Sample records for ascus-lsil triage study

  1. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  2. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway.

    PubMed

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Maehle, Bjørn O; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K

    2014-02-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005-2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3-6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34-50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway

    PubMed Central

    Budal, Elisabeth B; Haugland, Hans K; Skar, Robert; Mæhle, Bjørn O; Bjørge, Tone; Vintermyr, Olav K

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone. PMID:24403090

  4. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF ADJUSTING RANDOMIZED TRIAL DATA FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: A DEMONSTRATION FROM THE ASCUS-LSIL TRIAGE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Nicole G.; Castle, Philip E.; Schiffman, Mark; Kim, Jane J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is widely considered the most reliable method for evaluation of health care interventions, challenges to both internal and external validity exist. Thus, the efficacy of an intervention in a trial setting does not necessarily represent the real-world performance that decision makers seek to inform comparative effectiveness studies and economic evaluations. Methods Using data from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS), we performed a simplified economic evaluation of age-based management strategies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) among women who were referred to the study with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). We used data from the trial itself to adjust for 1) potential lead time bias and random error that led to variation in the observed prevalence of CIN3 by study arm, and 2) potential ascertainment bias among providers in the most aggressive management arm. Results We found that using unadjusted RCT data may result in counterintuitive cost-effectiveness results when random error and/or bias are present. Following adjustment, the rank order of management strategies changed for two of the three age groups we considered. Conclusion Decision analysts need to examine study design, available trial data and cost-effectiveness results closely in order to detect evidence of potential bias. Adjustment for random error and bias in RCTs may yield different policy conclusions relative to unadjusted trial data. PMID:22147881

  5. Hierarchical clustering of HPV genotype patterns in the ASCUS-LSIL triage study

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wilson, Lauren E.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Carreon, Joseph D.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    Anogenital cancers are associated with about 13 carcinogenic HPV types in a broader group that cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Multiple concurrent cervical HPV infections are common which complicate the attribution of HPV types to different grades of CIN. Here we report the analysis of HPV genotype patterns in the ASCUS-LSIL triage study using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Women who underwent colposcopy at baseline (n = 2780) were grouped into 20 disease categories based on histology and cytology. Disease groups and HPV genotypes were clustered using complete linkage. Risk of 2-year cumulative CIN3+, viral load, colposcopic impression, and age were compared between disease groups and major clusters. Hierarchical clustering yielded four major disease clusters: Cluster 1 included all CIN3 histology with abnormal cytology; Cluster 2 included CIN3 histology with normal cytology and combinations with either CIN2 or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology; Cluster 3 included older women with normal or low grade histology/cytology and low viral load; Cluster 4 included younger women with low grade histology/cytology, multiple infections, and the highest viral load. Three major groups of HPV genotypes were identified: Group 1 included only HPV16; Group 2 included nine carcinogenic types plus non-carcinogenic HPV53 and HPV66; and Group 3 included non-carcinogenic types plus carcinogenic HPV33 and HPV45. Clustering results suggested that colposcopy missed a prevalent precancer in many women with no biopsy/normal histology and HSIL. This result was confirmed by an elevated 2-year risk of CIN3+ in these groups. Our novel approach to study multiple genotype infections in cervical disease using unsupervised hierarchical clustering can address complex genotype distributions on a population level. PMID:20959485

  6. p16/ki-67 dual-stain cytology in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL papanicolaou cytology: results from the European equivocal or mildly abnormal Papanicolaou cytology study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine; Denton, Karin J; Ridder, Ruediger

    2011-06-25

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of a newly established immunocytochemical dual-stain protocol, which simultaneously detects p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 expression in cervical cytology samples, for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women with Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology results categorized as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Residual liquid-based cytology material from 776 retrospectively collected ASCUS/LSIL cases that were available from a recent study evaluating p16 cytology and HPV testing were subjected to p16/Ki-67 dual staining. The presence of 1 or more double-immunoreactive cell(s) was regarded as a positive test outcome, irrespective of morphology. Test results were correlated to histology follow-up. Sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology for biopsy-confirmed CIN2+ was 92.2% (ASCUS) and 94.2% (LSIL), while specificity rates were 80.6% (ASCUS) and 68.0% (LSIL), respectively. Similar sensitivity/specificity profiles were found for both age groups of women aged <30 years versus women aged ≥30 years. Dual-stain cytology showed comparable sensitivity, but significantly higher specificity, when compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. The results of this study show that p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology provided a high sensitivity for the detection of underlying CIN2+ in women with ASCUS or LSIL Pap cytology results, comparable to the rates previously reported for HPV testing and p16 single-stain cytology. However, the specificity of this morphology-independent interpretation of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology testing was further improved compared with the earlier p16 single-stain cytology approach, which required morphology interpretation, and it is significantly higher when compared with HPV testing. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  7. Performance of ProEx C and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests in comparison with the hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for triaging ASCUS and LSIL cytology.

    PubMed

    Alaghehbandan, Reza; Fontaine, Daniel; Bentley, James; Escott, Nicholas; Ghatage, Prafull; Lear, Adrian; Coutlee, Francois; Ratnam, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    The clinical usefulness of the ProEx C (Becton Dickinson) and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests (Proofer; Norchip) for the triage of ASCUS and LSIL cytology was determined in comparison with the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The study population consisted of women with a history of abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy. Histology-confirmed CIN 2+ served as the disease endpoint. The study was based on 1,360 women (mean age 30.7 years), of whom 380 had CIN 2+. Among 315 with ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 67), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 to detect CIN 2+ were, 71.6, 71.6, and 95.5%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 74.6, 74.2, and 35.1%. Among 363 with LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 108), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 were, 67.6, 74.1, and 96.3%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 60, 68.2, and 18.4%. Among 225 HC2-positive ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 64), 105 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing colposcopy referral by 53.3% and detecting 71.9% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 112/225, reducing colposcopy referral by 50.2% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. Among 312 HC2-positive LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 104), 160 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing coloposcopy referral by 48.7% and detecting 66.3% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 159/312, reducing colposcopy referral by 49.0% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. In conclusion, both ProEx C and Proofer have a similar performance profile with a significantly higher specificity but lower sensitivity than HC2 for the detection of CIN 2+. Consequently, although they can reduce colposcopy referral, they will miss a proportion of CIN 2+ cases. This is a major limitation and should be taken into account if these tests are considered for ASCUS or LSIL triage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  8. A prospective study of women with ASCUS or LSIL pap smears at baseline and HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive: a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bruno, M T; Ferrara, M; Fava, V; Barrasso, G; Panella, M M

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is used in the triage of women with a borderline smear result. The efficiency of testing women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is less clear. For this reason we used a new HPV test that detects E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA), which might have a higher specificity. The objective of this prospective study was to assess whether HPV E6/E7 mRNA positivity in women with ASCUS and LSIL at baseline, is able to predict those women who have a high risk of developing a histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) or worse lesion. We took into consideration the women's age and HPV DNA genotype and followed them up for 3 years. Cervical samples from women with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 90) or LSIL (n = 222) were tested for the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and the women were monitored for the development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Thirteen patients with ASCUS and 17 with LSIL did not complete follow-up. All patients with LSIL and ASCUS, enrolled in this study, had confirmed lesions at the colposcopic examination. Follow-up was available for 312 women, 193 were positive in the HR-HPV DNA test and 93 had a HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive test. Finally, 22 women positive in the HPV DNA test for high-risk genotypes and with positive E6/E7 mRNA had a histologically confirmed CIN2+. Only two cases with negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA had CIN2+. The study shows that women positive in the HPV E6/E7 mRNA test have a greater risk of malignant progression of cervical lesions and therefore deserve greater attention and earlier check-ups.

  9. Cytology and human papillomavirus testing 6 to 12 months after ASCUS or LSIL cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical neoplasia between screening rounds.

    PubMed

    Tropé, Ameli; Sjøborg, Katrine D; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M

    2012-06-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting.

  10. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  11. Long-term HPV type-specific risks for ASCUS and LSIL: a 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.

    PubMed

    Elfström, K Miriam; Smelov, Vitaly; Johansson, Anna L V; Eklund, Carina; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-01-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections result in a significant burden of low-grade cervical lesions. Between 1997 and 2000, our randomized trial of primary HPV screening enrolled 12,527 women participating in population-based screening. Women between 32 and 38 years of age (median: 34, interquartile range: 33-37) were randomized to HPV and cytology double testing (intervention arm, n = 6,257 enrolled, n = 5,888 followed-up) or to cytology, with samples frozen for future HPV testing (control arm, n = 6,270 enrolled, n = 5,795 followed-up). We estimated the HPV type-specific, long-term absolute risks (AR), and population attributable proportions (PAR) for cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and for histopathologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1). The women were followed using comprehensive, nationwide register-based follow-up. During a mean follow-up time of 11.07 years, 886 ASCUS and LSIL lesions were detected, 448 in the intervention arm and 438 in the control arm. Poisson regression estimated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of low-grade lesions by HPV type. The IRRs were strongly dependent on follow-up time. The IRRs for ASCUS/LSIL associated with high-risk HPV positivity were 18.6 (95% CI: 14.9-23.4) during the first screening round, 4.1 (95% CI: 2.8-6.2) during the second, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.1) during the third, and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.7-1.8) for >9 years of follow-up, with similar declines seen for the individual types. Type 16 contributed consistently to the greatest proportion of ASCUS, LSIL, and CIN1 risk in the population (first screening round PAR: ASCUS: 15.5% (95% CI: 9.7-21.9), LSIL: 14.7% (95% CI: 8.0-20.9), and CIN1: 13.4% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5)), followed by type 31 [8.4% (95% CI: 4.2-12.5) for ASCUS to 17.3% (95% CI: 6.8-26.6) for CIN1]. In summary, most ASCUS/LSIL lesions associated with HPV infection are caused by new HPV

  12. The Accuracy of p16/Ki-67 and HPV Test in the Detection of CIN2/3 in Women Diagnosed with ASC-US or LSIL

    PubMed Central

    Possati-Resende, Júlio C.; Fregnani, José H. T. G.; Kerr, Ligia M.; Mauad, Edmundo C.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracies of double staining for p16/Ki-67 and the molecular test for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) to identify high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/CIN3) in women with cervical cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Data were collected from 201 women who underwent cervical cytology screening in the Barretos Cancer Hospital and their results were categorized as ASC-US (n=96) or LSIL (n=105). All patients underwent colposcopy with or without cervical biopsy for diagnosis of CIN2/CIN3. The hr-HPV test (Cobas 4800 test) and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect biomarkers p16/Ki-67 (CINtec PLUS test). Two samples (1 ASC-US/1 LSIL) were excluded from the analysis due to inconclusive results of the histologic examination. There were 8 cases of CIN2/CIN3 among 95 women with ASC-US (8.4%), and 23 cases of CIN2/CIN3 among 104 women with LSIL (22.1%). In the group of women with ASC-US, the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing CIN2/CIN3 were 87.5% and 79.5% for the HPV test and 62.5% and 93.1% for p16/Ki-67. Among women with LSIL, the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN2/CIN3 were 87% and 34.7% for the HPV test and 69.6% and 75.3% for immunocytochemistry. Superior performance was observed for p16/Ki-67 double staining, especially among women under 30 for whom the test had an area under the ROC curve of 0.762 (p<0.001). Both p16/Ki-67 double staining and the hr-HPV DNA test had similar performance in predicting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women with ASC-US. The best performance was observed in women aged >30 years. In younger women (≤30 years) with LSIL, p16/Ki-67 had greater accuracy in identifying precursor lesions. Among women >30 years diagnosed with LSIL, the two methods showed similar performance. PMID:26230097

  13. [Sorting role of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining in the cervical cytology specimens of ASCUS and LSIL cases].

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Zhu, H T; Zhao, J J; Su, J Z; Xia, Y D

    2017-05-08

    Objective: To investigate the sorting effect of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining method in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology results. Methods: Four-hundred and twenty cases collected during April 2014 to February 2015 of cervical cytology of ASCUS ( n =318) and LSIL ( n =102) were selected, and residual liquid-based cytology specimens were used for p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining. The sensitivity and specificity of the detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer were calculated, and the results were compared with high risk HPV. Taking histological follow-up as the gold standard, the test was considered positive when at least one cell exhibited p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 co-staining, without requirement of adjunct morphologic interpretation of positive cells. Results: Further screening CIN2+ in cytology ASCUS and LSIL group , the sensitivity of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining was slightly lower than high risk HPV (84.2% vs . 94.7%), while the specificity was higher (84.0% vs . 53.9%). For ASCUS patients, the sensitivity of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining and high risk HPV was 82.6% and 91.3%, and the specificity was 88.8% and 63.7%, respectively. For LSIL patients, the sensitivity of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining and high risk HPV was 86.7% and 100.0%, and the specificity was 67.8% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients younger and older than 30 years, specificity of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining was both higher than that of high risk HPV (80.8% vs . 42.3%; 84.6% vs . 56.9%). Conclusions: p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining can effectively identify the high risk population in ASCUS or LSIL, with higher specificity than high risk HPV test. p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double immunostaining may benefit patients younger than 30 years of age as a preliminary or potential cytology-combining screening tool.

  14. Triage of women with low-grade cervical lesions--HPV mRNA testing versus repeat cytology.

    PubMed

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are followed up after six months in order to decide whether they should undergo further follow-up or be referred back to the screening interval of three years. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. At the University Hospital of North Norway, repeat cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in triage of women with ASC-US and LSIL. In this study, women with LSIL cytology in the period 2005-2008 were included (n = 522). Two triage methods were evaluated in two separate groups: repeat cytology only (n = 225) and HPV mRNA testing in addition to repeat cytology (n = 297). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as the study endpoint. Of 522 women with LSIL, 207 had biopsies and 125 of them had CIN2+. The sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology (ASC-US or worse) were 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.1, 92.2) and 54.4 % (95% CI: 46.9, 61.9), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 94.2% (95% CI: 88.7, 99.7) and 86.0% (95% CI: 81.5, 90.5), respectively. The PPV of repeat cytology was 38.4% (95% CI: 29.9, 46.9) compared to 67.0% (95% CI: 57.7, 76.4) of the HPV mRNA test. HPV mRNA testing was more sensitive and specific than repeat cytology in triage of women with LSIL cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. These data indicate that the HPV mRNA test is a better triage test for women with LSIL than repeat cytology.

  15. Triage of Women with Low-Grade Cervical Lesions - HPV mRNA Testing versus Repeat Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

    2011-01-01

    Background In Norway, women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are followed up after six months in order to decide whether they should undergo further follow-up or be referred back to the screening interval of three years. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Materials and Methods At the University Hospital of North Norway, repeat cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in triage of women with ASC-US and LSIL. In this study, women with LSIL cytology in the period 2005–2008 were included (n = 522). Two triage methods were evaluated in two separate groups: repeat cytology only (n = 225) and HPV mRNA testing in addition to repeat cytology (n = 297). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as the study endpoint. Results Of 522 women with LSIL, 207 had biopsies and 125 of them had CIN2+. The sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology (ASC-US or worse) were 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.1, 92.2) and 54.4 % (95% CI: 46.9, 61.9), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 94.2% (95% CI: 88.7, 99.7) and 86.0% (95% CI: 81.5, 90.5), respectively. The PPV of repeat cytology was 38.4% (95% CI: 29.9, 46.9) compared to 67.0% (95% CI: 57.7, 76.4) of the HPV mRNA test. Conclusion HPV mRNA testing was more sensitive and specific than repeat cytology in triage of women with LSIL cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. These data indicate that the HPV mRNA test is a better triage test for women with LSIL than repeat cytology. PMID:21918682

  16. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, <30 years and ≥30 years). Costs, incremental cost, incremental effectiveness and incremental cost per additional high-grade lesion (CIN2+) detected. For women with ASCUS ≥30 years, HPV triage is the least costly alternative, whereas immediate colposcopy with biopsy provides the most effective option at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SEK 2,056 per additional case of CIN2+ detected. For LSIL (all age groups) and ASCUS (23-60 years and <30 years), HPV triage is dominated by immediate colposcopy and biopsy. Model results were sensitive to HPV test cost changes. With improved HPV testing techniques at lower costs, HPV triage can become a cost-effective alternative for follow-up of minor cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  17. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  18. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. Conclusion The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  19. Value of high-risk HPV-DNA testing in the triage of ASCUS.

    PubMed

    Silverloo, Iréne; Andrae, Bengt; Wilander, Erik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cells, occurring in organized cytological screening, may be either high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) positive or negative. To refine the assessment of women with ASCUS, a high-risk HPV-DNA test is recommended as triage in Sweden. A total of 197 consecutive women (mean age 39 years, range 21-60) with a diagnosis of ASCUS from the primary screening were selected for triage. Their cervical smears were collected and evaluated by using conventional cytological examination in combination with a high-risk HPV-DNA test (hybrid capture 2). The women were categorized into four groups: Group A, Cytology + /HPV + ; Group B, Cytology-/HPV + ; Group C, Cytology + /HPV-; and Group D, Cytology-/ HPV-. Women within Groups A-C were admitted for colposcopy and cervical biopsy. The women in Group D were considered as a low-risk group for tumor development, and were re-examined after three years in the next round of the organized screening. In women in Group A (n=58) the prevalence of histological verified CIN2-3 was 41%, in Group B (n=41) 20%, and in Group C (n=9) 0%. In Group D (n=89), repeated primary screening three years later revealed CIN2-3 in two biopsies from 74 women studied (<3%). The prevalence of a high-risk HPV infection decreased with age in women with ASCUS. It was 74% in women <30 years and 19% in women > or =50 years. Adding a high-risk HPV test in secondary screening increased the identification of women with CIN2-3 lesions by 33% in comparison with repeat cytology (p=0.01). The clinical significance of the ASCUS diagnosis varied with age of the women.

  20. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group.

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections appear to be central to the development of cervical cancer. This study addresses the question of whether testing women who have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the uterine cervix for HPV DNA is useful as a triage strategy. Four clinical centers in different areas of the United States participated in a randomized clinical trial of the use of HPV DNA testing in women with cytologic evidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or LSIL. The study sample in this article consists only of women who had LSIL at enrollment. Within 6 months of an LSIL diagnosis (based on a Pap smear read by a community-based cytopathologist), women who were 18 years of age or older completed a standardized questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination that included collection of cervical specimens for HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII)(R) assay. Among the 642 women referred with LSIL who had analyzable test results, the mean chronologic age and age at first coitus were similar among the four clinical centers, despite the centers' ethnic and geographic diversity. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in cervical samples from 532 (82.9%) of the 642 women (95% confidence interval = 79.7%-85.7%). This high frequency of HPV positivity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in a subset of 210 paired specimens tested by HCII and PCR (81.4% were positive by both methods). Because a very high percentage of women with an LSIL diagnosis from Pap smears are positive for HPV DNA by HCII testing, there is limited potential for this assay to direct decisions about the clinical management of women with LSIL. The role of HPV testing in the management of women with ASCUS is still under study.

  1. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test ▿

    PubMed Central

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  2. Triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US): results of an Italian multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle-Salamanca, Helena; Trevisan, Rossana; Matteucci, Mario; Pinarello, Antonella; Zambenedetti, Pamela; Buoso, Rita; Fantin, Gian Piero; Zorzi, Manuel; Minucci, Daria

    2010-04-01

    To compare the performance of immediate colposcopy, repeat Pap test and HPV test as triage options for women diagnosed as having atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) while attending organised screening for cervical carcinoma in five centres of the Veneto region. Women consecutively diagnosed as having ASC-US were included in a prospective study, and underwent colposcopy and collection of cervico-vaginal cells for conventional Pap test and HPV test (Hybrid Capture 2, High-risk probe set, Digene). Repetition of all three tests was scheduled for 12 months later. DNA was subsequently extracted from residual cells of positive samples, and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with several primers for typing of HPV sequences. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the different triage options for histology-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) were calculated among all women and by age (under and above 35 years). Seven hundred forty-nine women 25-64 years old (median age 42 years) were enrolled in the study. Pap smears at enrolment were read as ASC-US or more severe in 211 (29.4%) cases, colposcopy disclosed an atypical transformation zone in 254 (34.2%) women, and HPV test was positive in 181 (24.2%). High-grade cervical lesions developed in 29/749 (3.9%) women. HPV typing was possible in 163 (90%) of the samples, and carcinogenic types were present in 123. HPV test showed the best performance; overall, it had the highest sensitivity (92.3%), specificity (78.6%) and PPV (14.9%). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of p16INK4a/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry for identifying CIN2+ in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion specimens: a Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Saito, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Iwata, Takashi; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Ohmura, Mineo; Ochiai, Kazunori; Arai, Hiroharu; Sakamoto, Masaru; Motoyama, Teiichi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-02-01

    p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry has revealed a high rate of positivity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) and more severe conditions (CIN2+). The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology Standardization project proposed p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry as an ancillary test for CIN. Immunocytochemistry involving dual staining for p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 in the triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) is reported to be useful in the identification of CIN2+. However, it is unclear whether p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry is of practical relevance for the triage of ASCUS and LSIL in the Japanese screening system. From 427 women fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 188 ASCUS and 239 LSIL specimens were analyzed. The accuracy of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry and genotyping of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in detecting CIN2+ were compared. p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry was positive in 33.5 % (63/188) of ASCUS, and 36.8 % (88/239) of LSIL specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry was 87.3 % (95 % confidence interval 78.0-93.8 %) and 76.4 % (71.6-80.8 %), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 45.7 % (37.6-54.0 %) and 96.4 % (93.4-98.3 %), respectively; positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.71 and 0.17, respectively. Using the McNemar test, p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry showed equivalent sensitivity but higher specificity than the HPV genotyping test Compared with high-risk HPV genotyping, p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry was a more accurate triage test for identifying CIN2+ in ASCUS and LSIL specimens.

  4. Repeat Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Screening Strategies in Detecting Preinvasive Cervical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kemin; Yin, Rutie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in screening patients with preinvasive cervical lesions. Seven hundred thirty-four women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS+) cervical cytology during routine screening had additional cytologic testing and HPV DNA testing within 6 months of their diagnosis, after which all women who tested positive were referred for colposcopy and biopsy. The test findings were then used to determine the screening value of HPV for diagnosing preinvasive cervical lesions. Cytology and HPV testing were compared by conventional cytology. The odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity using ASCUS+ or low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL+) as a cutoff for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II+ was, respectively, 0.78 (0.72, 0.85) and 0.82 (0.70, 0.95) (P < 0.01). The cytology for triage and conventional cytology had different sensitivities using ASCUS+ or LSIL+ as the cutoff (P < 0.01). The cytology or HPV testing and conventional cytology had a difference in sensitivity using ASCUS+, LSIL+, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL+) as the cutoff (P < 0.01). Cytology and HPV testing were also compared with conventional cytology. The OR of specificity using ASCUS+ or LSIL+ as the cutoff for the detection of CIN II+ was 1.97 (1.68, 2.31) and 1.10 (1.02, 1.18), respectively (P < 0.01). The cytology for triage and conventional cytology had a difference in specificity when ASCUS+ or LSIL+ was used as the cutoff (P < 0.01). Finally, the cytology or HPV testing and conventional cytology had a difference in specificity when ASCUS+, LSIL+, or HSIL+ was used as the cutoff (P < 0.01). Cytology and HPV testing and cytology for triage improved the specificity of detecting CIN II+, but this did not improve the sensitivity. Additionally, cytology or HPV testing improved the sensitivity of detecting CIN II

  5. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of HPV test for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) was evaluated. Median age was 44 years (range, 17 to 75 years). ASCUS was more frequently observed in older patients while LSIL was more common in younger patients (P=0.002). CIN2+ was found in 11.3% (32/284) of the ASCUS patients and 12.9% (20/155) of patients with LSIL. Older patients with ASCUS showed lower HPV infection rates (P=0.025), but not LSIL (P=0.114). However, the prevalence of CIN2+ was similar between the age groups with ASCUS or LSIL. In patients with ASCUS, the false negative rate of HPV test for CIN2+ was 6.2%. The false negative rate of the HPV test became higher with increasing of the age after the age of 50 (P=0.034). Our findings suggest that false negative rate of the HPV test for CIN2+ in ASCUS patients older than 50 years might become higher with increasing of the age. Negative HPV results in patients of the age >50 years with ASCUS should be carefully interpreted.

  6. Natural immune responses against eight oncogenic human papillomaviruses in the ASCUS-LSIL triage study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lauren E.; Pawlita, Michael; Castle, Phillip E.; Waterboer, Tim; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Gravitt, Patti E.; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Only a subset of women with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections will become seropositive, and the factors influencing seroconversion are not well-understood. We used a multiplex serology assay in women with mildly abnormal cytology results to examine seroreactivity to oncogenic HPV genotypes. An unbiased subset of women in the atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance /low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion Triage Study (ALTS) provided blood samples at trial enrollment for serological testing. A Luminex assay based on GST-L1 fusion proteins as antigens was used to test seroreactivity against eight carcinogenic HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58). We analyzed the relationship between seroprevalence in women free of precancer (N=2464) and HPV DNA status, age, sexual behavior, and other HPV-related risk factors. The overall seroprevalence was 24.5% for HPV16 L1 and ~ 20% for 18L1 and 31L1. Among women free of precancer, seroprevalence peaked in women less than 29 years and decreased with age. Type-specific seroprevalence was associated with baseline DNA detection for HPV16 (OR= 1.36, 95%CI: 1.04–1.79) and HPV18 (OR= 2.31, 95%CI: 1.61–3.32), as well as for HPV52 and HPV58. Correlates of sexual exposure were associated with increased seroprevalence across most genotypes. Women who were current or former smokers were less likely to be seropositive for all eight of the tested oncogenic genotypes. The multiplex assay showed associations between seroprevalence and known risk factors for HPV infection across nearly all tested HPV genotypes but associations between DNA- and serostatus were weak, suggesting possible misclassification of the participants’ HPV serostatus. PMID:23588935

  7. Results of delayed triage by HPV testing and cytology in the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Haldorsen, Tor; Skare, Gry Baadstrand; Ursin, Giske; Bjørge, Tone

    2015-02-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing was added to the cytology triage of women with equivocal screening smears in the Norwegian programme for cervical cancer screening in 2005. In this population-based observational before and after study we assessed the effect of changing the screening algorithm. In periods before and after the change 75 852 and 66 616 women, respectively, were eligible for triage, i.e. they had smear results of unsatisfactory, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) at routine screening. The triage was delayed as supplementary testing started six months after the initial screening. The groups were compared with respect to results of triage and later three-year cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Before and after the change in the screening algorithm 5.2% (3964/75 852) and 8.1% (5417/66 616) of women, respectively, were referred to colposcopy. Among women referred to colposcopy cumulative incidence of CIN2+ (positive predictive value of referral) increased from 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 40.3 - 43.7%] in the period with cytology only to 48.0% (95% CI 46.6 - 49.4%) after the start of HPV testing. For women recalled to ordinary screening the three-year cumulative incidence decreased from 2.7% (95% CI 2.5 - 2.9%) to 1.0% (95% CI 0.9 - 1.2%) during the same period. Among women with LSIL at routine screening and HPV testing in triage, 52.5% (1976/3766) were HPV positive. The new algorithm with HPV testing implemented in 2005 resulted in an increased rate of referral to colposcopy, but in a better risk stratification with respect to precancerous disease.

  8. Improving the performance of reflex Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): A restrospective study in a tertiary hospital in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Fakhreldin, Marwa; Elmasry, Karim

    2016-02-03

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide. Infection with oncogenic types of human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Reflex High risk HPV (HR-HPV) testing is of significant value in the assessment of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results where ASCUS are identified. To improve the performance of reflex HR-HPV testing in triage of ASCUS and analyze the factors impacting it. In this study, we generated a database of 9641 women who had cervical smears collected during the study period from the cytopathology record in a large tertiary hospital in UAE. These included 297 smears with ASCUS diagnosis. All cases were retrospectively followed up with a mean duration of 2.44 years. We analyzed data according to the outcome based on several follow-up Pap smear analysis as the reference assessment. We detected HR-HPV infection in 17.9% of cases. 9.1% <25, 28.8% 25-34 and 62.1% ≥35 years old. HR-HPV prevalence was higher among premenopausal women (20.7%) compared to postmenopausal women (9.5%) (P-value=0.044). The rate of progression to high grade lesions was also higher (28.7%) in the premenopausal group compared to (12.8%) in the postmenopausal group. Reflex HPV testing had an overall sensitivity of 41.1%, specificity of 88.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 62.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 75.9% in detection of cervical lesions. These figures were higher on combining premenopausal status and complaint of abnormal bleeding or discharge/itching (66.7%, 93.3%, 66.8% and 93.3% respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and NPV of reflex HPV testing in the triage of ASCUS cases can be more accurate in premenopausal women upon adding age group and presenting complaint as a triage item. This improves the performance of reflex HPV testing and the subsequent selection of high risk patients for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virologic versus cytologic triage of women with equivocal Pap smears: a meta-analysis of the accuracy to detect high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Buntinx, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Dillner, Joakim

    2004-02-18

    The appropriate management of women with minor cytologic lesions in their cervix is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as an alternative to repeat cytology in women who had equivocal results on a previous Pap smear. Data were extracted from articles published between 1992 and 2002 that contained results of virologic and cytologic testing followed by colposcopically directed biopsy in women with an index smear showing atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Fifteen studies were identified in which HPV triage and the histologic outcome (presence or absence of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade II or worse [CIN2+]) was documented. Nine, seven, and two studies also documented the accuracy of repeat cytology when the cutoff for abnormal cytology was set at a threshold of ASCUS or worse, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or worse, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse, respectively. Random-effects models were used for pooling of accuracy parameters in case of interstudy heterogeneity. Differences in accuracy were assessed by pooling the ratio of the sensitivity (or specificity) of HPV testing to that of repeat cytology. The sensitivity and specificity were 84.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 77.6% to 91.1%) and 72.9% (95% CI = 62.5% to 83.3%), respectively, for HPV testing overall and 94.8% (95% CI = 92.7% to 96.9%) and 67.3% (95% CI = 58.2% to 76.4%), respectively, for HPV testing in the eight studies that used the Hybrid Capture II assay. Sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology at a threshold for abnormal cytology of ASCUS or worse was 81.8% (95% CI = 73.5% to 84.3%) and 57.6% (95% CI = 49.5% to 65.7%), respectively. Repeat cytology that used higher cytologic thresholds yielded substantially lower sensitivity but higher specificity than triage with the Hybrid Capture II assay. The ratio of the sensitivity of the Hybrid Capture II

  10. Triage strategies in cervical cancer detection in Mexico: methods of the FRIDA Study.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Franco, Eduardo L; Cuzick, Jack; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lorincz, Attila; Rivera, Berenice; Ramírez, Paula; Mendiola-Pastrana, Indira; Rudolph, Samantha E; León-Maldonado, Leith; Hernández, Rubí; Barrios, Elizabeth; Gravitt, Patti; Moscicki, Anna Barbara; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Flores, Yvonne N; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population, including the first 30 829 women who enrolled in the Forwarding Research for Improved Detection and Access for Cervical Cancer Screening and Triage (FRIDA Study). This is a large population based study that is evaluating the performance and cost-effectiveness of different triage strategies for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positive women in Mexico. The target population is more than 100 000 women aged 30 to 64 years who attend the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in 100 health centers in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Since August 2013, all women in the region have been invited to enroll in the study. The study participants are evaluated to determine hrHPV infection using the Cobas 4800 HPV test. The HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology triage strategies are performed as reflex tests in all hrHPV-positive participants. Women with a positive HPV-16/18 test and/or abnormal cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse, ASCUS+) are referred for colposcopy evaluation, where a minimum of four biopsies and an endocervical sample are systematically collected. Histologic confirmation is performed by a standardized panel of pathologists. Among the 30 829 women who have been screened, the overall prevalence of hrHPV is 11.0%. The overall prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 are 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Cytological abnormalities (ASCUS+) were detected in 11.8% of the hrHPV-positive women. A total of 27.0% (920/3,401) of the hrHPV-positive women were referred to colposcopy because of a positive HPV16/18 test and/or abnormal reflex cytology, (31.6% had only ASCUS+, 53.6% were HPV16/18 positive with a normal cytology result, and 9.5% were positive to both triage tests). The results of this study will help policy makers and health service providers establish the best practices for triage in cervical cancer screening in Mexico and other countries.

  11. HPV genotype profile in a Norwegian cohort with ASC-US and LSIL cytology with three year cumulative risk of high grade cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lie, A K; Tropé, A; Skare, G B; Bjørge, T; Jonassen, C M; Brusegard, K; Lönnberg, S

    2018-01-01

    To explore the HPVgenotype profile in Norwegian women with ASC-US/LSIL cytology and the subsequent risk of high-grade cervical neoplasia (CIN 3+). In this observational study delayed triage of ASC-US/LSIL of 6058 women were included from 2005 to 2010. High-risk HPV detection with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) was used and the HC2+ cases were genotyped with in-house nmPCR. Women were followed-up for histologically confirmed CIN3+ within three years of index HPV test by linkage to the screening databases at the Cancer Registry of Norway. HC2 was positive in 45% (2756/6058) of the women. Within 3years CIN3+ was diagnosed in 26% of women<34year and in 15%≥34year. HC2 was positive at index in 94% of CIN3+ cases and negative in 64 cases including three women with cervical carcinomas. Women<34years with single infections of HPV 16, 35, 58 or 33 or multiple infections including HPV 16, 52, 33 or 31 were associated with highest proportions of CIN 3+. Older women with single infection with HPV 16, 33, 31 or 35 or multiple infections including HPV 16, 33, 31 or 18/39 were more likely to develop CIN 3+. HPV 16 and HPV 33 at baseline both as single or multiple infections, were associated with the highest risk for CIN3+. Among older women, all 13 high-risk genotypes as single infection were associated with >20% risk of CIN3+. Further studies are necessary to risk stratify the individual genotypes to reduce the number of colposcopies in Norway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  13. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Moreno-Crespi, Judit; Sardà, Montserrat; Autonell, Josefina; Fibla, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, María; Català, Isabel; Alameda, Francesc; Casas, Miquel; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-01-26

    A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+) in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV) triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7%) had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years). hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p < 0.01). At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions--HSIL) were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI) = 85.5-99.9) and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI = 63.1-73.2). The odds ratio for CIN2

  14. Comparison of Triage Strategies for HPV-Positive Women: Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial Results.

    PubMed

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2017-06-01

    Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing has become a preferred cervical cancer screening strategy in some countries due to its superior sensitivity over cytology-based methods for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2 + ). Improved sensitivity has been accompanied by reductions in specificity and concerns regarding overscreening and overtreatment of women with transient or nonprogressing HR-HPV infections. Triage of HR-HPV + women to colposcopy is, thus, warranted for appropriate management and treatment. Methods: Using data from the Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (CCCaST), we compared the performance of cytology and HR-HPV strategies to detect CIN2 + among HR-HPV + women (age, 30-69 years). Colposcopy referral rates and performance gains from adding other HR-HPV genotypes to HPV16/18 + triage were also evaluated. Results: A strategy referring all women HPV16/18 + and HPV16/18 - , but with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse cytology (ASC-US + ) had the highest sensitivity [82.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 70.9%-91.0%] but yielded the highest colposcopy referral rate. HPV16/18 + triage was the next most sensitive strategy (64.1%; 95% CI, 51.1%-75.7%). Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse cytology (LSIL + ) triage yielded a low sensitivity (32.8%; 95% CI, 21.9%-45.4%) but had the most favorable specificity (93.6%; 95% CI, 91.0%-95.6%), positive predictive value (41.5%; 95% CI, 28.1%-55.9%), and colposcopy referral rate of strategies examined. HPV viral load triage strategies did not perform optimally overall. Inclusion of HR-HPV genotypes 31 and 52 to HPV16/18 + triage provided the highest sensitivities. Conclusion: Concerns surrounding HPV-based screening can be effectively mitigated via triage. Impact: Balancing the benefits of HPV-based primary cervical screening with informed management recommendations for HR-HPV + women may decide the success of its

  15. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ 2 test was used for statistical analysis of data. Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer.

  16. Management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix with human papilloma virus infection among young women aged less than 25 years.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ki-Jin; Lee, Sanghoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae Yun; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-12-01

    Current ASCCP guidelines recommend repeat cytology 12 months after HPV-positive results in women aged 21-24 years with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). The purpose of this study was to validate an algorithm in such women with ASCUS or LSIL. A multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out at three academic hospitals involving 40,847 Korean women who underwent cervical cancer screening with cytology and HPV testing with or without subsequent colposcopic biopsies between January 2007 and December 2013. Among a total of 3,193 women with available histopathology data, 762 women with ASCUS and 758 with LSIL were HPV-positive. Among HPV-positive women with ASCUS, 38.5% of women aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 20.8% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.1% of the total women. Among HPV-positive women with LSIL, 25.8% aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 21.2% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.9% of the total women. In HPV-positive women with ASCUS/LSIL aged less than 25 years, the prevalence of ≥CIN2 lesions was 34.5%, which was significantly higher than that (21.0%) in women aged ≥25 years. The risk of ≥CIN2 lesions in HPV-positive Korean women aged 21-24 years with ASCUS or LSIL was not lower than that in older women. Colposcopic examination should be considered for management of HPV-positive young women with ASCUS or LSIL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:959-963. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Aim: Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. Materials et methods: In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ2 test was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Conclusion: Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:28974850

  18. [ASCUS in screening].

