptake was evaluated in cultured U-937 monocytic cells. Uptake of 55Fe by U-937 cells was doubled by 100 microM extracellular ascorbate, and by pre-incubation of cells with 100 microM dehydroascorbic acid, the two-electron-oxidized form of ascorbate. Reduction of extracellular ferric citrate also was enhanced by loading the cells with dehydroascorbic acid. Dehydroascorbic acid was taken up rapidly by the cells and reduced to ascorbate, such that the latter reached intracellular concentrations as high as 6 mM. However, some ascorbate did escape the cells and could be detected at concentrations of up to 1 microM in the incubation medium. Further, addition of ascorbate oxidase almost reversed the effects of dehydroascorbic acid on both 55Fe uptake and ferric citrate reduction. Thus, it is likely that extracellular ascorbate reduced ferric to ferrous iron, which was then taken up by the cells. This hypothesis also was supported by the finding that during loading with ferric citrate, only extracellular ascorbate increased the pool of intracellular ferrous iron that could be chelated with cell-penetrant ferrous iron chelators. In contrast to its inhibition of ascorbate-dependent ferric iron reduction, ascorbate oxidase was without effect on ascorbate-dependent reduction of extracellular ferricyanide. This indicates that the cells use different mechanisms for reduction of ferric iron and ferricyanide. Therefore, extracellular ascorbate derived from cells can enhance transferrin-independent iron uptake by reducing ferric to ferrous iron, but intracellular ascorbate neither contributes to this reduction nor modifies the redox status of intracellular free iron.

  12. Vacuolar Deposition of Ascorbate-derived Oxalic Acid in Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1981-01-01

    l-[1-14C]Ascorbic acid was supplied to detached barley seedlings to determine the subcellular location of oxalic acid, one of its metabolic products. Intact vacuoles isolated from protoplasts of labeled leaves contained [14C]oxalic acid which accounted for about 70% of the intraprotoplast soluble oxalic acid. Tracer-labeled oxalate accounted for 36 and 72% of the 14C associated with leaf vacuoles of seedlings labeled for 22 and 96 hours, respectively. PMID:16661719

  13. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  15. [The effectiveness of ascorbic acid and emoxipin in treatment of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Novoselov, P N; Astakhova, T V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective placebo-controlled randomized study was to assess the effectiveness of ascorbic acid or emoxipin in the regimen of the therapy of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Emoxipin vs. ascorbic acid favored the eradication of tuberculosis mycobacteria. Both preparations decreased the blood level of the contra-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), shortened time to the closure of degeneration cavities in tubercular infiltrations, decreased the risk of the development of destructive forms, and lowered the need for surgical interventions for infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis.

  16. Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus

    SciTech Connect

    BISSELL, MINA J; HATIE, CARROLL; FARSON, DEBORAH A.; SCHWARZ, RICHARD I.; SOO, WHAI-JEN

    1980-04-01

    Ascorbic acid, at nontoxic concentrations, causes a substantial reduction in the ability of avian tumor viruses to replicate in both primary avian tendon cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts. The virus-infected cultures appear to be less transformed in the presence of ascorbic acid by the criteria of morphology, reduced glucose uptake, and increased collagen synthesis. The vitamin does not act by altering the susceptibility of the cells to initial infection and transformation, but instead appears to interfere with the spread of infection through a reduction in virus replication and virus infectivity. The effect is reversible and requires the continuous presence of the vitamin in the culture medium.

  17. Study on NO(2) absorption by ascorbic acid and various chemicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-Zhi; Fang, He-Liang; Shi, Yao; Lei, Le-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Study on NO(2) absorption aimed at seeking a better NO(2) absorption chemical at pH 4.5 approximately 7.0 for application to existing wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The results from the double-stirred reactor indicated that ascorbic acid has very high absorption rate at this pH range. The rate constant of ascorbic acid reaction with NO(2) (0 approximately 1,000 x 10(-6) mol/mol) is about 3.54 x 10(6) mol/(Ls) at pH 5.4 approximately 6.5 at 55 degrees C.

  18. Study on NO2 absorption by ascorbic acid and various chemicals*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Cheng-zhi; Fang, He-liang; Shi, Yao; Lei, Le-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Study on NO2 absorption aimed at seeking a better NO2 absorption chemical at pH 4.5~7.0 for application to existing wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The results from the double-stirred reactor indicated that ascorbic acid has very high absorption rate at this pH range. The rate constant of ascorbic acid reaction with NO2 (0~1000×10−6 mol/mol) is about 3.54×106 mol/(L·s) at pH 5.4~6.5 at 55 °C. PMID:16365924

  19. Effect of ascorbic acid on longevity and biochemical alterations in Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Mahajan, S

    1994-01-01

    Optimal ascorbic acid concentration (1 mM) increased the median (LT(50)) and maximum (LT(100)) life spans, decreased age-independent susceptibility to death (a(0)), reproductive period, number of eggs laid/female but prolonged the post-reproductive period in Callosobruchus maculatus. The activities of respiratory enzymes and the levels of metabolic end-products declined while the activities of antioxygenic enzymes increased. The increased longevity of insects reared on ascorbic acid soaked seeds may be interpreted in terms of conservation of energy by way of decreased reproductive potentiality and the maintenance of a homeostatic balance between pro-oxidant generation and antioxidant defences.

  20. High dose concentration administration of ascorbic acid inhibits tumor growth in BALB/C mice implanted with sarcoma 180 cancer cells via the restriction of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Gunsup; Park, Jin-Hee; Yu, Jaelim; Park, Seyeon; Yi, Sang-Yeop; Lee, Hye Ree; Hong, Young Seon; Yang, Joosung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-01-01

    To test the carcinostatic effects of ascorbic acid, we challenged the mice of seven experimental groups with 1.7 × 10-4 mol high dose concentration ascorbic acid after intraperitoneal administrating them with sarcoma S-180 cells. The survival rate was increased by 20% in the group that received high dose concentration ascorbic acid, compared to the control. The highest survival rate was observed in the group in which 1.7 × 10-4 mol ascorbic acid had been continuously injected before and after the induction of cancer cells, rather than just after the induction of cancer cells. The expression of three angiogenesis-related genes was inhibited by 0.3 times in bFGF, 7 times in VEGF and 4 times in MMP2 of the groups with higher survival rates. Biopsy Results, gene expression studies, and wound healing analysis in vivo and in vitro suggested that the carcinostatic effect induced by high dose concentration ascorbic acid occurred through inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:19671184

  1. Determination of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in food commodities by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Frenich, A Garrido; Torres, M E Hernández; Vega, A Belmonte; Vidal, J L Martínez; Bolaños, P Plaza

    2005-09-21

    Two methods, one to determine ascorbic acid and one to determine lycopene and beta-carotene, in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) have been established. The chromatographic separation of the studied compounds and their MS parameters were optimized to improve selectivity and sensitivity. In both methods, separation was carried out with two coupled columns, first a C(18) and then a dC(18), using as mobile phase 70% methanol (0.005% acetic acid) and 30% acetic acid 0.05% for ascorbic acid determination and a mixture of methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (60:30:10 v/v/v) for carotenoid analysis in isocratic mode. The molecular ion was selected for the quantification in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ascorbic acid was detected with electrospray ionization probe (ESI) in negative mode, while chemical ionization atmospheric pressure (APCI) in positive mode was used for the target carotenoids. The methodology for ascorbic acid analysis is based on an extraction with polytron using methanol and a mixture of methaphosphoric acid and acetic acid. Extraction of the carotenoids was carried out with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (1:1) (v/v). The proposed methods were applied, after their corresponding validations, to the analysis of four varieties of tomatoes, tomato in tin enriched and dried tomato, and to the analysis of mango and kiwi fruits, to compare the content in these compounds. Moreover, the influence of the process of freezing and the effect that the manipulation/preservation has in the content of ascorbic acid in tomato have also been studied.

  2. Mechanism of melatonin protection against copper-ascorbate-induced oxidative damage in vitro through isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab K; Naaz, Shamreen; Bhattacharjee, Bharati; Ghosal, Nirajan; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Roy, Souvik; Reiter, Russel J; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2017-07-01

    Involvement of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases is well established. Melatonin's role as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger via its receptor dependent and receptor independent pathways is well known. The aim of this study is to identify and elaborate upon a third mechanism by which melatonin is able to abrogate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress was induced in vitro, by copper (0.2mM)-ascorbate (1mM) in isolated goat heart mitochondria, cytosol and peroxisomes and they were co-incubated with graded doses of melatonin. Similar experiments in a cell-free chemical system involving two pure antioxidant enzymes, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase was also carried out. Biochemical changes in activity of these antioxidant enzymes were analysed. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies with pure Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase were also carried out. Incubation with copper-ascorbate led to alteration in activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase which were found to be protected upon co-incubation with melatonin (80μM for catalase and 1μM for others). Results of isothermal titration calorimetric studies with pure Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase along with different combinations of copper chloride, ascorbic acid and melatonin suggest that when melatonin is present in the reaction medium along with copper-ascorbate, it restrains the copper-ascorbate molecules by binding with them physically along with scavenging the free radicals generated by them. The present study suggests that possibly, binding of melatonin with antioxidant enzymes masks the vulnerable sites of these antioxidant enzymes, thus preventing oxidative damage by copper-ascorbate molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the effect of ascorbic acid and selenium on the genotoxicity of nitrofurans: nitrofurazone and furazolidone.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, J; Szczypka, M; Tudek, B; Szymczyk, T

    1990-10-01

    The genotoxic properties of nitrofurazone and furazolidone were studied using the Ames test and SOS-chromotest. Both compounds were found to act as strong mutagens on the TA97 and TA102 strains of S. typhimurium and to induce the SOS-repair system in the PQ37 strain of E. coli. A good concordance was found between the mutagenic activity and the ability to induce the SOS system. Ascorbic acid and sodium selenite only very slightly lowered the genotoxic effect of the 2 nitrofurans studied both in the Ames test and in the SOS-chromotest.

  4. Kinetics of the reactions of hypochlorous acid and amino acid chloramines with thiols, methionine, and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Peskin, A V; Winterbourn, C C

    2001-03-01

    Thiol oxidation by hypochlorous acid and chloramines is a favorable reaction and may be responsible for alterations in regulatory or signaling pathways in cells exposed to neutrophil oxidants. In order to establish the mechanism for such changes, it is necessary to appreciate whether these oxidants are selective for different thiols as compared with other scavengers. We have measured rate constants for reactions of amino acid chloramines with a range of thiols, methionine, and ascorbate, using a combination of stopped-flow and competitive kinetics. For HOCl, rate constants are too fast to measure directly by our system and values relative to reduced glutathione were determined by competition with methionine. For taurine chloramine, the rate constants for reaction with 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid, GSH, methionine, and ascorbate at pH 7.4 were 970, 115, 39, and 13 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values for 10 thiols varied by a factor of 20 and showed an inverse relationship to the pK(a) of the thiol group. Rate constants for chloramines of glycine and N-alpha-acetyl-lysine also showed these relationships. Rates increased with decreasing pH, suggesting a mechanism involving acid catalysis. For hypochlorous acid, rates of reaction with 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid, GSH, cysteine, and most of the other thiols were very similar. Relative reactivities varied by less than 5 and there was no dependence on thiol pK(a). Chloramines have the potential to be selective for different cellular thiols depending on their pK(a). For HOCl to be selective, other factors must be important, or its reactions could be secondary to chloramine formation.

  5. The use of ascorbic acid in the treatment of 2 cases of red maple (Acer rubrum)-poisoned horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, R S; Brownie, C F

    1992-07-01

    Two horses with red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicity responded to treatment with high doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), in addition to blood transfusions, and intravenous fluid therapy. The clinical course included Heinz body anemia, marked methemoglobinemia, depression, and evidence of severe tissue anoxia. Clinical recovery was dramatic with stabilization achieved 36 hours following the initiation of ascorbic acid therapy.

  6. Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyaniline modified Au electrode for ascorbic acid determination.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, C S

    2011-05-07

    An ascorbate oxidase (AsOx) (E.C.1.10.3.3) purified from Lagenaria siceraria fruit was immobilized covalently onto a carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline (c-MWCNT/PANI) layer electrochemically deposited on the surface of an Au electrode. The diffusion coefficient of ascorbic acid was determined as 3.05 × 10(-4) cm(2) s(-1). The behavior of different electrolytes on electro-deposition was also studied. An ascorbate biosensor was fabricated using a AsOx/c-MWCNT/PANI/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl (3 M/saturated KCl) as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. Linear range, response time and detection limit were 2-206 μM, 2 s and 0.9 μM respectively. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 5.8 and in a broader temperature range (30-45 °C), when polarized at +0.6 V. The biosensor was employed for determination of ascorbic acid level in sera, fruit juices and vitamin C tablets. The sensor was evaluated with 91% recovery of added ascorbic acid in sera and 6.5% and 11.4% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively for five serum samples. There was a good correlation (r = 0.98) between fruit juice ascorbic acid values by the standard 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) method and the present method. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of two months, when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor has advantages over earlier enzyme sensors in that it has no leakage of enzyme, due to the covalent coupling of enzyme with the support, lower response time, wider working range, higher storage stability and no interference by serum substances.

  7. Spectrometric determination of total antioxidant activity in chlorpromazine radical cation - ascorbic acid system.

    PubMed

    Miftodei, Alina Monica; Stefanache, Alina; Spac, A; Dorneanu, V

    2013-01-01

    Through univalent oxidation chlorpromazine forms a colored and relatively stable radical cation with maximum absorbance at 525 nm, considered a redox mediator in a number of b iochemical reactions. To develop a spectrometric method for the determination of total antioxidant activity based on the reaction of chlorpromazine radical capture by ascorbic acid (standard antioxidant). The calibration curve was drawn by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance of the preformed radical solution (obtained by oxidation of chlorpromazine by potassium persulfate in an acidic environment) depending on ascorbic acid concentration. The method was validated. In the ascorbic acid concentration range 10-100 microM/L linearity was good (r2 = 0.9991). Limit of detection (LOD) was 3.13 microM/L and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 9.49 microM/L. System precision (RSD = 0.75%), method precision (RSD = 4.50%) and intermediate precision (RSD = 4.63%) were determined. The average recovery of 101.7% for the concentration range 91.1 -105.9% confirmed the accuracy of the method. The method has a good linearity, precision, accuracy, and is easy to use for evaluation of antioxidant action of different products. Total antioxidant activity is expressed as ascorbic acid molar equivalents (AAE). The method has the advantage of using a radical involved in redox processes in the body.

  8. Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Devi Ramaiya, Shiamala; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah; King, Wong Sing; Shaffiq Sahrir, Muhd Arif

    2013-03-30

    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp). Purple and Yellow P. edulis had significantly higher total sugar, 142.85 ± 0.17 g kg⁻¹ and 139.69 ± 0.12 g kg⁻¹, respectively, than other cultivars. Glucose and fructose content were higher in juice from vine-ripened fruits of Purple, Frederick and Yellow P. edulis, P. quadrangularis and P. maliformis. Sucrose content was significantly higher in juice of non-vine-ripened fruits of P. edulis (Pink) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA were significantly higher in vine-ripened Purple and Yellow P. edulis; ranges were 0.22-0.33 g kg⁻¹, 342.80-382.00 mg gallic acid equivalent L⁻¹ and 409.13-586.70 µmol Trolox L⁻¹, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, the main variables - °Brix, total sugar, glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA - formed the characteristics for the group comprising Purple and Yellow P. edulis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, TAA and TPC were quantified in passion fruit juices. Variation of the above variables in juices of Passiflora depends on the cultivar and ripeness. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Evaluation of plasma and buffy coat ascorbic acid concentrations in dogs before and after a 24-hour fast.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H; Spano, J S; Swaim, S F; McGuire, J A; Hughes, K S

    1986-09-01

    Samples of blood were taken from 15 female and 15 male research laboratory Beagles before and after they were fasted for 24 hours. The mean buffy coat ascorbic acid concentration was significantly higher in dogs after they were fasted than that before they were fasted. In contrast, the mean plasma ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in dogs after they were fasted than that before they were fasted. The mean buffy coat ascorbic acid concentrations in blood samples of both fasted and nonfasted female Beagles was significantly greater than those of male Beagles, whereas the mean plasma concentrations of both fasted and nonfasted female Beagles was significantly lower than those of male Beagles. It was observed that whenever there was a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid concentration, there was an increase in buffy coat ascorbic acid concentration, regardless of fasting stress or sex difference.

  10. Modification of ascorbic acid using transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase to enhance its oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, Cheon-Seok; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Myo-Jeong; Baek, Jin-Sook; Roh, Hoe-Jin; Choi, Jin-Hwan; Choe, Eun-Ok; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2002-05-22

    Ascorbic acid (1), a natural antioxidant, was modified by employing transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose and acarbose as donor molecules to enhance its oxidative stability. The transglycosylation reaction with maltotriose as donor created mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. In addition, two acarviosine-glucosyl transfer products were generated when transglycosylation was performed with acarbose as a donor. All transfer products were observed by TLC and HPLC, and purified by Q-sepharose anion exchange and Biogel P-2 gel permeation chromatographies. LC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses revealed that the structures of the transfer products were 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl- (2) and 6-O-alpha-D-maltosyl-ascorbic acids (3) in the reaction of maltotriose, and 6-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl- (4) and 2-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl ascorbic acids (5) in the reaction of acarbose. The stability of the transglycosylated ascorbic acid derivatives was greatly enhanced against oxidation by Cu(2+) ion and ascorbate oxidase. Among them, compound 3 proved to be the most stable against in vitro oxidation. The antioxidant effects of glycosyl-derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation in cooked chicken breast meat patties indicated that they had antioxidant activities similar to that of ascorbic acid. It is suggested that the transglycosylated ascorbic acids can possibly be applied as effective antioxidants with improved stability in food, cosmetic, and other applications.

  11. Distribution of ascorbate-2-sulfate and distribution, half-life and turnover rates of (1-/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.W.; Halver, J.E.

    1984-06-01

    Rainbow trout (250 g) were maintained at 15 degrees C for 3 months on a low ascorbic acid diet, given (1-/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid by gavage, then fed the NAS/NRC requirement 12 times per week. Total urine, fecal water and branchial water were collected daily from five fish placed in metabolism chambers for four successive 5-day periods. Tissue samples were analyzed for /sup 14/C, ascorbic acid (C1) and ascorbate-2-sulfate (C2). Excretion analysis indicated t1/2 . 42 days. After 20 days, the feeding schedule was changed to 3 times per week. Fish fed /sup 14/C were sampled after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The half-life in each organ except brain was inversely proportional to the dietary level of ascorbate. Concentrations of C1 and C2 in the various tissues reflected dietary intake of vitamin C. Total C (CT . C1 + C2) levels were maintained in the liver even with the low vitamin C diet. Estimates of body pool for C1 are 27-29 mg/kg. At the higher ascorbate intake CT was 92-114 mg/kg, but decreased by 34% at the lower feeding rate to 51-62 mg/kg. Data indicate that there are two or more body pools that include a store of C2, which is readily interconverted in metabolizing tissues to and from C1. Since air and water stable C2 is antiscorbutic for fish, it is the preferred form of ascorbate for fish feeds.

  12. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer with Pharmacological Ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, John A; Cullen, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with less than 3% survival at 5 years. Recent studies have demonstrated that high-dose, intravenous pharmacological ascorbate (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress selectively in pancreatic cancer cells vs. normal cells, suggesting a promising new role of ascorbate as a therapeutic agent. At physiologic concentrations, ascorbate functions as a reducing agent and antioxidant. However, when pharmacological ascorbate is given intravenously, it is possible to achieve millimolar plasma concentration. At these pharmacological levels, and in the presence of catalytic metal ions, ascorbate can induce oxidative stress through the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated ascorbate oxidation occurs extracellularly, generating H2O2 flux into cells resulting in oxidative stress. Pharmacologic ascorbate also inhibits the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts and displays synergistic cytotoxic effects when combined with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. Phase I trials of pharmacological ascorbate in pancreatic cancer patients have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity, examine the use of pharmacological ascorbate in treatment and assess the current data supporting its potential as an adjuvant in pancreatic cancer.