    PubMed

    Caprara, L; Monari, F; De Bianchi, P S; Amadori, A; Bondi, A

    2001-12-01

    The significance and use of the cytological diagnosis "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) remain a major problem in cervical cancer screening. The prevalence of ASCUS by patient age has seldom been investigated. The present paper reports the prevalence of ASCUS in a large series of screening Pap smears from the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The study was based on the data collected by the Department of Health of the Emilia-Romagna Region for the first 3-year round (1997-1999) of a population-based screening programme (target age, 25-64 years). The age-specific frequency of ASCUS has been calculated as a prevalence rate per 1000 screened patients. A total of 597,386 women participated in the programme. Women diagnosed with ASCUS (n = 8205 or 13.7 per 1000) accounted for 49% of the recalls for colposcopy (n = 16,871, or 28.2 per 1000). The prevalence of diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL) decreased progressively with age while that of high-grade SIL was slightly higher between 30 and 39 years. The prevalence of ASCUS peaked at age 45-49 years (17.3 per 1000 subjects). The observed peak reflects the prevalence of (1) cytological changes closely associated with perimenopausal age and at least compatible with the ASCUS diagnosis, and (2) cytological abnormalities induced by hormone replacement therapy.

  19. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Ana Cristina Macêdo; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%), being 38 (54.2%) reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71%) neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5%) ASC-US and 8 (11.41%) ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol), respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%), 19 (27.1%), 3 (27.1%), 16 (22.8%), and 1 (1.4%). A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P = .0021). High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P = .031). Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN. PMID:21760701

  20. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  1. Comparative effectiveness study on human papillomavirus detection methods used in the cervical cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the short-term and long-term effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) tests in Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP). Design Nationwide register-based prospective follow-up study. Setting In 2005, the NCCSP implemented HPV testing in follow-up of unsatisfactory, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Participants 19 065 women with repeat cytology and HPV test after unsatisfactory ASC-US or LSIL screening result in 2005–2009. Interventions Through individual registry linkages we observed how women were treated in the regular medical care. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) in 6 months and 3 years after repeat cytology and HPV test. Patients diagnosed with CIN2+ in 6 months and 3 years were assessed for initial HPV positivity. Results 5392 had ASC-US/LSIL and 13 673 had normal/unsatisfactory repeat cytology; for HPV detection 4715 used AMPLICOR HPV Test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), 9162 Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) High-Risk HPV DNA Test (QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA) and 5188 PreTect HPV-Proofer (NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway). Among those with ASC-US/LSIL repeat cytology, 3-year risk of CIN2+ was 15-fold in Amplicor/HC2-positives compared with Amplicor/HC2-negatives and sevenfold in Proofer-positives compared with Proofer-negatives; a 3-year risk of CIN2+ was 2.1% (95% CI 0.7% to 3.4%) in Amplicor-negatives and 7.2% (95% CI 5.4% to 8.9%) in Proofer-negatives. Close to 100% of patients with CIN2+ diagnosed within 6 months tested positive to HPV (all methods). Considering all patients diagnosed with CIN2+ in 3-year follow-up, 97% were initially positive in the Amplicor group and more than 94% in the HC2 group, compared with less than 80% in the Proofer group. Conclusions While the long-term evaluation of new screening routines

  2. Intracellular human papillomavirus E6, E7 mRNA quantification predicts CIN 2+ in cervical biopsies better than Papanicolaou screening for women regardless of age.

    PubMed

    Pierry, Deirdre; Weiss, Gerald; Lack, Benjamin; Chen, Victor; Fusco, Judy

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening in women younger than 30 years relies on cervical cytology because of the poor performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in this age group. To determine the performance of in-cell HPV E6, E7 mRNA quantification (HPV OncoTect) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women younger than 30 years. We analyzed 3133 cytology specimens from a screening population of women aged 19-75 years investigate HPV OncoTect as a triage/secondary screening test for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology in women younger than 30 years. Test results were compared to histology in 246 cases. The sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA was 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. In women younger than 30 years, the sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA for CIN 2+ lesions was 88% for CIN 2+ and 92% for CIN 3+ lesions. Abnormal cytology (≥ASCUS) exhibited a sensitivity of 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ in women 30 years and older and 96% sensitivity for CIN 2+ and 93% sensitivity for CIN 3+ in women younger than 30. The specificity of E6, E7 mRNA was >80% for CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ in both groups of women compared to a specificity of abnormal cytology of <10% for CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ in both groups. HPV OncoTect demonstrates a performance that would be effective for ASCUS/LSIL triage in women including those younger than 30 years.

  3. Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Monsonego, J; Autillo-Touati, A; Bergeron, C; Dachez, R; Liaras, J; Saurel, J; Zerat, L; Chatelain, P; Mottot, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this six-centre, split-sample study was to compare ThinPrep fluid-based cytology to the conventional Papanicolaou smear. Six cytopathology laboratories and 35 gynaecologists participated. 5428 patients met the inclusion criteria (age > 18 years old, intact cervix, informed consent). Each cervical sample was used first to prepare a conventional Pap smear, then the sampling device was rinsed into a PreservCyt vial, and a ThinPrep slide was made. Screening of slide pairs was blinded (n = 5428). All non-negative concordant cases (n = 101), all non-concordant cases (n = 206), and a 5% random sample of concordant negative cases (n = 272) underwent review by one independent pathologist then by the panel of 6 investigators. Initial (blinded) screening results for ThinPrep and conventional smears were correlated. Initial diagnoses were correlated with consensus cytological diagnoses. Differences in disease detection were evaluated using McNemar's test. On initial screening, 29% more ASCUS cases and 39% more low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and more severe lesions (LSIL+) were detected on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.001), including 50% more LSIL and 18% more high-grade SIL (HSIL). The ASCUS:SIL ratio was lower for the ThinPrep method (115:132 = 0.87:1) than for the conventional smear method (89:94 = 0.95:1). The same trend was observed for the ASCUS/AGUS:LSIL ratio. Independent and consensus review confirmed 145 LSIL+ diagnoses; of these, 18% more had been detected initially on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.041). The ThinPrep Pap Test is more accurate than the conventional Pap test and has the potential to optimize the effectiveness of primary cervical cancer screening. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161401

  4. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in Madrid and correlation with cytological data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study analysed the distribution of type-specific HPV infection among women with normal and abnormal cytology, to assess the potential benefit of prophylaxis with anti-HPV vaccines. Methods Cervical samples of 2,461 women (median age 34 years; range 15-75) from the centre of Spain were tested for HPV DNA. These included 1,656 samples with normal cytology (NC), 336 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 387 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), and 82 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). HPV detection and genotyping were performed by PCR using 5'-biotinylated MY09/11 consensus primers, and reverse dot blot hybridisation. Results HPV infection was detected in 1,062 women (43.2%). Out of these, 334 (31%) samples had normal cytology and 728 (69%) showed some cytological abnormality: 284 (27%) ASCUS, 365 (34%) LSILs, and 79 (8%) HSILs. The most common genotype found was HPV 16 (28%) with the following distribution: 21% in NC samples, 31% in ASCUS, 26% in LSILs, and 51% in HSILs. HPV 53 was the second most frequent (16%): 16% in NC, 16% in ASCUS, 19% in LSILs, and 5% in HSILs. The third genotype was HPV 31 (12%): 10% in NC, 11% in ASCUS, 14% in LSILs, and 11% in HSILs. Co-infections were found in 366 samples (34%). In 25%, 36%, 45% and 20% of samples with NC, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, respectively, more than one genotype was found. Conclusions HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype in our area, followed by HPV 53 and 31, with a low prevalence of HPV 18 even in HSILs. The frequency of genotypes 16, 52 and 58 increased significantly from ASCUS to HSILs. Although a vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 could theoretically prevent approximately 50% of HSILs, genotypes not covered by the vaccine are frequent in our

  5. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in Madrid and correlation with cytological data.

    PubMed

    Martín, Paloma; Kilany, Linah; García, Diego; López-García, Ana M; Martín-Azaña, Ma José; Abraira, Victor; Bellas, Carmen

    2011-11-15

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study analysed the distribution of type-specific HPV infection among women with normal and abnormal cytology, to assess the potential benefit of prophylaxis with anti-HPV vaccines. Cervical samples of 2,461 women (median age 34 years; range 15-75) from the centre of Spain were tested for HPV DNA. These included 1,656 samples with normal cytology (NC), 336 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 387 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), and 82 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). HPV detection and genotyping were performed by PCR using 5'-biotinylated MY09/11 consensus primers, and reverse dot blot hybridisation. HPV infection was detected in 1,062 women (43.2%). Out of these, 334 (31%) samples had normal cytology and 728 (69%) showed some cytological abnormality: 284 (27%) ASCUS, 365 (34%) LSILs, and 79 (8%) HSILs. The most common genotype found was HPV 16 (28%) with the following distribution: 21% in NC samples, 31% in ASCUS, 26% in LSILs, and 51% in HSILs. HPV 53 was the second most frequent (16%): 16% in NC, 16% in ASCUS, 19% in LSILs, and 5% in HSILs. The third genotype was HPV 31 (12%): 10% in NC, 11% in ASCUS, 14% in LSILs, and 11% in HSILs. Co-infections were found in 366 samples (34%). In 25%, 36%, 45% and 20% of samples with NC, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, respectively, more than one genotype was found. HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype in our area, followed by HPV 53 and 31, with a low prevalence of HPV 18 even in HSILs. The frequency of genotypes 16, 52 and 58 increased significantly from ASCUS to HSILs. Although a vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 could theoretically prevent approximately 50% of HSILs, genotypes not covered by the vaccine are frequent in our population. Knowledge of the epidemiological

  6. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis found that only the expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  7. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  8. Clinical significance of hTERC gene amplification detection by FISH in the screening of cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaobei; Ma, Ling; Wang, Zehua; Hu, Lihua

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance of hTERC gene amplification detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the screening of cervical lesions. Cervical specimens of 50 high risk patients were detected by thin liquid-based cytology. The patients whose cytological results were classified as ASCUS or above were subjected to the subsequent colposcopic biopsies. Slides prepared from these 50 cervical specimens were analyzed for hTERC gene amplification using interphase FISH with the two-color hTERC probe. The results of the cytological analysis and those of subsequent biopsies, when available, were compared with the FISH-detected hTERC abnormalities. It was found that the positive rates of hTERC gene amplification in NILM, ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC groups were 0.00, 28.57%, 57.14%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The positive rates of hTERC gene amplification in HSIL and SCC groups were significantly higher than those in NILM, ASCUS and LSIL groups (all P<0.05). The mean percentages of cells with hTERC gene amplification in NILM, ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC groups were 0.00, 10.50%, 36.00%, 79.00%, and 96.50%, respectively. Patients with HSIL or SCC cytological diagnoses had significantly higher mean percentages of cells with hTERC gene amplification than did patients with NILM, ASCUS or LSIL cytological diagnoses (all P<0.05). It was concluded that two-color interphase FISH could detect hTERC gene amplification to accurately distinguish HSIL and ISIL of cervical cells. It may be an adjunct to cytology screening, especially high-risk patients.

  9. The clinical application of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion Pap smear: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Yuanhang; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the clinical application value and correlation with cervical lesions' progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA test in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/borderline) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs/mild dyskaryosis) cytological abnormalities. A meta-analysis was conduct by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979-2016), Wanfang Date (1998-2016), VIP (1989-2016), PubMed (1950-2016), Web of Science (1950-2016) and Elsevier Science Direct (1998-2016), for studies on effect of HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in women with ASCUS/LSIL/dyskaryosis. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan4.2 software. The subgroups analysis was conducted according to women's initial HPV DNA test results. Six articles with a total of 1024 subjects were included in the study. It was concluded that a positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA tested result have a higher risk of progressing to CIN2+ in future 2 years than a negative result. The pooled relative risk (RR) is 3.08, (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-6.07, P < 0.05). The same situation was also observed in the subgroup of HPV DNA tested positive group and HPV DNA tested unlimited group. The pooled RR value of the two subgroups was, respectively, 1.98, (95% CI = 1.19-1.19, P < 0.05) and 7.58, (95% CI = 3.64-3.64, P < 0.05). A positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result suggested the women with ASCUS, or LSIL Pap smear was in a truly dangerous position, which is an adverse prognostic factor. It suggested that cervical lesions stay in a progressing status and these women should be referred for colposcopy and strengthen follow-up promptly. Whereas, women with a negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result can increase follow-up interval, by comprehensively considering their situation, thus, avoiding unnecessary colposcopy and

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of high-risk HPV DNA genotyping for primary cervical cancer screening and triage of HPV-positive women, compared to cytology: preliminary results of the PIPAVIR study.

    PubMed

    Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Angelis, Eleftherios; Kaufmann, Andreas; Skenderi, Alkmini; Jansen-Duerr, Pidder; Lekka, Irini; Kilintzis, Vasilis; Angelidou, Stamatia; Katsiki, Evangelia; Hagemann, Ingke; Tsertanidou, Athena; Koch, Isabel; Boecher, Oliver; Soutschek, Erwin; Maglaveras, Nikolaos; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the presented PIPAVIR (persistent infections with human papillomaviruses; http://www.pipavir.com ) subanalysis is to assess the performance of high-risk (hr) HPV-DNA genotyping as a method of primary cervical cancer screening and triage of HPV positive women to colposcopy compared to liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an urban female population. Women, aged 30-60, provided cervicovaginal samples at the Family-Planning Centre, Hippokratio Hospital of Thessaloniki, Greece, and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Mare Klinikum, Kiel, Germany. Cytology and HPV genotyping was performed using LBC and HPV Multiplex Genotyping (MPG), respectively. Women positive for cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] or hrHPV were referred for colposcopy. Among 1723/1762 women included in the final analysis, hrHPV and HPV16/18 prevalence was 17.7 and 9.6%, respectively. Cytology was ASCUS or worse in 7.6%. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 28 women (1.6%). Sensitivity of cytology (ASCUS or worse) and HPV DNA testing for the detection of CIN2+ was 50.0 and 100%, and specificity was 94.49 and 85.49%, respectively. The screening approach according to which only women positive for HPV16/18 and for hrHPV(non16/18) with ASCUS or worse were referred to colposcopy presented 78.57% sensitivity and 13.17% positive predictive value (PPV). HPV testing represents a more sensitive methodology for primary cervical cancer screening compared to cytology. For triage of HPV positive women to colposcopy, partial HPV genotyping offers better sensitivity than cytology, at the cost of higher number of colposcopies.

  11. Diagnostic performance of dual-staining cytology for cervical cancer screening: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening saves lives. Secondary prevention in cervical cancer screening relies on the results of primary cytology and/or HPV testing. However, primary screening with cytology has a low sensitivity, and HPV screening has a low specificity. This means that either cancers are missed, or women are over-treated. To improve performance outcomes, the concept of dual-stain cytology (CINtec ® PLUS Cytology test) has been introduced. In this approach, additional staining with p16/Ki-67 is performed in cases where cytology results are abnormal (LSIL or ASCUS) and/or HPV-positive. Another way to describe this approach might be "diagnostic" cytology. In order to assess the value of this "diagnostic cytology", a systematic literature review was conducted of dual-stain cytology performance across multiple studies until May 2016. In a Belgian screening population (women age 25-65 years), dual-stain cytology was significantly more sensitive (66%) and slightly less specific (-1.0%) than cytology. In the population referred to colposcopy or with abnormal cytology (ASCUS, LSIL), dual-staining showed a significantly higher increase in specificity, and a slightly lower sensitivity than HPV testing. Specificity gains resulted in fewer false positives and an increase in the number of correct referrals to colposcopy. Dual-staining with p16/Ki-67 cytology is an attractive biomarker approach for triage in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Introduction of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Hebette, Gaëtan; Fischer, Marc; Arbyn, Marc; Weyers, Steven; Vielh, Philippe; Schmitt, Fernando; Mossong, Joël

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, liquid-based cytology with HPV triage replaced conventional cytology. The aim of our study was to compare conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC), estimate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection and their correlation, among screened women in Luxembourg. Between the first January 2013 and 31st December 2015, 315,868 cervical samples from 150,815 women (mean age 42.2 years) were investigated by the national cytology laboratory. Slides were prepared and screened according to European Guidelines. All cytological results were classified according to the Bethesda 2001 system terminology. The prevalence of abnormal cervical lesions was as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 1.3%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 1.9%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 0.4%. The detection rate of cytological lesions was significantly higher with LBC than with conventional cytology. Based on 11,838 samples with concomitant cytology and HPV testing, hrHPV was detected in 9.5, 45.3, 70.0, and 92.6% of women with negative cytology, ASC-US, LSIL, and HSIL, respectively. More cervical lesions were identified using LBC compared to conventional cytology. HrHPV infection was correlated with the severity of intraepithelial lesions. The current findings provide important information to evaluate the prevention of cervical cancer in Luxembourg and for monitoring the future impact of HPV vaccination. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:384-390. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  14. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Presence of koilocytosis in low-grade smears of high-risk HPV-positive women is a negative predictor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more.

    PubMed

    Siebers, A G; van der Linden, H; Vedder, J E M; Bekkers, R L M; Melchers, W L G; Bulten, J

    2018-03-25

    The Netherlands converted to high-risk (hr)HPV-based screening in 2017. An increase in referral of hrHPV-positive women with low risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more (CIN3+) is anticipated and reduction of unjustified referrals will have priority. The relevance of koilocytosis in relation to the underlying risk of high-grade CIN in a primary HPV screening setting is unclear. The aim was to investigate whether the risk for CIN3+ differs between hrHPV-positive atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with or without koilocytosis. Retrospective cohort study, using data from the Dutch national pathology database (PALGA). The population was 1201 hrHPV-positive women with cytological diagnosis of ASC-US/LSIL. Reporting of koilocytosis was assessed as well as detection rates of CIN1 or less, CIN2 and CIN3+ for ASC-US/LSIL cytology stratified by presence or absence of koilocytosis. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were determined. Koilocytosis was present in 40.1% of ASC-US and 45.9% of LSIL cases. CIN3+ is significantly less often found when koilocytosis is present (7.8% for hrHPV-positive ASC-US with- vs 15.8% without koilocytosis). For hrHPV-positive LSIL this was 11.7% vs 20.2%. The crude and adjusted odds ratios for CIN3+ was 0.45 for hrHPV-positive ASC-US and 0.52 for hrHPV-positive LSIL. The presence of koilocytosis is a negative predictor of CIN3+. The risk of hrHPV-positive ASC-US with koilocytosis is in the same range as hrHPV-positive/cytology negative cases and in a setting of primary hrHPV screening these cases could be followed conservatively by repeat cytology. The results should be confirmed by the first data from the Dutch HPV-based screening programme. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Overall accuracy of cervical cytology and clinicopathological significance of LSIL cells in ASC-H cytology.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, J M; Yun, H G; Park, U S; Hwang, S U; Pyo, J-S; Sohn, J H

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and (ii) to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the presence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cells in atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-H) cytology. We retrospectively reviewed paired cytological and histological findings from 3141 patients. ASC-H cytology was classified as either ASC-H or LSIL with some features suggestive of the presence of a concurrent HSIL (LSIL-H). Clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated through a retrospective study and meta-analysis. The accuracy of the cytological diagnosis was 93.7% (2942 of 3141 cases). The positive predictive value (PPV) of ASC-H for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+ ) was 51.4%. In cases of LSIL-H, CIN 2+ histology was more prevalent in the pre-menopausal period (19-44 years) than in peri- and postmenopausal periods (older than 45 years) (P = 0.024). There was no difference in the ability of LSIL-H and ASC-H to predict CIN 2+. The Pap smear is a good cervical cancer screening method. Although there was no difference in the predictive value for CIN 2+ between LSIL-H and ASC-H, the presence of definite LSIL cells was more predictive of CIN 2+ in younger patients than in older patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Performance of P16/Ki67 dual staining in triaging hr-HPV-positive population during cervical Cancer screening in the younger women.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ding, Bo; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Ze-Min; Ren, Mu-Lan; Shen, Yang

    2018-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy from the female reproductive tract, and usually develops from low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL). Detecting the precancerous lesion during the LSIL-HSIL-invasive cancer sequelae can effectively interrupt the oncogenesis and decrease the incidence of invasive carcinoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of P16/Ki67 dual staining in triaging hr-HPV-positive population. Conventional gynecological examination, cervical cytology and hr-HPV testing were given to all patients. Specimens were collected for cytology examination and HPV genotyping. According to cytology results, patients were divided into cervical cancer group, HSIL group, LSIL group and benign lesion group. Sensitivity and specificity of the dual staining method in each histopathologic group was obtained and compared. Among the108 patients participated in the study, 65 were diagnosed as normal, 15 as LSIL, 20 as HSIL and 8 as CC, by histopathologic examination. Dual staining of p16/Ki67 on cytology specimen provided a positive predictive value of 86% and the negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity approached 96.43% when combining ThinPrep cytological test (TCT) with the dual staining, with a specificity of 60% in detecting HSIL. Joint detection of TCT and p16/Ki67 dual staining displayed the highest specificity among all the attempted combinations of detection methods. This study demonstrated that p16/Ki-67 dual staining represents an effective method for cervical cancer screening. Application of this method could lead to a reduction of unnecessary colposcopy referrals and misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of the cobas HPV Test for the Triage of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Cytology in Cervical Specimens Collected in SurePath.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Devansu; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Hong, Christina; Aslam, Shagufta; Behrens, Catherine M

    2017-11-02

    Determine performance of the cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test for triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in SurePath. Women presenting for routine screening had cervical specimens collected in SurePath and specimen transport medium (STM); those with ASC-US cytology underwent colposcopy. Performance of cobas HPV in SurePath specimens that had undergone a preanalytic procedure to reverse possible cross-linking of HPV DNA was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) specimens in STM. Among 856 women, HPV prevalence was 45.8%; HPV 16 and HPV 18 prevalences were lower than expected in the 21- to 29-year-old group in this highly vaccinated population. cobas HPV performance in SurePath was comparable to hc2 in STM. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse were 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.2%) and 55.5% (95% CI, 52.1%-58.9%) for cobas and 85.3% (95% CI, 69.9%-93.6%) and 54.7% (95% CI, 51.4%-57.9%) for hc2. Sensitivity was negatively affected by random biopsies performed at colposcopy; comparable sensitivities were achieved in the nonvaccinated and vaccinated populations with disease determined by directed biopsy only. Performance of cobas HPV for ASC-US triage in pretreated SurePath specimens meets criteria for validation. Preliminary data indicate reliable performance of HPV testing in a highly vaccinated population. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. The need for pediatric-specific triage criteria: results from the Florida Trauma Triage Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S; Rond, P C; Kelly, S M; Swartz, P D

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Florida Trauma Triage Study was to assess the performance of state-adopted field triage criteria. The study addressed three specific age groups: pediatric (age < 15 years), adult (age 15-54 years), and geriatric (age 55+ years). Since 1990, Florida has used a uniform set of eight triage criteria, known as the trauma scorecard, for triaging adult trauma patients to state-approved trauma centers. However, only five of the criteria are recommended for use with pediatric patients. This article presents the findings regarding the performance of the scorecard when applied to a pediatric population. We used state trauma registry data linked to state hospital discharge data in a retrospective analysis of trauma patients transported by prehospital providers to any acute care hospital within nine selected Florida counties between July 1, 1991, and December 31, 1991. We used cross-table and logistic regression analysis to determine the ability of triage criteria to correctly identify patients who were retrospectively defined as major trauma. We applied the field criteria to physiologic and anatomy/mechanism of injury data contained in the trauma registry to "score" the patient as major or minor trauma. To make our retrospective determination of major or minor trauma we used the protocols developed by an expert medical panel as described by E. J. MacKenzie et al. (1990). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and the corresponding over- and undertriage rates by comparing patient classifications (major or minor trauma) produced by the triage criteria and the retrospective algorithm. We used logistic regression to identify which triage criteria were statistically significant in predicting major trauma. Pediatric cases accounted for 9.2% of the total study population, 6.0% of all hospitalized cases, and 6.8% of all trauma deaths. Of the 1505 pediatric cases available for analysis, the triage criteria classified 269 cases as expected major trauma and 1236

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Verdonck, Kristien; Padalko, Elizaveta; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Praet, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Sub-Saharan Africa, but information from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is scarce. The study objectives were to: 1/ assess prevalence of (pre)cancerous cervical lesions in adult women in Kinshasa, 2/ identify associated socio-demographic and behavioural factors and 3/ describe human papillomavirus (HPV) types in cervical lesions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa. Between 2006 and 2013, four groups of women were recruited. The first two groups were included at HIV screening centres. Group 1 consisted of HIV-positive and group 2 of HIV-negative women. Group 3 was included in large hospitals and group 4 in primary health centres. Pap smears were studied by monolayer technique (Bethesda classification). Low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or carcinoma were classified as LSIL+. HPV types were determined by INNO-LiPA®. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression and generalised estimating equations (GEE)) were used to assess associations between explanatory variables and LSIL+. LSIL+ lesions were found in 76 out of 1018 participants. The prevalence was 31.3 % in group 1 (n = 131 HIV-positive women), 3.9 % in group 2 (n = 128 HIV-negative women), 3.9 % in group 3 (n = 539) and 4.1 % in group 4 (n = 220). The following variables were included in the GEE model but did not reach statistical significance: history of abortion, ≥3 sexual partners and use of chemical products for vaginal care. In groups 3 and 4 where this information was available, the use of plants for vaginal care was associated with LSIL+ (adjusted OR 2.70 (95 % confidence interval 1.04 - 7.01). The most common HPV types among HIV-positive women with ASCUS+ cytology (ASCUS or worse) were HPV68 (12 out of 50 samples tested), HPV35 (12/50), HPV52 (12/50) and HPV16 (10/50). Among women with negative/unknown HIV status, the most common types

  1. Type- and age-specific distribution of human papillomavirus in women attending cervical cancer screening in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, M K; Anttila, A; Malila, N; Dillner, J; Forslund, O; Nieminen, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large-scale data on type-specific HPV prevalences and disease burden are needed to monitor the impact of HPV vaccination and to plan for HPV-based cervical screening. Methods: 33 043 women (aged 25–65) were screened for HPV by a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in a population-based programme. HPV-positive women (n=2574) were triaged by cytology and HPV genotyped using PCR-Luminex. Type-specific prevalence of HPV infection and its correlation to findings in cytology triage and histology as well as Population Attributable Fractions for a referral to colposcopy and findings in histology were calculated. Results: Among HC2-positive women, 61.5% had normal, 23.1% had ASC-US and 15.5% had LSIL or more severe (LSIL+) results in cytology. Out of HC2-positive samples, 57% contained the 13 Group 1/2A HPV types, which were targeted by the HC2, 15% contained Group 2B types, 8.5% Group 3 types and 30% were found to be negative in HPV genotyping. The proportion of samples positive for HPV by the HC2, but negative in HPV genotyping increased with age and decreased with increasing cytological abnormality. The most frequent types were HPV 16 (0.9% of screened women and 12.1% of the HC2-positive women), HPV 31 (0.7% and 8.9%, respectively) and HPV 52 (0.5% and 6.3%, respectively). The prevalence of Group 1/2A HPV types increased with increasing CIN grade and attributed 78.3% (95% CI 53.4–89.9) of the CIN 3+ lesions, while HPV 16 attributed 55.8% (40.0–67.5) of them. Conclusion: The type-specific prevalence of HPV were slightly lower than the average in international meta-analyses. Genotyping for HPV 16 better identified women with CIN 3+ than cytology triage at the threshold of LSIL+. The high proportion of women that were HC2-positive but HPV-negative in genotyping suggests that HPV genotyping may be useful also for validation of results in HPV screening. The large-scale HPV genotyping data were found to be directly useful for planning further preventive efforts for

  2. p16 Expression and Biological Behavior of Flat Vulvar Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Natasha; Blanco, Luis Z; Maniar, Kruti P

    2017-09-01

    Flat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the vulva [vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 1, flat condyloma] is an uncommon entity with poorly understood biological behavior. We aimed to determine the risk of subsequent vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or carcinoma following a diagnosis of vulvar LSIL/VIN 1, as well as the frequency and predictive value of p16 immunohistochemical expression in this setting. Of the 51 included cases, p16 positivity (diffuse block staining) was identified in 2 (4%). Follow-up data were available in 34 cases, of which 2 (5.9%) developed subsequent vulvar HSIL, including 1/2 p16-positive cases and 1/32 p16-negative cases. The difference in HSIL frequency between p16-positive and p16-negative cases was not statistically significant (P=0.116 for VIN 2+, P=0.061 for VIN 3). For the 18 patients with treatment information available, 10 (56%) received medical or surgical treatment after biopsy. Our results indicate that flat vulvar LSIL is infrequently p16 positive, and that few patients with vulvar LSIL develop subsequent vulvar HSIL. Despite the use of destructive treatment in some cases, the data provide support for the nonpreneoplastic nature of the entity. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 may not be a predictor of HSIL risk in vulvar LSIL, although this result may also be related to the very low rates of both p16 positivity and subsequent vulvar HSIL in our sample. It is clear that vulvar LSIL is distinct from LSIL in other lower anogenital sites in terms of its behavior and p16 expression frequency.

  3. HPV test results and histological follow-up results of patients with LSIL Cervical Cytology from the Largest CAP-certified laboratory in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Baowen; Yang, Huaitao; Li, Zaibo; Wei, Guijian; You, Jia; Liang, Xiaoman; Zhao, Chengquan

    2017-01-01

    Age-adjusted evaluations have explored the possible utility of (HPV test results in women with LSIL Pap. We investigated HPV test results and histopathologic follow-up results of LSIL patients from China's largest CAP-certified laboratory. Patients with LSIL between 2011 and 2015 from the Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics were retrospectively retrieved and their hrHPV test results and histological follow-up results were collected and analyzed. LSIL result was identified in 37,895 cases from 2,206,588 Pap tests (1.7%) including 1,513,265 liquid-based cytology and 693,323 conventional Pap tests. The average of these women was 38.4 years (15-88). The LSIL reporting rate in women <30 years was significantly higher than that in women > 30 years (2.1% vs 1.7%). The age specific reporting LSIL rates declined with increased age. 8,014 of 37,895 (21.2%) women with LSIL cytology also had HC2 HPV test results. 75.8% of women with LSIL Pap tests were hrHPV+ and the HPV+ rates declined with increased age except in patients older than 60 years. Overall histopathologic diagnoses within 6 months after LSIL were identified in 5,987 of 37,895 patients at Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics. CIN2/3 was identified in 15.2% patients, CIN1 in 66.9%, negative in 14.9% patients. No invasive carcinoma was found in all patients. Of 8014 patients with LSIL Pap test and HPV testing results, 1727 patients had histological follow-up within 6 months after Pap cytology test and HPV testing. The detection rate of CIN2/3 was significantly higher in patients with positive HPV testing result than that in patients with negative HPV testing result (17.8% vs. 8.1%). Among patients with LSIL/HPV negative tests, CIN2/3 was detected in 1 of 30 (3.3%) women aged 50 years and above, appearing lower than those in women less than 50 years (8.0%, 28/351, P=0.357). This is the largest histological follow-up study in women with LSIL Pap from China and the data are helpful in establishing a baseline for better understanding

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing With Messenger RNA Versus DNA Under United States Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ting, Jie; Smith, Jennifer S; Myers, Evan R

    2015-10-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing using a hrHPV DNA and a hrHPV messenger RNA (mRNA) assay under current US cervical cancer screening guidelines. We constructed a Markov model for stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis using published data. We compared screening efficiency using DNA and mRNA testing for the following: (1) cotesting with cytology in women 30 to 65 years, and (2) triage of women with mild cervical cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US]) in the United States. Screening end point is histologically confirmed high-grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, 3, or invasive cancer). Sensitivity and specificity estimates of DNA and mRNA testing to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, 3, or invasive cancer were obtained from 2 published trials: the US Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA (CLEAR) study for ASC-US triage and the French APTIMA Screening Evaluation (FASE) study for cotesting. Costs of DNA and mRNA testing were assumed identical. Costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical neoplasia and cancer were from previously published estimates, adjusted to 2012 US dollars. Inputs were modeled as distributions for Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Model outcomes were costs per life-year saved for each strategy, discounted at 3% annually. For both cotesting and ASC-US triage, mRNA testing cost less than DNA testing, whereas life expectancies were widely overlapping. There was a 100% probability that DNA testing was not cost-effective at $100,000/life-year saved threshold for ASC-US triage and a 55% probability that DNA testing was not cost-effective at the same threshold for cotesting. Based on the available evidence, mRNA testing for cotesting or ASC-US triage is likely to be more efficient than DNA testing under current US cervical cancer screening guidelines.

  5. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    and Second Trials of Each Pathologist. * Reference diagnostic category: NEG, ASCUS , LSIL > HSIL Pathologist 1 Interpretation. Negative or LSIL 24 (22...Principal Investigator: David C. Wdlbbur, M.D. Description of Subject Population: Women above the age of l18 years having Pap tests performe PURPOSE We...Subject Population: Women above the age of 18 years having Pay tests performed IRB Protocol Number: 2003P-001658 Sponsor Protocol Number: n/a Consent Form

  6. Informed cytology for triaging HPV-positive women: substudy nested in the NTCC randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients' HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status-informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status-informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Informed Cytology for Triaging HPV-Positive Women: Substudy Nested in the NTCC Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients’ HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status–informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status–informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. PMID:25568167

  8. Colposcopic and histologic findings in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Yarandi, Fariba; Izadi Mood, Narges; Mirashrafi, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2004-12-01

    The optimal method for managing a patient diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) has not yet been established. The interim guidelines published by the National Cancer Institute suggest that a patient should be referred for colposcopy after the second ASCUS diagnosis within 2 years. To assess the significance of ASCUS in predicting the presence of underlying squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) of the uterine cervix. Women undergoing colposcopy for ASCUS cytology at a teaching hospital in Tehran University, in the years 1998-2001, considered eligible to enter this retrospective study. Of the 266 patients who underwent colposcopy, 28 (11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 16 (6.3%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) two (0.8%) had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 48 (18.8%) had flat condyloma. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on a cervical smear is a good marker for detecting underlying SIL and condyloma. Thus, immediate colposcopy and directed biopsy are appropriate follow-up procedures.

  9. Reflex high-risk human papilloma virus DNA test is useful in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Howard Her-Juing; Allen, Susan L; Kirkpatrick, Joseph L; Elsheikh, Tarik M

    2006-10-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the role of reflex high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA testing as an alternative triage method to colposcopy for women with atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) on Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. Reflex HPV DNA testing using Hybrid Capture II method was carried out on 88 women with ASC-H diagnosed by Thin Prep Pap test. Correlation with follow-up biopsies was available on 42 of these patients. The reflex HPV DNA test showed an overall positive rate of 67% and negative rate of 33% in 88 patients with ASC-H. Using age 30 as the cut off point, the positive rate had increased to 83.3% (35/42) in patients 30 yr or younger, while the positive rate for patients older than 30 yr had decreased to 52.2% (24/46). Follow-up colposcopic biopsy results were available in 35 of 59 HPV-positive women, which revealed 15 (43%) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 12 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 8 negative for dysplasia. In 7 HPV-negative patients, the follow-up biopsies showed no evidence of HSIL or LSIL. Correlation between clinical risk factors and the HPV results demonstrated no significant differences in HPV positivity between the high-risk and low-risk patients. The high sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive rate (100%) in detecting HSIL in our study provide strong evidence that, instead of automatic referral to colposcopy, reflex HPV DNA testing may be used as an alternative triage method for women diagnosed with ASC-H on Thin Prep Pap test, especially for women older than 30 yr of age.

  10. A Study of HPV Typing for the Management of HPV-Positive ASC-US Cervical Cytologic Results

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence; Raine-Bennett, Tina R.; Castle, Philip E.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. Methods The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression Cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0 years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2,079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1,187 with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the “benchmark” risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.4% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. Discussion ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1 year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. PMID:26148763

  11. A study of HPV typing for the management of HPV-positive ASC-US cervical cytologic results.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence M; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Castle, Philip E; Katki, Hormuzd A; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1187 with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the "benchmark" risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.3% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius; Andersen, Jan E; Vigerust, Trond; Krüger, Andreas J; Lossius, Hans M

    2010-08-11

    Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS). The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1) through "Worked excellent" (7). Among the 93 (85%) participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32) without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21) with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2) before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0) after the course, p < 0,001. Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and may serve as a candidate for a future national

  13. [Clinical significance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajian; Tian, Qifang; Zhang, Su; Lyu, Liping; Dong, Jie; Lyu, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical significance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in high-risk HPV positive women. From November 2012 to June 2013, 386 high-risk HPV positive (detected by hybrid capture II) cases were enrolled as eligible women from Huzhou Maternity & Child Care Hospital and Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. All eligible women underwent liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep) followed by colposcopy. Biopsies were taken if indicated. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected for HPV L1 capsid protein detection by immunocytochemistry. Expression of HPV L1 capsid protein in groups with different histological diagnosis were compared, and the role of HPV L1 capsid protein detection in cervical exfoliated cells in cervical lesions screening was accessed. Total 386 enrolled eligible women were finally diagnosed histologically as follwed: 162 normal cervix, 94 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 128 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 2 squamous cervical cancer (SCC). The positive expression rate of HPV L1 in HSIL+ (HSIL or worse) group was significantly lower than that in LSIL- (LSIL or better) group (19.2% vs 66.4%, P=0.000). While identifying HSIL+ in HPV positive cases and compared with cytology, HPV L1 detection resulted in significant higher sensitivity (80.77% vs 50.77%, P=0.000) and negative predictive value (NPV; 87.18% vs 76.47%, P=0.004), significant lower specificity (66.41% vs 81.25%, P=0.000), and comparable positive predictive value (PPV; 54.97% vs 57.89%, P=0.619). To identify HSIL+ in HPV-positive/cytology-negative women, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of HPV L1 detection were 87.50%, 61.54%, 41.18%, and 94.12% respectively, while 80.00%, 86.36%, 80.00% and 86.36% respectively in HPV-positive/atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) women. HPV L1 capsid detection in cervical exfoliated cells have a role in cervical lesions

  14. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  15. Human papillomavirus type specific risk of progression and remission during long-term follow-up of equivocal and low-grade HPV-positive cervical smears.

    PubMed

    Vintermyr, Olav Karsten; Andersland, Marie Songstad; Bjørge, Tone; Skar, Robert; Iversen, Ole Erik; Nygård, Mari; Haugland, Hans Kristian

    2018-03-23

    The prevalence of clinically relevant HPV types and their specific risk for progression and regression in women with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) were studied in a routine screening population. A 4-year cohort of women (n = 820) with ASCUS/LSIL and a positive HPV test in triage were followed for 6-9 years. The progression risks for CIN2+/CIN3+ were determined for single (71.2%) and multiple HPV infections (28.8%). The CIN2+ progression risk for all HPV 16, all HPV 35, single HPV 16 and single HPV 35 infections were 65.3% (95% CI: 59.6-71.0), 64.4% (95% CI: 50.4-78.4), 63.8% (95% CI: 56.2-71.4) and 73.7% (95% CI: 53.9-93.5), respectively. Based on CIN2+ progression risks four main groups were defined; the HPV 16 group, the HPV 31/33/35 group, the HPV 18/45/51/52 group and the HPV 39/56/58/59/66/68 group with progression risks of 65.3% (95% CI: 59.6-71.0), 62.1% (95% CI: 54.8-69.4), 52.6 (95% CI: 45.9-59.3) and 39.5 (95% CI: 33.0-46.0), respectively. In multivariate analyses, women in the age group 40-49 years had an increased risk of CIN2+ progression. As for CIN3+, HPV 16 had a higher progression risk than other HPV risk groups (p < 0.05). In multiple infections only HPV 16 had a significant additive CIN3+ progression risk (p < 0.05) as compared to other HPV risk groups. In summary, HPV types 16 and 35, including the HPV risk group 31/33/35, had a similar CIN2+ progression risk, but only HPV 16 had a higher risk for CIN3+ progression. © 2018 UICC.

  16. Understanding Cervical Changes: A Health Guide for Women

    Cancer.gov

    Explains abnormal Pap test, HPV test, and Pap/HPV cotest results. Treatment and follow-up care for abnormal cervical cancer screening results including ASC-US, AGC, LSIL, ASC-H, HSIL, AIS. Learn about colposcopy, types of biopsies, CIN, and HPV vaccine.

  17. HPV16/18 genotyping for the triage of HPV positive women in primary cervical cancer screening in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcela; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Poggi, Helena; Cook, Paz; Viviani, Paola; Barriga, María Isabel; Pruyas, Martha; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2015-01-01

    We previously conducted a population-based screening trial of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and conventional cytology, demonstrating higher sensitivity (92.7 % vs 22.1 % for CIN2+) but lower positive predictive value (10.5 % vs 23.9 %) of hrHPV testing. Here we report the performance of HPV16/18 genotyping to triage the hrHPV positive participants. Women aged 25 years and older received hrHPV (Hybrid Capture 2) and Papanicolaou testing; positives by either test underwent colposcopy and directed biopsy, as did a sample of double-negatives. hrHPV positive women were reflex-tested with HPV16/18 genotyping (Digene HPV Genotyping PS Test). Among the 8,265 participants, 10.7 % were hrHPV positive, 1.7 % had ASCUS+ cytology, 1.2 % had CIN2+; 776 (88 %) hrHPV positive women had complete results, of whom 38.8 % were positive for HPV16 (24.0 %), HPV18 (9.7 %) or both (5.1 %). CIN2+ prevalence in HPV16/18 positive women (16.3 %, 95 % CI 12.3-20.9) was twice that of HPV16/18 negative women (8.0 %, 95 % CI 5.7-10.8). HPV16/18 genotyping identified 40.5 % of CIN2, 66.7 % of CIN3 and 75.0 % of cancers. Compared to hrHPV screening alone, HPV16/18 triage significantly reduced the referral rate (10.7 % vs 3.7 %) and the number of colposcopies required to detect one CIN2+ (9 vs 6). When HPV16/18 negative women with baseline ASCUS+ cytology were also colposcopied, an additional 14 % of CIN2+ was identified; referral increased slightly to 4.2 %. HPV16/18 triage effectively stratified hrHPV positive women by their risk of high-grade lesions. HPV16/18 positive women must be referred immediately; referral could be deferred in HPV16/18 negative women given the slower progression of non-HPV16/18 lesions, however, they will require active follow-up.

  18. Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal Anal Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal anal cytology [≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm3, 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of anal specimens contained ≥1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal anal cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤50 cells/mm3, HIV-1 viral load ≥50 copies/mL, and anal HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ≥anal ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal anal cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced anal SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401

  19. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Olsson, Sven-Erik; Dillner, Joakim; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV) status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s). A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+. In total, 89 women (28.3%) developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR) HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5-53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3-45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001). HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+.

  20. A survey on the prevalence of high-risk subtypes of human papilloma virus among women with cervical neoplasia in Isfahan University of Medical Science.

    PubMed

    Allameh, Tajossadat; Moghim, Sharareh; Asadi-Zeidabadi, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Given the importance of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and its subtypes to plan more effective strategies for cervical cancer prevention, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer in Isfahan. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, women referred to oncology clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital because of abnormal cytology of their cervices within the last year were studied. The 2001 Bethesda system was used for histologic classification. The distribution of different pathologies was as follows: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 34.7%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) 30.5%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 22.8%, atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 8.4%, and adenocarcinoma (AC) 3.3%. There was no case of atypical glandular of undetermined significance or cases of adenocarcinoma associated with an early lesion. The presence of HPV infection and its subtypes including HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11 was assessed in different cytological categories of cervical neoplasia, by using polymerase chain reaction method. During this study, 130 patients were studied. Their median age was 52 years (range 29-73 years). HPV was detected in 118/130 patients (90.8%) with abnormal cervical cytology. The prevalence of positive HPV samples was 97.6, 80, 93.1, 92.3, and 66.6% in cases with SCC, AC, HSIL, LSIL, and ASCUS, respectively (P < 0.05 between SCC and ASCUS, HSIL and ASCUS, and LSIL and ASCUS). Out of 118 cases with positive HPV, 98 (83.1%) were positive for multiple HPV types 16, 18, and 11 or 6. The distribution of studied HPV subtypes among women with positive HPV was as follows: 49.1% for both types 16 and 18, 10.1% for type 16, 1.69% for type 18 and 22% for type 11 or 6. The prevalence of HPV type 16 was not significantly different in various cytological categories of cervical neoplasia (P > 0.05). The

  1. Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p < 0.05), but was not significantly different between HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is

  2. Pap smear in the prevention of HPV-related anal cancer: preliminary results of the study in a male population at risk.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Luigi; Tiradritti, Luana; Lorenzoni, Elisa; Zuccati, Giuliano; Matucci, Marzia; Butera, Daniela; Foxi, Prassede; Confortini, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and anal cytology, considering a population of HIV-positive and negative men who have sex with men (MSM), at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), in order to ascertain which of the methods examined is the best screening strategy for the prevention of anal cancer. In the period 06/2013-07/2014 at the "MTS Centre" of the University of Florence, 87 male patients, homo/bi-sexual, of which 46 HIV-negative and 41 HIV-positive, were recruited for anal Pap smear and HPV testing. All patients with an "abnormal" cytological result underwent anoscopy with possible biopsy. HPV testing was positive in 73 patients (83.6%). Cytology was negative in 50 patients (57.5%), inconclusive in 14 patients (16.1%), abnormal in 23 patients (26.4%): 14 ASC-US (19.2%), 4 ASC-H (5.5%), 5 L-SIL (6.8%), 0 H-SIL. Anoscopy with biopsy led to diagnosis of AIN I in 10 cases, of which 6 ASC-US+ and 4L-SIL+, AIN II in only 1 case, LS-IL+. Anal HPV testing, when used in primary screening, lead to a high number of "false positives", given the too high prevalence of HPV infection in MSM, the highest risk population targeted for screening. So we propose a screening program with anal cytology which has a high sensitivity for detection of AIN while is a poor predictor of the severity of these lesions; therefore, all patients with abnormal anal Pap smear should undergo anoscopy with biopsy.

  3. Contemporary Obstetric Triage.

    PubMed

    Sandy, Edward Allen; Kaminski, Robert; Simhan, Hygriv; Beigi, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The role of obstetric triage in the care of pregnant women has expanded significantly. Factors driving this change include the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, improved methods of testing for fetal well-being, increasing litigation risk, and changes in resident duty hour guidelines. The contemporary obstetric triage facility must have processes in place to provide a medical screening examination that complies with regulatory statues while considering both the facility's maternal level of care and available resources. This review examines the history of the development of obstetric triage, current considerations in a contemporary obstetric triage paradigm, and future areas for consideration. An example of a contemporary obstetric triage program at an academic medical center is presented. A successful contemporary obstetric triage paradigm is one that addresses the questions of "sick or not sick" and "labor or no labor," for every obstetric patient that presents for care. Failure to do so risks poor patient outcome, poor patient satisfaction, adverse litigation outcome, regulatory scrutiny, and exclusion from federal payment programs. Understanding the role of contemporary obstetric triage in the current health care environment is important for both providers and health care leadership. This study is for obstetricians and gynecologists as well as family physicians. After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to understand the scope of a medical screening examination within the context of contemporary obstetric triage; understand how a facility's level of maternal care influences clinical decision making in a contemporary obstetric triage setting; and understand the considerations necessary for the systematic evaluation of the 2 basic contemporary obstetric questions, "sick or not sick?" and "labor or no labor?"

  4. [Verification of doubtful PAP smear results of women included in the screening program in the Podlaskie province].

    PubMed

    Błońska, Ewa; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Verification of uncertain PAP-smear results in a group of women covered by the cervical screening program in the Podlaski province. The main aim of the study was to identify CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) lesions present, with varying degrees of severity in women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and ASC-H (atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The study evaluated 101 cervical smears taken from the vaginal part of the cervix in a group of screened women in the Podlaski province. Cytological evaluation was performed according the Bethesda System. We analyzed abnormal smears selected from a total of 7296 cytological examinations performed during 2012 at the University Center for Pathomorphological and Genetic - Molecular Diagnosis, Medical University in Białystok. The cytological results which were of interest to us included 19 cases with ASCUS, 59 with LSIL, and 23 with ASC-H, as well as with morphological features of the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Staining was performed using CINtecPLUS test according to the manufacturer's instructions. CINtecPLUS is a immunocytochemical test based on specially designed monoclonal antibodies (E6H4TM) that let us identify protein p16ink4a within the cervical smear Additionally the diagnostic kit was provided with antibodies for diagnosing the presence of Ki-67 protein, a known marker of cell proliferation. The result was considered positive when staining of the nucleus and the cytoplasm appeared in red and brown, respectively. All abnormal results were eventually verified by histological examination of the tissue taken from cervical lesions by diagnostic-therapeutic procedure following colposcopic evaluation of cervical lesion topography In the group of cytological smears with ASCUS, the diagnosis was positive in 5 cases (26.3%), negative in 14 (73

  5. Impact of variations in triage cytology interpretation on human papillomavirus-based cervical screening and implications for screening algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Zappa, Marco; Franceschi, Silvia; Tunesi, Sara; Caprioglio, Adele; Confortini, Massimo; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Carozzi, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo; Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Women positive to human papillomavirus (HPV+) testing at cervical screening need triage, typically cytology and immediate colposcopy in case of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or worse (ASCUS+) or, in cytology-normal HPV+ women, HPV test repeat after 1 year and colposcopy referral if still HPV+. Our hypothesis was that substantial variations in triage positivity and sensitivity may produce little variation in overall referral to colposcopy and on sensitivity of the entire screening process. Centre- and age-aggregated data from 72,869 women aged 35-64 years were derived from 10 organised screening programmes which have piloted HPV screening in Italy since 2012. Overall colposcopy referral was evaluated as a function of immediate colposcopy referral and overall CIN2+ detection as a function of the proportion of all CIN2+ detected by immediate referral (a proxy of cytology's sensitivity). We fitted additive regression models, adjusted for centre, age, compliance to HPV retesting and to colposcopy, by generalised estimation equations. The proportion of HPV+ women directly referred to colposcopy varied across programmes (20-57%; average 37%) and so did CIN2+ detection (49-94%; average 77%). Overall, 63% (range 41-75%) of HPV+ were referred to colposcopy either immediately or at HPV repeat. An absolute 10% increase in immediate colposcopy referral resulted in 4.2% (95% CI: 3.3-5.1%) increase in overall referral. An absolute 10% increase in cytology's sensitivity resulted in a 1.1% (95% CI: 0.1-2.0%) increase in overall CIN2+ detection. Repeat HPV testing limits the effect of subjectivity of cytology interpretation on overall referral and sensitivity. These will change only slightly when replacing cytology with another test if the interval to HPV repeat remains unchanged. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of cervical cells based on fractal and Euclidian geometrical measurements: Intrinsic Geometric Cellular Organization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractal geometry has been the basis for the development of a diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells that clears up the undetermination of the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Methods Pictures of 40 cervix cytology samples diagnosed with conventional parameters were taken. A blind study was developed in which the clinic diagnosis of 10 normal cells, 10 ASCUS, 10 L-SIL and 10 H-SIL was masked. Cellular nucleus and cytoplasm were evaluated in the generalized Box-Counting space, calculating the fractal dimension and number of spaces occupied by the frontier of each object. Further, number of pixels occupied by surface of each object was calculated. Later, the mathematical features of the measures were studied to establish differences or equalities useful for diagnostic application. Finally, the sensibility, specificity, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic concordance with Kappa coefficient were calculated. Results Simultaneous measures of the nuclear surface and the subtraction between the boundaries of cytoplasm and nucleus, lead to differentiate normality, L-SIL and H-SIL. Normality shows values less than or equal to 735 in nucleus surface and values greater or equal to 161 in cytoplasm-nucleus subtraction. L-SIL cells exhibit a nucleus surface with values greater than or equal to 972 and a subtraction between nucleus-cytoplasm higher to 130. L-SIL cells show cytoplasm-nucleus values less than 120. The rank between 120–130 in cytoplasm-nucleus subtraction corresponds to evolution between L-SIL and H-SIL. Sensibility and specificity values were 100%, the negative likelihood ratio was zero and Kappa coefficient was equal to 1. Conclusions A new diagnostic methodology of clinic applicability was developed based on fractal and euclidean geometry, which is useful for evaluation of cervix cytology. PMID:24742118

  7. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Sven-Erik; Dillner, Joakim; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV) status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s). Methods A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+. Results In total, 89 women (28.3%) developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR) HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5–53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3–45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5–7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001). Conclusion HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+. PMID:26083247

  8. Risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or invasive cancers in ASCUS women with different management: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi Jou; Chen, Yun Yuan; Hsu, Huang Cheng; Chiang, Chun Ju; You, San Lin; Chen, Chi An; Cheng, Wen Fang

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the progression risk of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with different clinical managements. Women with their first diagnosis of ASCUS cytology were retrieved from the national cervical cancer screening database and linked to the national health insurance research database to identify the management of these women. The incidences of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and invasive cervical cancer (CIN3+) were calculated, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National Taiwan University Hospital and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02063152). There were total 69,741 women included. Various management strategies including colposcopy, cervical biopsies and/or endocervical curettage, and cryotherapy, failed to reduce the risk of subsequent CIN3+ compared with repeat cervical smears. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure/conization significantly decreased risk of subsequent CIN3+ lesions (HR=0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.07-0.68; p=0.010). Women in their 40s-50s had an approximately 30% risk reduction compared to other age groups. Women with a previous screening history >5 years from the present ASCUS diagnosis were at increased risk for CIN3+ (HR=1.24; 95% CI=1.03-1.49; p=0.020). In women of first-time ASCUS cytology, a program of repeat cytology can be an acceptable clinical option in low-resource settings. Caution should be taken especially in women with remote cervical screening history more than 5 years. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  9. Comparison between Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale and Taiwan Triage System in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chip-Jin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Kuan, Jen-Tze; Chiu, Te-Fa; Chen, Wei-Kong; Lin, Hung-Jung; Bullard, Michael J; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2010-11-01

    Since the implementation of National Health Insurance in Taiwan, Emergency Department (ED) volume has progressively increased, and the current triage system is insufficient and needs modification. This study compared the prioritization and resource utilization differences between the four-level Taiwan Triage System (TTS) and the standardized five-level Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) among ED patients. This was a prospective observational study. All adult ED patients who presented to three different medical centers during the study period were included. Patients were independently triaged by the duty triage nurse using TTS, and a single trained research nurse using CTAS with a computer support software system. Hospitalization, length of stay (LOS), and medical resource consumption were analyzed by comparing TTS and CTAS by acuity levels. There was significant disparity in patient prioritization between TTS and CTAS among the 1851 enrolled patients. With TTS, 7.8%, 46.1%, 45.9% and 0.2% were assigned to levels 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. With CTAS, 3.5%, 24.4%, 44.3%, 22.4% and 5.5% were assigned to levels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The hospitalization rate, LOS, and medical resource consumption differed significantly between the two triage systems and correlated better with CTAS. CTAS provided better discrimination for ED patient triage, and also showed greater validity when predicting hospitalization, LOS, and medical resource consumption. An accurate five-level triage scale appeared superior in predicting patient acuity and resource utilization. Copyright © 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact on patients triage distribution utilizing the Australasian Triage Scale compared with its predecessor the National Triage Scale.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Khalid; Bebbington, Jane; Foley, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    To assess the impact of the change from the National Triage Scale (NTS) to the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) within a hospital ED. A retrospective audit of consecutive adult patients attending the ED of Auckland Hospital from July to September 2001, during which patients were triaged according to the NTS, were compared with patients triaged according to the ATS during July to September 2002. In total, 8715 patients attended the department during July to September 2001 compared with 9047 patients during July to September 2002. There was a significant shift in the triage ratios with patient number increases of 28 and 24% in triage categories two and three, respectively, and decreases of 15 and 67% in categories four and five, respectively. The revision of the ATS has had a significant impact on the triage distribution of patients who present to ED. The change of distribution might have implications for meeting performance criteria and assessing casemix.

  11. Safety of telephone triage in general practitioner cooperatives: do triage nurses correctly estimate urgency?

    PubMed

    Giesen, Paul; Ferwerda, Rosa; Tijssen, Roelie; Mokkink, Henk; Drijver, Roeland; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a growth in the use of triage nurses to decrease general practitioner (GP) workloads and increase the efficiency of telephone triage. The actual safety of decisions made by triage nurses has not yet been assessed. To investigate whether triage nurses accurately estimate the urgency level of health complaints when using the national telephone guidelines, and to examine the relationship between the performance of triage nurses and their education and training. A cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study employing five mystery (simulated) patients who telephoned triage nurses in four GP cooperatives. The mystery patients played standardised roles. Each role had one of four urgency levels as determined by experts. The triage nurses called were asked to estimate the level of urgency after the contact. This level of urgency was compared with a gold standard. Triage nurses estimated the level of urgency of 69% of the 352 contacts correctly and underestimated the level of urgency of 19% of the contacts. The sensitivity and specificity of the urgency estimates provided by the triage nurses were found to be 0.76 and 0.95, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the urgency estimates were 0.83 and 0.93, respectively. A significant correlation was found between correct estimation of urgency and specific training on the use of the guidelines. The educational background (primary or secondary care) of the nurses had no significant relationship with the rate of underestimation. Telephone triage by triage nurses is efficient but possibly not safe, with potentially severe consequences for the patient. An educational programme for triage nurses is recommended. Also, a direct second safety check of all cases by a specially trained GP telephone doctor is advisable.

  12. Safety of telephone triage in general practitioner cooperatives: do triage nurses correctly estimate urgency?

    PubMed Central

    Giesen, Paul; Ferwerda, Rosa; Tijssen, Roelie; Mokkink, Henk; Drijver, Roeland; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a growth in the use of triage nurses to decrease general practitioner (GP) workloads and increase the efficiency of telephone triage. The actual safety of decisions made by triage nurses has not yet been assessed. Objectives To investigate whether triage nurses accurately estimate the urgency level of health complaints when using the national telephone guidelines, and to examine the relationship between the performance of triage nurses and their education and training. Method A cross‐sectional, multicentre, observational study employing five mystery (simulated) patients who telephoned triage nurses in four GP cooperatives. The mystery patients played standardised roles. Each role had one of four urgency levels as determined by experts. The triage nurses called were asked to estimate the level of urgency after the contact. This level of urgency was compared with a gold standard. Results Triage nurses estimated the level of urgency of 69% of the 352 contacts correctly and underestimated the level of urgency of 19% of the contacts. The sensitivity and specificity of the urgency estimates provided by the triage nurses were found to be 0.76 and 0.95, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the urgency estimates were 0.83 and 0.93, respectively. A significant correlation was found between correct estimation of urgency and specific training on the use of the guidelines. The educational background (primary or secondary care) of the nurses had no significant relationship with the rate of underestimation. Conclusion Telephone triage by triage nurses is efficient but possibly not safe, with potentially severe consequences for the patient. An educational programme for triage nurses is recommended. Also, a direct second safety check of all cases by a specially trained GP telephone doctor is advisable. PMID:17545343

  13. [The Spanish Society of Cytology: Quality control program of gynecological cytology].

    PubMed

    Alameda, Francesc; Aso, Sonsoles; Catalina, Inmaculada; Comes, M Dolores; Gomez Mateo, M Carmen; Granados, Rosario; Lloveras, Belén; Oncins, Rosa; Rezola Bajineta, Marta; Treserra, Francesc

    In Spain, the guidelines for cervical cancer screening include a recommendation to enroll in external quality control programs. The Spanish Society of Cytology (SEC) has initiated its own quality control program of gynecological cytology (QCPGC). To describe and discuss the results of the second round of SEĆs QCPGC. The cases are selected by a group of expert cytologists. The cases with an agreement of 75% of four cytopathologists were used. The cases were scanned with Aperio. The scanned cases not available were excluded. We included a total of 23 cases, 1 negative, 15 low grade lesions (4 ASCUS and 11 LSIL) and 7 high grade lesions (1 ASCH and 6 HSIL). Sixteen cases were studied with ThinPrep™ platform and in 7 cases the SurePath™ platform was used. Sixteen hospitals participated. The global mean concordance was 70.6%. The mean concordance in the type of lesion was 63.1%. The concordance was 71.9% in negative diagnoses, 56.2% in ASCUS, 69.5% in LSIL and 82.8% in HSIL The discordant cases were diagnosed more frequently as negative and ASCUS. 4.4% of cases had major discordances (HSIL or ASCH versus negatives). Our results are similar to those reported in the literature, with very few severe discordances. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytology and high risk HPV testing in cervical cancer screening program: Outcome of 3-year follow-up in an academic institute.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jack; Nolte, Fredrick S; Chajewski, Olga S; Lindsey, Kathryn G; Houser, Patricia M; Pellicier, Jalidsa; Wang, Qun; Ehsani, Laleh

    2018-01-01

    Combination of cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing, co-testing, has been increasingly used in screening cervical cancers. The present study summarized the outcome of co-testing by reviewing 3-year clinical and pathological follow-up information. Patients were retrospectively identified via computerized search and were grouped based on the cytologic diagnosis and HR-HPV status as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-, NILM/HPV+, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)/HPV-, ASC-US/HPV+, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/HPV-, LSIL/HPV+, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H)/HPV-, ASC-H/HPV+, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)/HPV-, and HSIL/HPV+. The patients' pertinent past medical history and follow-up information were analyzed. During 3-year follow-up period, histologically proven HSIL was found in 5 of 1565 (0.3%) patients with NILM/HPV-, 7 of 141 (5.0%) with NILM/HPV+, 2 of 502 (0.4%) with ASC-US/HPV-, 30 of 274 (10.9%) with ASC-US/HPV+, 1 of 81 (1.2%) with LSIL/HPV-, 28 of 159 (17.6%) with LSIL/HPV+, 3 of 18 (16.7%) with ASC-H/HPV-, 34 of 69 (49.3%) with ASC-H/HPV+, 7 of 7 (100%) with HSIL/HPV-, and 35 of 56 (62.5%) HSIL/HPV+. In reviewing 12 HSIL cases that were originally diagnosed as NILM, 7 remained as NILM, and the other 5 were reclassified as 1 HSIL, 1 ASC-H, and 3 ASC-US, respectively. In 18 HSIL cases with negative HR-HPV, 12 patients had a prior history of positive HR-HPV testing and/or positive p16 IHC stain in the follow-up cervical biopsy. HR-HPV testing plays an important role in cervical cancer screening by identifying HSIL in patients with ASC-US, LSIL, and NILM. Co-testing is an optimal method to identifying the patients with higher risk for developing cervical abnormalities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Musculoskeletal triage: a mixed methods study, integrating systematic review with expert and patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Joseph, C; Morrissey, D; Abdur-Rahman, M; Hussenbux, A; Barton, C

    2014-12-01

    Triage is implemented in healthcare settings to optimise access to appropriate care and manage waiting times. To determine the optimum features of triage systems for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Studies that included non-musculoskeletal conditions, concerned patients aged <18 years or were set in emergency departments were excluded. Study quality was graded using the Downs and Black quality index. Qualitative methods were used to further inform the findings of the literature review. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, with study quality ranging from eight to 24 out of a possible 27. Musculoskeletal triage is conducted via face-to-face consultation, paper referral letter or telephone consultation. Triage performed by physiotherapists, general practitioners, multidisciplinary teams, nurses, occupational therapists and speech therapists has been shown to be effective using a range of outcomes. Qualitative data revealed the value of supportive interdisciplinary teams, and suggested that this support is more important than choice of clinician. Patients trusted, and expressed preferences for, experienced clinicians to perform triage. Triage can be performed effectively via a number of methods and by a range of clinicians. Satisfaction, cost, diagnostic agreement, appropriateness of referral and waiting list time have been improved though triage. Multidisciplinary support mechanisms are critical elements of successful triage systems. Patients are more concerned with access issues than professional boundaries. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular variants of HPV type 16 E6 among Mexican women with LSIL and invasive cancer.

    PubMed

    del Refugio González-Losa, María; Laviada Mier y Teran, Miguel A; Puerto-Solís, Marylín; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2004-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is an important risk factor associated with cervical cancer, more than 50% of cervical cancer tissues have DNA of HPV 16. Intratypic variants have been reported, although they differ in prevalence, biological and biochemical properties, their implication in the aetiology of cervical cancer is still uncertain. To identify HPV type 16 E6 variants among Mexican women with diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or invasive cancer (IC). Forty HPV16-positive samples were included, 15 were from women with LSIL, 25 from women with IC; 610 pb from the E6 gene were amplified by PCR and the variant status subsequently determined by hybridization with 27 biotinilated probes. Statistical analysis was performed with chi2, odds ratio (OR). In the LSIL group we only found ten (66%) EP and five (33%) EP350G variants. In the IC group, four variants were found; 11 (44%) AA, seven (28%) EP, six (24%) EP350G, one (4%) Af2. Comparison of the frequency of variants differed from EP in both groups of patients (P=0.01) with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.14 (CI 95% [1.07-26.56]). This study demonstrates an association between HPV type 16 variants different from prototype (EP) and invasive cervical cancer.

  17. ED Triage Decision-Making With Mental Health Presentations: A "Think Aloud" Study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Diana E; Boyce-Gaudreau, Krystal; Sanderson, Ana; Baker, John A

    2015-11-01

    Triage is the process whereby persons presenting to the emergency department are quickly assessed by a nurse and their need for care and service is prioritized. Research examining the care of persons presenting to emergency departments with psychiatric and mental health problems has shown that triage has often been cited as the most problematic aspect of the encounter. Three questions guided this investigation: Where do the decisions that triage nurses make fall on the intuitive versus analytic dimensions of decision making for mental health presentations in the emergency department, and does this differ according to comfort or familiarity with the type of mental health/illness presentation? How do "decision aids" (i.e., structured triage scales) help in the decision-making process? To what extent do other factors, such as attitudes, influence triage nurses' decision making? Eleven triage nurses participating in this study were asked to talk out loud about the reasoning process they would engage in while triaging patients in 5 scenarios based on mental health presentations to the emergency department. Themes emerging from the data were tweaking the results (including the use of intuition and early judgments) to arrive at the desired triage score; consideration of the current ED environment; managing uncertainty and risk (including the consideration of physical reasons for presentation); and confidence in communicating with patients in distress and managing their own emotive reactions to the scenario. Findings support the preference for using the intuitive mode of decision making with only tacit reliance on the decision aid. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Triage and the Lost Art of Decoding Vital Signs: Restoring Physiologically Based Triage Skills in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2018-02-01

    Triage management remains a major challenge, especially in resource-poor settings such as war, complex humanitarian emergencies, and public health emergencies in developing countries. In triage it is often the disruption of physiology, not anatomy, that is critical, supporting triage methodology based on clinician-assessed physiological parameters as well as anatomy and mechanism of injury. In recent times, too many clinicians from developed countries have deployed to humanitarian emergencies without the physical exam skills needed to assess patients without the benefit of remotely fed electronic monitoring, laboratory, and imaging studies. In triage, inclusion of the once-widely accepted and collectively taught "art of decoding vital signs" with attention to their character and meaning may provide clues to a patient's physiological state, improving triage sensitivity. Attention to decoding vital signs is not a triage methodology of its own or a scoring system, but rather a skill set that supports existing triage methodologies. With unique triage management challenges being raised by an ever-changing variety of humanitarian crises, these once useful skill sets need to be revisited, understood, taught, and utilized by triage planners, triage officers, and teams as a necessary adjunct to physiologically based triage decision-making. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:76-85).

  19. Accuracy of emergency department triage using the Emergency Severity Index and independent predictors of under-triage and over-triage in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Jeremiah S; Martinez, Diego A; Schmitz, Paulo S K; Toerper, Matthew; Radu, Danieli; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A; Levin, Scott

    2018-01-15

    Emergency department (ED) triage is performed to prioritize care for patients with critical and time-sensitive illness. Triage errors create opportunity for increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we sought to measure the frequency of under- and over-triage of patients by nurses using the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) in Brazil and to identify factors independently associated with each. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study. The accuracy of initial ESI score assignment was determined by comparison with a score entered at the close of each ED encounter by treating physicians with full knowledge of actual resource utilization, disposition, and acute outcomes. Chi-square analysis was used to validate this surrogate gold standard, via comparison of associations with disposition and clinical outcomes. Independent predictors of under- and over-triage were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Initial ESI-determined triage score was classified as inaccurate for 16,426 of 96,071 patient encounters. Under-triage was associated with a significantly higher rate of admission and critical outcome, while over-triage was associated with a lower rate of both. A number of factors identifiable at time of presentation including advanced age, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypoxia, hyperthermia, and several specific chief complaints (i.e., neurologic complaints, chest pain, shortness of breath) were identified as independent predictors of under-triage, while other chief complaints (i.e., hypertension and allergic complaints) were independent predictors of over-triage. Despite rigorous and ongoing training of ESI users, a large number of patients in this cohort were under- or over-triaged. Advanced age, vital sign derangements, and specific chief complaints-all subject to limited guidance by the ESI algorithm-were particularly under-appreciated.

  20. [Triage duration times: a prospective descriptive study in a level 1° emergency department].

    PubMed

    Bambi, Stefano; Ruggeri, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Triage is the most important tool for clinical risk management in emergency departments (ED). The timing measurement of its phases is fundamental to establish indicators and standards for the optimization of the system. To evaluate the duration time of the phases of triage; to evaluate some variables exerting influence on nurses' performance. prospective descriptive study performed in the ED of Careggi Teaching Hospital in Florence. 14 nurses enrolled by stratified randomization proportion (1/3 of the whole staff ), according to classes of length of service. Triage processes on 150 adult patients were recorded. The mean age of nurses was 39.7 years (SD ± 5.2, range 29-50); the average length of service was 10.3 years (SD ± 4.4, range 3-18); average of triage experience was 8.6 years (SD ± 4.3, range 2-13). The median time from patient's arrival to the end of the triage process was 04': 04" (range 00':47"- 18':08"); the median duration of triage was 01':11" (range 00':07" -11':27"). The length of service and triage experience did not influence the medians of recorded intervals of time, but there were some limitations due to the low sample size. Interruptions were observed 111 (74%) of triage cases. the recorded triage time intervals were similar to those reported in international literature. Actions are needed to reduce the impact of interruptions on triage process' times.

  1. Current possibilities of cervical precancerous lesions screening in Slovakia: prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in patients with cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance.

    PubMed

    Kolnikova, G; Ondrusova, M; Repiska, V; Drobna, R; Marinova, P; Meciarova, I; Rampalova, J; Ondrias, F

    2014-01-01

    It has been confirmed, that there is a causal relationship between persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and the development of cervical cancer. In population of women older than 30 years HPV infection becomes a significant etiological factor of precancerous lesion of the cervix, but HPV infection may spontaneously regress in the majority of the cases. The analysed study group consisted of 397 samples with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). All cases underwent HPV DNA testing using the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. We analysed prevalence of HR-HPV and a viral load expressed as relative light units/cut off ratio (RLU/CO) in different age groups with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS. The prevalence of HR-HPV with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS was detected in 44 %. The prevalence of HR-HPV between patients aged 17-29 and between patients aged 30-40 was 55 % and 48 % respectively and we detected significant reduction of prevalence (28 %) in patients older than 41 years. Based on the results of presented study we assumed that age the 40 and over is crucial for the development of serious precancerous lesions in Slovakia, thus this age group is the most suitable for HPV triage of ASCUS. As a refinement of that type of ASCUS triage we recommend to add to the algorithm quantitative measurement of viral load in the specimens in the form of RLU/CO ratio (Fig. 3, Ref. 27).

  2. Triage level assignment and nurse characteristics and experience.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Angelats, Elisenda; Miró, Òscar; Bragulat Baur, Ernesto; Antolín Santaliestra, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Miquel

    2018-06-01

    To study the relation between nursing staff demographics and experience and their assignment of triage level in the emergency department. One-year retrospective observational study in the triage area of a tertiary care urban university hospital that applies the Andorran-Spanish triage model. Variables studied were age, gender, nursing experience, triage experience, shift, usual level of emergency work the nurse undertakes, number of triage decisions made, and percentage of patients assigned to each level. Fifty nurses (5 men, 45 women) with a mean (SD) age of 45 (9) years triaged 67 803 patients during the year. Nurses classified more patients in level 5 on the morning shift (7.9%) than on the afternoon shift (5.5%) (P=.003). The difference in the rate of level-5 triage classification became significant when nurses were older (β = 0.092, P=.037) and experience was greater (β = 0.103, P=.017). The number of triages recorded by a nurse was significantly and directly related to the percentage of patients assigned to level 3 (β = 0.003, P=.006) and inversely related to the percentages assigned to level 4 (β = -0.002, P=.008) and level 5 (β = -0.001, P=.017). We found that triage level assignments were related to age, experience, shift, and total number of patients triaged by a nurse.

  3. Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Melinda; Brown, Ruth; Wears, Robert

    2007-02-01

    To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. A two-phase study comprising observation of 16 h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870 min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13 min 34 s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4 min 17 s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively "seen and treated" in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non-qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be improved by all staff by becoming aware of the effect of

  4. Mass-casualty triage: time for an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jennifer Lee; McCarthy, Melissa L; Sauer, Lauren M; Green, Gary B; Stuart, Stephanie; Thomas, Tamara L; Hsu, Edbert B

    2008-01-01

    Mass-casualty triage has developed from a wartime necessity to a civilian tool to ensure that constrained medical resources are directed at achieving the greatest good for the most number of people. Several primary and secondary triage tools have been developed, including Simple Treatment and Rapid Transport (START), JumpSTART, Care Flight Triage, Triage Sieve, Sacco Triage Method, Secondary Assessment of Victim Endpoint (SAVE), and Pediatric Triage Tape. Evidence to support the use of one triage algorithm over another is limited, and the development of effective triage protocols is an important research priority. The most widely recognized mass-casualty triage algorithms in use today are not evidence-based, and no studies directly address these issues in the mass-casualty setting. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated existing mass-casualty triage algorithms regarding ease of use, reliability, and validity when biological, chemical, or radiological agents are introduced. Currently, the lack of a standardized mass-casualty triage system that is well validated, reliable, and uniformly accepted, remains an important gap. Future research directed at triage is recognized as a necessity, and the development of a practical, universal, triage algorithm that incorporates requirements for decontamination or special precautions for infectious agents would facilitate a more organized mass-casualty medical response.

  5. HPV-DNA testing for patients with ASC-US helps identify the women who have a high risk for precancerous cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Moarcăs, M; Georgescu, I C; Moarcăs, R; Badea, M; Cîrstoiu, M

    2014-01-01

    The cytological interpretation of ASC-US represents a category of morphologic uncertainty. For patients with this result, other tests are necessary in order to determine the risk for cervical lesions. 198 patients with ASC-US cytology have been analyzed between 2008 and 2013. All the patients included in the study have subsequently had a high oncogenic HPV testing and colposcopy risk. 103 (52%) patients tested positive for high risk HPV and 21 (10%) had associated colposcopy changes and precancerous and cancerous lesions identified through biopsy. 95 (48%) patients tested negative for HPV and none of these women had lesions at colposcopy. High oncogenic risk HPV testing was proven useful in identifying the patients with ASC-US cytology who are at high risk for cervical lesions (100% sensibility). In this study, the HPV testing had a negative predictive value of 100%, which uselessly renders a further colposcopy evaluation. HPV testing for women with ASC-US is not specific in identifying women with cervical lesions (Specificity 53%) and this results from a high prevalence of limited HPV infections in an age group which is less than 30 years old. High risk HPV testing for women with ASC-US cervical cytology is useful in determining the risk for precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. A positive result is associated with a high risk for cervical lesions (20%) and for these patients colposcopy is necessary. For women with a negative result, the risk for cervical lesions is practically null so colposcopy is not required.