  13. Interactive enhancements of ascorbic acid and iron in hydroxyl radical generation in quinone redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Jincai; Xu, Bingye

    2012-09-18

    Quinones are toxicological substances in inhalable particulate matter (PM). The mechanisms by which quinones cause hazardous effects can be complex. Quinones are highly active redox molecules that can go through a redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species. Electron spin resonance spectra have been reported for semiquinone radicals in PM, indicating the importance of ascorbic acid and iron in quinone redox cycling. However, these findings are insufficient for understanding the toxicity associated with quinone exposure. Herein, we investigated the interactions among anthraquinone (AQ), ascorbic acid, and iron in hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation through the AQ redox cycling process in a physiological buffer. We measured ·OH concentration and analyzed the free radical process. Our results showed that AQ, ascorbic acid, and iron have synergistic effects on ·OH generation in quinone redox cycling; i.e., ascorbyl radical oxidized AQ to semiquinone radical and started the redox cycling, iron accelerated this oxidation and enhanced ·OH generation through Fenton reactions, while ascorbic acid and AQ could help iron to release from quartz surface and enhance its bioavailability. Our findings provide direct evidence for the redox cycling hypothesis about airborne particle surface quinone in lung fluid.

  14. Responsiveness to oral iron and ascorbic acid in a patient with IRIDA.

    PubMed

    Cau, Milena; Galanello, Renzo; Giagu, Nicolina; Melis, Maria Antonietta

    2012-02-15

    Mutations in TMPRSS6 gene cause iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypochromic microcytic anemia not responsive to oral iron therapy and partially responsive to parenteral iron administration. Here we report a female infant homozygous for a loss of function mutation in TMPRSS6 gene, who responded to oral iron therapy when supplemented with ascorbic acid.

  15. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Carbohydrates and Ascorbic Acid and White Pine and Possible Relation to Tipburn Sensitivity

    Treesearch

    Robert L Barnes; Charles R. Berry

    1969-01-01

    Changes in amounts of total soluble carbohydrates and ascorbic acid were related to needle length of eastern white pine during June and July 1967 at Bent Creek Experimental Forest. Sugar values remained low through the early growing season, and several instances of injury to clones sensitive to tipburn occurred as late as mid-July. Sugar levels fluctuated somewhat,...

  17. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid DNA damage caused by methylated arsenicals, ascorbic acid and human liver ferritin.

    Arsenic causes cancer in human skin, urinary bladder, lung, liver and kidney and is a significant world-wide public health problem. Although the metabolism of inorganic arsenic is ...

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidative Stress Triggers Tgf-Beta-Dependent Muscle Dysfunction by Accelerating Ascorbic Acid Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Pozzer, Diego; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Bolis, Marco; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Solagna, Francesca; Blaauw, Bert; Zito, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress are two related phenomena that have important metabolic consequences. As many skeletal muscle diseases are triggered by oxidative stress, we explored the chain of events linking a hyperoxidized ER (which causes ER and oxidative stress) with skeletal muscle dysfunction. An unbiased exon expression array showed that the combined genetic modulation of the two master ER redox proteins, selenoprotein N (SEPN1) and endoplasmic oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1), led to an SEPN1-related myopathic phenotype due to excessive signalling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. The increased TGF-beta activity in the genetic mutants was caused by accelerated turnover of the ER localized (anti-oxidant) ascorbic acid that affected collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix. In a mouse mutant of SEPN1, which is dependent on exogenous ascorbic acid, a limited intake of ascorbic acid revealed a myopathic phenotype as a consequence of an altered TGF-beta signalling. Indeed, systemic antagonism of TGF-beta re-established skeletal muscle function in SEPN1 mutant mice. In conclusion, this study sheds new light on the molecular mechanism of SEPN1-related myopathies and indicates that the TGF-beta/ERO1/ascorbic acid axis offers potential for their treatment. PMID:28106121

  19. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasmid DNA damage caused by methylated arsenicals, ascorbic acid and human liver ferritin.

    Arsenic causes cancer in human skin, urinary bladder, lung, liver and kidney and is a significant world-wide public health problem. Although the metabolism of inorganic arsenic is ...

  20. Existence of thickness threshold for crystal growth rate of ascorbic acid from its thin solution film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Mitsunobu; Kashiwase, Sakiko

    2017-06-01

    Growth rate of ascorbic acid crystal domains from its aqueous solution film depends on the film thickness. Existence of a thickness threshold is experimentally confirmed below which growth rate becomes quite low and is considered to almost stop. This threshold is one of the essential factors for the dynamical transition between uniform and rhythmic growth modes.

  1. Effects of intracameral ascorbic acid on the corneal endothelium of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    M Padua, Ivan R; P Valdetaro, Gisele; B Lima, Tiago; K Kobashigawa, Karina; E S Silva, Paloma; Aldrovani, Marcela; M Padua, Pedro P; Laus, Jose L

    2017-07-17

    Cataracts are the most common ocular disorder in dogs. Phacoemulsification is the preferred treatment method among ophthalmologists, but the cellularity of the endothelium must be considered for its success, as endothelial lesions may produce permanent corneal decompensation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intracameral ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant, on the corneal endothelium of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification. In all, 40 eyes from 20 dogs, males and females from 7 to 12 years of age, were assessed for mature cataracts. Two groups were formed (n = 20): Group 1 (G1) received a balanced salt solution (BSS), whereas Group 2 (G2) received sterile ascorbic acid diluted in a BSS, at a final concentration of 0.001 m ascorbic acid. The corneal endothelium was assessed via non-contact specular microscopy at multiple time points before and after phacoemulsification. Cell density (cells/mm(2) ) and area (mm(2) ), corneal thickness (mm), hexagonality, and the coefficient of variation of cell size were all assessed. P values equal to or less than 0.05 were considered significant. With respect to the density of endothelial cells, both groups showed losses, but they were less severe in G2. There were no differences in corneal thickness. Hexagonality decreased significantly in the postoperative period in G1. Also in G1, the coefficient of variation of cell size increased significantly. According to the results obtained, ascorbic acid minimizes cellular losses in the corneal endothelium. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Age-dependent changes in uptake and recycling of ascorbic acid in erythrocytes of Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eri

    2008-08-01

    Uptake and recycling of ascorbic acid (AA) were studied in erythrocytes of 1- to 12-month-old Beagle dogs. At 1 month, both AA uptake and recycling capacity were high. Ascorbic acid entered erythrocytes mainly in the oxidized form with elevated activity of Glut 1 glucose transporter. However, this trait of erythrocytes was rapidly lost in the course of postnatal growth. At 3 months, ascorbic acid uptake and recycling capacity decreased to almost adult levels. Thereafter, AA was transported mainly in the reduced form, and its uptake and recycling capacity became one-third the levels of 1-month-old dogs. Postnatal anemia and recovery were indicated by changes in hemoglobin and packed cell volume levels at 1 and 3 months. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity was twice as high as in adults in 1-month-old dogs, allowing efficient reduction of oxidized ascorbic acid, which enters cells in large amounts due to elevated activity of the Glut 1 glucose transporter. One-month-old dogs need high levels of AA for antioxidant protection and skeletal development. The high AA recycling capacity of erythrocytes is considered to balance the expenditure of AA in young Beagle dogs.

  3. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Dubick, M A; Hunter, G C; Casey, S M; Keen, C L

    1987-02-01

    Altered trace elements and ascorbic acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, their role in the disease process, or the effect of atherosclerosis on their tissue levels within plaque, is poorly understood. The present study analyzes the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, and ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue samples from 29 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 14 patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD). It was observed that the Fe and Mn concentrations in AAA and AOD tissue were higher than the levels in nondiseased control aorta, whereas Cu and Zn levels in AAA and AOD tissue were similar to the levels in controls. The Zn:Cu ratio was significantly lower in the AAA tissue in comparison to both AOD and control tissue. In addition, AAA and AOD tissue had low ascorbic acid levels and low Cu,Zn-SOD activity with Cu,Zn-SOD:Mn-SOD ratios of 0.27 and 0.19, respectively, compared to a ratio of 3.20 in control aorta. These data indicate that aorta affected by aneurysms and occlusive disease have altered trace element and ascorbic acid concentrations, as well as low Cu,Zn-SOD activity. Although these observations do not directly support the hypothesis that AAA is associated with aortic Cu deficiency they do suggest a role for oxygen radicals or increased lipid peroxidation in occlusive and aneurysmal disease of the aorta.

  4. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dubick, M.A.; Hunter, G.C.; Casey, S.M.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-02-01

    Altered trace elements and ascorbic acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, their role in the disease process, or the effect of atherosclerosis on their tissue levels within plaque, is poorly understood. The presence study analyzes the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, and ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue samples from 29 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 14 patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD). It was observed that the Fe and Mn concentrations in AAA and AOD tissue were higher than the levels in nondiseased control aorta, whereas Cu and Zn levels in AAA and AOD tissue were similar to the levels in controls. The Zn:Cu ratio was significantly lower in the AAA tissue in comparison to both AOD and control tissue. In addition, AAA and AOD tissue had low ascorbic acid levels and low Cu, Zn-SOD activity with Cu,Zn-SOD:Mn-SOD ratios of 0.27 and 0.19, respectively, compared to a ratio of 3.20 in control aorta. These data indicate that aorta affected by aneurysms and occlusive disease have altered trace element and ascorbic acid concentrations, as well as low Cu,Zn-SOD activity. Although these observations do not directly support the hypothesis that AAA is associated with aortic Cu deficiency they do suggest a role for oxygen radicals or increased lipid peroxidation in occlusive and aneurysmal disease of the aorta.

  5. Minocycline, but not ascorbic acid, increases motor activity and extends the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mora, Marylhi; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley J; Bonilla, Ernesto; Terán, Raikelin E; Paz, Milagros C; Arcaya, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    In the present study we compared the effects of minocycline and ascorbic acid in the life span, motor activity and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster, in an effort to find a substance capable of providing protection against oxidative stress in aging. In the flies treated with minocycline a very significant increase in the life span (101 +/- 1.33 days) was observed when compared to those treated with ascorbic acid and controls (42.3% and 38.4%, respectively). The motor activity of minocycline treated flies also increased significantly with respect to control and ascorbic acid fed flies, from the 3rd to the 9th week of treatment. With regard to lipid peroxidation, it was found that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in flies treated with minocycline showed no statistical differences to the control on the first day of treatment, but a significantly lower content on the day of 50% survival. In contrast, in flies treated with ascorbic acid significantly elevated levels of MDA compared to control and minocycline treated flies were detected throughout. These results suggest a protective effect of minocycline against oxidative stress and aging in D. melanogaster. An inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species production may be an important contributing factor.