  6. [Competence of triage nurses in hospital emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Segura, Estrella; Lleixà-Fortuño, Mar; Salvadó-Usach, Teresa; Solà-Miravete, Elena; Adell-Lleixà, Mireia; Chanovas-Borrás, Manel R; March-Pallarés, Gemma; Mora-López, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    To identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics variables and competence levels of triage nurses in hospital emergency departments. Descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study of triage nurses in hospital emergency departments in the southwestern area of Catalonia (Ebre River territory). We used an instrument for evaluating competencies (the COM_VA questionnaire) and recording sociodemographic variables (age, sex, total work experience, emergency department experience, training in critical patient care and triage) and perceived confidence when performing triage. We then analyzed the association between these variables and competency scores. Competency scores on the COM_VA questionnaire were significantly higher in nurses with training in critical patient care (P=.001) and triage (P=0.002) and in those with longer emergency department experience (P<.0001). Perceived confidence when performing triage increased with competency score (P<.0001) and training in critical patient care (P<.0001) and triage (P=.045). The competence of triage nurses and their perception of confidence when performing triage increases with emergency department experience and training.

  7. Triage in military settings.

    PubMed

    Falzone, E; Pasquier, P; Hoffmann, C; Barbier, O; Boutonnet, M; Salvadori, A; Jarrassier, A; Renner, J; Malgras, B; Mérat, S

    2017-02-01

    Triage, a medical term derived from the French word "trier", is the practical process of sorting casualties to rationally allocate limited resources. In combat settings with limited medical resources and long transportation times, triage is challenging since the objectives are to avoid overcrowding medical treatment facilities while saving a maximum of soldiers and to get as many of them back into action as possible. The new face of modern warfare, asymmetric and non-conventional, has led to the integrative evolution of triage into the theatre of operations. This article defines different triage scores and algorithms currently implemented in military settings. The discrepancies associated with these military triage systems are highlighted. The assessment of combat casualty severity requires several scores and each nation adopts different systems for triage on the battlefield with the same aim of quickly identifying those combat casualties requiring lifesaving and damage control resuscitation procedures. Other areas of interest for triage in military settings are discussed, including predicting the need for massive transfusion, haemodynamic parameters and ultrasound exploration. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Thinking strategies used by Registered Nurses during emergency department triage.

    PubMed

    Göransson, Katarina E; Ehnfors, Margareta; Fonteyn, Marsha E; Ehrenberg, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to describe and compare thinking strategies and cognitive processing in the emergency department triage process by Registered Nurses with high and low triage accuracy. Sound clinical reasoning and accurate decision-making are integral parts of modern nursing practice and are of vital importance during triage in emergency departments. Although studies have shown that individual and contextual factors influence the decisions of Registered Nurses in the triage process, others have failed to explain the relationship between triage accuracy and clinical experience. Furthermore, no study has shown the relationship between Registered Nurses' thinking strategies and their triage accuracy. Using the 'think aloud' method, data were collected in 2004-2005 from 16 RNs working in Swedish emergency departments who had previously participated in a study examining triage accuracy. Content analysis of the data was performed. The Registered Nurses used a variety of thinking strategies, ranging from searching for information, generating hypotheses to stating propositions. They structured the triage process in several ways, beginning by gathering data, generating hypotheses or allocating acuity ratings. Comparison of participants' use of thinking strategies and the structure of the triage process based on their previous triage accuracy revealed only slight differences. The wide range of thinking strategies used by Registered Nurses when performing triage indicates that triage decision-making is complex. Further research is needed to ascertain which skills are most important in triage decision-making.

  9. Major incident triage: Derivation and comparative analysis of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT).

    PubMed

    Vassallo, James; Beavis, John; Smith, Jason E; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-05-01

    Triage is a key principle in the effective management at a major incident. There are at least three different triage systems in use worldwide and previous attempts to validate them, have revealed limited sensitivity. Within a civilian adult population, there has been no work to develop an improved system. A retrospective database review of the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was performed for all adult patients (>18years) presenting to a deployed Military Treatment Facility between 2006 and 2013. Patients were defined as Priority One if they had received one or more life-saving interventions from a previously defined list. Using first recorded hospital physiological data (HR/RR/GCS), binary logistic regression models were used to derive optimum physiological ranges to predict need for life-saving intervention. This allowed for the derivation of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool-MPTT (GCS≥14, HR≥100, 12triage tools was then performed using sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals. Differences in performance were assessed for statistical significance using a McNemar test with Bonferroni correction. Of 6095 patients, 3654 (60.0%) had complete data and were included in the study, with 1738 (47.6%) identified as priority one. Existing triage tools had a maximum sensitivity of 50.9% (Modified Military Sieve) and specificity of 98.4% (Careflight). The MPTT (sensitivity 69.9%, 95% CI 0.677-0.720, specificity 65.3%, 95% CI 0.632-0.675) showed an absolute increase in sensitivity over existing tools ranging from 19.0% (Modified Military Sieve) to 45.1% (Triage Sieve). There was a statistically significant difference between the performance (p<0.001) between the MPTT and the Modified Military Sieve. The performance characteristics of the MPTT exceed existing major incident triage systems, whilst maintaining an appropriate rate of over-triage and minimising under-triage within the context of

  10. 2 Major incident triage and the implementation of a new triage tool, the MPTT-24.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, James; Smith, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, a number of European cities including London, have witnessed high profile terrorist attacks resulting in major incidents with large numbers of casualties. Triage, the process of categorising casualties on the basis of their clinical acuity, is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents.The Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT) is a recently developed primary triage tool which in comparison to existing triage tools, including the 2013 UK NARU Sieve, demonstrates the greatest sensitivity at predicting need for life-saving intervention (LSI) within both military and civilian populations.To improve the applicability and usability of the MPTT we increased the upper respiratory rate threshold to 24 breaths per minute (MPTT-24), to make it divisible by four, and included an assessment of external catastrophic haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed MPTT-24 (figure 1).emermed;34/12/A860-b/F1F1F1Figure 1MPTT-24 METHODS: A retrospective review of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) databases was performed for all adult ( > 18 years) patients presenting between 2006-2013 (JTTR) and 2014 (TARN). Patients were defined as priority one (P1) if they had received one or more life-saving interventions.Using first recorded hospital physiology, patients were categorised as P1 or not-P1 by existing triage tools and both MPTT and MPTT-24. Performance characteristics were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, under and over-triage with a McNemar test to determine statistical significance. Basic study characteristics are shown in Table 1. Both the MPTT and MPTT-24 outperformed all existing triage methods with a statistically significant (p<0.001) absolute reduction of between 25.5%-29.5% in under-triage when compared to existing UK civilian methods (NARU Sieve). In both populations the MPTT-24 demonstrated an absolute reduction in sensitivity

  11. Clinical decision support improves quality of telephone triage documentation--an analysis of triage documentation before and after computerized clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    North, Frederick; Richards, Debra D; Bremseth, Kimberly A; Lee, Mary R; Cox, Debra L; Varkey, Prathibha; Stroebel, Robert J

    2014-03-20

    Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to be effective in improving medical safety and quality but there is little information on how telephone triage benefits from CDS. The aim of our study was to compare triage documentation quality associated with the use of a clinical decision support tool, ExpertRN©. We examined 50 triage documents before and after a CDS tool was used in nursing triage. To control for the effects of CDS training we had an additional control group of triage documents created by nurses who were trained in the CDS tool, but who did not use it in selected notes. The CDS intervention cohort of triage notes was compared to both the pre-CDS notes and the CDS trained (but not using CDS) cohort. Cohorts were compared using the documentation standards of the American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN). We also compared triage note content (documentation of associated positive and negative features relating to the symptoms, self-care instructions, and warning signs to watch for), and documentation defects pertinent to triage safety. Three of five AAACN documentation standards were significantly improved with CDS. There was a mean of 36.7 symptom features documented in triage notes for the CDS group but only 10.7 symptom features in the pre-CDS cohort (p < 0.0001) and 10.2 for the cohort that was CDS-trained but not using CDS (p < 0.0001). The difference between the mean of 10.2 symptom features documented in the pre-CDS and the mean of 10.7 symptom features documented in the CDS-trained but not using was not statistically significant (p = 0.68). CDS significantly improves triage note documentation quality. CDS-aided triage notes had significantly more information about symptoms, warning signs and self-care. The changes in triage documentation appeared to be the result of the CDS alone and not due to any CDS training that came with the CDS intervention. Although this study shows that CDS can improve documentation, further study is needed

  12. Testing for HPV as an objective measure for quality assurance in gynecologic cytology: positive rates in equivocal and abnormal specimens and comparison with the ASCUS to SIL ratio.

    PubMed

    Ko, Vincent; Nanji, Shabin; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Wilbur, David C

    2007-04-25

    Inappropriate use of the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) can result in overtreatment or undertreatment of patients, which may decrease the cost effectiveness of screening. Quality assurance tools, such as the ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio (ASCUS:SIL) and case review, are imperfect. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing is an objective test for a known viral carcinogen, and hrHPV may be more useful in monitoring the quality of ASCUS interpretations. hrHPV rates for cytologic diagnoses and patient age groups were calculated for a 2-year period. All hrHPV results for ASCUS and SIL over a 17-month period were analyzed by patient age group, over time, and by individual cytopathologist to compare hrHPV rates with the corresponding ASCUS:SIL. The hrHPV positive rate for SIL was >90%, and it was 32.6% for ASCUS. Stratification by patient age showed that approximately 50% of patients younger than 30 years and older than 70 years of age were hrHPV positive, whereas other patients had a lower rate ranging from 14% to 34%. The overall ASCUS:SIL was 1.42, and the overall hrHPV positive rate was 39.9%. Over time and by individual cytopathologist, the hrHPV rate performed similarly to the ASCUS:SIL. The analysis by patient age showed a high statistical correlation (R(2) = 0.9772) between the 2 methods. Despite differences between these techniques, the hrHPV rate closely recapitulates the ASCUS:SIL. When used together, the 2 methods can complement each other. The desirable hrHPV-positive range appears to be 40% to 50%; however, this may vary based on the patient population. The hrHPV rate is as quick and cost effective as determining the ASCUS:SIL. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  13. Paramedic Application of a Triage Sieve: A Paper-Based Exercise.

    PubMed

    Cuttance, Glen; Dansie, Kathryn; Rayner, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Triage is the systematic prioritization of casualties when there is an imbalance between the needs of these casualties and resource availability. The triage sieve is a recognized process for prioritizing casualties for treatment during mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). While the application of a triage sieve generally is well-accepted, the measurement of its accuracy has been somewhat limited. Obtaining reliable measures for triage sieve accuracy rates is viewed as a necessity for future development in this area. The goal of this study was to investigate how theoretical knowledge acquisition and the practical application of an aide-memoir impacted triage sieve accuracy rates. Two hundred and ninety-two paramedics were allocated randomly to one of four separate sub-groups, a non-intervention control group, and three intervention groups, which involved them receiving either an educational review session and/or an aide-memoir. Participants were asked to triage sieve 20 casualties using a previously trialed questionnaire. The study showed the non-intervention control group had a correct accuracy rate of 47%, a similar proportion of casualties found to be under-triaged (37%), but a significantly lower number of casualties were over-triaged (16%). The provision of either an educational review or aide-memoir significantly increased the correct triage sieve accuracy rate to 77% and 90%, respectively. Participants who received both the educational review and aide-memoir had an overall accuracy rate of 89%. Over-triaged rates were found not to differ significantly across any of the study groups. This study supports the use of an aide-memoir for maximizing MCI triage accuracy rates. A "just-in-time" educational refresher provided comparable benefits, however its practical application to the MCI setting has significant operational limitations. In addition, this study provides some guidance on triage sieve accuracy rate measures that can be applied to define

  14. Comparative analysis of multiple-casualty incident triage algorithms.

    PubMed

    Garner, A; Lee, A; Harrison, K; Schultz, C H

    2001-11-01

    We sought to retrospectively measure the accuracy of multiple-casualty incident (MCI) triage algorithms and their component physiologic variables in predicting adult patients with critical injury. We performed a retrospective review of 1,144 consecutive adult patients transported by ambulance and admitted to 2 trauma centers. Association between first-recorded out-of-hospital physiologic variables and a resource-based definition of severe injury appropriate to the MCI context was determined. The association between severe injury and Triage Sieve, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and CareFlight Triage was determined in the patient population. Of the physiologic variables, the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale had the strongest association with severe injury, followed by systolic blood pressure. The differences between CareFlight Triage, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment were not dramatic, with sensitivities of 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 88%), 85% (95% CI 78% to 90%), and 84% (95% CI 76% to 89%), respectively, and specificities of 96% (95% CI 94% to 97%), 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%), and 91% (95% CI 89% to 93%), respectively. Both forms of Triage Sieve were significantly poorer predictors of severe injury. Of the physiologic variables used in the triage algorithms, the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale and systolic blood pressure had the strongest association with severe injury. CareFlight Triage, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment had similar sensitivities in predicting critical injury in designated trauma patients, but CareFlight Triage had better specificity. Because patients in a true mass casualty situation may not be completely comparable with designated trauma patients transported to emergency departments in routine circumstances, the best triage instrument in this study may not be the best in an

  15. Risks of CIN 2+, CIN 3+, and Cancer by Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Status: The Foundation of Risk-Based Cervical Screening Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Maria; Lorey, Thomas S; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C; Guido, Richard S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-10-01

    The next round of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP)-sponsored cervical cancer screening and management guidelines will recommend clinical actions based on risk, rather than test-based algorithms. This article gives preliminary risk estimates for the screening setting, showing combinations of the 2 most important predictors, human papillomavirus (HPV) status and cytology result. Among 1,262,713 women aged 25 to 77 years co-tested with HC2 (Qiagen) and cytology at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we estimated 0-5-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+, CIN 3+, and cancer for combinations of cytology (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy [NILM], atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL [ASC-H], high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical glandular cells [AGC]) and HPV status. Ninety percent of screened women had HPV-negative NILM and an extremely low risk of subsequent cancer. Five-year risks of CIN 3+ were lower after HPV negativity (0.12%) than after NILM (0.25%). Among HPV-negative women, 5-year risks for CIN 3+ were 0.10% for NILM, 0.44% for ASC-US, 1.8% for LSIL, 3.0% for ASC-H, 1.2% for AGC, and 29% for HSIL+ cytology (which was very rare). Among HPV-positive women, 5-year risks were 4.0% for NILM, 6.8% for ASC-US, 6.1% for LSIL, 28% for ASC-H, 30% for AGC, and 50% for HSIL+ cytology. As a foundation for the next guidelines revision, we confirmed with additional precision the risk estimates previously reported for combinations of HPV and cytology. Future analyses will estimate risks for women being followed in colposcopy clinic and posttreatment and will consider the role of risk modifiers such as age, HPV vaccine status, HPV type, and screening and treatment history.

  16. Risks of CIN 2+, CIN 3+, and Cancer by Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Status: The Foundation of Risk-Based Cervical Screening Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, Maria; Lorey, Thomas S.; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C.; Guido, Richard S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K.; Poitras, Nancy E.; Befano, Brian; Castle, Philip E.; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The next round of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP)-sponsored cervical cancer screening and management guidelines will recommend clinical actions based on risk, rather than test-based algorithms. This article gives preliminary risk estimates for the screening setting, showing combinations of the 2 most important predictors, human papillomavirus (HPV) status and cytology result. Materials and Methods Among 1,262,713 women aged 25 to 77 years co-tested with HC2 (Qiagen) and cytology at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we estimated 0–5-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+, CIN 3+, and cancer for combinations of cytology (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy [NILM], atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL [ASC-H], high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical glandular cells [AGC]) and HPV status. Results Ninety percent of screened women had HPV-negative NILM and an extremely low risk of subsequent cancer. Five-year risks of CIN 3+ were lower after HPV negativity (0.12%) than after NILM (0.25%). Among HPV-negative women, 5-year risks for CIN 3+ were 0.10% for NILM, 0.44% for ASC-US, 1.8% for LSIL, 3.0% for ASC-H, 1.2% for AGC, and 29% for HSIL+ cytology (which was very rare). Among HPV-positive women, 5-year risks were 4.0% for NILM, 6.8% for ASC-US, 6.1% for LSIL, 28% for ASC-H, 30% for AGC, and 50% for HSIL+ cytology. Conclusions As a foundation for the next guidelines revision, we confirmed with additional precision the risk estimates previously reported for combinations of HPV and cytology. Future analyses will estimate risks for women being followed in colposcopy clinic and posttreatment and will consider the role of risk modifiers such as age, HPV vaccine status, HPV type, and screening and treatment history. PMID:28953116

  17. Significance of the Cytological Signs of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Anal Pap Smears of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed

    Okayama, Kaori; Okodo, Mitsuaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Itoda, Ichiro

    2017-11-26

    Purpose: The incidence of invasive anal cancer (IAC) has been increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Although cytological diagnosis is the modality of choice for screening cases of IAC, it is associated with lower sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate new cytological signs of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that may contribute to improving anal cytology. Methods: Anal cytology and HPV testing were performed using SurePath liquid-based cytology on samples obtained from 37 HIV-positive Japanese MSM. Subsequently, a histological biopsy based on high-resolution anoscopy was performed in MSM with abnormal cytological findings indicative of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) +. Also, anal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were performed to determine cellularity, presence of dysplastic squamous cells, and other cytological signs of HPV infection. Results: Of the 37 MSM who underwent anal cytology, six tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, three cases exhibited ASC-US, 17 exhibited low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), nine exhibited high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and two remained undiagnosed. The anal Pap smears of 28 (96.6%) of the 29 MSM with abnormal cytological findings of ASC-US+ exhibited anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), as revealed by histological biopsy. The median value (minimum–maximum) of the cellularity of anal Pap smears was 12 (0–70.5) nsc/hpf. In 26 MSM with LSIL and HSIL, the median dysplastic squamous cells count was 14 (2–152) dsc/smear and the cytological sign of HPV infection was 11 (2–71) hpv/smear. Of all anal Pap smears that revealed ASC-US+, 96.6% exhibited cytological signs of HPV infection. Compression-positive binucleated cells were the most prevalent among all cytological signs of HPV infection. Conclusion: For anal cytology, instead of considering a small number of

  18. Clinical decision support improves quality of telephone triage documentation - an analysis of triage documentation before and after computerized clinical decision support

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to be effective in improving medical safety and quality but there is little information on how telephone triage benefits from CDS. The aim of our study was to compare triage documentation quality associated with the use of a clinical decision support tool, ExpertRN©. Methods We examined 50 triage documents before and after a CDS tool was used in nursing triage. To control for the effects of CDS training we had an additional control group of triage documents created by nurses who were trained in the CDS tool, but who did not use it in selected notes. The CDS intervention cohort of triage notes was compared to both the pre-CDS notes and the CDS trained (but not using CDS) cohort. Cohorts were compared using the documentation standards of the American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing (AAACN). We also compared triage note content (documentation of associated positive and negative features relating to the symptoms, self-care instructions, and warning signs to watch for), and documentation defects pertinent to triage safety. Results Three of five AAACN documentation standards were significantly improved with CDS. There was a mean of 36.7 symptom features documented in triage notes for the CDS group but only 10.7 symptom features in the pre-CDS cohort (p < 0.0001) and 10.2 for the cohort that was CDS-trained but not using CDS (p < 0.0001). The difference between the mean of 10.2 symptom features documented in the pre-CDS and the mean of 10.7 symptom features documented in the CDS-trained but not using was not statistically significant (p = 0.68). Conclusions CDS significantly improves triage note documentation quality. CDS-aided triage notes had significantly more information about symptoms, warning signs and self-care. The changes in triage documentation appeared to be the result of the CDS alone and not due to any CDS training that came with the CDS intervention. Although this study shows that CDS

  19. Five-level emergency triage systems: variation in assessment of validity.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Akira; Urushidani, Seigo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-11-01

    Triage systems are scales developed to rate the degree of urgency among patients who arrive at EDs. A number of different scales are in use; however, the way in which they have been validated is inconsistent. Also, it is difficult to define a surrogate that accurately predicts urgency. This systematic review described reference standards and measures used in previous validation studies of five-level triage systems. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies that had assessed the validity of five-level triage systems and described the reference standards and measures applied in these studies. Studies were divided into those using criterion validity (reference standards developed by expert panels or triage systems already in use) and those using construct validity (prognosis, costs and resource use). A total of 57 studies examined criterion and construct validity of 14 five-level triage systems. Criterion validity was examined by evaluating (1) agreement between the assigned degree of urgency with objective standard criteria (12 studies), (2) overtriage and undertriage (9 studies) and (3) sensitivity and specificity of triage systems (7 studies). Construct validity was examined by looking at (4) the associations between the assigned degree of urgency and measures gauged in EDs (48 studies) and (5) the associations between the assigned degree of urgency and measures gauged after hospitalisation (13 studies). Particularly, among 46 validation studies of the most commonly used triages (Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale, Emergency Severity Index and Manchester Triage System), 13 and 39 studies examined criterion and construct validity, respectively. Previous studies applied various reference standards and measures to validate five-level triage systems. They either created their own reference standard or used a combination of severity/resource measures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  20. Role of telephone triage in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Manning, Nirvana Afsordeh; Magann, Everett F; Rhoads, Sarah J; Ivey, Tesa L; Williams, Donna J

    2012-12-01

    The telephone has become an indispensable method of communication in the practice of obstetrics. The telephone is one of the primary methods by which the patient makes her appointments and contacts her health care provider for advice, reassurance, and referrals. Current methods of telephone triage include personal at the physicians' office, telephone answering services, labor and delivery nurses, and a dedicated telephone triage system using algorithms. Limitations of telephone triage include the inability of the provider to see the patient and receive visual clues from the interaction and the challenges of obtaining a complete history over the telephone. In addition, there are potential safety and legal issues with telephone triage. To date, there is insufficient evidence to either validate or refute the use of a dedicated telephone triage system compared with a traditional system using an answering service or nurses on labor and delivery. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to analyze the scope of variation in telephone triage across health care providers and categorize the components that go into a successful triage system, assess the current scope of research in telephone triage in obstetrics, evaluate potential safety and legal issues with telephone triage in obstetrics, and identify issues that should be addressed in any institution that is using or implementing a system of telephone triage in obstetrics.

  1. Validation of different pediatric triage systems in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Aeimchanbanjong, Kanokwan; Pandee, Uthen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage system in children seems to be more challenging compared to adults because of their different response to physiological and psychosocial stressors. This study aimed to determine the best triage system in the pediatric emergency department. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. This study was divided into two phases. The first phase determined the inter-rater reliability of five triage systems: Manchester Triage System (MTS), Emergency Severity Index (ESI) version 4, Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), Australasian Triage Scale (ATS), and Ramathibodi Triage System (RTS) by triage nurses and pediatric residents. In the second phase, to analyze the validity of each triage system, patients were categorized as two groups, i.e., high acuity patients (triage level 1, 2) and low acuity patients (triage level 3, 4, and 5). Then we compared the triage acuity with actual admission. RESULTS: In phase I, RTS illustrated almost perfect inter-rater reliability with kappa of 1.0 (P<0.01). ESI and CTAS illustrated good inter-rater reliability with kappa of 0.8–0.9 (P<0.01). Meanwhile, ATS and MTS illustrated moderate to good inter-rater reliability with kappa of 0.5–0.7 (P<0.01). In phase II, we included 1 041 participants with average age of 4.7±4.2 years, of which 55% were male and 45% were female. In addition 32% of the participants had underlying diseases, and 123 (11.8%) patients were admitted. We found that ESI illustrated the most appropriate predicting ability for admission with sensitivity of 52%, specificity of 81%, and AUC 0.78 (95%CI 0.74–0.81). CONCLUSION: RTS illustrated almost perfect inter-rater reliability. Meanwhile, ESI and CTAS illustrated good inter-rater reliability. Finally, ESI illustrated the appropriate validity for triage system. PMID:28680520

  2. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  3. "RAPID" team triage: one hospital's approach to patient-centered team triage.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sheila Sanning; Hoyt, K Sue

    2012-01-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department want definitive care by a health care provider who can perform an initial assessment, initiate treatment, and implement a disposition plan. The traditional "nurse triage" model often creates barriers to the process of rapidly evaluating patients. Therefore, innovative strategies must be explored to improve the time of patient arrival to the time seen by a qualified provider in order to complete a thorough medical screening examination. One such approach is a rapid team triage system that provides a patient-centered process. This article describes the implementation of a rapid team triage model in an urban community hospital.

  4. Patient satisfaction with triage nursing care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jaime Nga Han; Chau, Janita

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports a study to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and triage nursing care in order to assist nurses in defining more clearly their roles, and ultimately to improve the quality of care delivered to emergency patients. Patient satisfaction is considered an important indicator of quality care from the perspective of the consumer and has been widely studied in many settings. However, few studies have examined patient satisfaction with emergency nursing services in the particular area of triage. A descriptive, correlational study was conducted in 2001 in one urban acute hospital in Hong Kong using Consumer Emergency Care Satisfaction Scale (CECSS), and patient and nurse demographic data were also collected. Following a power calculation, systematic sampling was carried out, and the final sample consisted of 56 urgent, semi-urgent and non-urgent patients triaged. The response rate was 61%. The majority of the participants were satisfied with their triage nursing care and teaching. However, difficulties were encountered during the data collection process, resulting in a relatively low response rate. Correlational analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with triage nursing care was statistically significantly correlated with age and the type of nursing intervention received. Older people were more satisfied with the teaching offered by triage nurses and patients who had received specific nursing interventions gave more positive ratings on the teaching subscale of the CECSS. There were no statistically significant relationships between patient satisfaction with triage nursing care and nurse characteristics, including gender, work experiences and educational level. Patients were generally satisfied with the care provided by the triage nurses. Measuring patient satisfaction with triage nursing care remains a major challenge for health care providers in emergency care settings.

  5. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    four showed Candida species or Trichomonas vaginalis organisms, two were atrophic, and one showed bacterial vaginosis (Table 1). All patient-identifier...Reference Specimens Diagnosis No. of specimens Carcinoma 2 Squamous 1 NOS 1 AIS 1 HSIL 5 LSIL 5 ASCUS 3 NILM 16 Candida species 3 Atrophy 2 Trichomonas ... vaginalis 1 Bacterial vaginosis 1 NOS 9 NOS: not otherwise specified; AIS: adenocarcinoma in situ; HSIL: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

  6. Implementing street triage: a qualitative study of collaboration between police and mental health services.

    PubMed

    Horspool, Kimberley; Drabble, Sarah J; O'Cathain, Alicia

    2016-09-07

    Street Triage is a collaborative service between mental health workers and police which aims to improve the emergency response to individuals experiencing crisis, but peer reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of these services is limited. We examined the design and potential impact of two services, along with factors that hindered and facilitated the implementation of the services. We conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with mental health and police stakeholders with experience of a Street Triage service in two locations of the UK. Framework analysis identified themes related to key aspects of the Street Triage service, perceived benefits of Street Triage, and ways in which the service could be developed in the future. Stakeholders endorsed the Street Triage services which utilised different operating models. These models had several components including a joint response vehicle or a mental health worker in a police control room. Operating models were developed with consideration of the local geographical and population density. The ability to make referrals to the existing mental health service was perceived as key to the success of the service yet there was evidence to suggest Street Triage had the potential to increase pressure on already stretched mental health and police services. Identifying staff with skills and experience for Street Triage work was important, and their joint response resulted in shared decision making which was less risk averse for the police and regarded as in the interest of patient care by mental health professionals. Collaboration during Street Triage improved the understanding of roles and responsibilities in the 'other' agency and led to the development of local information sharing agreements. Views about the future direction of the service focused on expansion of Street Triage to address other shared priorities such as frequent users of police and mental health services, and a reduction in the police involvement in crisis

  7. Value of PAX1 Methylation Analysis by MS-HRM in the Triage of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Xi-Bo; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiang, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cervical high grade lesions in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is still a challenge. Our study tested the efficacy of the paired boxed gene 1 (PAX1) methylation analysis by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) in the detection of high grade lesions in ASCUS and compared performance with the hybrid capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) test. A total of 463 consecutive ASCUS women from primary screening were selected. Their cervical scrapings were collected and assessed by PAX1 methylation analysis (MS-HRM) and high-risk HPV-DNA test (HC2). All patients with ASCUS were admitted to colposcopy and cervical biopsies. The Chi- square test was used to test the differences of PAX1 methylation or HPV infection between groups. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for detecting CIN2 + lesions were: 95.6%, 82.4%, and 94.6%, respectively, for the PAX1 MS-HRM test; and 59.7%, 64.7%, and 60.0% for the HC2 HPV test. The PAX1 methylation analysis by MS-HRM demonstrated a better performance than the high-risk HPV-DNA test for the detection of high grade lesions (CIN2 +) in ASCUS cases. This approach could screen out the majority of low grade cases of ASCUS, and thus reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.

  8. Improving Five-level Triage Form According to the Experts Viewpoint; A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bazm, Ali; Khorasani, Elahe; Etemadi, Manal; Nadeali, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study is a qualitative study being conducted in five stages at Vali-Asr Hospital of Qom in 2013. After two surveys, the experts were interviewed using focus group discussion (FDG) and study was continuing with. Data were analyzed through studying the opinions of the specialized teams’ members, summarizing and classifying the data in qualitative phase. Results: Changes proposed in the triage form communicated by Iran’s emergency department according to the participants’ opinions include informing all the patients in the emergency department of some necessary information. Therefore, three parts of medical and medicinal history, vital signs and level of consciousness were added to the first part of the form and necessary emergency facilities were also added to the third level of triage. Conclusion: Measuring each item added to the general part of the triage form provides more precise diagnosis and more scientific classification, since the level to which the patient belongs should be identified based on medical history, clinical signs and level of consciousness. PMID:27162895

  9. An exploration of clinical decision making in mental health triage.

    PubMed

    Sands, Natisha

    2009-08-01

    Mental health (MH) triage is a specialist area of clinical nursing practice that involves complex decision making. The discussion in this article draws on the findings of a Ph.D. study that involved a statewide investigation of the scope of MH triage nursing practice in Victoria, Australia. Although the original Ph.D. study investigated a number of core practices in MH triage, the focus of the discussion in this article is specifically on the findings related to clinical decision making in MH triage, which have not previously been published. The study employed an exploratory descriptive research design that used mixed data collection methods including a survey questionnaire (n = 139) and semistructured interviews (n = 21). The study findings related to decision making revealed a lack of empirically tested evidence-based decision-making frameworks currently in use to support MH triage nursing practice. MH triage clinicians in Australia rely heavily on clinical experience to underpin decision making and have little of knowledge of theoretical models for practice, such as methodologies for rating urgency. A key recommendation arising from the study is the need to develop evidence-based decision-making frameworks such as clinical guidelines to inform and support MH triage clinical decision making.

  10. Factors influencing consistency of triage using the Australasian Triage Scale: implications for guideline development.

    PubMed

    Gerdtz, Marie F; Chu, Matthew; Collins, Marnie; Considine, Julie; Crellin, Dianne; Sands, Natisha; Stewart, Carmel; Pollock, Wendy E

    2009-08-01

    To examine the influence of the nurse, the type of patient presentation and the level of hospital service on consistency of triage using the Australasian Triage Scale. A secondary analysis of survey data was conducted. The main study was undertaken to measure the reliability of 237 scenarios for inclusion in a national training programme. Nurses were recruited from a quota sample of Australian ED according to peer group. Analysis was performed to determine concordance: the percentage of responses in the modal triage category. Analysis of variance (anova) and Pearson correlations were used to investigate associations between the explanatory variables and concordance. A total of 42/50 (84%) participants returned questionnaires, providing 9946 scenario responses for analysis. Significant differences in concordance were observed by variables describing the type of patient presentation and level of urgency. Mean scores for the comparison group (adult pain; 70.7%) were higher than the groups involving a mental health or pregnancy presentations (61.4%; Ptriage for mental health and pregnancy presentations. Further research is needed to improve the guidelines on the implementation of the Australasian Triage Scale for these populations.

  11. Triage: an investigation of the process and potential vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Maree; Gillespie, Brigid; Crilly, Julia; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    To explore and describe the triage process in the Emergency Department to identify problems and potential vulnerabilities that may affect the triage process. Triage is the first step in the patient journey in the Emergency Department and is often the front line in reducing the potential for errors and mistakes. A fieldwork study to provide an in-depth appreciation and understanding of the triage process. Fieldwork included unstructured observer-only observation, field notes, informal and formal interviews that were conducted over the months of June, July and August 2012. Over 170 hours of observation were performed covering day, evening and night shifts, 7 days of the week. Sixty episodes of triage were observed; 31 informal interviews and 14 formal interviews were completed. Thematic analysis was used. Three themes were identified from the analysis of the data and included: 'negotiating patient flow and care delivery through the Emergency Department'; 'interdisciplinary team communicating and collaborating to provide appropriate and safe care to patients'; and 'varying levels of competence of the triage nurse'. In these themes, vulnerabilities and problems described included over and under triage, extended time to triage assessment, triage errors, multiple patients arriving simultaneously, emergency department and hospital overcrowding. Findings suggest that vulnerabilities in the triage process may cause disruptions to patient flow and compromise care, thus potentially impacting nurses' ability to provide safe and effective care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Triage capabilities of medical trainees in Ghana using the South African triage scale: an opportunity to improve emergency care.

    PubMed

    Gyedu, Adam; Agbedinu, Kwabena; Dalwai, Mohammed; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; Oteng, Rockefeller; Stewart, Barclay

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of emergency conditions is increasing worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, triage and emergency care training has not been prioritized in LMICs. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) when used by providers not specifically trained in SATS, as well as to compare triage capabilities between senior medical students and senior house officers to examine the effectiveness of our curriculum for house officer training with regards to triage. Sixty each of senior medical students and senior house officers who had not undergone specific triage or SATS training were asked to triage 25 previously validated emergency vignettes using the SATS. Estimates of reliability and validity were calculated. Additionally, over- and under-triage, as well as triage performance between the medical students and house officers was assessed against a reference standard. Fifty-nine senior medical students (98% response rate) and 43 senior house officers (72% response rate) completed the survey (84% response rate overall). A total of 2,550 triage assignments were included in the analysis (59 medical student and 43 house officer triage assignments for 25 vignettes each; 1,475 and 1,075 triage assignments, respectively). Inter-rater reliability was moderate (quadratically weighted κ 0.59 and 0.60 for medical students and house officers, respectively). Triage using SATS performed by these groups had low sensitivity (medical students: 54%, 95% CI 49-59; house officers: 55%, 95% CI 48-60) and moderate specificity (medical students: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 89; house officers: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 97). Both groups under-triaged most 'emergency' level vignette patients (i.e. SATS Red; 80 and 82% for medical students and house officers, respectively). There was no difference between the groups for any metric. Although the SATS has proven utility in a number of different settings in LMICs, its success relies on

  13. Identifying the core competencies of mental health telephone triage.

    PubMed

    Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen; Gerdtz, Marie; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Droste, Nicolas; Prematunga, Roshani K; Wereta, Zewdu W

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify the core competencies of mental health telephone triage, including key role tasks, skills, knowledge and responsibilities, in which clinicians are required to be competent to perform safe and effective triage. Recent global trends indicate an increased reliance on telephone-based health services to facilitate access to health care across large populations. The trend towards telephone-based health services has also extended to mental health settings, evidenced by the growing number of mental health telephone triage services providing 24-hour access to specialist mental health assessment and treatment. Mental health telephone triage services are critical to the early identification of mental health problems and the provision of timely, appropriate interventions. In spite of the rapid growth in mental health telephone triage and the important role these services play in the assessment and management of mental illness and related risks, there has been very little research investigating this area of practice. An observational design was employed to address the research aims. Structured observations (using dual wireless headphones) were undertaken on 197 occasions of mental health telephone triage over a three-month period from January to March 2011. The research identified seven core areas of mental health telephone triage practice in which clinicians are required to be competent in to perform effective mental health telephone triage, including opening the call; performing mental status examination; risk assessment; planning and action; termination of call; referral and reporting; and documentation. The findings of this research contribute to the evidence base for mental health telephone triage by articulating the core competencies for practice. The mental health telephone triage competencies identified in this research may be used to define an evidence-based framework for mental health telephone triage practice that aims to

  14. Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

  15. Evidence-based Effective Triage Operation During Disaster: Application of Human-trajectory Data to Triage Drill Sessions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shoichi; Yoda, Ikushi; Takeda, Munekazu; Kuroshima, Satomi; Uchida, Kotaro; Kawai, Kentaro; Yukioka, Tetsuo

    2015-02-01

    Though many governmental and nongovernmental efforts for disaster prevention have been sought throughout Japan since the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, most of the preparation efforts for disasters have been based more on structural and conventionalized regulations than on scientific and objective grounds. Problem There has been a lack of scientific knowledge for space utilization for triage posts in disaster drill sessions. This report addresses how participants occupy and make use of the space within a triage post in terms of areas of use and occupied time. The trajectories of human movement by using Ubiquitous Stereo Vision (USV) cameras during two emergency drill sessions held in 2012 in a large commercial building have been measured. The USV cameras collect each participant's travel distance and the wait time before, during, and after undergoing triage. The correlation between the wait time and the space utilization of patients at a triage post has been analyzed. In the first session, there were some spaces not entirely used. This was caused largely by a patient who arrived earlier than others and lingered in the middle area, which caused the later arrivals to crowd the entrance area. On the other hand, in the second session, the area was used in a more evenly-distributed manner. This is mainly because the earlier arrivals were guided to the back space of the triage post (ie, the opposite side of the entrance), and the late arrivals were also guided to the front half, which was not occupied by anyone. As a result, the entire space was effectively utilized without crowding the entrance. This study has shown that this system could measure people's arrival times and the speed of their movements at the triage post, as well as where they are placed until they receive triage. Space utilization can be improved by efficiently planning and controlling the positioning of arriving patients. Based on the results, it has been suggested that for triage

  16. Preferential ascus discharge during cross maturation in Sordaria brevicollis.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, D J; Bond, D J

    1974-02-01

    Crosses involving spore color mutants of Sordaria brevicollis all showed a decline in the frequency of second division asymmetric asci (2:2:2:2's) as the cross matured. This decline was due to the preferential maturation and/or discharge of these asci. The proportion of spindle overlap and recombinational asci within the group did not change as shown by ascus dissection. The preferential discharge was also found to occur in two-point crosses where the asci did not contain wild-type spores.