  6. Ascorbate as a pro-oxidant: mild N-terminal modification with vinylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Jun; Ball, Zachary T

    2017-02-04

    We describe divergent reactivity of vinylboronic acids for protein modification. In addition to previously reported copper-catalyzed backbone N-H modification, ascorbate in air mediates N-terminal functionalization with the same vinylboronate reagents. This mild and selective aqueous reactivity enables selective single-modification of the B chain of human insulin.

  7. Ascorbic acid reduces accumulation of (/sup 3/H)spiperone in mouse striatum in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Dorris, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    (/sup 3/H)Spiperone was administered to mice. In agreement with other published reports, 2 hr later the accumulation of tritium was three to four times greater in the corpus striatum than in the cerebellum. Ascorbic acid (100, 1000, 2000 mg/kg, ip, 30 min) reduced the 2-hr accumulation in the corpus striatum 16, 42, and 63%, respectively, with only the highest does producing any significant reduction in the cerebellum. The effect was still evident in striatum 18 hr after a single dose of 1000 mg/kg. Striatal minces taken from mice treated 1 or 2 hr earlier with ascorbic acid showed no reduction in (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding. However, preincubation of striatal minces for 2 hr with ascorbic acid (10/sup -3/ M) produced an 82% reduction in specific binding while not having any effect on nonspecific binding. While it cannot be certain that the reduction of striatal (/sup 3/H) spiperone concentrations after ascorbic acid in vivo was not a result of some nonspecific alteration in the pharmacokinetics of (/sup 3/H)spiperone, the in vitro observation strongly suggests that it resulted from an alteration of binding characteristics at the receptor level.

  8. The human sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not mediate ascorbic acid release in the proximal renal epithelial cell

    PubMed Central

    Eck, Peter; Kwon, Oran; Chen, Shenglin; Mian, Omar; Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid membrane transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate ascorbic acid (vitamin C) transport into cells. However, it is unknown how ascorbic acid undergoes cellular release, or efflux. We hypothesized that SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 could serve a dual role, mediating ascorbic acid cellular efflux as well as uptake. Renal reabsorption is required for maintaining systemic vitamin C concentrations. Because efflux from nephron cells is necessary for reabsorption, we studied whether SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate efflux of ascorbic acid in the human renal nephron. We found high gene expression of SLC23A1 but no expression of SLC23A2 in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules of humans. These data rule out SLC23A2 as the ascorbic acid release protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelia cell. We utilized a novel dual transporter-based Xenopus laevis oocyte system to investigate the function of the SLC23A1 protein, and found that no ascorbate release was mediated by SLC23A1. These findings were confirmed in mammalian cells overexpressing SLC23A1. Taken together, the data for SLC23A1 show that it too does not have a role in cellular release of ascorbic acid across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cell, and that SLC23A1 alone is responsible for ascorbic acid uptake across the apical membrane. These findings reiterate the physiological importance of proper functioning of SLC23A1 in maintaining vitamin C levels for health and disease prevention. The ascorbate efflux mechanism in the proximal tubule of the kidney remains to be characterized. PMID:24400138

  9. The effect of ascorbic acid and fluid flow stimulation on the mechanical properties of a tissue engineered pelvic floor repair material.

    PubMed

    Osman, Nadir I; Roman, Sabiniano; Bullock, Anthony J; Chapple, Christopher R; MacNeil, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic non-degradable meshes used in pelvic floor surgery can cause serious complications such as tissue erosion. A repair material composed of an autologous oral fibroblast seeded degradable polylactic acid scaffold may be a viable alternative. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of media supplementation with additives (ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, glycolic acid and 17-β-oestradiol) on the mechanical properties of these scaffolds. Oral fibroblasts were isolated from buccal mucosa. The effects of the three additives were initially compared in two-dimensional culture to select the most promising collagen stimulating additive. Sterile electrospun scaffolds were seeded with 500,000 oral fibroblasts and fixed in 6-well plates and subjected to ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (the best performing additive) and/or mechanical stimulation. Mechanical stimulation by fluid shear stress was induced by rocking scaffolds on a platform shaker for 1 h/day for 10 of 14 days of culture. In two-dimensional culture, ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (concentrations from 0.02 mM to 0.04 M) and glycolic acid (10 µM) led to significantly greater total collagen production, but ascorbic acid-2-phosphate at 0.03 mM produced the greatest stimulation (of the order of >100%). In three-dimensional culture, mechanical stimulation alone gave non-significant increases in stiffness and strength. Ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (0.03 mM) significantly increased collagen production in the order 280% in both static and mechanically stimulated scaffolds (p < 0.0001). There was no additional effect of mechanical stimulation. Dense collagen I fibres were observed with ascorbic acid-2-phosphate supplementation. Uniaxial tensiometry showed that strength (p < 0.01) and stiffness (p <0.05) both improved significantly. A combination of ascorbic acid-2-phosphate and mechanical stimulation led to further non-signficant increases in strength and stiffness. In conclusion, a pelvic floor

  10. In vitro effects of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elizabeth F; Donato, Tatiani A G; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2012-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) and β-glycerophosphate (βG) are considered in vitro osteogenic factors important to the differentiation of osteoblastic progenitor and dental pulp cells into mineralized tissue-forming cells. So, the present study investigated in vitro if these mineralizing inducible factors (AA and βG) could influence differentiation of human gingival fibroblasts when compared with human pulp cells and osteogenic cells derived from rat calvaria cultured. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) and osteoadherin (OSAD) was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry as well as Western-blotting. In addition, the main ultrastructural aspects were also investigated. No mineralized matrix formation occurred on gingival fibroblasts induced with AA+βG. On these cells, no expression of OPN and OSAD was observed when compared with pulp cells, pulp cells induced with AA+βG as well as osteogenic cells. Ultrastructure analysis additionally showed that gingival fibroblasts exhibited typical fibroblast morphology with no nodule formation. The present findings showed that AA and βG could not promote a mineralized cell differentiation of human gingival fibroblasts and confirm that human dental pulp cells, as the osteogenic cells, are capable to form a mineralized extracellular.

  11. Reduction of the DNA damages, Hepatoprotective Effect and Antioxidant Potential of the Coconut Water, ascorbic and Caffeic Acids in Oxidative Stress Mediated by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Vanderson S; Dantas, Lucas S; Chaves, Adriano B; Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P DA; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Rodrigo B; Santos, Aline C; Trindade, Danielle J; Matos, Humberto R

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0.18 µM), caffeic acid (1.1 µM), methyl caffeate (0.03 µM), quercetin (0.08 µM) and ferulic acid (0.02 µM) isomers. In the animals, the activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) was reduced to 1.8 I.U/L in the coconut water group, 3.6 I.U/L in the ascorbic acid group and 2.9 I.U/L in the caffeic acid groups, when compared with the ethanol group (5.1 I.U/L, p<0.05). Still in liver, the DNA analysis demonstrated a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group of 36.2% and 48.0% for pretreated and post treated coconut water group respectively, 42.5% for the caffeic acid group, and 34.5% for the ascorbic acid group. The ascorbic acid was efficient in inhibiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver by 16.5% in comparison with the ethanol group. These data indicate that the green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and reduced DNA damage properties, thus decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.

  12. Augmentation of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells by ascorbate-tamoxifen and/or ascorbate-juglone treatments.

    PubMed

    Sajadimajd, Soraya; Yazdanparast, Razieh; Roshanzamir, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) play diverse roles in cancer, modulating the redox status of cancerous cells seems to be a promising therapeutic approach. Oxidant-targeted therapy appears logical for intervention with the acquired adaptive response to oxidative stress in cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of juglone (J) and tamoxifen (T) and also the combination of each with ascorbate (A): tamoxifen/ascorbate (TA) and/or juglone/ascorbate (JA) on MCF7 cancerous cells. The results revealed that the growth inhibitory effects of juglone and tamoxifen were each associated with enhanced levels of ROS production and lipid peroxidation. These effects were markedly intensified in tamoxifen/ascorbate and juglone/ascorbate co-treatments. On the other hand, the intracellular anti-oxidant components such as reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase significantly declined in cells subjected to combination treatments compared to that in cells exposed solely to tamoxifen, juglone, and the untreated control cells. In addition, ascorbate association induced more apoptotic and necrotic or necrotic-like cell death than cells treated with each drug alone. These results were further confirmed by comparing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in combination-treated cells. Additionally, ascorbate was able to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of combination therapy via activation of ROS-responsive factors including Foxo family members.

  13. Positive modulation of the α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor by ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Boffi, JC; Wedemeyer, C; Lipovsek, M; Katz, E; Calvo, DJ; Elgoyhen, AB

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The activation of α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) present at the synapse between efferent olivocochlear fibres and cochlear hair cells can prevent acoustic trauma. Hence, pharmacological potentiators of these receptors could be useful therapeutically. In this work, we characterize ascorbic acid as a positive modulator of recombinant α9α10 nAChRs. Experimental Approach ACh-evoked responses were analysed under two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with α9 and α10 cRNAs. Key Results Ascorbic acid potentiated ACh responses in X. laevis oocytes expressing α9α10 (but not α4β2 or α7) nAChRs, in a concentration-dependent manner, with an effective concentration range of 1–30 mM. The compound did not affect the receptor's current–voltage profile nor its apparent affinity for ACh, but it significantly enhanced the maximal evoked currents (percentage of ACh maximal response, 240 ± 20%). This effect was specific for the L form of reduced ascorbic acid. Substitution of the extracellular cysteine residues present in loop C of the ACh binding site did not affect the potentiation. Ascorbic acid turned into a partial agonist of α9α10 nAChRs bearing a point mutation at the pore domain of the channel (TM2 V13′T mutant). A positive allosteric mechanism of action rather than an antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid is proposed. Conclusions and Implications The present work describes one of the few agents that activates or potentiates α9α10 nAChRs and leads to new avenues for designing drugs with potential therapeutic use in inner ear disorders. PMID:22994414

  14. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation.

  15. Ascorbic acid in diet supplements: loss in the manufacturing process and storage.

    PubMed

    Giménez, R; Cabrera, C; Olalla, M; Ruiz, M D; López, M C

    2002-11-01

    The ascorbic acid content was determined in 25 different diet supplements commercially available to the consumer in two pharmaceutical forms (pills and ampoules). These products are widely consumed by several population groups (elderly people, sportsmen, adolescents, children, etc.). High-performance liquid chromatography was used as the analytical technique. The proposed method has been validated with good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and accuracy, and can be used in routine analyses and in quality control. The ascorbic acid content in pills ranged from 15.62 to 50.16 mg/g, and in that ampoules from 2.12 to 8.83 mg/ml. Depending on the dosage rates, these levels would represent approximately 20-50% of the daily dietary intake recommended by the National Research Council. Possible losses in the manufacturing process and stability during storage for 30 days at 40 +/- 2 degrees C without light, were tested. In relation to the ascorbic acid concentrations stated on the labels, a loss of 12.0-21.9% in pills and of 11.7-18.0% in ampoules was detected. In relation to the stability conditions, the losses are of 1.8-24.8% in pills and of 10.4-19.3% in ampoules. The pasteurisation and sterilisation processes produced a mean loss of ascorbic acid in ampoules of 2.1 and 1.4%, respectively. A statistically significant direct correlation was observed between ascorbic acid loss and content in proteins, humidity, ash, and fructose. The influence of the pharmaceutical form was also tested. Data revealed that the control of losses during the manufacturing and commercialisation process of these products is necessary to ensure the intake of vitamin C from these products by the consumer.

  16. Ascorbic acid partly antagonizes resveratrol mediated heme oxygenase-1 but not paraoxonase-1 induction in cultured hepatocytes - role of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both resveratrol and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are frequently used in complementary and alternative medicine. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for potential health benefits of resveratrol and its interactions with ascorbic acid. Methods The antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 were analysed for their mRNA and protein levels in HUH7 liver cells treated with 10 and 25 μmol/l resveratrol in the absence and presence of 100 and 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Additionally the transactivation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and paraoxonase-1 were determined by reporter gene assays. Results Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 in cultured hepatocytes. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by resveratrol was accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 transactivation. Resveratrol mediated Nrf2 transactivation as well as heme oxygenase-1 induction were partly antagonized by 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Conclusions Unlike heme oxygenase-1 (which is highly regulated by Nrf2) paraoxonase-1 (which exhibits fewer ARE/Nrf2 binding sites in its promoter) induction by resveratrol was not counteracted by ascorbic acid. Addition of resveratrol to the cell culture medium produced relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide which may be a positive hormetic redox-signal for Nrf2 dependent gene expression thereby driving heme oxygenase-1 induction. However, high concentrations of ascorbic acid manifold increased hydrogen peroxide production in the cell culture medium which may be a stress signal thereby disrupting the Nrf2 signalling pathway. PMID:21199573

  17. Ascorbic acid contents in transgenic potato plants overexpressing two dehydroascorbate reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Aiguo; Shi, Qinghua; Yu, Xianchang

    2011-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) is one of the most important nutritional quality factors in many horticultural crops and has many biological activities in the human body. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1; DHAR) plays an important role in maintaining the normal level of ascorbic acid (AsA) by recycling oxidized ascorbic acid. To increase AsA content of potato, we isolated and characterized the cDNAs encoding two isoform DHARs localized in cytosol and chloroplast from potato, and developed two types of transgenic potato plants overexpressing cytosolic DHAR gene and chloroplastic DHAR, respectively. Incorporation of the transgene in the genome of potato was confirmed by PCR and real time RT-PCR. The overexpression of cytosolic DHAR significantly increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in potato leaves and tubers, whereas chloroplastic DHAR overexpression only increased DHAR activities and AsA contents in leaves, and did not change them in tubers. These results indicated that AsA content of potato can be elevated by enhancing recycling ascorbate via DHAR overexpression, moreover, cytosolic DHAR might play main important roles in improving the AsA contents of potato tubers.

  18. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    PubMed

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  19. SVCT-2 determines the sensitivity to ascorbate-induced cell death in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and patient derived xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changzheng; Lv, Hongwei; Yang, Wen; Li, Ting; Fang, Tian; Lv, Guishuai; Han, Qin; Dong, Liwei; Jiang, Tianyi; Jiang, Beige; Yang, Guangshun; Wang, Hongyang

    2017-04-04

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a devastating malignancy with late diagnosis and poor response to conventional chemotherapy. Recent studies have revealed anti-cancer effect of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, ascorbate) in several types of cancer. However, the effect of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in CC remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that AA induced cytotoxicity in CC cells by generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and subsequently DNA damage, ATP depletion, mTOR pathway inhibition. Moreover, AA worked synergistically with chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to impair CC cells growth both in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT-2) expression was inversely correlated with IC50 values of AA. Knockdown of SVCT-2 dramatically alleviated DNA damage, ATP depletion, and inhibition of mTOR pathway induced by AA. Furthermore, SVCT-2 knockdown endowed CC cells with the resistance to AA treatment. Finally, the inhibitory effects of AA were further confirmed in patient-derived CC xenograft models. Thus, our results unravel therapeutic potential of AA alone or in combination with cisplatin for CC. SVCT2 expression level may serve as a positive outcome predictor for AA treatment in CC.

  20. Improved method for the analysis of ascorbic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Umegaki, K; Inoue, K; Takeuchi, N; Higuchi, M

    1994-02-01

    We improved the analytical method for the detection of ascorbic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD) to be more selective and rapid than the protocol previously used. Main improvements are as follows. Applied potential of ECD to obtain the maximal response for ascorbic acid was +450 mV versus Ag/AgCl, but it was reduced to +350 mV. In that condition, uric acid did not respond to ECD, and only ascorbic acid was detected. EDTA contained in sample extraction/stabilizing solution gave the peak after the ascorbic acid. The addition of EDTA (0.2 mM) to the mobile phase eliminated the EDTA peak. These two improvements gave the chromatogram in which the peak that appeared from the plasma sample was only ascorbic acid, and shorten the sample run time. Ascorbic acid in plasma was unstable even though the plasma was treated with methanol/EDTA: it decreased from 1.5 h at 4 degrees C. However, the treated sample, which was placed at -14 degrees C until the analysis was performed, gave the reliable ascorbic acid value at least up to 6 h. The data obtained from the HPLC-ECD method was consistent with those from the hydrazine method.

  1. Improved regeneration potential of fibroblasts using ascorbic acid-blended nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Sreepathy; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional scaffolds, three-dimensional scaffolds, and dermal substitutes are extensively used for biomedical applications in skin tissue regeneration. Not much explored synthetic polymers, like poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), natural polymers, like silk fibroin (SF), and active inducing agents, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), represent a favorable matrix for fabricating dermal substitutes to engineer artificial skin for wound repair. The profligate nature of residing skin cells near the wound site is a paramount to survival and also regulating stem cells and other cellular networks and mechanical forces. PLACL/SF/TCH/AA nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized for fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, and significant subchains using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for culturing human-derived dermal fibroblasts. The PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/SF/TCH, and PLACL/SF/TCH/AA scaffolds obtained diameters between 250 and 340 nm. The secretion of collagen by the laboratory-grown fibroblasts over the AA-blended scaffolds was found to be significantly higher compared with that of other scaffolds. The obtained results positively prove that introduction of naturally secreting compounds (AA) by the cells into the nanofibrous scaffolds will favor cell's microenvironment and eventually leads to complete tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Radiolabelling of ascorbic acid: a new clue to clarify its action as an anticancer agent?

    PubMed

    Mamede, A C; Abrantes, A M; Pires, A S; Tavares, S D; Serra, M E; Maia, J M; Botelho, M F

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin C exists in two forms: the reduced (ascorbic acid--AA) and oxidized form (dehydroascorbic acid--DHA). This is a nutrient whose benefits are long known and widely publicized, being most of them related to its antioxidant action. As an antioxidant, the main role of vitamin C is to neutralize free radicals, reducing oxidative stress. However, some controversial studies suggest that this nutrient may have a preventive and therapeutic role in cancer disease due to their possible pro-oxidant activity, promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species that can induce cell death in cancer cells. This factor, coupled with the decrease of antioxidant enzymes and increase of decompartmentalized transition metals in tumor cells may result in the selective cytotoxicity of vitamin C and the subsequent revelation of its therapeutic potential. In this way the first purpose of this work was radioactively label the reduced form of vitamin C with Tc-99m, its quality control by HPLC and the time stability. The second purpose was to use the radioactive complex 99mTc-AA in in vitro and in vivo studies in order to evaluate its uptake by colorectal cancer cells and biodistribution in mices, respectively. The results suggest that the pharmaceutical formulation developed, which was reproducible and stable over time, was residually taken up by colorectal cancer cells. Future studies are needed to deepen our understanding about the radioactive complex 99mTc-AA and clarify the mechanisms of action of vitamin C in oncologic disease.

  3. Mild concentration of ethanol in combination with ascorbic acid inhibits browning and maintains quality of fresh-cut lotus root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous solutions of ethanol and ascorbic acid alone and in combination were compared to a commonly used sanitizer, sodium hypochlorite, and a leading commercial antibrowning agent containing calcium ascorbate (CA)for their efficacy to inhibit microbial growth and browning on fresh-cut lotus root. F...