  17. Employees' views on home-based, after-hours telephone triage by Dutch GP cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Ramona; van Exel, Job; de Bont, Antoinette

    2013-11-04

    Dutch out-of-hours (OOH) centers find it difficult to attract sufficient triage staff. They regard home-based triage as an option that might attract employees. Specially trained nurses are supposed to conduct triage by telephone from home for after-hours medical care. The central aim of this research is to investigate the views of employees of OOH centers in The Netherlands on home-based telephone triage in after-hours care. The study is a Q methodology study. Triage nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and managers of OOH centers ranked 36 opinion statements on home-based triage. We interviewed 10 participants to help develop and validate the statements for the Q sort, and 77 participants did the Q sort. We identified four views on home-based telephone triage. Two generally favor home-based triage, one highlights some concerns and conditions, and one opposes it out of concern for quality. The four views perceive different sources of credibility for nurse triagists working from home. Home-based telephone triage is a controversial issue among triage nurses, GPs and managers of OOH centers. By identifying consensus and dissension among GPs, triagists, managers and regulators, this study generates four perspectives on home-based triage. In addition, it reveals the conditions considered important for home-based triage.

  18. Teleconsultation in children with abdominal pain: a comparison of physician triage recommendations and an established paediatric telephone triage protocol.

    PubMed

    Staub, Gabrielle Marmier; von Overbeck, Jan; Blozik, Eva

    2013-09-30

    Quality assessment and continuous quality feedback to the staff is crucial for safety and efficiency of teleconsultation and triage. This study evaluates whether it is feasible to use an already existing telephone triage protocol to assess the appropriateness of point-of-care and time-to-treat recommendations after teleconsultations. Based on electronic patient records, we retrospectively compared the point-of-care and time-to-treat recommendations of the paediatric telephone triage protocol with the actual recommendations of trained physicians for children with abdominal pain, following a teleconsultation. In 59 of 96 cases (61%) these recommendations were congruent with the paediatric telephone protocol. Discrepancies were either of organizational nature, due to factors such as local referral policies or gatekeeping insurance models, or of medical origin, such as milder than usual symptoms or clear diagnosis of a minor ailment. A paediatric telephone triage protocol may be applicable in healthcare systems other than the one in which it has been developed, if triage rules are adapted to match the organisational aspects of the local healthcare system.

  19. Cervical cancer screening intervals and management for women living with HIV: a risk benchmarking approach.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Hilary A; Strickler, Howard D; Massad, L Stewart; Pierce, Christopher B; Darragh, Teresa M; Minkoff, Howard; Keller, Marla J; Fischl, Margaret; Palefsky, Joel; Flowers, Lisa; Rahangdale, Lisa; Milam, Joel; Shrestha, Sadeep; Colie, Christine; DʼSouza, Gypsyamber

    2017-04-24

    We suggested cervical cancer screening strategies for women living with HIV (WLHIV) by comparing their precancer risks to general population women, and then compared our suggestions with current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. We compared risks of biopsy-confirmed cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (bHSIL+), calculated among WLHIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, to 'risk benchmarks' for specific management strategies in the general population. We applied parametric survival models among 2423 WLHIV with negative or atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) cytology during 2000-2015. Separately, we synthesized published general population bHSIL+ risks to generate 3-year risk benchmarks for a 3-year return (after negative cytology, i.e. 'rescreening threshold'), a 6-12-month return (after ASC-US), and immediate colposcopy [after low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)]. Average 3-year bHSIL+ risks among general population women ('risk benchmarks') were 0.69% for a 3-year return (after negative cytology), 8.8% for a 6-12-month return (after ASC-US), and 14.4% for colposcopy (after LSIL). Most CDC guidelines for WLHIV were supported by comparing risks in WLHIV to these benchmarks, including a 3-year return with CD4 greater than 500 cells/μl and after either three negative cytology tests or a negative cytology/oncogenic human papillomavirus cotest (all 3-year risks≤1.3%); a 1-year return after negative cytology with either positive oncogenic human papillomavirus cotest (1-year risk = 1.0%) or CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/μl (1-year risk = 1.1%); and a 6-12-month return after ASC-US (3-year risk = 8.2% if CD4 cell count at least 500 cells/μl; 10.4% if CD4 cell count = 350-499 cells/μl). Other suggestions differed modestly from current guidelines, including colposcopy (vs. 6-12 month return) for WLHIV with ASC-US and CD4 cell count less than 350 cells

  20. Triage capabilities of medical trainees in Ghana using the South African triage scale: an opportunity to improve emergency care

    PubMed Central

    Gyedu, Adam; Agbedinu, Kwabena; Dalwai, Mohammed; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; Oteng, Rockefeller; Stewart, Barclay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of emergency conditions is increasing worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, triage and emergency care training has not been prioritized in LMICs. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) when used by providers not specifically trained in SATS, as well as to compare triage capabilities between senior medical students and senior house officers to examine the effectiveness of our curriculum for house officer training with regards to triage. Methods Sixty each of senior medical students and senior house officers who had not undergone specific triage or SATS training were asked to triage 25 previously validated emergency vignettes using the SATS. Estimates of reliability and validity were calculated. Additionally, over- and under-triage, as well as triage performance between the medical students and house officers was assessed against a reference standard. Results Fifty-nine senior medical students (98% response rate) and 43 senior house officers (72% response rate) completed the survey (84% response rate overall). A total of 2,550 triage assignments were included in the analysis (59 medical student and 43 house officer triage assignments for 25 vignettes each; 1,475 and 1,075 triage assignments, respectively). Inter-rater reliability was moderate (quadratically weighted κ 0.59 and 0.60 for medical students and house officers, respectively). Triage using SATS performed by these groups had low sensitivity (medical students: 54%, 95% CI 49–59; house officers: 55%, 95% CI 48–60) and moderate specificity (medical students: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 89; house officers: 84%, 95% CI 82 - 97). Both groups under-triaged most ‘emergency’ level vignette patients (i.e. SATS Red; 80 and 82% for medical students and house officers, respectively). There was no difference between the groups for any metric. Conclusion Although the SATS has proven utility in a number of

  1. Preferential Ascus Discharge during Cross Maturation in SORDARIA BREVICOLLIS

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, D. J.; Bond, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Crosses involving spore color mutants of Sordaria brevicollis all showed a decline in the frequency of second division asymmetric asci (2:2:2:2's) as the cross matured. This decline was due to the preferential maturation and/or discharge of these asci. The proportion of spindle overlap and recombinational asci within the group did not change as shown by ascus dissection. The preferential discharge was also found to occur in two-point crosses where the asci did not contain wild-type spores. PMID:4822469

  2. Employees’ views on home-based, after-hours telephone triage by Dutch GP cooperatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dutch out-of-hours (OOH) centers find it difficult to attract sufficient triage staff. They regard home-based triage as an option that might attract employees. Specially trained nurses are supposed to conduct triage by telephone from home for after-hours medical care. The central aim of this research is to investigate the views of employees of OOH centers in The Netherlands on home-based telephone triage in after-hours care. Methods The study is a Q methodology study. Triage nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and managers of OOH centers ranked 36 opinion statements on home-based triage. We interviewed 10 participants to help develop and validate the statements for the Q sort, and 77 participants did the Q sort. Results We identified four views on home-based telephone triage. Two generally favor home-based triage, one highlights some concerns and conditions, and one opposes it out of concern for quality. The four views perceive different sources of credibility for nurse triagists working from home. Conclusion Home-based telephone triage is a controversial issue among triage nurses, GPs and managers of OOH centers. By identifying consensus and dissension among GPs, triagists, managers and regulators, this study generates four perspectives on home-based triage. In addition, it reveals the conditions considered important for home-based triage. PMID:24188407

  3. Clinical significance of HPV DNA cotesting in Korean women with ASCUS or ASC-H.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jae Won; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae Yun; Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, In Sun; Lee, Nak Woo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA cotesting in Korean women with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results based on colposcopic pathology. A total of 1012 women underwent liquid-based Pap smears and hybrid capture II HPV DNA tests followed by colposcopy at the Korea University Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012. Of these women, 832 women were included in this retrospective study. The mean patient age was 45.4 ± 13.7 years (range:15-80). The distribution of Pap smear results was normal (4.7%), atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) (42.1%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (26.8%), ASC-H (7.0%), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (19.5%). In women with ASCUS, none of the 87 HPV-negative had ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2) (P < 0.001). In women with ASC-H, only one out of 17 HPV-negative vs. 14 out of 41 HPV-positive had ≥CIN2 (P = 0.025). In patients with HSIL, 54.5% of HPV-negative had ≥CIN2, as compared to 80.8% of HPV-positive with ≥CIN2 (P = 0.039). Patients were further analyzed by age groups: <30 and ≥30 years. In HPV-negative women, there was a significant difference in the ratio of ≥CIN2 (30.8% <30 vs. 4.5% ≥30, P = 0.005). When the HPV DNA test was negative in women ≥30, the risk of ≥CIN2 was significantly lower (P < 0.001). HPV DNA cotesting in women with ASCUS and ASC-H furnish healthcare providers with informative data. There is a lower proportion of ≥CIN2 in HPV-negative women and a higher proportion of ≥CIN2 in HPV-positive. When HPV data were further evaluated by age group, the risk of ≥CIN2 was lower in HPV-negative women, especially in women ≥30. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Triage: a literature review 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    McDonald, L; Butterworth, T; Yates, D W

    1995-10-01

    Following an extensive literature review of Accident and Emergency (A & E) nursing from 1985-1993, the authors focused upon triage. A wide range of issues related to triage and its use in A & E departments are examined. An appendix is included to clarify major research finds in this area. Many of the claims made regarding triage require further investigation.

  5. Bombings specific triage (Bost Tool) tool and its application by healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Jaiswal; Ankur, Verma; Tamorish, Kole

    2015-01-01

    Bombing is a unique incident which produces unique patterns, multiple and occult injuries. Death often is a result of combined blast, ballistic and thermal effect injuries. Various natures of injury, self referrals and arrival by private transportation may lead to "wrong triage" in the emergency department. In India there has been an increase in incidence of bombing in the last 15 years. There is no documented triage tool from the National Disaster Management Authority of India for Bombings. We have tried to develop an ideal bombing specific triage tool which will guide the right patients to the right place at the right time and save more lives. There are three methods of studying the triage tool: 1) real disaster; 2) mock drill; 3) table top exercise. In this study, a table top exercise method was selected. There are two groups, each consisting of an emergency physician, a nurse and a paramedic. By using the proportion test, we found that correct triaging was significantly different (P=0.005) in proportion between the two groups: group B (80%) with triage tool performed better in triaging the bomb blast victims than group A (50%) without the bombing specific triage tool performed. Development of bombing specific triage tool can reduce under triaging.

  6. Telephone triage by GPs in out-of-hours primary care in Denmark: a prospective observational study of efficiency and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Huibers, Linda; Moth, Grete; Carlsen, Anders H; Christensen, Morten B; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background In the UK, telephone triage in out-of-hours primary care is mostly managed by nurses, whereas GPs perform triage in Denmark. Aim To describe telephone contacts triaged to face-to-face contacts, GP-assessed relevance, and factors associated with triage to face-to-face contact. Design and setting A prospective observational study in Danish out-of-hours primary care, conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Method Information on patients was collected from the electronic patient administration system and GPs completed electronic questionnaires about the contacts. The GPs conducting the face-to-face contacts assessed relevance of the triage to face-to-face contacts. The authors performed binomial regression analyses, calculating relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results In total, 59.2% of calls ended with a telephone consultation. Factors associated with triage to a face-to-face contact were: patient age >40 years (40–64: RR = 1.13; >64: RR = 1.34), persisting problem for 12–24 hours (RR = 1.15), severe problem (RR = 2.60), potentially severe problem (RR = 5.81), and non-severe problem (RR = 2.23). Face-to-face contacts were assessed as irrelevant for 12.7% of clinic consultations and 11.7% of home visits. A statistically significantly higher risk of irrelevant face-to-face contact was found for a persisting problem of >24 hours (RR = 1.25), contact on weekday nights (RR = 1.25), and contact <2 hours before the patient’s own GP’s opening time (RR = 1.80). Conclusion Around 12% of all face-to-face consultations in the study are assessed as irrelevant by GP colleagues, suggesting that GP triage is efficient. Knowledge of the factors influencing triage can provide better education for GPs, but future studies are needed to investigate other quality aspects of GP telephone triage. PMID:27432608

  7. HPV genotyping for triage of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Matsumoto, Koji; Satoh, Toyomi; Nishide, Ken; Nozue, Akiko; Shimabukuro, Koji; Endo, Seiichi; Nagai, Kimihiro; Oki, Akinori; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    In cervical cancer screening programs, women with abnormal cytology are referred for colposcopy for histological evaluation. We examined whether a human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay could be used to identify women who do not need immediate colposcopy and biopsy because of low risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+). We prospectively evaluated test performance for 2 carcinogenic HPV genotypes (HPV16/18), for 8 types (HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58), and for 13 types (HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/51/52/56/58/59/68) for prediction of histological CIN3+ results among 427 screen-positive women referred for colposcopy. The study subjects consisted of 214 women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 184 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 29 with atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H). Among women with LSIL cytology, HPV16/18 positivity was 29.4 % and increased to 58.9 % for 8 types and to 74.8 % for 13 types (P < 0.001). The risk of CIN3+ biopsy results was still 7.9 % for women testing negative for HPV16/18, but decreased to 0.0 % for those testing negative for at least eight types of HPV (HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58). Although HPV genotyping results enabled additional risk stratification among women with HSIL/ASC-H cytology, the risk of histological CIN3+ diagnosis among women testing negative for eight types or more was still sufficiently high (>35 %) to warrant immediate colposcopy referral. Of women with LSIL cytology, those testing negative for at least eight of the highest-risk types of HPV (HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/52/58) may not need immediate colposcopy and biopsy. This would reduce the number of colposcopy referrals by approximately 40 %. However, the HPV genotyping assay is not likely to alter the clinical management of women with HSIL/ASC-H.

  8. Bombings specific triage (Bost Tool) tool and its application by healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Jaiswal; Ankur, Verma; Tamorish, Kole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bombing is a unique incident which produces unique patterns, multiple and occult injuries. Death often is a result of combined blast, ballistic and thermal effect injuries. Various natures of injury, self referrals and arrival by private transportation may lead to “wrong triage” in the emergency department. In India there has been an increase in incidence of bombing in the last 15 years. There is no documented triage tool from the National Disaster Management Authority of India for Bombings. We have tried to develop an ideal bombing specific triage tool which will guide the right patients to the right place at the right time and save more lives. METHODS: There are three methods of studying the triage tool: 1) real disaster; 2) mock drill; 3) table top exercise. In this study, a table top exercise method was selected. There are two groups, each consisting of an emergency physician, a nurse and a paramedic. RESULTS: By using the proportion test, we found that correct triaging was significantly different (P=0.005) in proportion between the two groups: group B (80%) with triage tool performed better in triaging the bomb blast victims than group A (50%) without the bombing specific triage tool performed. CONCLUSION: Development of bombing specific triage tool can reduce under triaging. PMID:26693264

  9. Do poison center triage guidelines affect healthcare facility referrals?

    PubMed

    Benson, B E; Smith, C A; McKinney, P E; Litovitz, T L; Tandberg, W D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which poison center triage guidelines influence healthcare facility referral rates for acute, unintentional acetaminophen-only poisoning and acute, unintentional adult formulation iron poisoning. Managers of US poison centers were interviewed by telephone to determine their center's triage threshold value (mg/kg) for acute iron and acute acetaminophen poisoning in 1997. Triage threshold values and healthcare facility referral rates were fit to a univariate logistic regression model for acetaminophen and iron using maximum likelihood estimation. Triage threshold values ranged from 120-201 mg/kg (acetaminophen) and 16-61 mg/kg (iron). Referral rates ranged from 3.1% to 24% (acetaminophen) and 3.7% to 46.7% (iron). There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the triage value and the referral rate for acetaminophen (p < 0.001) and iron (p = 0.0013). The model explained 31.7% of the referral variation for acetaminophen but only 4.1% of the variation for iron. There is great variability in poison center triage values and referral rates for iron and acetaminophen poisoning. Guidelines can account for a meaningful proportion of referral variation. Their influence appears to be substance dependent. These data suggest that efforts to determine and utilize the highest, safe, triage threshold value could substantially decrease healthcare costs for poisonings as long as patient medical outcomes are not compromised.

  10. Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Cytologic Findings on Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is a term that refers to inflammatory, reactive and reparative processes which are atypical and of higher level and insufficient to be classified as cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN). Aims: Examine of frequency of HPV infection in ASCUS lesions and regression, stagnation and progression during six-month period. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study was conducted over a period of 3 years. In private gynecological ambulance „Dr Mahira Jahic”. Analysis of PAP smears and HPV typization have been done in 50 patients and PAP test has been repeated after six months. X² test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Analysis of 1784 PAP smears showed normal results in 86,6% (N-1530), and abnormal in 13% (N-254). ASCUS in 7,4% (N-133) and ASC-H in 0,5% (N-9), LSIL in 4,4% (N-80), HSIL in 1,3% (N-24), CIN II in 1,2% (N-20), CIN III in 0,2% (N-4). Progression occurred in 18% (9), persistence in 74% (37) and regression in 8%. Patients with ASC-H lesion 0,5% (N-9), PH results showed 22% (N-2) Carcinoma in situ, 33% (N-3) CIN II, 22% (N-2) CIN I and 22% (N-2) chronic cervicitis. Patients with CIN I in 88% (N-7) were positive on HPV of high risk. Patients with persistent ASCUS result were positive in 51% (N-19). The number of CIN I lesions found in women with ASCUS is bigger and statistically significant (p<0,05) in relation to number of CIN I findings found in regular examinations. Conclusion: Monitoring women with ASCUS lesion, especially HPV positive to high risk group is the best way of selection of women who should be treated and monitored in order to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27703293

  11. Pediatric Disaster Triage: Multiple Simulation Curriculum Improves Prehospital Care Providers' Assessment Skills.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Mark Xavier; Whitfill, Travis; Overly, Frank; Baird, Janette; Walsh, Barbara; Yarzebski, Jorge; Riera, Antonio; Adelgais, Kathleen; Meckler, Garth D; Baum, Carl; Cone, David Christopher; Auerbach, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) triage pediatric disaster victims infrequently. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of a multiple-patient, multiple-simulation curriculum on accuracy of pediatric disaster triage (PDT). Paramedics, paramedic students, and EMTs from three sites were enrolled. Triage accuracy was measured three times (Time 0, Time 1 [two weeks later], and Time 2 [6 months later]) during a disaster simulation, in which high and low fidelity manikins and actors portrayed 10 victims. Accuracy was determined by participant triage decision concordance with predetermined expected triage level (RED [Immediate], YELLOW [Delayed], GREEN [Ambulatory], BLACK [Deceased]) for each victim. Between Time 0 and Time 1, participants completed an interactive online module, and after each simulation there was an individual debriefing. Associations between participant level of training, years of experience, and enrollment site were determined, as were instances of the most dangerous mistriage, when RED and YELLOW victims were triaged BLACK. The study enrolled 331 participants, and the analysis included 261 (78.9%) participants who completed the study, 123 from the Connecticut site, 83 from Rhode Island, and 55 from Massachusetts. Triage accuracy improved significantly from Time 0 to Time 1, after the educational interventions (first simulation with debriefing, and an interactive online module), with a median 10% overall improvement (p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed between Time 0 and Time 1, paramedics and paramedic students improved more than EMTs (p = 0.002). Analysis of triage accuracy showed greatest improvement in overall accuracy for YELLOW triage patients (Time 0 50% accurate, Time1 100%), followed by RED patients (Time 0 80%, Time 1 100%). There was no significant difference in accuracy between Time 1 and Time 2 (p = 0.073). This study shows that the multiple-victim, multiple-simulation curriculum yields a durable 10

  12. Educational Triage and Ability-Grouping in Primary Mathematics: A Case-Study of the Impacts on Low-Attaining Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This case-study, drawing on an unanticipated theme arising from a wider study of ability-grouping in primary mathematics, documents some of the consequences of educational triage in the final year of one primary school. The paper discusses how a process of educational triage, as a response to accountability pressures, is justified by teachers on…

  13. Partiality, impartiality and the ethics of triage.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Ndukaku

    2018-06-22

    In this paper, I discuss the question of partiality and impartiality in the application of triage. Triage is a process in medical research which recommends that patients should be sorted for treatment according to the degree or severity of their injury. In employing the triage protocol, however, the question of partiality arises because socially vulnerable groups will be neglected since there is the likelihood that the social determinants of a patient's health may diminish her chance of survival. As a process that is based on the severity of a patient's injury, triage will be unfair, and hence negatively partial, to socially vulnerable people. Thus, I aim in this paper to show that the triage protocol fails as an impartial evaluative process because its only aim is to maximize survivability. I contend that: (i) triage would lead to the neglect of the social condition of patients or victims, and (ii) it will only serve the utilitarian purpose of maximization of outcomes which may not be justified in some cases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Walk-In Triage Systems in University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Katharine S.; Love, Michael M.; Chapman, Kelsey M.; Horn, Angela J.; Haak, Patricia P.; Shen, Claire Y. W.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the complex mental health needs of students, some university counseling centers (UCCs) have implemented walk-in triage intake systems, which have not yet been empirically investigated. This study compared client and clinician differences (N = 5564) between a traditional scheduled intake system (Year 1) and a walk-in triage system (Year 2)…

  15. Reproductive Tract infections and Premalignant Lesions of Cervix: Evidence from Women Presenting at the Cancer Detection Centre of the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Pahwa, Parika; Mishra, Arti; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-10-01

    Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi. Data were accessed from MS access database and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS 16.0. Multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). This study used data from 11,427 women over a period of 2000-2012. Women with RTIs had Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or coccoid infections with all having similar prevalence (~4-5 %). 9.4 % of women had premalignant lesions of cervix; ASCUS was most common (7.9 %) followed by LSIL (1.3 %). TV was significantly associated with ASCUS, LSIL and all premalignant lesions of cervix (P < 0.001). Regression discovered an important association of TV with premalignant lesions of cervix (OR 2.79; 95 % CI 2.14, 3.64). Earlier studies have depicted associations between TV and HPV with possible enhancement of HPV virulence due to TV. Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs.

  16. Anal cytology, histopathology and anoscopy in an anal dysplasia screening program: is anal cytology enough?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marco; Peixoto, Armando; Sarmento, José Alexandre; Coelho, Rosa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2018-02-01

    The human papilloma virus is the leading cause of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological screening may reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the agreement between anal cytological examination, histopathology and anoscopic visual impression. A prospective study of patients who underwent anal dysplasia screening between 2011 and 2015, in a proctology clinic of a tertiary referral center. During the study period, 141 patients (91% men, 87% with HIV infection) underwent 175 anal cytology tests. Of these, 33% were negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy (NILM), 22% were atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS), 33% were low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 12% were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). With regard to anoscopic visual impression, 46% of patients had no lesions and excision/biopsy of the identified lesions was performed in the remaining patients. The weighted kappa-agreement between abnormal cytological results and anoscopic visual impression was moderate (k = 0.48). The weighted kappa-agreement between simultaneous anal cytological examinations and anal histopathologic findings was low (kappa = 0.20). With regard to the histological examination of cases with HSIL or superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 64% of patients had dysplasia of a lower grade according to the cytological analysis (6 ASCUS, 18 LSIL and 4 NILM). There was a poor correlation between anal cytology, histopathology and anoscopic visual impression and a high number of histological studies of HGD that were of a lower dysplastic degree according to the cytological examination. Therefore, anal cytology screening should not be used as the sole method of anal dysplasia screening.

  17. Shifting Gears: Triage and Traffic in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Harris

    2017-09-01

    While studies of triage in clinical medical literature tend to focus on the knowledge required to carry out sorting, this article details the spatial features of triage. It is based on participation observation of traffic-related injuries in a Mumbai hospital casualty ward. It pays close attention to movement, specifically to adjustments, which include moving bodies, changes in treatment priority, and interruptions in care. The article draws on several ethnographic cases of injury and its aftermath that gather and separate patients, kin, and bystanders, all while a triage medical authority is charged with sorting them out. I argue that attention must be paid to differences in movement, which can be overlooked if medical decision-making is taken to be a static verdict. The explanatory significance of this distinction between adjustment and adjudication is a more nuanced understanding of triage as an iterative, spatial process. © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. Traditional Nurse Triage vs. Physician Tele-Presence in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Greg P.; Chang, Todd; Pham, Phung K.; Grajower, Daniel N.; Nager, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare traditional nurse triage (TNT) in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) to physician tele-presence (PTP). Methods Prospective, 2×2 crossover study with random assignment using a sample of walk-in patients seeking care in a PED at a large, tertiary care children’s hospital, from May 2012 to January 2013. Outcomes of triage times, documentation errors, triage scores, and survey responses were compared between TNT and PTP. Comparison between PTP to actual treating PED physicians regarding the accuracy of ordering blood and urine tests, throat cultures, and radiologic imaging was also studied. Results Paired samples t-tests showed a statistically significant difference in triage time between TNT and PTP (p=0.03), but no significant difference in documentation errors (p=0.10). Triage scores of TNT were 71% accurate, compared to PTP, which were 95% accurate. Both parents and children had favorable scores regarding PTP and the majority indicated they would prefer PTP again at their next PED visit. PTP diagnostic ordering was comparable to the actual PED physician ordering, showing no statistical differences. Conclusions Utilizing physician tele-presence technology to remotely perform triage is a feasible alternative to traditional nurse triage, with no clinically significant differences in time, triage scores, errors and patient and parent satisfaction. PMID:24445223

  19. Testing a videogame intervention to recalibrate physician heuristics in trauma triage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Deepika; Rosengart, Matthew R; Fischhoff, Baruch; Angus, Derek C; Farris, Coreen; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2016-11-11

    Between 30 and 40 % of patients with severe injuries receive treatment at non-trauma centers (under-triage), largely because of physician decision making. Existing interventions to improve triage by physicians ignore the role that intuition (heuristics) plays in these decisions. One such heuristic is to form an initial impression based on representativeness (how typical does a patient appear of one with severe injuries). We created a video game (Night Shift) to recalibrate physician's representativeness heuristic in trauma triage. We developed Night Shift in collaboration with emergency medicine physicians, trauma surgeons, behavioral scientists, and game designers. Players take on the persona of Andy Jordan, an emergency medicine physician, who accepts a new job in a small town. Through a series of cases that go awry, they gain experience with the contextual cues that distinguish patients with minor and severe injuries (based on the theory of analogical encoding) and receive emotionally-laden feedback on their performance (based on the theory of narrative engagement). The planned study will compare the effect of Night Shift with that of an educational program on physician triage decisions and on physician heuristics. Psychological theory predicts that cognitive load increases reliance on heuristics, thereby increasing the under-triage rate when heuristics are poorly calibrated. We will randomize physicians (n = 366) either to play the game or to review an educational program, and will assess performance using a validated virtual simulation. The validated simulation includes both control and cognitive load conditions. We will compare rates of under-triage after exposure to the two interventions (primary outcome) and will compare the effect of cognitive load on physicians' under-triage rates (secondary outcome). We hypothesize that: a) physicians exposed to Night Shift will have lower rates of under-triage compared to those exposed to the educational program

  20. Accuracy of prehospital triage protocols in selecting severely injured patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Rein, Eveline A J; Houwert, R Marijn; Gunning, Amy C; Lichtveld, Rob A; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Prehospital trauma triage ensures proper transport of patients at risk of severe injury to hospitals with an appropriate corresponding level of trauma care. Incorrect triage results in undertriage and overtriage. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma recommends an undertriage rate below 5% and an overtriage rate below 50% for prehospital trauma triage protocols. To find the most accurate prehospital trauma triage protocol, a clear overview of all currently available protocols and corresponding outcomes is necessary. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current literature on all available prehospital trauma triage protocols and determine accuracy of protocol-based triage quality in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify all studies describing prehospital trauma triage protocols before November 2016. The search terms included "trauma," "trauma center," or "trauma system" combined with "triage," "undertriage," or "overtriage." All studies describing protocol-based triage quality were reviewed. To assess the quality of these type of studies, a new critical appraisal tool was developed. In this review, 21 articles were included with numbers of patients ranging from 130 to over 1 million. Significant predictors for severe injury were: vital signs, suspicion of certain anatomic injuries, mechanism of injury, and age. Sensitivity ranged from 10% to 100%; specificity from 9% to 100%. Nearly all protocols had a low sensitivity, thereby failing to identify severely injured patients. Additionally, the critical appraisal showed poor quality of the majority of included studies. This systematic review shows that nearly all protocols are incapable of identifying severely injured patients. Future studies of high methodological quality should be performed to improve prehospital trauma triage protocols. Systematic review, level III.

  1. Causes and occurrences of interruptions during ED triage.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly D; Motavalli, Michele; Gray, Dean; Kuehn, Connie

    2014-09-01

    Interruptions have been shown to cause errors and delays in the treatment of emergency patients and pose a real threat during the triage process. Missteps during the triage assessment can send a patient down the wrong treatment path and lead to delays. The purpose of this project was to identify the types and frequency of interruptions during the ED triage interview process. A focus group of emergency nurses was organized to identify the types of interruptions that commonly occur during the triage interview. These interruptions would be validated through observations in triage. A tally sheet was developed and implemented to determine how often each interruption occurred during an 8-hour shift. Triage nurses completed the tally sheets while working the first shift (7 am to 3 pm). This shift was selected because patient intake in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Emergency Department is highest during this time. The categories of interruptions identified included provision of conveniences to visitors, coworker-related interruptions, patient care-related interruptions, locating of family members in the emergency department, and other miscellaneous interruptions. Tally sheets were completed by the triage nurses during 10 shifts. On average, triage nurses were interrupted 48.2 times during an 8-hour shift (7 interruptions per hour). After reviewing the data, we found that only 22% of interruptions were related to patient care. More frequently, the causes of interruptions were not related to patient care: opening the door (33%), providing conveniences to visitors (21%), waiting patients or family members asking "How much longer?" (14%), and other causes (10%). Frequent interruptions can interfere with concentration and may affect patient care. Non-patient care-related interruptions not only can be frustrating to the triage nurse but also can be offensive to triage patients; they ultimately delay care and may even affect the quality of care. However, because scarce

  2. Multiple performance measures are needed to evaluate triage systems in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Zachariasse, Joany M; Nieboer, Daan; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriëtte A; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2018-02-01

    Emergency department triage systems can be considered prediction rules with an ordinal outcome, where different directions of misclassification have different clinical consequences. We evaluated strategies to compare the performance of triage systems and aimed to propose a set of performance measures that should be used in future studies. We identified performance measures based on literature review and expert knowledge. Their properties are illustrated in a case study evaluating two triage modifications in a cohort of 14,485 pediatric emergency department visits. Strengths and weaknesses of the performance measures were systematically appraised. Commonly reported performance measures are measures of statistical association (34/60 studies) and diagnostic accuracy (17/60 studies). The case study illustrates that none of the performance measures fulfills all criteria for triage evaluation. Decision curves are the performance measures with the most attractive features but require dichotomization. In addition, paired diagnostic accuracy measures can be recommended for dichotomized analysis, and the triage-weighted kappa and Nagelkerke's R 2 for ordinal analyses. Other performance measures provide limited additional information. When comparing modifications of triage systems, decision curves and diagnostic accuracy measures should be used in a dichotomized analysis, and the triage-weighted kappa and Nagelkerke's R 2 in an ordinal approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing histologic confirmation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology.

    PubMed

    Castle, Philip E; Cox, J Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Wheeler, Cosette M; Solomon, Diane

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of histologic confirmation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology occurring in follow-up of young women originally referred into a trial because of less severe cytology. We used enrollment HSIL cytology (N=411) as read by clinical center pathologists for women participating in the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS). The primary outcome was histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 and early cancer (n=195; 191 CIN 3 and four cancers) as diagnosed by the Pathology Quality Control Group during the 2-year duration of ALTS. The 2-year absolute risk of CIN 3 or worse after an HSIL cytology was 47.4% (95% confidence interval 42.5-52.4%). The 2-year absolute risk of CIN 3 or worse was lowest (14.3%) for women who were human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-negative, had colposcopic impression of less than low-grade, and whose HSIL cytology as called by the clinical center was not also called HSIL or equivocal HSIL cytology by the Pathology Quality Control Group. The 2-year absolute risk of CIN 3 or worse was highest (82.4%) for women who were HPV16-positive, had colposcopic impression of low-grade or worse, and whose HSIL cytology also was called HSIL or equivocal HSIL cytology by the Pathology Quality Control Group. Histologic confirmation of precancer among young women with HSIL cytology was more likely when other risk factors (eg, HPV16) for cervical precancer were present.

  4. [Triage evaluation making in a pediatric emergency department of a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Fernández, Ma Cristina; Ignacio-Cerro, Ma Carmen; Jiménez-Carrascosa, Ma Amalia

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation triage level assignments depending level of the professionals' education and experience in the unit. This was a retrospective and observational study to triages making from January to March 2012 in Pediatric Emergency Department of tertiary hospital in Madrid. The collection data included variables from Pediatric Canadian Triage with five levels, triage tool using in the unit. 6443 triages were evaluated. The most common mistakes was: not to register pain level, 1445 (22.4%); not to register hydration level, 377 (5.9%); principal symptoms inappropriate, 232 (3.6%). Didn't indicate pain level 140 (5.6%) nurses with 12 hour formal training on triage; 492 (14.5%) with training in the unit, and 92 (16.3%) without training in the last year (p < 0.001). Among the nurses working in the unit more than 7 years did not register pain level 472 (12.3%), identified inappropriate principal symptoms 197 (5%) and did not register hydration level 296 (7.7%). The triage education favors better adaptation in the triage assignment. The most common errors are: not to register level pain and hydration when it's needed for the principal symptoms.

  5. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria (Sordariaceae).

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, Durgadas P

    2017-07-01

    When two lineages derived from a common ancestor become reproductively isolated (e.g. Neurospora crassa and N. tetrasperma), genes that have undergone mutation and adaptive evolution in one lineage can potentially become dysfunctional when transferred into the other, since other genes have undergone mutation and evolution in the second lineage, and the derived alleles were never 'tested' together before hybrid formation. Bateson (1909), Dobzhansky (1936), and Muller (1942) recognized that incompatibility between the derived alleles could potentially make the hybrid lethal, sterile, or display some other detriment. Alternatively, the detrimental effects seen in crosses with the hybrids may result from the silencing of ascus-development genes by meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). Aberrant transcripts from genes improperly paired in meiosis are processed into single-stranded MSUD-associated small interfering RNA (masiRNA), which is used to degrade complementary mRNA. Recently, backcrosses of N. crassa / N. tetrasperma hybrid translocation strains with wild-type N. tetrasperma were found to elicit novel ascus dysgenesis phenotypes. One was a transmission ratio distortion that apparently disfavoured the homokaryotic ascospores formed following alternate segregation. Another was the production of heterokaryotic ascospores in eight-spored asci. Lewis (1969) also had reported sighting rare eight-spored asci with heterokaryotic ascospores in interspecific crosses in Sordaria, a related genus. Ordinarily, in both Neurospora and Sordaria, the ascospores are partitioned at the eight-nucleus stage, and ascospores in eight-spored asci are initially uninucleate. Evidently, in hybrid crosses of the family Sordariaceae, ascospore partitioning can be delayed until after one or more mitoses following the postmeiotic mitosis.

  6. Implementing best practice into the emergency department triage process.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Luke; Kynoch, Kathryn; Hines, Sonia

    2018-05-17

    Triage is the process by which emergency departments (EDs) sort patients presenting for medical treatment. The Australasian Triage Scale, validated to measure urgency, answers the question 'This patient should wait for medical assessment and treatment no longer than…' Multiple patients may present within short time frames, and some will have conditions that have outcomes directly related to timeliness of treatment such as stroke, sepsis and myocardial infarction. The safety of patients within the ED is thus directly related to the triage system. This project aimed to compare current triage practice within a metropolitan ED with evidence-based practice guidelines produced by the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and College of Emergency Nurses Australasia. The clinical audit project was undertaken in an ED in a large metropolitan hospital. Two hundred episodes of triage were audited, 100 in the preimplementation and 100 in the postimplementation phase. Current practice was compared with triage guidelines, barriers to adherence to evidence-based practice identified, and interventions were planned and implemented to address these. The audits of practice focused on five key areas and were assessed against 12 criteria: arrival and triage, documentation, compliance with policy, communication, and triage staff. Overall five criteria showed improvement, with reassessment of patients waiting for treatment, and the time taken for each triage episode achieving the greatest amount of improvement. Four criteria showed no improvement or a decline, and two achieved 100% adherence in both audits. The project sought to undertake a clinical audit of triage practice to evaluate the adherence of practice to evidence-based guidelines. The project has provided strong support for the implementation of a formal nursing role to support the care of waiting room patients, and act as a second triage nurse during periods of high activity. The physical triage environment has been

  7. [Emergency department triage: independent nursing intervention?].

    PubMed

    Corujo Fontes, Sergio José

    2014-03-01

    The branch hospital triage aimed at, as well as exercised by nurses, has evolved to meet their needs to organize and make visible the nurses' duties. However, it is still not properly considered as independent nursing intervention. Evidencing practice triage nurse in hospital as experienced by their protagonists disclosed the possible causes of this paradoxical competence. In a sample of 41 nurses, of the 52 possible with previous experience in hospital triage in the Emergency Department of the Hospital General Dr. José Molina Orosa in Lanzarote, the nurses themselves carried out an opinion survey that group together statements about different aspects of the triaje nurse. In its results, 65.8% of those polled thought the triaje nursing training to be deficient and even though nearly half 48.7%, was considered competent to decide the level of emergency, 46.3% disagreed to take this task part of their duty. It is conclusive that the training received in hospital triage, regulated and sustained, is deficient, that is the main reason why professionals have their doubts to take on an activity they are not familiar with. Triage systems do not record the entire outcome of the nursing work and nursing methodology does not seem to be quite indicative for this task.