  4. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  5. Transcriptomic and functional pathways analysis of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity and resistance of Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zenglin; Zhang, Xuan; Ji, Chunxia; Liu, Song-Mei; Wang, Jin

    2016-09-27

    Ascorbate is a pro-oxidant that generates hydrogen peroxide-dependent cytotoxity in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. To determine the mechanistic basis for this phenotype, we selected Burkitt lymphoma cells resistant to ascorbate (JLPR cells) and their ascorbate-sensitive parental cells (JLPS cells). Compared with JLPS cells, the increased glucose uptake in JLPR cells (with upregulated glucose transporters, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and altered cell cycling) conferred ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity and resistance. Transcriptomic profiles and function pathway analysis identified differentially expressed gene signatures for JLPR cells and JLPS cells, which differential expression levels of five genes (ATF5, CD79B, MHC, Myosin, and SAP18) in ascorbate-resistant cells were related to phosphoinositide 3 kinase, cdc42, DNA methylation and transcriptional repression, polyamine regulation, and integrin-linked kinase signaling pathways. These results suggested that coordinated changes occurred in JLPR cells to enable their survival when exposed to the cytotoxic pro-oxidant stress elicited by pharmacologic ascorbate treatment.

  6. Ascorbic Acid Promotes the Stemness of Corneal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells and Accelerates Epithelial Wound Healing in the Cornea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Lan, Jie; Liu, Dongle; Backman, Ludvig J; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2017-03-09

    High concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been found in corneal epithelium of various species. However, the specific functions and mechanisms of ascorbic acid in the repair of corneal epithelium are not clear. In this study, it was found that ascorbic acid accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing in vivo in mouse. In addition, ascorbic acid enhanced the stemness of cultured mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) in vitro, as shown by elevated clone formation ability and increased expression of stemness markers (especially p63 and SOX2). The contribution of ascorbic acid on the stemness enhancement was not dependent on the promotion of Akt phosphorylation, as concluded by using Akt inhibitor, nor was the stemness found to be dependent on the regulation of oxidative stress, as seen by the use of two other antioxidants (GMEE and NAC). However, ascorbic acid was found to promote extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and by using two collagen synthesis inhibitors (AzC and CIS), the increased expression of p63 and SOX2 by ascorbic acid was decreased by around 50%, showing that the increased stemness by ascorbic acid can be attributed to its regulation of ECM components. Moreover, the expression of p63 and SOX2 was elevated when TKE2 cells were cultured on collagen I coated plates, a situation that mimics the in vivo situation as collagen I is the main component in the corneal stroma. This study shows direct therapeutic benefits of ascorbic acid on corneal epithelial wound healing and provides new insights into the mechanisms involved. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  7. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  8. Methane formation by oxidation of ascorbic acid using iron minerals and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Frederik; Jugold, Alke; Keppler, Frank

    2010-06-01

    The possibility of methane formation in an oxidative environment has been intensely debated, especially since the discovery of methane generation by living plants. However, recent studies with animal tissue suggested that under specific conditions aerobic methane formation is also possible. Here, we investigated the generation of methane in an abiotic model system using bioavailable substances. We show formation of methane in a highly oxidative media, using ascorbic acid, ferrihydrite and hydrogen peroxide as reagents. Methane production was shown to be related to reagent ratio, reaction volume and pH. A 2:1 ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ascorbic acid, catalytic amounts of ferrihydrite and acidic conditions (pH 3) enhanced formation of methane. We further show that gaseous oxygen has a strong influence with higher levels found to inhibit methane formation. This study is a first step towards providing an insight for the reaction mechanism of methane formation that would be applicable to aerobic environments.

  9. Free radical mechanisms for the oxidation of substituted ascorbates. A pulse radiolysis study of L-ascorbic acid-2-sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.; Comstock, D.A.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1983-09-01

    The oxidations of L-ascorbate 2-sulfate by Br/sub 2//sup -/ and OH radicals generated in aqueous solutions (pH 4.5 to 9.5) were studied by pulse radiolysis. The (2-SO/sub 4/A)./sup -/ radical, generated in an electron transfer reaction between Br/sub 2//sup -/ and the parent compound, loses sulfate (tau approx. 500 ..mu..sec) to give ascorbate free radical (A./sup -/) with a G(A./sup -/) = 2.0. The oxidation of L-ascorbate 2sulfate by OH radicals is complex, yielding both (2-SO/sub 4/A)/sup -/ and OH radical adducts. Some of these transients subsequently yield A./sup -/. HPLC studies corroborate the overall mechanism postulated for the oxidation of L-ascorbate 2-sulfate by OH radicals.

  10. Ascorbic-acid-assisted recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Xiao Xiao; Chen, Ren Jie; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2012-11-01

    Recycling of the major components from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is considered desirable to prevent environmental pollution and recycle valuable metals. The present work investigates a novel process for recovering Co and Li from the cathode materials (containing LiCoO2 and Al) by a combination of ultrasonic washing, calcination, and organic acid leaching. Copper can also be recovered from the anode materials after they are manually separated from the cathode. Ascorbic acid is chosen as both leaching reagent and reducing agent to improve the Co recovery efficiency. Leaching efficiencies as high as 94.8% for Co and 98.5% for Li are achieved with a 1.25 mol L-1 ascorbic acid solution, leaching temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 25 gL-1. The acid leaching reaction mechanism has been preliminarily studied based on the structure of ascorbic acid. This method is shown to offer an efficient way to recycle valuable materials from spent LIBs, and it can be scaled up for commercial application.

  11. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  12. Oxidative scission of plant cell wall polysaccharides by ascorbate-induced hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, S C

    1998-01-01

    Scission of plant cell wall polysaccharides in vivo has generally been assumed to be enzymic. However, in the presence of l-ascorbate, such polysaccharides are shown to undergo non-enzymic scission under physiologically relevant conditions. Scission of xyloglucan by 1 mM ascorbate had a pH optimum of 4.5, and the maximum scission rate was reached after a 10-25-min delay. Catalase prevented the scission, whereas added H2O2 (0.1-10 mM) increased the scission rate and shortened the delay. Ascorbate caused detectable xyloglucan scission above approx. 5 microM. Dehydroascorbate was much less effective. Added Cu2+ (>0.3 microM) also increased the rate of ascorbate-induced scission; EDTA was inhibitory. The rate of scission in the absence of added metals appeared to be attributable to the traces of Cu (2.8 mg.kg-1) present in the xyloglucan. Ascorbate-induced scission of xyloglucan was inhibited by radical scavengers; their effectiveness was proportional to their rate constants for reaction with hydroxyl radicals (.OH). It is proposed that ascorbate non-enzymically reduces O2 to H2O2, and Cu2+ to Cu+, and that H2O2 and Cu+ react to form .OH, which causes oxidative scission of polysaccharide chains. Evidence is reviewed to suggest that, in the wall of a living plant cell, Cu+ and H2O2 are formed by reactions involving ascorbate and its products, dehydroascorbate and oxalate. Systems may thus be in place to produce apoplastic .OH radicals in vivo. Although .OH radicals are often regarded as detrimental, they are so short-lived that they could act as site-specific oxidants targeted to play a useful role in loosening the cell wall, e.g. during cell expansion, fruit ripening and organ abscission. PMID:9601081

  13. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  14. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B. P.; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-02-01

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B P; Saini, G S S

    2016-02-15

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impairment of ascorbic acid's anti-oxidant properties in confined media: inter and intramolecular reactions with air and vanadate at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Crans, Debbie C; Baruah, Bharat; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Lemons, Brant G; Lorenz, Bret B; Johnson, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The anti-oxidant properties of L-ascorbic acid were investigated in the confined medium produced by a sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (aerosol-OT, AOT) self-assembled reverse micelle. Using 1H-1H NOESY (proton-proton 2D nuclear overhauser enhancement correlation spectroscopy) NMR spectroscopy, the location of ascorbic acid was investigated and found to be at the AOT-interface in contrast to earlier studies where the ascorbate was assumed to be in the water pool in these microemulsions. The reaction of ascorbic acid with oxygen was investigated using EPR spectroscopy. A delocalized monoanionic ascorbate radical was observed in microemulsions prepared from pH 5.6 stock solutions. This is in contrast to studies carried out in aqueous media where no radical formation was observed. The oxidation of ascorbic acid by aqueous V(V) was investigated in reverse micelles. Modest changes in the kinetic parameters were observed for this system compared to that in water. Details of these reactions were examined and can be summarized as the microemulsion solvating and stabilizing reactive intermediates via rate inhibition or enhancement. The inhibition of the oxidation is due to solvation stabilization of ascorbic acid in microemulsion media. Since ascorbate is a valuable marker of oxidative stress, our results suggest that compartmentization can modify the stabilization of the ascorbate radical and the changes in properties could be important in biological systems.

  17. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in soft drinks and beer.

    PubMed

    Luque-Pérez, E; Ríos, A; Valcárcel, M

    2000-04-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods, a photochemical and a non-photochemical, for the determination of ascorbic acid in soft drinks and beer using a flow-injection system are proposed. The non-photochemical method is based on the redox reaction that takes place between ascorbic acid and Fe(III), yielding dehydroascorbic acid and Fe(II). Fe(II) reacts with 1,10-phenantroline, originating the reddish orange Fe(phen)3(2+) complex (ferroin). This complex is spectrophotometrically monitored at 512 nm, and the signal is directly related to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the sample. The photochemical method has the same basis, nevertheless, uses the irradiation with visible light to enhance the redox reaction and so achieve higher sensitivities in the analysis. The non-photochemical method shows a linear range between 5 and 80 microg mL(-1), with a relative standard deviation of 1.6% (n = 11), a detection limit of 2.7 microg mL(-1) and a sample throughput of 60 samples h(-1). The photochemical method shows a linear range between 1 and 80 microg mL(-1), with a relative standard deviation of 1.0% (n = 11 ), a detection limit of 0.5 microg mL(-1) and a sample throughput of 40 samples h(-1).

  18. Triethylenetetramine Synergizes with Pharmacologic Ascorbic Acid in Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Selective Toxicity to Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianlian; Luo, Xiaofang; Li, Cong; Huang, Yubing; Xu, Ping; Lloyd-Davies, Laetitia H.; Delplancke, Thibaut; Peng, Chuan; Qi, Hongbo; Baker, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and downregulation of catalase and more resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than normal cells. Thus, relatively high H2O2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, excessive intracellular H2O2 leads to death of breast cancer cells. In cancer cells, high level ascorbic acid (Asc) is able to be autoxidized and thus provides an electron to oxygen to generate H2O2. In the present study, we demonstrated that triethylenetetramine (TETA) enhances Asc autoxidation and thus elevates H2O2 production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, Asc/TETA combination significantly impaired cancer cell viability, while having much milder effects on normal cells, indicating Asc/TETA could be a promising therapy for breast cancer. Moreover, SOD1 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine failed to improve MCF-7 cells viability in the presence of Asc/TETA, while catalase significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to breast cancer cells, strongly suggesting that the selective cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to cancer cells is H2O2-dependent. In addition, Asc/TETA induces RAS/ERK downregulation in breast cancer cells. Animal studies confirmed that Asc/TETA effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, TETA synergizes pharmacologic Asc autoxidation and H2O2 overproduction in breast cancer cells, which suppresses RAS/ERK pathway and results in apoptosis. PMID:28280522

  19. Triethylenetetramine Synergizes with Pharmacologic Ascorbic Acid in Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Selective Toxicity to Breast Cancer Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Luo, Xiaofang; Li, Cong; Huang, Yubing; Xu, Ping; Lloyd-Davies, Laetitia H; Delplancke, Thibaut; Peng, Chuan; Gao, Rufei; Qi, Hongbo; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and downregulation of catalase and more resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than normal cells. Thus, relatively high H2O2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, excessive intracellular H2O2 leads to death of breast cancer cells. In cancer cells, high level ascorbic acid (Asc) is able to be autoxidized and thus provides an electron to oxygen to generate H2O2. In the present study, we demonstrated that triethylenetetramine (TETA) enhances Asc autoxidation and thus elevates H2O2 production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, Asc/TETA combination significantly impaired cancer cell viability, while having much milder effects on normal cells, indicating Asc/TETA could be a promising therapy for breast cancer. Moreover, SOD1 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine failed to improve MCF-7 cells viability in the presence of Asc/TETA, while catalase significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to breast cancer cells, strongly suggesting that the selective cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to cancer cells is H2O2-dependent. In addition, Asc/TETA induces RAS/ERK downregulation in breast cancer cells. Animal studies confirmed that Asc/TETA effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, TETA synergizes pharmacologic Asc autoxidation and H2O2 overproduction in breast cancer cells, which suppresses RAS/ERK pathway and results in apoptosis.

  20. Effects of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the therapeutic index of amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Belhachemi, M H; Boucherit, K; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Belmir, S; Benbekhti, Z

    2014-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the antifungal polyene of choice in deep fungal infections, but its high toxicity to mammalian cells limits its use. This toxicity is partly due to lipid peroxidation exerted by amphotericin B in cell membranes. The work we have undertaken focused on the one part the evaluation of the efficacy of amphotericin B in the presence of some antioxidants vitamins (vitamin C "ascorbic acid" and vitamin E "α-tocopherol") against the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Secondly, we have tested the cytotoxicity of these formulations on human red blood cells. The results showed a significant improvement in the efficiency of our formulations tested from 7% to 12% compared with amphotericin B alone at therapeutic concentrations. Furthermore, the addition of vitamin C and vitamin E protects human red blood cells against the cytotoxicity induced by amphotericin B with 17%. This is due may be to the antioxidant power of vitamins which confer protection against the autoxidation of the molecule of amphotericin B. On the other hand, it is noticed that the yeast regrows after 24h whatever in complex with vitamin C or vitamin E of the stock solution. On completion of this study, the incorporation of antioxidant vitamins that we propose to the reaction medium of antifungal improved the therapeutic index of amphotericin B.

  1. D-penicillamine-templated copper nanoparticles via ascorbic acid reduction as a mercury ion sensor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu Min; Geng, Shuo; Li, Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-05-01

    Mercury ion is one of the most hazardous metal pollutants that can cause deleterious effects on human health and the environment even at low concentrations. It is necessary to develop new mercury detection methods with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. In this study, a novel and green strategy for synthesizing D-penicillamine-capped copper nanoparticles (DPA-CuNPs) was successfully established by a chemical reduction method, in which D-penicillamine and ascorbic acid were used as stabilizing agent and reducing agent, respectively. The as-prepared DPA-CuNPs showed strong red fluorescence and had a large Stoke's shift (270nm). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry were utilized to elucidate the possible fluorescence mechanism, which could be aggregation-induced emission effect. Based on the phenomenon that trace mercury ion can disperse the aggregated DPA-CuNPs, resulting in great fluorescence quench of the system, a sensitive and selective assay for mercury ion in aqueous solution with the DPA-CuNPs was developed. Under optimum conditions, this assay can be applied to the quantification of Hg(2+) in the 1.0-30μM concentration range and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 32nM. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(2+) in real water samples.

  2. Polyethyleneimine-templated copper nanoclusters via ascorbic acid reduction approach as ferric ion sensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Ju, Yuyun; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huige; Chen, Xingguo

    2015-01-07

    In this report we reported a facile one-pot method for synthesis of water-soluble and stable fluorescent CuNCs at room temperature, in which branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) served as capping scaffold and ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The prepared BPEI-CuNCs exhibited excellent properties such as good water-solubility, photostability and high stability toward high ionic strength. Based on the electron transfer induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, this fluorescence probe was used for the sensitive and selective determination of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in aqueous solution. The limit of detection was 340 nM in the linear range of 0.5-1000 μM, which was lower than the maximum level of Fe(3+) permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The method was successfully applied to the detection of Fe(3+) in tap water, Yellow River water and human urine samples with the quantitative spike recoveries ranging from 95.3% to 112.0%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Miniaturized ascorbic acid fuel cells with flexible electrodes made of graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-04-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a biologically friendly compound and exists in many products such as sports drinks, fruit, and even in human blood. Thus, a miniaturized and flexible ascorbic acid fuel cell (AAFC) is expected be a power source for portable or implantable electric devices. In this study, we fabricated an AAFC with anode and cathode dimensions of 3 × 10 mm2 made of a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC) and found that GCFC electrodes significantly improve the power generated by the AAFC. This is because the GCFC has more than two times the effective surface area of a conventional carbon fiber cloth and it can contain more enzymes. The power density of the AAFC in a phosphate buffer solution containing 100 mM AA at room temperature was 34.1 µW/cm2 at 0.46 V. Technical issues in applying the AAFC to portable devices are also discussed.

  4. [The effect of gamma rays on glutathion and ascorbic acid content in rabbit lenses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zygulska-Mach, H; Mach, Z

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the partner non radiated eye is also influenced after employment of high radiation on an eye. The authors radiated rabbit eyes with gamma rays employing Stallard-applicators and determined the glutathion and ascorbic acid content in the lenses. The lenses of the partner eye were also examined for comparison. In those eyes which were directly radiated there was a fall of concentration of the two substances indirectly proportional to the dose of rays employed. In the partner eyes which were not directly subjected to direct radiation there were changes of similar character which were however not so much pronounced. The role of glutathion and ascorbic acid in lens metabolism is pointed out.

  5. Effects of dietary chromium exposure to rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii are ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-05-01

    Juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 10.8±1.4cm, and mean weight 31.7±3.6g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 120 and 240mg/L and ascorbic acids (AsA) at 100, 200 and 400mg/L. Significant accumulation occurred in specific tissues and hematological parameters were altered: red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin increased; plasma components were altered including calcium, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, glutamic oxalate transaminase, and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. However, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were unchanged. Ascorbic acids reduced both chromium uptake into tissues and altered hematological parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Amperometric ascorbic acid sensor based on doped ferrites nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Teodora; Vulić, Predrag; Manojlović, Dragan; Nikolić, Aleksandar S; Stanković, Dalibor M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for quantification of ascorbic acid with amperometric detection in physiological conditions was constructed. For this purpose, cobalt and nickel ferrites were synthesized using microwave and ultrasound assistance, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and used for modification of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). It was shown that introducing these nanoparticles to the structure of GCPE led to increasing analytical performance. Co ferrite modified GCPE (CoFeGCPE) showed better characteristics toward ascorbic acid sensing. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained by sensor was calculated to be 0.0270 mg/L, with linear range from 0.1758 to 2.6010 mg/L. This sensor was successfully applied for practical analysis, and the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed procedure could be a promising replacement for the conventional electrode materials and time-consuming and expensive separation methods.

  7. Pharmacologic ascorbate induces neuroblastoma cell death by hydrogen peroxide mediated DNA damage and reduction in cancer cell glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enlong; Chen, Ping; Wilkins, Heather M; Wang, Tao; Swerdlow, Russell H; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-12

    An ascorbate-mediated production of oxidative stress has been shown to retard tumor growth. Subsequent glycolysis inhibition has been suggested. Here, we further define the mechanisms relevant to this observation. Ascorbate was cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells through the production of H2O2, which led to ATP depletion, inhibited GAPDH, and non-apoptotic and non-autophagic cell death. The mechanism of cytotoxicity is different when PARP-dependent DNA repair machinery is active or inhibited. Ascorbate-generated H2O2 damaged DNA, activated PARP, depleted NAD+, and reduced glycolysis flux. NAD+ supplementation prevented ATP depletion and cell death, while treatment with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, preserved NAD+ and ATP levels but led to increased DNA double-strand breakage and did not prevent ascorbate-induced cell death. These data indicate that in cells with an intact PARP-associated DNA repair system, ascorbate-induced cell death is caused by NAD+ and ATP depletion, while in the absence of PARP activation ascorbate-induced cell death still occurs but is a consequence of ROS-induced DNA damage. In a mouse xenograft model, intraperitoneal ascorbate inhibited neuroblastoma tumor growth and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data suggest that ascorbate could be effective in the treatment of glycolysis-dependent tumors. Also, in cancers that use alternative energy metabolism pathways, combining a PARP inhibitor with ascorbate treatment could be useful. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection.