  8. Guidelines for HPV-DNA Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Bastos, Joana Bragança; Vale, Diama Bhadra Andrade Peixoto do; Zanine, Rita Maria; Melo, Yara Lucia Mendes Furtado de; Primo, Walquíria Quida Salles Pereira; Corrêa, Flávia de Miranda; Val, Isabel Cristina Chulvis do; Russomano, Fábio

    2018-06-06

    Evidence-based clinical guidelines ensure best practice protocols are available in health care. There is a widespread use of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid (HPV-DNA) tests in Brazil, regardless of the lack of official guidelines. On behalf of the Brazilian Association for the Lower Genital Tract Pathology and Colposcopy (ABPTGIC, in the Portuguese acronym), a team of reviewers searched for published evidence and developed a set of recommendations for the use of HPV-DNA tests in cervical cancer screening in Brazil. The product of this process was debated and consensus was sought by the participants. One concern of the authors was the inclusion of these tests in the assessment of women with cytologic atypia and women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Testing for HPV is recommended in an organized screening scenario to identify women with precursor lesions or asymptomatic cervical cancer older than 30 years of age, and it can be performed every 5 years. It also has value after the cytology showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) as a triage test for colposcopy, in the investigation of other cytological alterations when no abnormal findings are observed at colposcopy, seeking to exclude disease, or, further, after treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, to rule out residual disease. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  9. Simulation training with structured debriefing improves residents' pediatric disaster triage performance.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Mark X; Auerbach, Marc A; Zigmont, Jason; Riera, Antonio; Ching, Kevin; Baum, Carl R

    2012-06-01

    Pediatric disaster medicine (PDM) triage is a vital skill set for pediatricians, and is a required component of residency training by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Simulation training is an effective tool for preparing providers for high-stakes, low-frequency events. Debriefing is a learner-centered approach that affords reflection on one's performance, and increases the efficacy of simulation training. The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of a multiple-victim simulation in facilitating learners' acquisition of pediatric disaster medicine (PDM) skills, including the JumpSTART triage algorithm. It was hypothesized that multiple patient simulations and a structured debriefing would improve triage performance. A 10-victim school-shooting scenario was created. Victims were portrayed by adult volunteers, and by high- and low-fidelity simulation manikins that responded physiologically to airway maneuvers. Learners were pediatrics residents. Expected triage levels were not revealed. After a didactic session, learners completed the first simulation. Learners assigned triage levels to all victims, and recorded responses on a standardized form. A group structured debriefing followed the first simulation. The debriefing allowed learners to review the victims and discuss triage rationale. A new 10-victim trauma disaster scenario was presented one week later, and a third scenario was presented five months later. During the second and third scenarios, learners again assigned triage levels to multiple victims. Wilcoxon sign rank tests were used to compare pre- and post-test scores and performance on pre- and post-debriefing simulations. A total of 53 learners completed the educational intervention. Initial mean triage performance was 6.9/10 patients accurately triaged (range = 5-10, SD = 1.3); one week after the structured debriefing, the mean triage performance improved to 8.0/10 patients (range = 5-10, SD = 1.37, P < .0001

  10. Reverse triage: more than just another method.

    PubMed

    Pollaris, Gwen; Sabbe, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Reverse triage is a way to rapidly create inpatient surge capacity by identifying hospitalized patients who do not require major medical assistance for at least 96 h and who only have a small risk for serious complications resulting from early discharge. Electronic searches were conducted in the MEDLINE, TRIP, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases to identify relevant publications published from 2004 to 2014. The reference lists of all relevant articles were screened for additional relevant studies that might have been missed in the primary searches. There will always be small individual differences in the reverse triage decision process, influencing the potential effect on surge capacity, but at most, 10-20% of hospital total bed capacity can be made available within a few hours. Reverse triage could be a response to Emergency Department (ED) crowding, as it gives priority to ED patients with urgent needs over inpatients who can be discharged with little to no health risks. The early discharge of inpatients entails negative consequences. They often return to the ED for further assessment, treatment, and even readmission. When time to a medical referral or bed is less than 4-6 h, 100 additional lives per annum are predicted to be potentially saved. The results of our systematic review identified only a small number of publications addressing reverse triage, indicating that reverse triage and surge capacity are relatively new subjects of research within the medical field. Not all research questions could be fully answered.

  11. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm2 larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm2 slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  12. Momentary fitting in a fluid environment: A grounded theory of triage nurse decision making.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Rankin, James A; Then, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Triage nurses control access to the Emergency Department (ED) and make decisions about patient acuity, patient priority, and placement of the patient in the ED. Understanding the processes and strategies that triage nurses use to make decisions is therefore vital for patient safety and the operation of the ED. The aim of the current study was to generate a substantive grounded theory (GT) of decision making by emergency triage Registered Nurses (RNs). Data collection consisted of seven observations of the triage environment at three tertiary care hospitals where RNs conducted triage and twelve interviews with triage RNs. The data were analyzed by constant comparison in accordance with the classical GT method. In the resultant theory, Momentary Fitting in a Fluid Environment, triage is conceptualized as a process consisting of four categories, determining acuity, anticipating needs, managing space, and creating space. The findings indicate that triage RNs continually strive to achieve fit, while simultaneously considering the individual patient and the ED as a whole entity. Triage RNs require appropriately designed triage environments and computer technology that enable them to secure real time knowledge of the ED to maintain situation awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do you see what I see? Insights from using google glass for disaster telemedicine triage.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Mark X; Walsh, Barbara; Solad, Yauheni; Whitfill, Travis; Paesano, Geno; Kim, Kristin; Baum, Carl R; Cone, David C

    2015-02-01

    Disasters are high-stakes, low-frequency events. Telemedicine may offer a useful adjunct for paramedics performing disaster triage. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of telemedicine in disaster triage, and to determine whether telemedicine has an effect on the accuracy of triage or the time needed to perform triage. This is a feasibility study in which an intervention team of two paramedics used the mobile device Google Glass (Google Inc; Mountain View, California USA) to communicate with an off-site physician disaster expert. The paramedic team triaged simulated disaster victims at the triennial drill of a commercial airport. The simulated victims had preassigned expected triage levels. The physician had an audio-video interface with the paramedic team and was able to observe the victims remotely. A control team of two paramedics performed disaster triage in the usual fashion. Both teams used the SMART Triage System (TSG Associates LLP; Halifax, England), which assigns patients into Red, Yellow, Green, and Black triage categories. The paramedics were video recorded, and their time required to triage was logged. It was determined whether the intervention team and the control team varied regarding accuracy of triage. Finally, the amount of time the intervention team needed to triage patients when telemedicine was used was compared to when that team did not use telemedicine. The two teams triaged the same 20 patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in overall triage accuracy (85.7% for the intervention group vs 75.9% for the control group; P = .39). Two patients were triaged with telemedicine. For the intervention group, there was a significant difference in time to triage patients with telemedicine versus those without telemedicine (35.5 seconds; 95% CI, 72.5-143.5 vs 18.5 seconds; 95% CI, 13.4-23.6; P = .041). There was no increase in triage accuracy when paramedics evaluating disaster victims used telemedicine

  14. The effects of technology on triage in A & E.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    1998-04-01

    Within the specialty of Accident and Emergency (A & E) nursing, triage is a term meaning to classify or sort patients according to their need for care (Blythin 1988). Burgess (1992) views this process as a means of prioritizing patients in order, so that the more seriously ill or injured are seen first (Table 1). Triage performance is measured in the author's department by computer. This technological source is used to record the patient's arrival time and the time at which the patient is triaged. Technology is defined by the Oxford Dictionary (1996) as 'the study of mechanical arts and science, their application in industry'. This paper explores the impact of this technology and the related issues on the A & E triage nurse, and will focus on issues related to the Patients' Charter (1991), resource implications, safety and staff training. In conclusion, the quality of a patient's total care, in which the author participated, is discussed with reference to the related issues and implications for future practice.

  15. Pediatric disaster triage education and skills assessment: a coalition approach.

    PubMed

    Kenningham, Katherine; Koelemay, Kathryn; King, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) demonstrate one method of pediatric disaster preparedness education using a regional disaster coalition organized workshop and 2) evaluate factors reflecting the greatest shortfall in pediatric mass casualty incident (MCI) triage skills in a varied population of medical providers in King County, WA. Educational intervention and cross-sectional survey. Pediatric disaster preparedness conference created de novo and offered by the King County Healthcare Coalition, with didactic sessions and workshops including a scored mock pediatric MCI triage. Ninety-eight providers from throughout the King County, WA, region selected by their own institutions following invitation to participate, with 88 completing exit surveys. Didactic lectures regarding pediatric MCI triage followed by scored exercises. Mock triage scores were analyzed and compared according to participant characteristics and workplace environment. A half-day regional pediatric disaster preparedness educational conference convened in September 2011 by the King County Healthcare Coalition in partnership with regional pediatric experts was so effective and well-received that it has been rescheduled yearly (2012 and 2013) and has expanded to three Washington State venues sponsored by the Washington State Department of Health. Emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) employment and regular exposure to pediatric patients best predicted higher mock pediatric MCI triage scores (ED/ICU 80 percent vs non-ED/ICU 73 percent, p = 0.026; regular pediatric exposure 80 percent vs less exposure 77 percent, p = 0.038, respectively). Pediatric Advanced Life Support training was not found to be associated with improved triage performance, and mock patients whose injuries were not immediately life threatening tended to be over-triaged (observed trend). A regional coalition can effectively organize member hospitals and provide education for focused populations using specialty experts such as

  16. Can interprofessional teamwork reduce patient throughput times? A longitudinal single-centre study of three different triage processes at a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jenny; Masiello, Italo; Ponzer, Sari; Farrokhnia, Nasim

    2018-04-19

    To determine the impact on emergency department (ED) throughput times and proportion of patients who leave without being seen by a physician (LWBS) of two triage interventions, where comprehensive nurse-led triage was first replaced by senior physician-led triage and then by interprofessional teamwork. Single-centre before-and-after study. Adult ED of a Swedish urban hospital. Patients arriving on weekdays 08:00 to 21:00 during three 1-year periods in the interval May 2012 to November 2015. A total of 185 806 arrivals were included. Senior physicians replaced triage nurses May 2013 to May 2014. Interprofessional teamwork replaced the triage process on weekdays 08:00 to 21:00 November 2014 to November 2015. Primary outcomes were the median time to physician (TTP) and the median length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcome was the LWBS rate. The crude median LOS was shortest for teamwork, 228 min (95% CI 226.4 to 230.5) compared with 232 min (95% CI 230.8 to 233.9) for nurse-led and 250 min (95% CI 248.5 to 252.6) for physician-led triage. The adjusted LOS for the teamwork period was 16 min shorter than for nurse-led triage and 23 min shorter than for physician-led triage. The median TTP was shortest for physician-led triage, 56 min (95% CI 54.5 to 56.6) compared with 116 min (95% CI 114.4 to 117.5) for nurse-led triage and 74 min (95% CI 72.7 to 74.8) for teamwork. The LWBS rate was 1.9% for nurse-led triage, 1.2% for physician-led triage and 3.2% for teamwork. All outcome measure differences had two-tailed p values<0.01. Interprofessional teamwork had the shortest length of stay, a shorter time to physician than nurse-led triage, but a higher LWBS rate. Interprofessional teamwork may be a useful approach to reducing ED throughput times. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Can interprofessional teamwork reduce patient throughput times? A longitudinal single-centre study of three different triage processes at a Swedish emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Masiello, Italo; Ponzer, Sari; Farrokhnia, Nasim

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact on emergency department (ED) throughput times and proportion of patients who leave without being seen by a physician (LWBS) of two triage interventions, where comprehensive nurse-led triage was first replaced by senior physician-led triage and then by interprofessional teamwork. Design Single-centre before-and-after study. Setting Adult ED of a Swedish urban hospital. Participants Patients arriving on weekdays 08:00 to 21:00 during three 1-year periods in the interval May 2012 to November 2015. A total of 185 806 arrivals were included. Interventions Senior physicians replaced triage nurses May 2013 to May 2014. Interprofessional teamwork replaced the triage process on weekdays 08:00 to 21:00 November 2014 to November 2015. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were the median time to physician (TTP) and the median length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcome was the LWBS rate. Results The crude median LOS was shortest for teamwork, 228 min (95% CI 226.4 to 230.5) compared with 232 min (95% CI 230.8 to 233.9) for nurse-led and 250 min (95% CI 248.5 to 252.6) for physician-led triage. The adjusted LOS for the teamwork period was 16 min shorter than for nurse-led triage and 23 min shorter than for physician-led triage. The median TTP was shortest for physician-led triage, 56 min (95% CI 54.5 to 56.6) compared with 116 min (95% CI 114.4 to 117.5) for nurse-led triage and 74 min (95% CI 72.7 to 74.8) for teamwork. The LWBS rate was 1.9% for nurse-led triage, 1.2% for physician-led triage and 3.2% for teamwork. All outcome measure differences had two-tailed p values<0.01. Conclusions Interprofessional teamwork had the shortest length of stay, a shorter time to physician than nurse-led triage, but a higher LWBS rate. Interprofessional teamwork may be a useful approach to reducing ED throughput times. PMID:29674366

  18. Semi-quantitative HPV viral load in patients with ASC-US cytology: viral load correlates strongly with the presence of CIN but only weakly with its severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Kim, W Y; Shim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Oh, I K; Hwang, T S; Kim, S-N; Kang, S-B

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load, expressed in relative light units (RLUs), in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) cytology. A total of 349 ASC-US cases with HPV infection, detected using Hybrid Capture 2, were diagnosed histologically. A colposcopically directed punch biopsy was performed on acetowhite areas. Endocervical curettage biopsy and random cervical punch biopsy in four quadrants were performed in unsatisfactory colposcopy cases. In negative colposcopy cases, random cervical punch biopsy in four quadrants was performed. Case with no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN1 and CIN2+ (CIN2/CIN3) accounted for 162, 135 and 52 cases, respectively. The mean age showed no difference among the three groups (P = 0.510). There was a significant correlation between RLU values and the presence of CIN (P < 0.001), but less so with its severity: the median RLU values for negative, CIN1 and CIN2+ cases were 42.68, 146.45 and 156.43, respectively, with widely overlapping confidence intervals. The cut-off values of RLU to detect CIN1+ and CIN2+ were 6.73 and 45.64, respectively. The HPV viral load in ASC-US cases showed a significant correlation with the presence of CIN and less so with its severity, and showed large overlap of viral loads between grades of CIN. In ASC-US cases, RLU was not an accurate predictor of immediate high-grade CIN. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Virtual reality triage training provides a viable solution for disaster-preparedness.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Pamela B; Maslowski, Eric; Petty, Sean; Shim, Woojin; Marsh, Michael; Hall, Theodore; Stern, Susan; Frankel, Jen

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relative impact of two simulation-based methods for training emergency medicine (EM) residents in disaster triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm, full-immersion virtual reality (VR), and standardized patient (SP) drill. Specifically, are there differences between the triage performances and posttest results of the two groups, and do both methods differentiate between learners of variable experience levels? Fifteen Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY1) to PGY4 EM residents were randomly assigned to two groups: VR or SP. In the VR group, the learners were effectively surrounded by a virtual mass disaster environment projected on four walls, ceiling, and floor and performed triage by interacting with virtual patients in avatar form. The second group performed likewise in a live disaster drill using SP victims. Setting and patient presentations were identical between the two modalities. Resident performance of triage during the drills and knowledge of the START triage algorithm pre/post drill completion were assessed. Analyses included descriptive statistics and measures of association (effect size). The mean pretest scores were similar between the SP and VR groups. There were no significant differences between the triage performances of the VR and SP groups, but the data showed an effect in favor of the SP group performance on the posttest. Virtual reality can provide a feasible alternative for training EM personnel in mass disaster triage, comparing favorably to SP drills. Virtual reality provides flexible, consistent, on-demand training options, using a stable, repeatable platform essential for the development of assessment protocols and performance standards.

  20. Working with Manchester triage -- job satisfaction in nursing.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Susanne; Forsman, Berit; Carlström, Eric D

    2009-10-01

    This article covers nurses' job satisfaction during triage at emergency departments in Western Sweden. Data was collected from 74 triage nurses using a questionnaire containing 37 short form open questions. The answers were analyzed descriptively and by measuring the covariance. The open questions were analyzed by content analysis. The results showed a high degree of job satisfaction (88%). Triage as a method, the interesting nature of the work, and a certain freedom in connection with the triage tasks contributed to job satisfaction (R(2) = 0.40). The nurses found their work interesting and stimulating, although some reported job dissatisfaction due to a heavy workload and lack of competence. Most of the nurses thought that Manchester triage (MTS) was a clear and straightforward method but in need of development. The rational modelling structure by which the triage method is constructed is unable to distinguish all the parameters that an experienced nurse takes into account. When the model is allowed to take precedence over experience, it can be of hindrance and contribute to certain estimates not corresponding with the patient's needs. The participants requested regular exercises solving and discussing patient scenarios. They also wanted to participate on a regular basis in the development of the instrument.

  1. 60 seconds to survival: A pilot study of a disaster triage video game for prehospital providers.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Mark X; Whitfill, Travis; Munjal, Kevin; Madhok, Manu; Diaz, Maria Carmen G; Scherzer, Daniel J; Walsh, Barbara M; Bowen, Angela; Redlener, Michael; Goldberg, Scott A; Symons, Nadine; Burkett, James; Santos, Joseph C; Kessler, David; Barnicle, Ryan N; Paesano, Geno; Auerbach, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Disaster triage training for emergency medical service (EMS) providers is not standardized. Simulation training is costly and time-consuming. In contrast, educational video games enable low-cost and more time-efficient standardized training. We hypothesized that players of the video game "60 Seconds to Survival" (60S) would have greater improvements in disaster triage accuracy compared to control subjects who did not play 60S. Participants recorded their demographics and highest EMS training level and were randomized to play 60S (intervention) or serve as controls. At baseline, all participants completed a live school-shooting simulation in which manikins and standardized patients depicted 10 adult and pediatric victims. The intervention group then played 60S at least three times over the course of 13 weeks (time 2). Players triaged 12 patients in three scenarios (school shooting, house fire, tornado), and received in-game performance feedback. At time 2, the same live simulation was conducted for all participants. Controls had no disaster training during the study. The main outcome was improvement in triage accuracy in live simulations from baseline to time 2. Physicians and EMS providers predetermined expected triage level (RED/YELLOW/GREEN/BLACK) via modified Delphi method. There were 26 participants in the intervention group and 21 in the control group. There was no difference in gender, level of training, or years of EMS experience (median 5.5 years intervention, 3.5 years control, p = 0.49) between the groups. At baseline, both groups demonstrated median triage accuracy of 80 percent (IQR 70-90 percent, p = 0.457). At time 2, the intervention group had a significant improvement from baseline (median accuracy = 90 percent [IQR: 80-90 percent], p = 0.005), while the control group did not (median accuracy = 80 percent [IQR:80-95], p = 0.174). However, the mean improvement from baseline was not significant between the two groups (difference = 6.5, p = 0.335). The

  2. Primary cervical cancer screening with HPV testing compared with liquid-based cytology: results of round 1 of a randomised controlled trial -- the HPV FOCAL Study.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, G S; Krajden, M; van Niekerk, D J; Martin, R E; Ehlen, T G; Ceballos, K; Smith, L W; Kan, L; Cook, D A; Peacock, S; Stuart, G C E; Franco, E L; Coldman, A J

    2012-12-04

    Round 1 data of human papillomavirus (HPV) FOCAL, a three-arm, randomised trial, which aims to establish the efficacy of HPV DNA testing as a primary screen for cervical cancer, are presented. The three arms are: Control arm - liquid based cytology with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASC-US) triage with hrHPV testing; Intervention Arm - hrHPV at entry with liquid-based cytology (LBC) triage of hrHPV positives, with exit screen at 4 years; Safety check arm - hrHPV at entry with LBC triage of hrHPV positives with exit screen at 2 years. A total of 6154 women were randomised to the control arm and 12 494 to the HPV arms (intervention and safety check). In the HPV arm, the baseline cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ and CIN3+ rate was 9.2/1000 (95%CI; 7.4, 10.9) and 4.8/1000 (95%CI; 3.6, 6.1), which increased to 16.1/1000 (95%CI 13.2, 18.9) for CIN2+ and to 8.0/1000 (95%CI; 5.9, 10.0) for CIN3+ after subsequent screening of HPV-DNA-positive/cytology-negative women. Detection rate in the control arm remained unchanged after subsequent screening of ASC-US-positive/hrHPV DNA-negative women at 11.0/1000 for CIN2+ and 5.0/1000 for CIN3+. After subsequent screening of women who were either hrHPV positive/cytology negative or ASC-US positive/HPV negative, women randomised to the HPV arms had increased CIN2+ detection compared with women randomised to the cytology arm.

  3. Emergency nurses' knowledge and experience with the triage process in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Karen; Peng, Lingli; Anikeeva, Olga; Arbon, Paul; Du, Huiyun; Li, Yinglan

    2017-11-01

    Triage is implemented to facilitate timely and appropriate treatment of patients, and is typically conducted by senior nurses. Triage accuracy and consistency across emergency departments remain a problem in mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the current status of triage practice and knowledge among emergency nurses in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. A sample of 300 emergency nurses was selected from 13 tertiary hospitals in Changsha and a total of 193 completed surveys were returned (response rate=64.3%). Surveys were circulated to head nurses, who then distributed them to nurses who met the selection criteria. Nurses were asked to complete the surveys and return them via dedicated survey return boxes that were placed in discreet locations to ensure anonymity. Just over half (50.8%) of participants reported receiving dedicated triage training, which was provided by their employer (38.6%), an education organisation (30.7%) or at a conference (26.1%). Approximately half (53.2%) reported using formal triage scales, which were predominantly 4-tier (43%) or 5-tier (34%). The findings highlight variability in triage practices and training of emergency nurses in Changsha. This has implications for the comparability of triage data and transferability of triage skills across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Triage: a key tool in emergency care].

    PubMed

    Soler, Wifredo; Gómez Muñoz, M; Bragulat, E; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    "Triage" is a process that enables us to manage clinical risk in order to safely and suitably handle patient flows when demand and clinical needs exceed resources. At present, triage systems that are employed are structured according to five levels of priority. Levels are allocated according to the concept that what is urgent is not always serious and that what is serious is not always urgent. This makes it possible to classify patients according to "degree of urgency", so that the more urgent patients will be attended to first and the rest will be re-evaluated until they are seen by the doctor. The Spanish triage system (SET) and the Manchester triage system (MTS) are the two standardised systems most implemented in our country. We also discuss the system of triage devised in Navarre--integrated in the computerised clinical history--and used in the hospital network of Navarre. All are multidisciplinary systems based on the reasons and urgency of consultation, but not on diagnoses, and are carried out by nursing staff with medical support when required. In addition, they all include monitoring of the quality of the accident and emergency service itself, and can be applied in the outpatient field.

  5. [Clinical evaluation of triage as drug-of-abuse test kit].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Toshiharu; Kohriyama, Kazuaki; Kondo, Rumiko; Goto, Kyoko; Yashiki, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    There are about 60,000 chemical substances which may cause poisoning. Identifying the cause substances is, therefore, very important for patient at emergency department. Triage is an immunoassay kit for the qualitative test for the metabolites of 8 major abuse drugs in urine. We assessed the usefullness of Triage on two patient groups. The first Group consists of the patients considered having not taken substances at initial diagnosis; the second Group consists of the patients considered having taken substances. The result are as follows. 1) The rate of Triage positive patients in the first Group were: attempt-suicide 23%, coma 24%, shock 10%, trauma 7%, respectively. Except for the habitually used medicine, narcotic and stimulant drugs were detected. In the first Group, negative result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patients as not poisoned, excluding the possitivity of 8 major drugs usage. 2) The rate of Triage positive patients in the second Group were very high: attempt-suicide 77%, coma 51%, shock 57%, trauma 30%, respectively, showing mostly any of 8 major drugs were the cause of poisoning. In the second Group, positive result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patient as poisoning or as coexisting poisoning with other diseases. 3) The specificity of Triage diagnosis in the first Group was 80% (113/142). The specificity and the sensitivity in the second Group were 64% (50/78) and 97% (74/76), respectively. These results means that Triage is very useful for diagnosis on 8 major drugs poisoning. 4) Triage is efficient for identifying the cause substances in drug poisoning and, therefore, can save medical expense. Triage is a very useful test kit at emergency department.

  6. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Field Trauma Triage among Injured Adults Served by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Newgard, Craig D; Yang, Zhuo; Nishijima, Daniel; McConnell, K John; Trent, Stacy; Holmes, James F; Daya, Mohamud; Mann, N Clay; Hsia, Renee Y; Rea, Tom; Wang, N Ewen; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Delgado, M Kit

    2016-01-01

    Background The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma sets national targets for the accuracy of field trauma triage at ≥ 95% sensitivity and ≥ 65% specificity, yet the cost-effectiveness of realizing these goals is unknown. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of current field trauma triage practices compared to triage strategies consistent with the national targets. Study Design This was a cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 79,937 injured adults transported by 48 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to 105 trauma and non-trauma hospitals in 6 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. Incremental differences in survival, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; costs per QALY gained) were estimated for each triage strategy over a 1-year and lifetime horizon using a decision analytic Markov model. We considered an ICER threshold of less than $100,000 to be cost-effective. Results For these 6 regions, a high sensitivity triage strategy consistent with national trauma policy (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 17.1%) would cost $1,317,333 per QALY gained, while current triage practices (sensitivity 87.2%, specificity 64.0%) cost $88,000 per QALY gained compared to a moderate sensitivity strategy (sensitivity 71.2%, specificity 66.5%). Refining EMS transport patterns by triage status improved cost-effectiveness. At the trauma system level, a high-sensitivity triage strategy would save 3.7 additional lives per year at a 1-year cost of $8.78 million, while a moderate sensitivity approach would cost 5.2 additional lives and save $781,616 each year. Conclusions A high-sensitivity approach to field triage consistent with national trauma policy is not cost effective. The most cost effective approach to field triage appears closely tied to triage specificity and adherence to triage-based EMS transport practices. PMID:27178369

  8. Cytology versus HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in the general population.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, George; Nyaga, Victoria N; Santesso, Nancy; Bryant, Andrew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre Pl; Mustafa, Reem A; Schünemann, Holger; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-08-10

    -effects model for computing pooled accuracy estimates. This model takes into account the within- and between-study variability and the intrinsic correlation between sensitivity and specificity. We included a total of 40 studies in the review, with more than 140,000 women aged between 20 and 70 years old. Many studies were at low risk of bias. There were a sufficient number of included studies with adequate methodology to perform the following test comparisons: hybrid capture 2 (HC2) (1 pg/mL threshold) versus conventional cytology (CC) (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)+ and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL)+ thresholds) or liquid-based cytology (LBC) (ASCUS+ and LSIL+ thresholds), other high-risk HPV tests versus conventional cytology (ASCUS+ and LSIL+ thresholds) or LBC (ASCUS+ and LSIL+ thresholds). For CIN 2+, pooled sensitivity estimates for HC2, CC and LBC (ASCUS+) were 89.9%, 62.5% and 72.9%, respectively, and pooled specificity estimates were 89.9%, 96.6%, and 90.3%, respectively. The results did not differ by age of women (less than or greater than 30 years old), or in studies with verification bias. Accuracy of HC2 was, however, greater in European countries compared to other countries. The results for the sensitivity of the tests were heterogeneous ranging from 52% to 94% for LBC, and 61% to 100% for HC2. Overall, the quality of the evidence for the sensitivity of the tests was moderate, and high for the specificity.The relative sensitivity of HC2 versus CC for CIN 2+ was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.86) and the relative specificity 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.96), and versus LBC for CIN 2+ was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.26) and the relative specificity 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.97). The relative sensitivity of HC2 versus CC for CIN 3+ was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.91) and the relative specificity 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.97). The relative sensitivity of HC2 versus LBC for CIN 3+ was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.28) and the relative specificity 0

  9. Provider management of equivocal cervical cancer screening results among underserved women, 2009–2011: follow-up of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Lin, Lavinia; Rockwell, Tanner; Royalty, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is the preferred triage option for most women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). This study was conducted to describe follow-up results of women with ASC-US Pap test results in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), focusing on HPV test use. Methods We examined the follow-up of 45,049 women in the NBCCEDP with ASC-US Pap tests during 2009–2011. Data on demographic characteristics, diagnostic procedures, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results NBCCEDP providers diagnosed 45,049 women (4.5 % of all Pap tests) with an ASC-US result. Of those, 28,271 (62.8 %) were followed with an HPV test, 3,883 (8.6 %) with a repeat Pap test, 6,592 (14.6 %) with colposcopy, and 6,303 were lost to follow-up (14.0 %). Women aged 40 and older were followed more often with an HPV test. White, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander women were followed more often with an HPV test after an ASC-US Pap compared to Hispanic and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. Among women with a positive HPV test on follow-up, almost 90 % continued with colposcopy as recommended. AI/AN women had the highest rates of HPV positivity (55.2 %) and of no follow-up (25.0 %). Conclusion This is the first analysis describing follow-up of ASC-US Pap test results in the NBCCEDP, providing a window into current management of ASC-US results. Findings raise concerns about persistent disparities among AI/AN women. During 2009–2011, nearly two-thirds of women with an ASC-US Pap test result were followed with an HPV reflex test. PMID:25794897

  10. Addressing the third delay: implementing a novel obstetric triage system in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David M; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Bryce, Fiona; Floyd, Liz; Olufolabi, Adeyemi; Tetteh, Cecilia; Owen, Medge D

    2018-01-01

    Institutional delivery has been proposed as a method for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality, but little is known about how referral hospitals in low-resource settings can best manage the expected influx of patients. In this study, we assess the impact of an obstetric triage improvement programme on reducing hospital-based delay in a referral hospital in Accra, Ghana. An Active Implementation Framework is used to describe a 5-year intervention to introduce and monitor obstetric triage capabilities. Baseline data, collected from September to November 2012, revealed significant delays in patient assessment on arrival. A triage training course and monitoring of quality improvement tools occurred in 2013 and 2014. Implementation barriers led to the construction of a free-standing obstetric triage pavilion, opened January 2015, with dedicated midwives. Data were collected at three time intervals following the triage pavilion opening and compared with baseline including: referral indications, patient and labour characteristics, waiting time from arrival to assessment and the documentation of a care plan. An obstetric triage improvement programme reduced the median (IQR) patient waiting time from facility arrival to first assessment by a midwife from 40 min (15-100) to 5 min (2-6) (p<0.001) over the 5-year intervention. The triage pavilion enhanced performance resulting in the elimination of previous delays associated with the time of admission and disease acuity. Care plan documentation increased from 51% to 96%. Obstetric triage, when properly implemented, reduced delay in a busy, low-resource hospital. The implementation process was sustained under local leadership during transition to a new hospital.

  11. Level I center triage and mass casualties.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Brian A; Schwab, C William

    2004-05-01

    The world has been marked by a recent series of high-profile terrorist attacks, including the attack of September 11, 2001, in New York City. Similar to natural disasters, these attacks often result in a large number of casualties necessitating triage strategies. The end of the twentieth century was marked by the development of trauma systems in the United States and abroad. By their very nature, trauma centers are best equipped to handle mass casualties resulting from natural and manmade disasters. Triage assessment tools and scoring systems have evolved to facilitate this triage process and to potentially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these events.

  12. Decreasing triage time: effects of implementing a step-wise ESI algorithm in an EHR.

    PubMed

    Villa, Stephen; Weber, Ellen J; Polevoi, Steven; Fee, Christopher; Maruoka, Andrew; Quon, Tina

    2018-06-01

    To determine if adapting a widely-used triage scale into a computerized algorithm in an electronic health record (EHR) shortens emergency department (ED) triage time. Before-and-after quasi-experimental study. Urban, tertiary care hospital ED. Consecutive adult patient visits between July 2011 and June 2013. A step-wise algorithm, based on the Emergency Severity Index (ESI-5) was programmed into the triage module of a commercial EHR. Duration of triage (triage interval) for all patients and change in percentage of high acuity patients (ESI 1 and 2) completing triage within 15 min, 12 months before-and-after implementation of the algorithm. Multivariable analysis adjusted for confounders; interrupted time series demonstrated effects over time. Secondary outcomes examined quality metrics and patient flow. About 32 546 patient visits before and 33 032 after the intervention were included. Post-intervention patients were slightly older, census was higher and admission rate slightly increased. Median triage interval was 5.92 min (interquartile ranges, IQR 4.2-8.73) before and 2.8 min (IQR 1.88-4.23) after the intervention (P < 0.001). Adjusted mean triage interval decreased 3.4 min (95% CI: -3.6, -3.2). The proportion of high acuity patients completing triage within 15 min increased from 63.9% (95% CI 62.5, 65.2%) to 75.0% (95% CI 73.8, 76.1). Monthly time series demonstrated immediate and sustained improvement following the intervention. Return visits within 72 h and door-to-balloon time were unchanged. Total length of stay was similar. The computerized triage scale improved speed of triage, allowing more high acuity patients to be seen within recommended timeframes, without notable impact on quality.