  9. A novel osteoporosis model with ascorbic acid deficiency in Akr1A1 gene knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Min-Yu; Lin, Wei-Yu; Röhrig, Theresa; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Lan, Ying-Wei; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2017-01-01

    The AKR1A1 protein is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily that is responsible for the conversion of D-glucuronate to L-gulonate in the ascorbic acid (vitamin C) synthesis pathway. In a pCAG-eGFP transgenic mouse line that was produced by pronuclear microinjection, the integration of the transgene resulted in a 30-kb genomic DNA deletion, including the Akr1A1 gene, and thus caused the knockout (KO) of the Akr1A1 gene and targeting of the eGFP gene. The Akr1A1 KO mice (Akr1A1eGFP/eGFP) exhibited insufficient serum ascorbic acid levels, abnormal bone development and osteoporosis. Using micro-CT analysis, the results showed that the microarchitecture of the 12-week-old Akr1A1eGFP/eGFP mouse femur was shorter in length and exhibited less cortical bone thickness, enlargement of the bone marrow cavity and a complete loss of the trabecular bone in the distal femur. The femoral head and neck of the proximal femur also showed a severe loss of bone mass. Based on the decreased levels of serum osteocalcin and osteoblast activity in the Akr1A1eGFP/eGFP mice, the osteoporosis might be caused by impaired bone formation. In addition, administration of ascorbic acid to the Akr1A1eGFP/eGFP mice significantly prevented the condition of osteoporotic femurs and increased bone formation. Therefore, through ascorbic acid administration, the Akr1A1 KO mice exhibited controllable osteoporosis and may serve as a novel model for osteoporotic research. PMID:28060768

  10. Anchoring Transitions of Liquid Crystals for Optical Amplification of Phospholipid Oxidation Inhibition by Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minmin; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the antioxidant property of ascorbic acid (AH) is effective for reducing oxidative stress of phospholipids. Herein, a liquid crystals (LCs)-based method was developed for the optical amplification of resistance to phospholipid oxidation by AH. Phospholipid peroxidation initiated by free radicals was monitored from a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition of LCs via polarized optical microscopy. Alternatively, consistent homeotropic anchoring of LCs was observed when the oxidation caused by free radicals was blocked by AH.

  11. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of non-thermal effects of electricity on ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic heating.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Débora Pez; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Mercali, Giovana Domeneghini

    2016-05-15

    The effect of electric field on ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic heating was evaluated. Ascorbic acid kinetic degradation was evaluated at 80, 85, 90 and 95°C during 60 min of thermal treatment by ohmic and conventional heating. Carotenoid degradation was evaluated at 90 and 95°C after 50 min of treatment. The different temperatures evaluated showed the same effect on degradation rates. To investigate the influence of oxygen concentration on the degradation process, ohmic heating was also carried out under rich and poor oxygen modified atmospheres at 90°C. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation was higher under a rich oxygen atmosphere, indicating that oxygen is the limiting reagent of the degradation reaction. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation was similar for both heating technologies, demonstrating that the presence of the oscillating electric field did not influence the mechanisms and rates of reactions associated with the degradation process.

  13. Multicommutated stepwise injection determination of ascorbic acid in medicinal plants and food samples by capillary zone electrophoresis ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina T; Bulatov, Andrey V; Pushina, Maria O; Ekimov, Aleksey A; Alekseeva, Galina M; Moskvin, Leonid N

    2015-02-01

    An automation of the extraction of analytes from solid samples into the aqueous phase based on multicommutated stepwise injection analysis concept has been suggested. The feasibility of the approach has been demonstrated by determination of ascorbic acid as model analyte. The method includes automated extraction of ascorbic acid from solid sample into borate buffer solution pH 8 in mixing chamber during vigorous mixing by nitrogen stream, and subsequent detection by capillary zone electrophoresis at 254 nm. The method has a linear range of 0.1-5.0 mg g(-1) for ascorbic acid with the LOD of 0.03 mg g(-1). The sample throughput was 7 h(-1). This method was applied for determination of ascorbic acid in various medicinal plants and food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Apple polyphenoloxidase inactivation during heating in the presence of ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yin-Naï; Louarme, Loïc; Bonazzi, Catherine; Nicolas, Jacques; Billaud, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    It was recently reported that during osmotic dehydration of ascorbic acid (AA)-treated apple cubes, losses in AA and phenolics could partly arise from enzymatic oxidation, provided polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was still active under the processing conditions. To determine the impact of dehydration temperatures on PPO action, as well as chemical and enzymatic oxidation reactions, apple PPO inactivation alone or with AA (1mM) and/or chlorogenic acid (CG, 3mM), as well as AA and CG levels evolution, during heating of the model solutions at 45 and 60°C were investigated. At pH 3.8, PPO was still functional, keeping 61 and 4% residual activity after 2h of heating at 45 and 60°C, respectively. The combined treatment of heating and AA was more effective in reducing PPO activity, while incubation at 60°C with AA and CG minimised the losses of PPO activity. CG remained stable during heating, even in the presence of AA which, in turn, was more affected by heating. Thus, during heating, provided PPO remained active with enough available O2 in the model systems, CG oxidation and coupled oxidoreduction with AA could readily develop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intracellular dehydroascorbic acid inhibits SVCT2-dependent transport of ascorbic acid in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Mara; Azzolini, Catia; Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Scotti, Maddalena; Cantoni, Orazio

    2015-09-01

    Exposure of U937 cells to low concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (AA) is associated with a prompt cellular uptake and a further mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin. Under the same conditions, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake was followed by rapid reduction and accumulation of identical intracellular levels of AA, however, in the absence of significant mitochondrial uptake. This event was instead observed after exposure to remarkably greater concentrations of DHA. Furthermore, experiments performed in isolated mitochondria revealed that DHA transport through hexose transporters and Na(+) -dependent transport of AA were very similar. These results suggest that the different subcellular compartmentalization of the vitamin is mediated by events promoting inhibition of mitochondrial AA transport, possibly triggered by low levels of DHA. We obtained results in line with this notion in intact cells, and more direct evidence in isolated mitochondria. This inhibitory effect was promptly reversible after DHA removal and comparable with that mediated by established inhibitors, as quercetin. The results presented collectively indicate that low intracellular concentrations of DHA, because of its rapid reduction back to AA, are a poor substrate for direct mitochondrial uptake. DHA concentrations, however, appear sufficiently high to mediate inhibition of mitochondrial transport of AA/DHA-derived AA.

  16. Novel graphene flowers modified carbon fibers for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiao; Yue, Ruirui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Zhangquan; Jiang, Fengxing; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou

    2014-03-15

    A novel and sensitive carbon fiber electrode (CFE) modified by graphene flowers was prepared and used to simultaneously determine ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). SEM images showed that beautiful and layer-petal graphene flowers homogeneously bloomed on the surface of CFE. Moreover, sharp and obvious oxidation peaks were found at the obtained electrode when compared with CFE and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the oxidation of AA, DA and UA. Also, the linear calibration plots for AA, DA and UA were observed, respectively, in the ranges of 45.4-1489.23 μM, 0.7-45.21 μM and 3.78-183.87 μM in the individual detection of each component. By simultaneously changing the concentrations of AA, DA and UA, their oxidation peaks appeared at -0.05 V, 0.16 V and 2.6 V, and the good linear responses ranges were 73.52-2305.53 μM, 1.36-125.69 μM and 3.98-371.49 μM, respectively. In addition, the obtained electrode showed satisfactory results when applied to the determination of AA, DA and UA in urine and serum samples.

  17. Ascorbate lacks significant influence in rats with bile duct ligation-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsin-Ling; Huo, Teh-Ia; Chang, Ting; Lee, Wen-Shin; Hsin, I-Fang; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2017-09-01

    Liver inflammation may induce fibrogenesis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance and enhanced vasoconstrictive response. The splanchnic vasodilatation, angiogenesis and portosystemic collaterals formation further bring about lethal complications. Ascorbate is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, and anti-angiogenesis effects. However, the relevant influences in chronic liver injury have not been sufficiently explored. Chronic liver injury was induced in Spraque-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation (BDL). Ascorbate (250 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) or vehicle was administered starting on the 1st day after operation. On the 8th (hepatitis) and 29th (cirrhosis) day, serum biochemistry parameters, hepatic concentrations of lipid peroxidation-related substances, protein expressions of α-SMA, TGF-β, iNOS, eNOS, p-eNOS-Ser1177, p-eNOS-Thr496, VEGF, VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, and liver histology were evaluated. In three series of paralleled groups, rats treated with 28-day ascorbate or vehicle received hemodynamic measurements, hepatic and collateral vasoresponsiveness perfusion experiments, mesenteric CD31 immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analyses of mesenteric VEGF, VEGFR2, pVEGFR2, PDGF, PDGFβ, COX1, COX2, eNOS, p-eNOS-Thr495, p-eNOS-Ser1177 protein expressions. In another series, the severity of portosystemic shunting was evaluated. Ascorbate did not influence hepatitis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and hemodynamic parameters in BDL rats. The intrahepatic and collateral vasoresponsiveness were not affected, either from direct incubation or acute treatment with ascorbate. Furthermore, the mesenteric angiogenesis and severity of shunting were not influenced. The oxidative stress, fibrosis, hemodynamic derangements, angiogenesis and vascular functional changes in BDL-induced chronic liver injury may be too overwhelming to be modulated by ascorbate. Copyright © 2017

  18. Biocompatible water-in-oil emulsion as a model to study ascorbic acid effect on lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Monica; Ceglie, Andrea; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2008-04-17

    A biocompatible water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion has been used as a model to study the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on the oxidation of the oil (glycerol trioleate, GTO) continuous phase. The model system consisted of 3 wt % water dispersed in GTO containing 0.5 wt % sodium oleate (NaO)/oleic acid (OA) mixture (NaO/OA = 20/80 mol/mol %) as a stabilizer. To study the ascorbic acid effect on GTO light-promoted oxidation, we added aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid to GTO in place of distilled water. Results obtained as peroxide values show that ascorbic acid activity depends on its concentration and it is affected by the characteristics of the W/O interface. In the presence of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) or sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) in the continuous phase, ascorbic acid activity increases in the first few hours of oxidation. The effect of ascorbic acid has been related to emulsion structure by calculating characteristic parameters of the droplet size distributions by means of optical microscopy.

  19. Decylglucoside-based microemulsions for cutaneous localization of lycopene and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Dominique; Phelps, Jessica; Lewis, Kevin; Dujack, Jared; Scarlett, Katrina; Jahan, Sumaya; Bonnier, Emilee; Milic-Pasetto, Tatjana; Hass, Martha A; Lopes, Luciana B

    2012-09-15

    Cutaneous delivery of combinations of antioxidants offers the possibility of enha