  13. The Impact of Telemedicine on Pediatric Critical Care Triage.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jillian B; Yeager, Brooke E; Cramer, Christina; Wheeler, David; McSwain, S David

    2017-11-01

    To examine the relationship between pediatric critical care telemedicine consultation to rural emergency departments and triage decisions. We compare the triage location and provider rating of the accuracy of remote assessment for a cohort of patients who receive critical care telemedicine consultations and a similar group of patients receiving telephone consultations. Retrospective evaluation of consultations occurring between April 2012 and March 2016. Pediatric critical care telemedicine and telephone consultations in 52 rural healthcare settings in South Carolina. Pediatric patients receiving critical care telemedicine or telephone consultations. Telemedicine consultations. Data were collected from the consulting provider for 484 total consultations by telephone or telemedicine. We examined the providers' self-reported assessments about the consultation, decision-making, and triage outcomes. We estimate a logit model to predict triage location as a function of telemedicine consult age and sex. For telemedicine patients, the odds of triage to a non-ICU level of care are 2.55 times larger than the odds for patients receiving telephone consultations (p = 0.0005). Providers rated the accuracy of their assessments higher when consultations were provided via telemedicine. When patients were transferred to a non-ICU location following a telemedicine consultation, providers indicated that the use of telemedicine influenced the triage decision in 95.7% of cases (p < 0.001). For patients transferred to a non-ICU location, an increase in transfers to a higher level of care within 24 hours was not observed. Pediatric critical care telemedicine consultation to community hospitals is feasible and results in a reduction in PICU admissions. This study demonstrates an improvement in provider-reported accuracy of patient assessment via telemedicine compared with telephone, which may produce a higher comfort level with transporting patients to a lower level of care. Pediatric

  14. HPV DNA testing with cytology triage in cervical cancer screening: Influence of revealing HPV infection status.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lyndsay Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Ratnam, Samuel; Sangwa-Lugoma, Ghislain; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Cardoso, Marly Augusto; Coutlée, Francois; Franco, Eduardo L

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) status might influence a cytotechnician's assessment of cellular abnormalities. The authors compared original cytotechnicians' Papanicolaou (Pap) readings for which HPV status was concealed with Pap rereads for which HPV status was revealed separately for 3 screening populations. Previously collected cervical Pap smears and clinical data were obtained from the Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (study A), the Democratic Republic of Congo Community-Based Screening Study (study B), and the Brazilian Investigation into Nutrition and Cervical Cancer Prevention (study C). Smears were reread with knowledge of HPV status for all HPV-positive women as well as a sample of HPV-negative women. Diagnostic performance of Pap cytology was compared between original readings and rereads. A total of 1767 Pap tests were reread. Among 915 rereads for HPV-positive women, the contrast between "revealed" and "concealed" Pap readings demonstrated revisions from negative to positive results for 109 women (cutoff was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse) and 124 women (cutoff was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] or worse). For a disease threshold of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse, specificity significantly declined at the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cutoff for studies A (86.6% to 75.3%) and C (42.5% to 15.5%), and at the LSIL cutoff for study C (61.9% to 37.6%). Sensitivity remained nearly unchanged between readings, except in study C, in which reread performance was superior (91.3% vs 71.9% for the LSIL cutoff). A reduction in the diagnostic accuracy of Pap cytology was observed when revealing patients' cervical HPV status, possibly due to a heightened awareness of potential abnormalities, which led to more false-positive results. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Emergency department triage scales and their components: a systematic review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Farrohknia, Nasim; Castrén, Maaret; Ehrenberg, Anna; Lind, Lars; Oredsson, Sven; Jonsson, Håkan; Asplund, Kjell; Göransson, Katarina E

    2011-06-30

    Emergency department (ED) triage is used to identify patients' level of urgency and treat them based on their triage level. The global advancement of triage scales in the past two decades has generated considerable research on the validity and reliability of these scales. This systematic review aims to investigate the scientific evidence for published ED triage scales. The following questions are addressed: 1. Does assessment of individual vital signs or chief complaints affect mortality during the hospital stay or within 30 days after arrival at the ED?2. What is the level of agreement between clinicians' triage decisions compared to each other or to a gold standard for each scale (reliability)? 3. How valid is each triage scale in predicting hospitalization and hospital mortality? A systematic search of the international literature published from 1966 through March 31, 2009 explored the British Nursing Index, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed. Inclusion was limited to controlled studies of adult patients (≥ 15 years) visiting EDs for somatic reasons. Outcome variables were death in ED or hospital and need for hospitalization (validity). Methodological quality and clinical relevance of each study were rated as high, medium, or low. The results from the studies that met the inclusion criteria and quality standards were synthesized applying the internationally developed GRADE system. Each conclusion was then assessed as having strong, moderately strong, limited, or insufficient scientific evidence. If studies were not available, this was also noted.We found ED triage scales to be supported, at best, by limited and often insufficient evidence.The ability of the individual vital signs included in the different scales to predict outcome is seldom, if at all, studied in the ED setting. The scientific evidence to assess interrater agreement (reliability) was limited for one triage scale and insufficient or lacking for all other

  16. Emergency Department Triage Scales and Their Components: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) triage is used to identify patients' level of urgency and treat them based on their triage level. The global advancement of triage scales in the past two decades has generated considerable research on the validity and reliability of these scales. This systematic review aims to investigate the scientific evidence for published ED triage scales. The following questions are addressed: 1. Does assessment of individual vital signs or chief complaints affect mortality during the hospital stay or within 30 days after arrival at the ED? 2. What is the level of agreement between clinicians' triage decisions compared to each other or to a gold standard for each scale (reliability)? 3. How valid is each triage scale in predicting hospitalization and hospital mortality? A systematic search of the international literature published from 1966 through March 31, 2009 explored the British Nursing Index, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed. Inclusion was limited to controlled studies of adult patients (≥15 years) visiting EDs for somatic reasons. Outcome variables were death in ED or hospital and need for hospitalization (validity). Methodological quality and clinical relevance of each study were rated as high, medium, or low. The results from the studies that met the inclusion criteria and quality standards were synthesized applying the internationally developed GRADE system. Each conclusion was then assessed as having strong, moderately strong, limited, or insufficient scientific evidence. If studies were not available, this was also noted. We found ED triage scales to be supported, at best, by limited and often insufficient evidence. The ability of the individual vital signs included in the different scales to predict outcome is seldom, if at all, studied in the ED setting. The scientific evidence to assess interrater agreement (reliability) was limited for one triage scale and insufficient or lacking for all other

  17. The accuracy and consistency of rural, remote and outpost triage nurse decision making in one Western Australia Country Health Service Region.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Kylie; Morphet, Julia

    2015-11-01

    The Australasian Triage Scale aims to ensure that the triage category allocated, reflects the urgency with which the patient needs medical assistance. This is dependent on triage nurse accuracy in decision making. The Australasian Triage Scale also aims to facilitate triage decision consistency between individuals and organisations. Various studies have explored the accuracy and consistency of triage decisions throughout Australia, yet no studies have specifically focussed on triage decision making in rural health services. Further, no standard has been identified by which accuracy or consistency should be measured. Australian emergency departments are measured against a set of standard performance indicators, including time from triage to patient review, and patient length of stay. There are currently no performance indicators for triage consistency. An online questionnaire was developed to collect demographic data and measure triage accuracy and consistency. The questionnaire utilised previously validated triage scenarios.(1) Triage decision accuracy was measured, and consistency was compared by health site type using Fleiss' kappa. Forty-six triage nurses participated in this study. The accuracy of participants' triage decision-making decreased with each less urgent triage category. Post-graduate qualifications had no bearing on triage accuracy. There was no significant difference in the consistency of decision-making between paediatric and adult scenarios. Overall inter-rater agreement using Fleiss' kappa coefficient, was 0.4. This represents a fair-to-good level of inter-rater agreement. A standard definition of accuracy and consistency in triage nurse decision making is required. Inaccurate triage decisions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. It is recommended that emergency department performance indicator thresholds be utilised as a benchmark for national triage consistency. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. The appropriateness of, and compliance with, telephone triage decisions: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Blank, Lindsay; Coster, Joanne; O'Cathain, Alicia; Knowles, Emma; Tosh, Jonathan; Turner, Janette; Nicholl, Jon

    2012-12-01

    This paper is a report of the synthesis of evidence on the appropriateness of, and compliance with, telephone triage decisions. Telephone triage plays an important role in managing demand for health care. Important questions are whether triage decisions are appropriate and patients comply with them. CINAHL, Cochrane Clinical Trials Database, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Psyc Info were searched between 1980-June 2010. Rapid Evidence Synthesis. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 54 relevant papers: 26 papers reported appropriateness of triage decision, 26 papers reported compliance with triage decision, and 2 papers reported both. Nurses triaged calls in most of the studies (n=49). Triage decisions rated as appropriate varied between 44-98% and compliance ranged from 56-98%. Variation could not be explained by type of service or method of assessing appropriateness. However, inconsistent definitions of appropriateness may explain some variation. Triage decisions to contact primary care may have lower compliance than decisions to contact emergency services or self care. Telephone triage services can offer appropriate decisions and decisions that callers comply with. However, the association between the appropriateness of a decision and subsequent compliance requires further investigation and further consideration needs to be given to the minority of calls which are inappropriately managed. We suggest that a definition of appropriateness incorporating both accuracy and adequacy of triage decision should be encouraged. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Optimal Sector Sampling for Drive Triage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    known files, which we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift...we call target data, that could help identify a drive holding evidence such as child pornography or malware. Triage is needed to sift through drives...situations where the user is looking for known data.1 One example is a law enforcement officer searching for evidence of child pornography from a large num

  20. HPV genotype distribution and anomalous association of HPV33 to cervical neoplastic lesions in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    PubMed

    DelaRosa-Martínez, Raúl; Sánchez-Garza, Mireya; López-Revilla, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to neoplastic lesions increase as a function of their oncogenicity and the duration of the infection since lesion severity progresses from low-grade to high-grade and cancer. In an outbreak, the prevalence of the HPV type involved would increase and the proportion of the associated low-grade lesions would predominate over severe lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV types and their association to neoplastic lesions was determined in women subjected to colposcopy in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. DNA from high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV types was identified by E6 nested multiplex PCR in cervical scrapes from 700 women with normal cytology, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or invasive cervical cancer (CC). Overall HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.7 %, that of HR-HPV was 63.1 %, and that of LR-HPV was 21.3 %. The highest prevalence (78.2 %) occurred in the 15-24 year group, whereas that of single infections was 52 % and that of multiple infections (i.e., by 2-6 HPV types) was 48 %. The most prevalent HR types were HPV33 (33.1 %), HPV16 (16.6 %), HPV18 and HPV51 (6.7 % each). HR-HPV prevalence was 29.6 % in normal cytology, 26.7 % in ASCUS, 63.3 % in LSIL, 68.2 % in HSIL, and 90.5 % in CC. Three prevalence trends for HR-HPV types were found in neoplastic lesions of increasing severity: increasing (LSIL < HSIL < CC) for HPV16, HPV39, HPV18, HPV58, HPV31 and HPV35; asymptotic (LSIL < HSIL ≈ CC) for HPV51 and HPV68; U-shaped (LSIL < HSIL > CC) for HPV33. Two-thirds of the women subjected to colposcopy from 2007 to 2010 in San Luis Potosí have HPV infections which predominate in the 15-24 years group. Around half of the infections are by one viral type and the rest by 2-6 types. HPV33 is the most prevalent type, followed by HPV16. Overall HR

  1. Accuracy of Pediatric Trauma Field Triage: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Rogier; van Rein, Eveline A J; Wijnand, Joep G J; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2018-05-16

    Field triage of pediatric patients with trauma is critical for transporting the right patient to the right hospital. Mortality and lifelong disabilities are potentially attributable to erroneously transporting a patient in need of specialized care to a lower-level trauma center. To quantify the accuracy of field triage and associated diagnostic protocols used to identify children in need of specialized trauma care. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched from database inception to November 6, 2017, for studies describing the accuracy of diagnostic tests to identify children in need of specialized trauma care in a prehospital setting. Identified articles with a study population including patients not transported by emergency medical services were excluded. Quality assessment was performed using a modified version of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. After deduplication, 1430 relevant articles were assessed, a full-text review of 38 articles was conducted, and 5 of those articles were included. All studies were observational, published between 1996 and 2017, and conducted in the United States, and data collection was prospective in 1 study. Three different protocols were studied that analyzed a combined total of 1222 children in need of specialized trauma care. One protocol was specifically developed for a pediatric out-of-hospital cohort. The percentage of pediatric patients requiring specialized trauma care in each study varied between 2.6% (110 of 4197) and 54.7% (58 of 106). The sensitivity of the prehospital triage tools ranged from 49.1% to 87.3%, and the specificity ranged from 41.7% to 84.8%. No prehospital triage protocol alone complied with the international standard of 95% or greater sensitivity. Undertriage and overtriage rates, representative of the quality of the full diagnostic strategy to transport a patient to the right hospital, were not reported for inclusive trauma systems or

  2. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

    PubMed

    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adherence and retention in clinical trials: a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mona N; Johnson, Rhoda E; Nagy, M Christine; Person, Sharina D; Partridge, Edward E

    2014-04-01

    The Community Health Advisor (CHA) model has been widely used to recruit rural and low-income, mostly African American women into clinical and behavioral research studies. However, little is known about its effectiveness in promoting retention and adherence of such women in clinical trials. The Community-Based Retention Intervention Study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based intervention strategy using the CHA model and the empowerment theory to improve the retention and adherence of minority and low-income women in clinical trials. The research strategy included the training and use of the volunteer CHAs as research partners. The target population included women participating in the University of Alabama at Birmingham clinical site of the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance-Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS-LSIL) Triage Study (ALTS), a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Two communities in Jefferson County, Alabama, that were matched according to population demographics were identified and randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. Thirty community volunteers were recruited to be CHAs and to implement the intervention with the ALTS trial participants. In total, 632 ALTS participants agreed to participate in the project, including 359 in the intervention group, which received CHA care, and 273 in the control group, which received standard care. Adherence rates for scheduled clinic visits were significantly higher in the intervention group (80%) compared with the control group (65%; P < .0001). The results indicate that volunteer CHAs can be trained to serve as research partners and can be effective in improving the retention and adherence of minority and low-income women in clinical trials. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  4. HPV testing as a triage for borderline or mild dyskaryosis on cervical cytology: results from the Sentinel Sites study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R S; Patnick, J; Kitchener, H C; Moss, S M

    2011-09-27

    Earlier pilot studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) triage concluded that HPV triage was feasible and cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to study the impact of wider rollout of HPV triage for women with low-grade cytology on colposcopy referral and outcomes. Human papillomavirus testing of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples showing low-grade abnormalities was used to select women for colposcopy referral at six sites in England. Samples from 10,051 women aged 25-64 years with routine call or recall cytology reported as borderline or mild dyskaryosis were included. Human papillomavirus-positive rates were 53.7% in women with borderline cytology and 83.9% in those with mild dyskaryosis. The range between sites was 34.8-73.3% for borderline cytology, and 73.4-91.6% for mild dyskaryosis. In the single site using both LBC technologies there was no difference in rates between the two technologies. The positive predictive value of an HPV test was 16.3% for CIN2 or worse and 6.1% for CIN3 or worse, although there was considerable variation between sites. Triaging women with borderline cytological abnormalities and mild dyskaryosis with HPV testing would allow approximately a third of these women to be returned immediately to routine recall, and for a substantial proportion to be referred for colposcopy without repeat cytology. Variation in HPV-positive rates results in differing colposcopy workload.

  5. Performance characteristics of five triage tools for major incidents involving traumatic injuries to children.

    PubMed

    Price, C L; Brace-McDonnell, S J; Stallard, N; Bleetman, A; Maconochie, I; Perkins, G D

    2016-05-01

    Context Triage tools are an essential component of the emergency response to a major incident. Although fortunately rare, mass casualty incidents involving children are possible which mandate reliable triage tools to determine the priority of treatment. To determine the performance characteristics of five major incident triage tools amongst paediatric casualties who have sustained traumatic injuries. Retrospective observational cohort study using data from 31,292 patients aged less than 16 years who sustained a traumatic injury. Data were obtained from the UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database. Interventions Statistical evaluation of five triage tools (JumpSTART, START, CareFlight, Paediatric Triage Tape/Sieve and Triage Sort) to predict death or severe traumatic injury (injury severity score >15). Main outcome measures Performance characteristics of triage tools (sensitivity, specificity and level of agreement between triage tools) to identify patients at high risk of death or severe injury. Of the 31,292 cases, 1029 died (3.3%), 6842 (21.9%) had major trauma (defined by an injury severity score >15) and 14,711 (47%) were aged 8 years or younger. There was variation in the performance accuracy of the tools to predict major trauma or death (sensitivities ranging between 36.4 and 96.2%; specificities 66.0-89.8%). Performance characteristics varied with the age of the child. CareFlight had the best overall performance at predicting death, with the following sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) respectively: 95.3% (93.8-96.8) and 80.4% (80.0-80.9). JumpSTART was superior for the triaging of children under 8 years; sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) respectively: 86.3% (83.1-89.5) and 84.8% (84.2-85.5). The triage tools were generally better at identifying patients who would die than those with non-fatal severe injury. This statistical evaluation has demonstrated variability in the accuracy of triage tools at predicting outcomes for children who

  6. Initial resuscitation for Australasian Triage Scale 2 patients in a Nepalese emergency department.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Bibhusan; Bhandari, Rabin; Moore, Malcolm

    2012-08-01

    Triage is recognized as important in providing timely care to emergency patients. However, systematic triage is only practised in two EDs in Nepal. The first objective of this study was to assess the performance of one of these departments in seeing triaged patients in a timely fashion. Second, an epidemiological survey of patients presenting to the ED was performed to describe the conditions seen and initial resuscitation undertaken. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study in the ED of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, eastern Nepal where the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) is used. One hundred and sixty patients triaged as ATS 2 were recruited. The time taken for the duty doctor to see the patient was noted. The presenting problems, vital signs and level of consciousness were measured at presentation. The resuscitation measures were recorded. The mean waiting time was 2.1 ± 1.7 min with a range of 1-10 min, which meets the benchmark for ATS 2. At triage, the most common presenting problems were circulatory shock (23.1%), altered consciousness (21%), respiratory difficulty (16.9%) and poisoning (15%). Oxygen, i.v. fluids and antibiotics were the most common therapies used in the initial resuscitation of patients. Patients triaged as ATS 2 were seen in a timely fashion. Seriously ill patients requiring resuscitation present commonly to this ED. This is a big challenge for junior doctors. Improved training, treatment protocols and equipment are needed to help manage this burden. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Effectiveness of prehospital trauma triage systems in selecting severely injured patients: Is comparative analysis possible?

    PubMed

    van Rein, Eveline A J; van der Sluijs, Rogier; Houwert, R Marijn; Gunning, Amy C; Lichtveld, Rob A; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2018-01-27

    In an optimal trauma system, prehospital trauma triage ensures transport of the right patient to the right hospital. Incorrect triage results in undertriage and overtriage. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate and compare prehospital trauma triage system quality worldwide and determine effectiveness in terms of undertriage and overtriage for trauma patients. A systematic search of Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed, using "trauma", "trauma center," or "trauma system", combined with "triage", "undertriage," or "overtriage", as search terms. All studies describing ground transport and actual destination hospital of patients with and without severe injuries, using prehospital triage, published before November 2017, were eligible for inclusion. To assess the quality of these studies, a critical appraisal tool was developed. A total of 33 articles were included. The percentage of undertriage ranged from 1% to 68%; overtriage from 5% to 99%. Older age and increased geographical distance were associated with undertriage. Mortality was lower for severely injured patients transferred to a higher-level trauma center. The majority of the included studies were of poor methodological quality. The studies of good quality showed poor performance of the triage protocol, but additional value of EMS provider judgment in the identification of severely injured patients. In most of the evaluated trauma systems, a substantial part of the severely injured patients is not transported to the appropriate level trauma center. Future research should come up with new innovative ways to improve the quality of prehospital triage in trauma patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Serious gaming technology in major incident triage training: a pragmatic controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knight, James F; Carley, Simon; Tregunna, Bryan; Jarvis, Steve; Smithies, Richard; de Freitas, Sara; Dunwell, Ian; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    By exploiting video games technology, serious games strive to deliver affordable, accessible and usable interactive virtual worlds, supporting applications in training, education, marketing and design. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of such a serious game in the teaching of major incident triage by comparing it with traditional training methods. Pragmatic controlled trial. During Major Incident Medical Management and Support Courses, 91 learners were randomly distributed into one of two training groups: 44 participants practiced triage sieve protocol using a card-sort exercise, whilst the remaining 47 participants used a serious game. Following the training sessions, each participant undertook an evaluation exercise, whereby they were required to triage eight casualties in a simulated live exercise. Performance was assessed in terms of tagging accuracy (assigning the correct triage tag to the casualty), step accuracy (following correct procedure) and time taken to triage all casualties. Additionally, the usability of both the card-sort exercise and video game were measured using a questionnaire. Tagging accuracy by participants who underwent the serious game training was significantly higher than those who undertook the card-sort exercise [Chi2=13.126, p=0.02]. Step accuracy was also higher in the serious game group but only for the numbers of participants that followed correct procedure when triaging all eight casualties [Chi2=5.45, p=0.0196]. There was no significant difference in time to triage all casualties (card-sort=435+/-74 s vs video game=456+/-62 s, p=0.155). Serious game technologies offer the potential to enhance learning and improve subsequent performance when compared to traditional educational methods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Appropriateness of cases presenting in the emergency department following ambulance service secondary telephone triage: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Kathryn; Smith, Karen; Morgans, Amee; Stoelwinder, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the appropriateness of cases presenting to the emergency department (ED) following ambulance-based secondary telephone triage. Design A pragmatic retrospective cohort analysis of all the planned and unplanned ED presentations within 48 hours of a secondary telephone triage. Setting The secondary telephone triage service, called the Referral Service, and the hospitals were located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia and operated 24 hours a day, servicing 4.25 million people. The Referral Service provides an in-depth secondary triage of cases classified as low acuity when calling the Australian emergency telephone number. Population Cases triaged by the Referral Service between September 2009 and June 2012 were linked to ED and hospital admission records (N=44,523). Planned ED presentations were cases referred to the ED following the secondary triage, unplanned ED presentations were cases that presented despite being referred to alternative care pathways. Main outcome measures Appropriateness was measured using an ED suitability definition and hospital admission rates. These were compared with mean population data which consisted of all of the ED presentations for the state (termed the ‘average Victorian ED presentation’). Results Planned ED presentations were more likely to be ED suitable than unplanned ED presentations (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7; p<0.001) and the average Victorian ED presentation (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.4; p=0.046). They were also more likely to be admitted to the hospital than the unplanned ED presentation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.6; p<0.001) and the average Victorian ED presentation (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.24 to 2.33; p<0.001). Just under 15% of cases diverted away from the emergency care pathways presented in the ED (unplanned ED attendances), and 9.5% of all the alternative care pathway cases were classified as ED suitable and 6.5% were admitted to hospital. Conclusions Secondary telephone triage was able to

  10. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of different strategies to triage women with adnexal masses: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Piovano, E; Cavallero, C; Fuso, L; Viora, E; Ferrero, A; Gregori, G; Grillo, C; Macchi, C; Mengozzi, G; Mitidieri, M; Pagano, E; Zola, P

    2017-09-01

    Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and serum biomarkers are used widely in clinical practice to triage women with adnexal masses, but the effectiveness of current biomarkers is weak. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of diagnosing patients with adnexal masses, in terms of diagnostic accuracy and economic costs, among four triage strategies: (1) the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis group's simple rules (SR) for interpretation of TVS with subjective assessment (SA) by an experienced ultrasound operator when TVS results are inconclusive (referred to hereafter as SR ± SA), (2) SR ± SA and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), (3) SR ± SA and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and (4) SR ± SA and the risk of malignancy algorithm (ROMA). Our main hypothesis was that the addition of the biomarkers to SR ± SA could improve triaging of these patients in terms of diagnostic accuracy (i.e. malignant vs benign). As secondary analyses, we estimated the cost effectiveness of the four strategies and the diagnostic accuracy of SR ± SA at the study hospitals. Between February 2013 and January 2015, 447 consecutive patients who were scheduled for surgery for an adnexal mass at the S. Anna and Mauriziano Hospitals in Turin were enrolled in this multicenter prospective cohort study. Preoperative TVS was performed and preoperative CA 125 and HE4 levels were measured. Pathology reports were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the four triage strategies and the cost of each strategy was calculated. A total of 391 patients were included in the analysis: 57% (n = 221) were premenopausal and 43% (n = 170) were postmenopausal. The overall prevalence of malignancy was 21%. SR were conclusive in 89% of patients and thus did not require SA; the overall performance of SR ± SA showed a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 92% and positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 74%, 95%, 10.5 and 0.19, respectively. In premenopausal women

  11. Why are alcohol-related emergency department presentations under-detected? An exploratory study using nursing triage text.

    PubMed

    Indig, Devon; Copeland, Jan; Conigrave, K M; Rotenko, Irene

    2008-11-01

    This study examined two methods of detecting alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations, provisional medical diagnosis and nursing triage text, and compared patient and service delivery characteristics to determine which patients are being missed from formal diagnosis in order to explore why alcohol-related ED presentations are under-detected. Data were reviewed for all ED presentations from 2004 to 2006 (n = 118,881) for a major teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Each record included two nursing triage free-text fields, which were searched for over 60 alcohol-related terms and coded for a range of issues. Adjusted odds ratios were used to compare diagnostically coded alcohol-related presentations to those detected using triage text. Approximately 4.5% of ED presentations were identified as alcohol-related, with 24% of these identified through diagnostic codes and the remainder identified by triage text. Diagnostic coding was more likely if the patient arrived by ambulance [odds ratio (OR) = 2.35] or showed signs of aggression (OR = 1.86). Failure to code alcohol-related issues was more than three times (OR = 3.23) more likely for patients with injuries. Alcohol-related presentations place a high demand on ED staff and less than one-quarter have an alcohol-related diagnosis recorded by their treating doctor. In order for routine ED data to be more effective for detecting alcohol-related ED presentations, it is recommended that additional resources such as an alcohol health worker be employed in Australian hospitals. These workers can educate and support ED staff to identify more clearly and record the clinical signs of alcohol and directly provide brief interventions.

  12. Investigating the validity and usability of an interactive computer programme for assessing competence in telephone-based mental health triage.

    PubMed

    Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn; King, Peter; Bourke-Finn, Karen; Brunning, Debra

    2016-02-01

    Telephone-based mental health triage services are frontline health-care providers that operate 24/7 to facilitate access to psychiatric assessment and intervention for people requiring assistance with a mental health problem. The mental health triage clinical role is complex, and the populations triage serves are typically high risk; yet to date, no evidence-based methods have been available to assess clinician competence to practice telephone-based mental health triage. The present study reports the findings of a study that investigated the validity and usability of the Mental Health Triage Competency Assessment Tool, an evidence-based, interactive computer programme designed to assist clinicians in developing and assessing competence to practice telephone-based mental health triage. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Detection of human papillomavirus 16, 18, and 45 in women with ASC-US cytology and the risk of cervical precancer: results from the CLEAR HPV study.

    PubMed

    Castle, Phillip E; Cuzick, Jack; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Reid, Jennifer L; Dockter, Janel; Giachetti, Cristina; Getman, Damon

    2015-02-01

    The Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 Genotype (GT) assay (AHPV-GT) is a qualitative E6/ E7 oncogene messenger RNA test that detects HPV 16 and a pool of HPV 18 and 45. The CLEAR (Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA) study was the pivotal, prospective, multicenter US clinical study to validate the Aptima HPV (AHPV) assays. In this analysis, we evaluated the clinical performance of AHPV and AHPV-GT assays for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2 +) and grade 3 (CIN3) or adenocarcinoma in situ in 912 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou result. The AHPV-GT assay was performed on high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positives as determined by the AHPV assay. Overall, the percent positive for hrHPV was 38.8% (354/912), of which 34.2% (121/354) were GT positive. Among hrHPV-positive women, the risks of CIN2 + were 37.0% for HPV 16 positives, 15.9% for HPV 18/45 positives, 14.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 2.2% for AHPV negatives. The risks of CIN3 + were 20.5% for HPV 16 positives, 9.1% for HPV 18/45 positives, 4.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 0.7% for HPV negatives. We demonstrated that AHPV-GT is a reliable and effective test for cervical cancer risk stratification in women with an ASC-US cytology diagnosis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  14. [Unmanned aerial vehicles: usefulness for victim searches and triage in disasters].

    PubMed

    Pardo Ríos, Manuel; Pérez Alonso, Nuria; Lasheras Velasco, Joaquín; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; López Ayuso, Belén; Muñoz Solera, Rubén; Martínez Riquelme, Carolina; Nieto Fernández-Pacheco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the influence of drones equipped with thermal cameras for finding victims and aiding triage during disasters. We carried out a prospective, cross-sectional analysis and 6 experimental simulations, each with 25 victims to locate and triage. Nurses were randomized to a control group or a drone group. Drone-group nurses were given access to images from the thermal cameras 10 minutes before the exercise started. The mean (SD) distance the nurses searched in the control group (1091.11 [146.41] m) was significantly greater than the distance searched by nurses in the drone group (920 [ 71.93] m (P = .0031). The control group found a mean of 66.7% of the victims, a significantly smaller percentage than the drone group's mean of 92% (P = .0001). Triage quality (undertriage and overtriage) was similar in the 2 groups as shown by maneuvers undertaken to open airways and control bleeding. Drones with thermal cameras were useful in searching for victims of simulated disasters in this study, although they had no impact on the quality of the nurses' triage.

  15. Interrater reliability of the Australasian Triage Scale for mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Creaton, Anne; Liew, Don; Knott, Jonathan; Wright, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate interrater reliability of the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) for mental health patients in ED. In a prospective descriptive study, triage nurses were shown video vignettes of simulated scenarios of mental health presentations. Trieurs (raters) were asked to allocate an ATS category (rating) to each case. The primary outcome was the degree of interrater reliability for each simulated case. Also assessed were differences between raters or settings, grouped by level of ED activity, state of origin, hospital type and familiarity with appropriate guidelines. Chi-squared analysis was used for independent categorical variables; the Friedman test was used to compare the triage scores between busy and quiet ED scenarios. Ordinal data results were compared using opartchi. All 90 eligible participants were enrolled. The highest interrater concordance was 65.6% whereas the lowest interrater concordance was 53.3%. Significant association occurred between the distribution of triage ratings, ED activity level and the state of origin. A busy ED resulted in the assignment of a more urgent ATS category and decrease in concordance. There is a need to develop and implement a validated, standardized national triage tool for mental health patients. The ATS per se is insufficient to ensure acceptable interrater reliability, particularly during busy periods in the ED, and between states. Given the influence the ATS has on key outcomes, it is imperative for this tool to be robust.

  16. Evaluation of a novel algorithm for primary mass casualty triage by paramedics in a physician manned EMS system: a dummy based trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Amberg-Schwandorf Algorithm for Primary Triage (ASAV) is a novel primary triage concept specifically for physician manned emergency medical services (EMS) systems. In this study, we determined the diagnostic reliability and the time requirements of ASAV triage. Methods Seven hundred eighty triage runs performed by 76 trained EMS providers of varying professional qualification were included into the study. Patients were simulated using human dummies with written vital signs sheets. Triage results were compared to a standard solution, which was developed in a modified Delphi procedure. Test performance parameters (e.g. sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios (LR), under-triage, and over-triage) were calculated. Time measurements comprised the complete triage and tagging process and included the time span for walking to the subsequent patient. Results were compared to those published for mSTaRT. Additionally, a subgroup analysis was performed for employment status (career/volunteer), team qualification, and previous triage training. Results For red patients, ASAV sensitivity was 87%, specificity 91%, positive LR 9.7, negative LR 0.139, over-triage 6%, and under-triage 10%. There were no significant differences related to mSTaRT. Per patient, ASAV triage required a mean of 35.4 sec (75th percentile 46 sec, 90th percentile 58 sec). Volunteers needed slightly more time to perform triage than EMS professionals. Previous mSTaRT training of the provider reduced under-triage significantly. There were significant differences in time requirements for triage depending on the expected triage category. Conclusions The ASAV is a specific concept for primary triage in physician governed EMS systems. It may detect red patients reliably. The test performance criteria are comparable to that of mSTaRT, whereas ASAV triage might be accomplished slightly faster. From the data, there was no evidence for a clinically significant reliability difference between typical

  17. Triage: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L; King, Mary A; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V; Gomersall, Charles D

    2014-10-01

    Pandemics and disasters can result in large numbers of critically ill or injured patients who may overwhelm available resources despite implementing surge-response strategies. If this occurs, critical care triage, which includes both prioritizing patients for care and rationing scarce resources, will be required. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all who are involved in large-scale pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. The Triage topic panel reviewed previous task force suggestions and the literature to identify 17 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Suggestions from the previous task force that were not being updated were also included for validation by the expert panel. The suggestions from the task force outline the key principles upon which critical care triage should be based as well as a path for the development of the plans, processes, and infrastructure required. This article provides 11 suggestions regarding the principles upon which critical care triage should be based and policies to guide critical care triage. Ethical and efficient critical care triage is a complex process that requires significant planning and preparation. At present, the prognostic tools required to produce an effective decision support system (triage protocol) as well as the infrastructure, processes, legal protections, and training are largely lacking in most jurisdictions. Therefore, critical care triage should be a last resort after mass critical care surge strategies.

  18. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008-2009) to currently about 12-15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of 'big misses', resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  20. Decision support system for triage management: A hybrid approach using rule-based reasoning and fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Dehghani Soufi, Mahsa; Samad-Soltani, Taha; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman

    2018-06-01

    Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines. RBR was applied for modeling the first to fourth decision points of the ESI algorithm. The data relating to vital signs were used as input variables and modeled using fuzzy logic. Narrative knowledge was converted to If-Then rules using XML. The extracted rules were then used to create the rule-based engine and predict the triage levels. Fourteen RBR and 27 fuzzy rules were extracted and used in the rule-based engine. The performance of the system was evaluated using three methods with real triage data. The accuracy of the clinical decision support systems (CDSSs; in the test data) was 99.44%. The evaluation of the error rate revealed that, when using the traditional method, 13.4% of the patients were miss-triaged, which is statically significant. The completeness of the documentation also improved from 76.72% to 98.5%. Designed system was effective in determining the triage level of patients and it proved helpful for nurses as they made decisions, generated nursing diagnoses based on triage guidelines. The hybrid approach can reduce triage misdiagnosis in a highly accurate manner and improve the triage outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing time-to-unit among patients referred to an outpatient stroke assessment unit with a novel triage process: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bibok, Maximilian B; Votova, Kristine; Balshaw, Robert F; Lesperance, Mary L; Croteau, Nicole S; Trivedi, Anurag; Morrison, Jaclyn; Sedgwick, Colin; Penn, Andrew M

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the performance of a novel triage system for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) units built upon an existent clinical prediction rule (CPR) to reduce time to unit arrival, relative to the time of symptom onset, for true TIA and minor stroke patients. Differentiating between true and false TIA/minor stroke cases (mimics) is necessary for effective triage as medical intervention for true TIA/minor stroke is time-sensitive and TIA unit spots are a finite resource. Prospective cohort study design utilizing patient referral data and TIA unit arrival times from a regional fast-track TIA unit on Vancouver Island, Canada, accepting referrals from emergency departments (ED) and general practice (GP). Historical referral cohort (N = 2942) from May 2013-Oct 2014 was triaged using the ABCD2 score; prospective referral cohort (N = 2929) from Nov 2014-Apr 2016 was triaged using the novel system. A retrospective survival curve analysis, censored at 28 days to unit arrival, was used to compare days to unit arrival from event date between cohort patients matched by low (0-3), moderate (4-5) and high (6-7) ABCD2 scores. Survival curve analysis indicated that using the novel triage system, prospectively referred TIA/minor stroke patients with low and moderate ABCD2 scores arrived at the unit 2 and 1 day earlier than matched historical patients, respectively. The novel triage process is associated with a reduction in time to unit arrival from symptom onset for referred true TIA/minor stroke patients with low and moderate ABCD2 scores.

  2. Predicting Ebola infection: A malaria-sensitive triage score for Ebola virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Okoni-Williams, Harry Henry; Suma, Mohamed; Mancuso, Brooke; Al-Dikhari, Ahmed; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk “probable” wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable. Methods/Principal findings This retrospective cohort study analyses the clinical characteristics of 566 patients admitted to the GOAL-Mathaska ETC in Sierra Leone. The diagnostic potential of each characteristic was assessed by multivariate analysis and incorporated into a statistically weighted predictive score, designed to detect EVD as well as discriminate malaria. Of the 566 patients, 28% were EVD(+) and 35% were malaria(+). Malaria was 2-fold more common in EVD(-) patients (p<0.05), and thus an important differential diagnosis. Univariate analyses comparing EVD(+) vs. EVD(-) and EVD(+)/malaria(-) vs. EVD(-)/malaria(+) cohorts revealed 7 characteristics with the highest odds for EVD infection, namely: reported sick-contact, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, referral-time of 4–9 days, pyrexia, dysphagia and haemorrhage. Oppositely, myalgia was more predictive of EVD(-) or EVD(-)/malaria(+). Including these 8 characteristics in a triage score, we obtained an 89% ability to discriminate EVD(+) from either EVD(-) or EVD(-)/malaria(+). Conclusions/Significance This study proposes a highly predictive and easy-to-use triage tool, which stratifies the risk of EVD infection with 89% discriminative power for both EVD(-) and EVD(-)/malaria(+) differential diagnoses. Improved triage could preserve resources by identifying those in need of more specific differential diagnostics as well as bolster infection prevention/control measures by better compartmentalizing

  3. Predicting Ebola infection: A malaria-sensitive triage score for Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Mary-Anne; Young, Alyssa; Tran, Anh-Minh; Okoni-Williams, Harry Henry; Suma, Mohamed; Mancuso, Brooke; Al-Dikhari, Ahmed; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk "probable" wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable. This retrospective cohort study analyses the clinical characteristics of 566 patients admitted to the GOAL-Mathaska ETC in Sierra Leone. The diagnostic potential of each characteristic was assessed by multivariate analysis and incorporated into a statistically weighted predictive score, designed to detect EVD as well as discriminate malaria. Of the 566 patients, 28% were EVD(+) and 35% were malaria(+). Malaria was 2-fold more common in EVD(-) patients (p<0.05), and thus an important differential diagnosis. Univariate analyses comparing EVD(+) vs. EVD(-) and EVD(+)/malaria(-) vs. EVD(-)/malaria(+) cohorts revealed 7 characteristics with the highest odds for EVD infection, namely: reported sick-contact, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, referral-time of 4-9 days, pyrexia, dysphagia and haemorrhage. Oppositely, myalgia was more predictive of EVD(-) or EVD(-)/malaria(+). Including these 8 characteristics in a triage score, we obtained an 89% ability to discriminate EVD(+) from either EVD(-) or EVD(-)/malaria(+). This study proposes a highly predictive and easy-to-use triage tool, which stratifies the risk of EVD infection with 89% discriminative power for both EVD(-) and EVD(-)/malaria(+) differential diagnoses. Improved triage could preserve resources by identifying those in need of more specific differential diagnostics as well as bolster infection prevention/control measures by better compartmentalizing the risk of nosocomial infection.

  4. Web-Based Triage in a College Health Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sole, Mary Lou; Stuart, Patricia L.; Deichen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the initiation and use of a Web-based triage system in a college health setting. During the first 4 months of implementation, the system recorded 1,290 encounters. More women accessed the system (70%); the average age was 21.8 years. The Web-based triage system advised the majority of students to seek care within 24 hours;…

  5. Safety of clinical and non-clinical decision makers in telephone triage: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sheila Q; Greenberg, Mary E; Mahlmeister, Laura; Wolfe, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Patient safety is a persistent problem in telephone triage research; however, studies have not differentiated between clinicians' and non-clinicians' respective safety. Currently, four groups of decision makers perform aspects of telephone triage: clinicians (physicians, nurses), and non-clinicians (emergency medical dispatchers (EMD) and clerical staff). Using studies published between 2002-2012, we applied Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model to examine groups' systems for evidence of system completeness (a minimum measure of structure and quality). We defined system completeness as the presence of a decision maker and four additional components: guidelines, documentation, training, and standards. Defining safety as appropriate referrals (AR) - (right time, right place with the right person), we measured each groups' corresponding AR rate percentages (outcomes). We analyzed each group's respective decision-making process as a safe match to the telephone triage task, based on each group's system structure completeness, process and AR rates (outcome). Studies uniformly noted system component presence: nurses (2-4), physicians (1), EMDs (2), clerical staff (1). Nurses had the highest average appropriate referral (AR) rates (91%), physicians' AR (82% average). Clerical staff had no system and did not perform telephone triage by standard definitions; EMDs may represent the use of the wrong system. Telephone triage appears least safe after hours when decision makers with the least complete systems (physicians, clerical staff) typically manage calls. At minimum, telephone triage decision makers should be clinicians; however, clinicians' safety calls for improvement. With improved training, standards and CDSS quality, the 24/7 clinical call center has potential to represent the national standard. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Does 100% Rapid Review Improve Cervical Cancer Screening?

    PubMed

    Queiroz Filho, José; Eleutério, José; Ney Cobucci, Ricardo; de Oliveira Crispim, Janaina Cristiana; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate 100% rapid review (100% RR) as a useful tool to detect false negative (FN) results. A sample of 8,677 swabs was investigated; the unsatisfactory and negative results were referred to 100% RR, concordant results were taken as the final diagnosis, while the discordant results were debated in a consensus meeting to reach a conclusion. The positive results were examined by 2 cytologists. The data were entered into SAS statistical software, and the agreement of the 100% RR results with the final diagnosis was tested with the weighted kappa statistic. There was a significant increase in unsatisfactory results from 348 to 1,927, and of positive results from 174 to 349. On the other hand, there was a substantial decrease in negative results from 8,155 to 6,401. Assessing the relative risk of FN results in smears that were not referred to quality control (100% RR) revealed the following results: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 2.93; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 2.72; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL (HSIL/ASC-H), 2.25. Evaluating by age group, a higher risk for LSIL (4.90) and ASC-US (3.85) was observed in patients aged under 25 years, whereas patients between 25 and 64 years and those over 64 years presented a higher risk for HSIL and ASC-H: 2.46 and 2.75, respectively. 100% RR is an effective screening tool for FN results in countries where molecular tests for DNA-HPV and prophylactic vaccines are not available in cervical cancer screening programs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Reorganising the pandemic triage processes to ethically maximise individuals' best interests.

    PubMed

    Tillyard, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    To provide a revised definition, process and purpose of triage to maximise the number of patients receiving intensive care during a crisis. Based on the ethical principle of virtue ethics and the underlying goal of providing individual patients with treatment according to their best interests, the methodology of triage is reassessed and revised. The decision making processes regarding treatment decisions during a pandemic are redefined and new methods of intensive care provision recommended as well as recommending the use of a 'ranking' system for patients excluded from intensive care, defining the role of non-intensive care specialists, and applying two types of triage as 'organisational triage' and 'treatment triage' based on the demand for intensive care. Using a different underlying ethical basis upon which to plan for a pandemic crisis could maximise the number of patients receiving intensive care based on individual patients' best interests.

  8. Pre-hospital electrocardiogram triage with telemedicine near halves time to treatment in STEMI: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of non-randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Correale, Michele; Santoro, Francesco; Caldarola, Pasquale; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    A shorter time to treatment has been shown to be associated with lower mortality rates in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Several strategies have been adopted with the aim to reduce any delay in diagnosis of AMI: pre-hospital triage with telemedicine is one of such strategies. We therefore aimed to measure the real effect of pre-hospital triage with telemedicine in case of AMI in a meta-analysis study. We performed a meta-analysis of non-randomized studies with the aim to quantify the exact reduction of time to treatment achieved by pre-hospital triage with telemedicine. Data were pooled and compared by relative time reduction and 95% C.I.s. A meta-regression analysis was performed in order to find possible predictors of shorter time to treatment. Eleven studies were selected and finally evaluated in the study. The overall relative reduction of time to treatment with pre-hospital triage and telemedicine was -38/-40% (p<0.001). Absolute time reduction was significantly correlated to time to treatment in the control groups (p<0.001), while relative time reduction was independent. A non-significant trend toward shorter relative time reductions was observed over years. Pre-hospital triage with telemedicine is associated with a near halved time to treatment in AMI. The benefit is larger in terms of absolute time to treatment reduction in populations with larger delays to treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Video from Mobile Phones to Improve Pediatric Phone Triage in an Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brandi; Mayne, Stephanie; Localio, A Russell; Luberti, Anthony; Zorc, Joseph J; Fiks, Alexander G

    2017-02-01

    Video-capable mobile phones are widely available, but few studies have evaluated their use in telephone triage for pediatric patients. We assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of videos sent via mobile phones to enhance pediatric telephone triage for an underserved population with asthma. We recruited children who presented to an urban pediatric emergency department with an asthma exacerbation along with their parent/guardian. Parents and the research team each obtained a video of the child's respiratory exam, and the research team conducted a concurrent in-person rating of respiratory status. We measured the acceptability of families sending videos as part of telephone triage (survey) and the feasibility of this approach (rates of successful video transmission by parents to the research team). To estimate the utility of the video in appropriately triaging children, four clinicians reviewed each video and rated whether they found the video reassuring, neutral, or raising concerns. Among 60 families (78% Medicaid, 85% Black), 80% of parents reported that sending a video would be helpful and 68% reported that a nurse's review of a video would increase their trust in the triage assessment. Most families (75%) successfully transmitted a video to the research team. All clinician raters found the video reassuring regarding the severity of the child's asthma exacerbation for 68% of children. Obtaining mobile phone videos for telephone triage is acceptable to families, feasible, and may help improve the quality of telephone triage in an urban, minority population.

  10. Patients' experience of being triaged directly to a psychologist in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dahlöf, Linda; Simonsson, Anna; Thorn, Jörgen; Larsson, Maria Eh

    2014-10-01

    In a primary health-care centre (PHCC) situated in a segregated area with low socio-economic status, 'primary care triage' has increased efficiency and accessibility. In the primary-care triage, the nurse sorts the patient to the appropriate PHCC profession according to described symptoms. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the patients' experience of being triaged directly to a psychologist for assessment. Interviews were conducted with 20 patients and then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that patients contacting the PHCC for mental health issues often are active agents with their own intent to see a psychologist, not a doctor, as a first-hand choice when contacting the PHCC. Seeking help for mental health issues is described as a sensitive issue that demands building up strength before contacting. The quick access to the preferred health-care professional is appreciated. The nurse was perceived as a caring facilitator rather than a decision maker. It is the patient's wish rather than the symptoms that directs the sorting. The patients' expectations when meeting the psychologist were wide and diverse. The structured assessment sometimes collided and sometimes united with these expectations, yielding different outcome satisfaction. The results could be seen in line with the present goal to increase patients' choice in the health-care system. The improved accessibility to the psychologist seems to meet community expectations. The results also indicate a need for providing more prior information about the assessment and potential outcomes.

  11. No Child Overlooked: Mental Health Triage in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…

  12. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-10-05

    To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method.

  13. A multicentre evaluation of two intensive care unit triage protocols for use in an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winston K; Myburgh, John; Seppelt, Ian M; Parr, Michael J; Blackwell, Nikki; Demonte, Shannon; Gandhi, Kalpesh; Hoyling, Larissa; Nair, Priya; Passer, Melissa; Reynolds, Claire; Saunders, Nicholas M; Saxena, Manoj K; Thanakrishnan, Govindasamy

    2012-08-06

    To determine the increase in intensive care unit (ICU) bed availability that would result from the use of the New South Wales and Ontario Health Plan for an Influenza Pandemic (OHPIP) triage protocols. Prospective evaluation study conducted in eight Australian, adult, general ICUs, between September 2009 and May 2010. All patients who were admitted to the ICU, excluding those who had elective surgery, were prospectively evaluated using the two triage protocols, simulating a pandemic situation. Both protocols were originally developed to determine which patients should be excluded from accessing ICU resources during an influenza pandemic. Increase in ICU bed availability. At admission, the increases in ICU bed availability using Tiers 1, 2 and 3 of the NSW triage protocol were 3.5%, 14.7% and 22.7%, respectively, and 52.8% using the OHPIP triage protocol (P < 0.001). Re-evaluation of patients at 12 hours after admission using Tiers 1, 2 and 3 of the NSW triage protocol incrementally increased ICU bed availability by 19.2%, 16.1% and 14.1%, respectively (P < 0.001). The maximal cumulative increases in ICU bed availability using Tiers 1, 2 and 3 of the NSW triage protocol were 23.7%, 31.6% and 37.5%, respectively, at 72 hours (P < 0.001), and 65.0% using the OHPIP triage protocol, at 120 hours (P < 0.001). Both triage protocols resulted in increases in ICU bed availability, but the OHPIP protocol provided the greatest increase overall. With the NSW triage protocol, ICU bed availability increased as the protocol was escalated.

  14. Virtual reality and live simulation: a comparison between two simulation tools for assessing mass casualty triage skills.

    PubMed

    Luigi Ingrassia, Pier; Ragazzoni, Luca; Carenzo, Luca; Colombo, Davide; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that virtual reality simulation is equivalent to live simulation for testing naive medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm in a simulated disaster scenario and to detect the improvement in these skills after a teaching session. Fifty-six students in their last year of medical school were randomized into two groups (A and B). The same scenario, a car accident, was developed identically on the two simulation methodologies: virtual reality and live simulation. On day 1, group A was exposed to the live scenario and group B was exposed to the virtual reality scenario, aiming to triage 10 victims. On day 2, all students attended a 2-h lecture on mass casualty triage, specifically the START triage method. On day 3, groups A and B were crossed over. The groups' abilities to perform mass casualty triage in terms of triage accuracy, intervention correctness, and speed in the scenarios were assessed. Triage and lifesaving treatment scores were assessed equally by virtual reality and live simulation on day 1 and on day 3. Both simulation methodologies detected an improvement in triage accuracy and treatment correctness from day 1 to day 3 (P<0.001). The time to complete each scenario and its decrease from day 1 to day 3 were detected equally in the two groups (P<0.05). Virtual reality simulation proved to be a valuable tool, equivalent to live simulation, to test medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage and to detect improvement in such skills.

  15. A review of factors affecting patient satisfaction with nurse led triage in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Salma Abdul; Ali, Parveen Azam

    2016-11-01

    To determine the factors that affect patient satisfaction with nurse-led-triage in EDs using a systematic review. Nurses' involvement in the triage services provided in the Emergency Department has been an integral part of practice for several decades in some countries. Although studies exploring patient satisfaction with nurse-led ED triage exist, no systematic review of this evidence is available. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Library and Google Scholar were searched (January 1980-June 2013). Eighteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Factors that affect patient satisfaction with nurse-led-triage include nurses' abilities to provide patient centred care, communication skills, nurses' caring abilities, concern for the patient and competence in diagnosing and treating the health problem. Other factors include availability and visibility of nurses, provision of appropriate health related information in a jargon-free language, nurses' ability to answer questions, and an ability to provide patients with an opportunity to ask questions. There is continued scope for nurse-led-triage services in the ED. Patients are generally satisfied with the service provided by nurses in EDs and report a willingness to see the same professional again in the future if needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Reverse triage' adds to surge capacity.

    PubMed

    2009-06-01

    Providing adequate surge capacity during a disaster is one of the greatest challenges of emergency response. Now, researchers have proposed a new process called "reverse triage" to help create surge capacity that otherwise would not exist. Patients who have only a slight chance of experiencing an adverse event within four days of leaving the hospital may be discharged to free bed space. ED staff can provide a daily initial reverse triage score for patients being admitted, even if a disaster is not imminent. While general guidelines can have great value, take the interests of the patient and their family into account when making discharge decisions.

  17. Machine-Learning-Based Electronic Triage More Accurately Differentiates Patients With Respect to Clinical Outcomes Compared With the Emergency Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Levin, Scott; Toerper, Matthew; Hamrock, Eric; Hinson, Jeremiah S; Barnes, Sean; Gardner, Heather; Dugas, Andrea; Linton, Bob; Kirsch, Tom; Kelen, Gabor

    2018-05-01

    Standards for emergency department (ED) triage in the United States rely heavily on subjective assessment and are limited in their ability to risk-stratify patients. This study seeks to evaluate an electronic triage system (e-triage) based on machine learning that predicts likelihood of acute outcomes enabling improved patient differentiation. A multisite, retrospective, cross-sectional study of 172,726 ED visits from urban and community EDs was conducted. E-triage is composed of a random forest model applied to triage data (vital signs, chief complaint, and active medical history) that predicts the need for critical care, an emergency procedure, and inpatient hospitalization in parallel and translates risk to triage level designations. Predicted outcomes and secondary outcomes of elevated troponin and lactate levels were evaluated and compared with the Emergency Severity Index (ESI). E-triage predictions had an area under the curve ranging from 0.73 to 0.92 and demonstrated equivalent or improved identification of clinical patient outcomes compared with ESI at both EDs. E-triage provided rationale for risk-based differentiation of the more than 65% of ED visits triaged to ESI level 3. Matching the ESI patient distribution for comparisons, e-triage identified more than 10% (14,326 patients) of ESI level 3 patients requiring up triage who had substantially increased risk of critical care or emergency procedure (1.7% ESI level 3 versus 6.2% up triaged) and hospitalization (18.9% versus 45.4%) across EDs. E-triage more accurately classifies ESI level 3 patients and highlights opportunities to use predictive analytics to support triage decisionmaking. Further prospective validation is needed. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The introduction of a midwife-led obstetric triage system into a regional referral hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Liz; Bryce, Fiona; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Olufolabi, Adeyemi; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel; Goodman, David; Pearson, Nancy; Morgan, Kerry; Tetteh, Cecilia; Ahwireng, Victoria; Owen, Medge

    2018-06-01

    to introduce and embed a midwife-led obstetric triage system in a busy labour ward in Accra, Ghana to improve the quality of care and to reduce delay. the study utilized a participatory action research design. Local staff participated in baseline data collection, the triage training course design and delivery, and post-training monitoring and evaluation. a regional referral hospital in Accra, Ghana undertaking 11,032 deliveries in 2012. all midwives and medical staff. measurements included maternal health outcomes, observations of labour ward activity, structured assessments of midwife actions during admission, waiting times, focus group discussions, and learning needs assessments which informed the course content. During training, two quality improvement tools were developed; coloured risk acuity wristbands and a one page triage assessment form. Participants measured compliance and accuracy in the use of these tools following course completion. initially, no formal triage system was in place. The environment was chaotic with poor compliance to existing protocols. Sixty-two midwives received triage training between 2013 and 2014. Two Triage Champions became responsible for triage implementation, monitoring and further training. Following training, the 'in-charge' midwives recorded a cumulative average of 83.4% of women wearing coloured wristbands. A separate audit by the Triage Champions found that 495/535 (93%) of the wristbands were correctly applied based on the diagnosis. Quarterly monitoring of the triage assessment forms by Kybele trainers, showed that 92% recorded the risk acuity colour, 85% a 'working diagnosis' and 82% a 'plan.' Median (interquartile range) waiting times were reduced from 40 (15-100) to 29 (11-60) minutes (p = 007). Twenty of 25 of the staff reported that the wristbands were helpful. an interactive triage training course led to the development of a triage assessment form and the use of coloured patient wristbands which resulted in delay

  19. Evaluating the construct of triage acuity against a set of reference vignettes developed via modified Delphi method.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Michèle; Wallis, Lee A; Myers, Jonathan E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the construct of triage acuity as measured by the South African Triage Scale (SATS) against a set of reference vignettes. A modified Delphi method was used to develop a set of reference vignettes. Delphi participants completed a 2-round consensus-building process, and independently assigned triage acuity ratings to 100 written vignettes unaware of the ratings given by others. Triage acuity ratings were summarised for all vignettes, and only those that reached 80% consensus during round 2 were included in the reference set. Triage ratings for the reference vignettes given by two independent experts using the SATS were compared with the ratings given by the international Delphi panel. Measures of sensitivity, specificity, associated percentages for over-triage/under-triage were used to evaluate the construct of triage acuity (as measured by the SATS) by examining the association between the ratings by the two experts and the international panel. On completion of the Delphi process, 42 of the 100 vignettes reached 80% consensus on their acuity rating and made up the reference set. On average, over all acuity levels, sensitivity was 74% (CI 64% to 82%), specificity 92% (CI 87% to 94%), under-triage occurred 14% (CI 8% to 23%) and over-triage 12% (CI 8% to 23%) of the time. The results of this study provide an alternative to evaluating triage scales against the construct of acuity as measured with the SATS. This method of using 80% consensus vignettes may, however, systematically bias the validity estimate towards better performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The effect on the patient flow in a local health care after implementing reverse triage in a primary care emergency department: a longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, Timo; Seppänen, Katri; Mattila, Juho; Kaartinen, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Reverse triage means that patients who are not considered to be in need of medical services are not placed on the doctor's list in an emergency department (ED) but are sent, after face-to-face evaluation by a triage nurse, to a more appropriate health care unit. It is not known how an abrupt application of such reverse triage in a combined primary care ED alters the demand for doctors' services in collaborative parts of the health care system. An observational study. Register-based retrospective quasi-experimental longitudinal follow-up study based on a before-after setting in a Finnish city. Patients who consulted different doctors in a local health care unit. Numbers of monthly visits to different doctor groups in public and private primary care, and numbers of monthly referrals to secondary care ED from different sources of primary care were recorded before and after abrupt implementation of the reverse triage. The beginning of reverse triage decreased the number of patient visits to a primary ED doctor without increasing mortality. Simultaneously, there was an increase in doctor visits in the adjacent secondary care ED and local private sector. The number of patients who came to secondary care ED without a referral or with a referral from the private sector increased. The data suggested that the reverse triage causes redistribution of the use of doctors' services rather than a true decrease in the use of these services.

  1. Using On-scene EMS Responders' Assessment and Electronic Patient Care Records to Evaluate the Suitability of EMD-triaged, Low-acuity Calls for Secondary Nurse Triage in 911 Centers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Greg; Clawson, Jeff; Fivaz, Mark C; McQueen, Jennie; Gardett, Marie I; Schultz, Bryon; Youngquist, Scott; Olola, Christopher H O

    2016-02-01

    Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) - a systematic 911 triage process - to identify a large subset of low-acuity patients for secondary nurse triage in the 911 center is a largely unstudied practice in North America. This study examines the ALPHA-level subset of low-acuity patients in the MPDS to determine the suitability of these patients for secondary triage by evaluating vital signs and necessity of lights-and-siren transport, as determined by attending Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance crews. The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical status of MPDS ALPHA-level (low-acuity) patients, as determined by on-scene EMS crews' patient care records, in two US agencies. A secondary objective was to determine which ALPHA-level codes are suitable candidates for secondary triage by a trained Emergency Communication Nurse (ECN). In this retrospective study, one full year (2013) of both dispatch data and EMS patient records data, associated with all calls coded at the ALPHA-level (low-acuity) in the dispatch protocol, were collected. The primary outcome measure was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes categorized as low-acuity, moderate-acuity, high-acuity, and critical using four common vital signs to assign these categories: systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse rate (PR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Vital sign data were obtained from ambulance crew electronic patient care records (ePCRs). The secondary endpoint was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes that received a "hot" (lights-and-siren) transport. Out of 19,300 cases, 16,763 (86.9%) were included in the final analysis, after excluding cases from health care providers and those with missing data. Of those, 89% of all cases did not have even one vital sign indicator of unstable patient status (high or critical vital sign). Of all cases, only 1.1% were transported lights-and-siren. With the exception of the low-acuity, ALPHA

  2. Examining triage patterns of inhalation injury and toxic epidermal necrolysis-Stevens Johnson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davis, James S; Pandya, Reeni K; Pizano, Louis R; Namias, Nicholas; Dearwater, Stephen; Schulman, Carl I

    2013-01-01

    The American Burn Association recommends that patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis-Stevens Johnson syndrome (TEN-SJS) or burn inhalation injuries would benefit from admission or transfer to a burn center (BC). This study examines to what extent those criteria are observed within a regional burn network. Hospital discharge data from 2000 to 2010 was obtained for all hospitals within the South Florida regional burn network. Patients with International Classification of Disease-9th revision discharge diagnoses for TEN-SJS or burn inhalation injury and their triage destination were compared using burn triage referral criteria to determine whether the patients were triaged differently from American Burn Association recommendations. Two hundred ninety-nine TEN-SJS and 131 inhalation injuries were admitted to all South Florida hospitals. Only 25 (8.4%) of TEN-SJS and 27 (21%) of inhalation injuries were admitted to the BC. BC patients had greater length of stay (TEN-SJS 22 vs 10 days; inhalation 13 vs 7) and were more likely to be funded by charity or be self-paid (TEN-SJS 24 vs 9.5%, P = .025; inhalation 44 vs 14%, P < .001), but less likely to hold some form of private or government insurance (TEN-SJS 72 vs 88%, P = .02; inhalation 48 vs 81%, P = .006). TEN-SJS BC patients were more frequently discharged home for self-care (76 vs 50%, P = .006). Non-BC patients were more often discharged to other healthcare facilities (28 vs 0% TEN-SJS, 20 vs 7.4% inhalation). Inappropriate triage may occur in more than 3 out of 4 of the TEN-SJS and inhalation injury patients within our burn network. Unfamiliarity with triage criteria, patient insurance status, and overcoding may play a role. Further studies should fully characterize the problem and implement education or incentives to encourage more appropriate triage.

  3. Advanced technology development for remote triage applications in bleeding combat casualties.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Gerhardt, Robert T; Cain, Jeffrey; Convertino, Victor A

    2011-01-01

    Combat developers within the Army have envisioned development of a "wear-and-forget" physiological status monitor (PSM) that will enhance far forward capabilities for assessment of Warrior readiness for battle, as well as for remote triage, diagnosis and decision-making once Soldiers are injured. This paper will review recent work testing remote triage system prototypes in both the laboratory and during field exercises. Current PSM prototypes measure the electrocardiogram and respiration, but we have shown that information derived from these measurements alone will not be suited for specific, accurate triage of combat injuries. Because of this, we have suggested that development of a capability to provide a metric of circulating blood volume status is required for remote triage. Recently, volume status has been successfully modeled using low-level physiological signals obtained from wearable devices as input to machine-learning algorithms; these algorithms are already able to discriminate between a state of physical activity (common in combat) and that of central hypovolemia, and thus show promise for use in wearable remote triage devices.

  4. Ambulance Clinical Triage for Acute Stroke Treatment: Paramedic Triage Algorithm for Large Vessel Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Henry; Pesavento, Lauren; Coote, Skye; Rodrigues, Edrich; Salvaris, Patrick; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Stephenson, Michael; Churilov, Leonid; Yassi, Nawaf; Davis, Stephen M; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2018-04-01

    Clinical triage scales for prehospital recognition of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are limited by low specificity when applied by paramedics. We created the 3-step ambulance clinical triage for acute stroke treatment (ACT-FAST) as the first algorithmic LVO identification tool, designed to improve specificity by recognizing only severe clinical syndromes and optimizing paramedic usability and reliability. The ACT-FAST algorithm consists of (1) unilateral arm drift to stretcher <10 seconds, (2) severe language deficit (if right arm is weak) or gaze deviation/hemineglect assessed by simple shoulder tap test (if left arm is weak), and (3) eligibility and stroke mimic screen. ACT-FAST examination steps were retrospectively validated, and then prospectively validated by paramedics transporting culturally and linguistically diverse patients with suspected stroke in the emergency department, for the identification of internal carotid or proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion. The diagnostic performance of the full ACT-FAST algorithm was then validated for patients accepted for thrombectomy. In retrospective (n=565) and prospective paramedic (n=104) validation, ACT-FAST displayed higher overall accuracy and specificity, when compared with existing LVO triage scales. Agreement of ACT-FAST between paramedics and doctors was excellent (κ=0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.0). The full ACT-FAST algorithm (n=60) assessed by paramedics showed high overall accuracy (91.7%), sensitivity (85.7%), specificity (93.5%), and positive predictive value (80%) for recognition of endovascular-eligible LVO. The 3-step ACT-FAST algorithm shows higher specificity and reliability than existing scales for clinical LVO recognition, despite requiring just 2 examination steps. The inclusion of an eligibility step allowed recognition of endovascular-eligible patients with high accuracy. Using a sequential algorithmic approach eliminates scoring confusion and reduces assessment time. Future

  5. The application of human papilloma virus genotyping for the identification of neoplasm lesions in the cervix of women with abnormal cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Barbara; Heimrath, Jerzy; Ciszek, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A connection between infections with a highly oncogenic type of human papilloma virus and the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer has been proven both experimentally and clinically. The period after which persistent virus infection will lead to the development of precancerous and invasive lesions is dependent on, among others, the HPV genotype. The oncogenic types of human papilloma virus destabilize the genome of an infected cell and thus initiate the carcinogenesis process. The aim of this work was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes among women with abnormal cytological smears and the correlation of this data with the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia exacerbation. The sample consisted of 75 women of child-bearing age (16-43 years old) with an abnormal cytological smear and positive test identifying an infection with an oncogenic type of human papilloma virus. In every case histopathological verification, aimed at excluding pathologies in the endocervix, was conducted using a colposcopy with guided biopsy and cervix abrasion. The authors found that the frequency of occurrence of different HPV genotypes of the groups of cytological diagnoses ASC-US, LSIL and HSIL do not differ statistically (p = 0.57). However, what is noteworthy is the more common occurrence of HPV 16 in type LSIL lesions (45.45%) and HPV 18 of a more advanced type HSIL (37.50%) pathology. Through the verification of the cytology results with histopathological diagnosis of the above groups the authors obtained statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) of individual pathological states. When regarding cytological HSIL diagnosis, CIN 1 was never diagnosed, while in other cytological groups cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of a low degree constituted over 40%. Analogically about 40% of HSIL diagnoses after histopathological verification turned out to be cancer of a pre-invasive state (CIS

  6. Development of a Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    mass casualty triage and interviews with members of the unit, the triage assessment development involved three steps: (1) identification of key...Unlimited c. THIS PAGE Unlimited Unlimited Unclassified 35 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) i Technical...in this report was initiated by ARI-FHRU to develop a prototype measure of performance for one of the three collective tasks identified in the

  7. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. Methods We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Results Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75–1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Conclusions Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out). PMID:28005916

  8. Short-term predictive capacity of two different triage systems in patients with acute heart failure: TRICA-EAHFE study.

    PubMed

    Miró, Òscar; Tost, Josep; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Gil, Víctor; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Escoda, Rosa; Llorens, Pere

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate whether prioritization of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) in the Andorran Triage Model/Spanish Triage System (MAT/SET) and the Manchester Triage System (MTS) also allows the identification of different profiles of outcome and prognosis and determine whether either system has a better predictive capacity of outcomes. Patients with AHF included in the Spanish EAHFE registry from hospitals using the MAT/SET or MTS were selected and divided according to the triage system used. Outcome variables included hospital admission, length of stay, death during admission, 3, 7, and 30-day all-cause mortality, and emergency department (ED) reconsultation at 30 days. The results were compared according to the level of priority and the triage system used. We included 3837 patients (MAT/SET=2474; MTS=1363) classified as follows: 4.0% level 1; 34.7% level 2; 55.1% level 3; and 6.3% levels 4-5. Both systems associated greater priority with higher rates of admission and mortality; the MTS associated greater priority with greater ED reconsultation and the MAT/SET found greater priority to be associated with less ED reconsultation. The discriminative capacity of the two scales for adverse outcomes was statistically significant, albeit poor, for almost all the outcome events and it was of scarce clinical relevance (Area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic between 0.458 and 0.661). The prediction of the outcome of patients with AHF determined with the MAT/SET or MTS showed scarce differences between the two systems, and their discriminative capacity does not seem to be clinically relevant.

  9. Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and associated cervical infections in an HIV-positive population in Rural Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, P J; Michelow, P; Du Plessis, R; Proudfoot, I G; Tarr, G A; Bockel, S L; Swanepoel, C J

    2013-08-01

    The incidences of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, associated squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical squamous cell carcinoma are significantly increased in HIV-positive women. The role of other cervicovaginal infections in the acquisition of the HPV infection, cervical carcinogenesis and genital HIV infection remains largely speculative. A retrospective study was conducted including 1087 HIV-positive women in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, for the period 1 May 2009 to 31 August 2010. For each patient, the age at first presentation, cervical cytological diagnosis, subsequent follow-up cytology and histology, and microscopically visible infections (including endemic Bilharzia) were tabulated and statistically analysed. The prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), squamous cell carcinoma, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) in the study population were 22.1%, 30.9%, 0.6%, 13.5% and 4.0%, respectively. LSIL, HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma were diagnosed, respectively, at the average ages of 35.7, 37.9 and 37.2 years. Four patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 32 with CIN2/CIN3 and two with cervical squamous cell carcinoma were also diagnosed with Bilharzia. Of the other infections only bacterial vaginosis had a positive statistical correlation with HPV-induced cervical abnormalities (LSIL, HSIL or squamous cell carcinoma). This study confirms the high prevalence of progressive HPV-associated cervical disease in a rural Southern African HIV-positive population, which is at least equal to or worse than in other African HIV-positive studies. The high incidence of Bilharzia infection in those cases that underwent cervical cone excision suggests a possible relationship with progressive HPV disease and cervical carcinogenesis. Bacterial vaginosis (perhaps in

  10. Decision analytic model exploring the cost and cost-offset implications of street triage

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Margaret; Callaghan, Lynne; Packwood, Martin; Badu, Vincent; Byford, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if street triage is effective at reducing the total number of people with mental health needs detained under section 136, and is associated with cost savings compared to usual police response. Design Routine data from a 6-month period in the year before and after the implementation of a street triage scheme were used to explore detentions under section 136, and to populate a decision analytic model to explore the impact of street triage on the cost to the NHS and the criminal justice sector of supporting people with a mental health need. Setting A predefined area of Sussex, South East England, UK. Participants All people who were detained under section 136 within the predefined area or had contact with the street triage team. Interventions The street triage model used here was based on a psychiatric nurse attending incidents with a police constable. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was change in the total number of detentions under section 136 between the before and after periods assessed. Secondary analysis focused on whether the additional costs of street triage were offset by cost savings as a result of changes in detentions under section 136. Results Detentions under section 136 in the street triage period were significantly lower than in the usual response period (118 vs 194 incidents, respectively; χ2 (1df) 18.542, p<0.001). Total NHS and criminal justice costs were estimated to be £1043 in the street triage period compared to £1077 in the usual response period. Conclusions Investment in street triage was offset by savings as a result of reduced detentions under section 136, particularly detentions in custody. Data available did not include assessment of patient outcomes, so a full economic evaluation was not possible. PMID:26868943

  11. An examination of ESI triage scoring accuracy in relationship to ED nursing attitudes and experience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew; Davidson, Carolyn L; Panik, Anne; Buckenmyer, Charlotte; Delpais, Paul; Ortiz, Michele

    2014-09-01

    This research was designed to examine if there is a difference in nurse attitudes and experience for those who assign Emergency Severity Index (ESI) scores accurately and those who do not assign ESI scores accurately. Studies that have used ESI scoring discussed the role of experience, but have not specifically addressed how the amount of experience and attitude towards patients in triage affect the triage nurse's decision-making capabilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was used. Data from 64 nurses and 1,644 triage events at 3 emergency departments was collected. Participants completed demographic data, attitude (Caring Nurse Patient Interaction, CNPI-23) survey, and triage data collection tools during the continuous 8-hour triage shift. Clinical nurse expert raters retrospectively reviewed the charts and assigned an ESI score to be compared with the nurse. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the nurse and Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship between experience and attitude. In this study of 64 nurse participants, the ESI score assigned by nurse participants did not differ significantly based on years of experience or CNPI mean score. The Kappa statistic ranged from a high of 0.63 in the nurse participant with 1.00 to 1.99 years of experience to a low of 0.51 in the nurse participant with 15 to 19 years of experience. The nurse participants with an overall mean CNPI-23 score of 106 to 115 achieved the highest agreement compared with a single participant with a CNPI-23 overall mean score of less than 77 who had a Kappa agreement of 0.50. The nurse participants with a CNPI-23 overall mean score between 81 and 92 demonstrated agreement of 0.54 to 0.60. Based on the high level of liability the triage area presents, special consideration needs to be made when deciding which nurse should be assigned to that area. The evidence produced from this study should provide some reassurance to ED managers and nurses alike that nurses

  12. Design and development of a mobile system for supporting emergency triage.

    PubMed

    Michalowski, W; Slowinski, R; Wilk, S; Farion, K J; Pike, J; Rubin, S

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to design and develop a mobile clinical decision support system for emergency triage of different acute pain presentations. The system should interact with existing hospital information systems, run on mobile computing devices (handheld computers) and be suitable for operation in weak-connectivity conditions (with unstable connections between mobile clients and a server). The MET (Mobile Emergency Triage) system was designed following an extended client-server architecture. The client component, responsible for triage decision support, is built as a knowledge-based system, with domain ontology separated from generic problem solving methods and used for the automatic creation of a user interface. The MET system is well suited for operation in the Emergency Department of a hospital. The system's external interactions are managed by the server, while the MET clients, running on handheld computers are used by clinicians for collecting clinical data and supporting triage at the bedside. The functionality of the MET client is distributed into specialized modules, responsible for triaging specific types of acute pain presentations. The modules are stored on the server, and on request they can be transferred and executed on the mobile clients. The modular design provides for easy extension of the system's functionality. A clinical trial of the MET system validated the appropriateness of the system's design, and proved the usefulness and acceptance of the system in clinical practice. The MET system captures the necessary hospital data, allows for entry of patient information, and provides triage support. By operating on handheld computers, it fits into the regular emergency department workflow without introducing any hindrances or disruptions. It supports triage anytime and anywhere, directly at the point of care, and also can be used as an electronic patient chart, facilitating structured data collection.

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of the Manchester Triage System in risk prioritization of patients with acute myocardial infarction who present with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Fernanda A; Polak, Catarina; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the Manchester Triage System is to clinically prioritize each patient seeking care in an emergency department. Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction who have typical symptoms including chest pain should be classified in the highest priority groups, requiring immediate medical assistance or care within 10 min. As such, the Manchester Triage System should present adequate sensitivity and specificity. This study estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the Manchester Triage System in the triage of patients with chest pain related to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, and the associations between the performance of the Manchester Triage System and selected variables. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional, retrospective study. The sensitivity and specificity of the Manchester Triage System were estimated by verifying the triage classification received by these patients and their established medical diagnoses. The sample was composed of 10,087 triage episodes, in which 139 (1.38%) patients had a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In 49 episodes, confirmation of medical diagnosis was not possible. The estimated sensitivity of the Manchester Triage System was 44.60% (36.18-53.27%) and the estimated specificity was 91.30% (90.73-91.85%). Of the 10,038 episodes in which the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was confirmed or excluded, 938 patients (9.34%) received an incorrect classification - undertriage or overtriage. This study showed that the specificity of the Manchester Triage System was very good. However, the low sensitivity based on the Manchester Triage System indicated that patients in high priority categories were undertriaged, leading to longer wait times and associated increased risks of adverse events.

  14. Medical triage for WMD incidents incidents: an adaptation of daily triage.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2008-05-01

    It's 2000 HRS on a Friday evening. You're assigned to an ALS engine company, and you're just settling down after a busy day when you're dispatched along with a BLS ambulance to a report of a sick person outside a local club where they're holding a concert. During your response, dispatch advises that they're receiving multiple calls on the incident and are dispatching a second BLS ambulance to the call. * As you turn the corner and approach the scene, you notice a haze in the air coming from an industrial site on the same side of the street and see approximately 200 people exiting the club in haste. Several dozen patrons line the street between the club and the subway station. They're coughing and crying, and several are vomiting. * The driver stops the engine in front of the subway entrance, which is located approximately 500 feet from the club and uphill and upwind from the haze. The scene is overwhelming, even to the captain, who turns to you-as the paramedic on the crew-and asks what you want done first. Your first thought is, Triage. But you know that triaging these patients is more complicated than your everyday two-car collision.

  15. A machine learning approach to triaging patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Qirko, Klajdi; Smith, Ted; Corcoran, Ethan; Wysham, Nicholas G.; Bazaz, Gaurav; Kappel, George; Gerber, Anthony N.

    2017-01-01

    COPD patients are burdened with a daily risk of acute exacerbation and loss of control, which could be mitigated by effective, on-demand decision support tools. In this study, we present a machine learning-based strategy for early detection of exacerbations and subsequent triage. Our application uses physician opinion in a statistically and clinically comprehensive set of patient cases to train a supervised prediction algorithm. The accuracy of the model is assessed against a panel of physicians each triaging identical cases in a representative patient validation set. Our results show that algorithm accuracy and safety indicators surpass all individual pulmonologists in both identifying exacerbations and predicting the consensus triage in a 101 case validation set. The algorithm is also the top performer in sensitivity, specificity, and ppv when predicting a patient’s need for emergency care. PMID:29166411

  16. Trauma Quality Improvement: Reducing Triage Errors by Automating the Level Assignment Process.

    PubMed

    Stonko, David P; O Neill, Dillon C; Dennis, Bradley M; Smith, Melissa; Gray, Jeffrey; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2018-04-12

    Trauma patients are triaged by the severity of their injury or need for intervention while en route to the trauma center according to trauma activation protocols that are institution specific. Significant research has been aimed at improving these protocols in order to optimize patient outcomes while striving for efficiency in care. However, it is known that patients are often undertriaged or overtriaged because protocol adherence remains imperfect. The goal of this quality improvement (QI) project was to improve this adherence, and thereby reduce the triage error. It was conducted as part of the formal undergraduate medical education curriculum at this institution. A QI team was assembled and baseline data were collected, then 2 Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were implemented sequentially. During the first cycle, a novel web tool was developed and implemented in order to automate the level assignment process (it takes EMS-provided data and automatically determines the level); the tool was based on the existing trauma activation protocol. The second PDSA cycle focused on improving triage accuracy in isolated, less than 10% total body surface area burns, which we identified to be a point of common error. Traumas were reviewed and tabulated at the end of each PDSA cycle, and triage accuracy was followed with a run chart. This study was performed at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Medical School, which has a large level 1 trauma center covering over 75,000 square miles, and which sees urban, suburban, and rural trauma. The baseline assessment period and each PDSA cycle lasted 2 weeks. During this time, all activated, adult, direct traumas were reviewed. There were 180 patients during the baseline period, 189 after the first test of change, and 150 after the second test of change. All were included in analysis. Of 180 patients, 30 were inappropriately triaged during baseline analysis (3 undertriaged and 27 overtriaged) versus 16 of 189 (3 undertriaged and 13

  17. The Effect of Start Triage Education on Knowledge and Practice of Emergency Medical Technicians in Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pouraghaei, Mahboub; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jaafar; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Rajaei Ghafori, Rozbeh; Rahmani, Farzad; Najafi Mirfakhraei, Baharak

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: Pre-hospital triage is one of the most fundamental concepts in emergency management. Limited human resource changes triage to an inevitable solution in the management of disasters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of education of simple triage and rapid treatment (START) in the knowledge and practice of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) employees of Eastern Azerbaijan. Methods: This is a pre-and post-intervention study conducted on two hundred and five (205) of employees of EMS sector, in the disaster and emergency management center of Eastern Azerbaijan Province, 2015. The utilized tool is a questionnaire of the knowledge and practice of individuals regarding START triage. The questionnaire was filled by the participants pre- and post-education; thereafter the data were analyzed using SPSS 13 software. Results: The total score of the participants increased from 22.02 (4.49) to 28.54 (3.47). Moreover, the score of sections related to knowledge of the triage was a necessity and the mean score of the section related to the practice increased from 11.47 (2.15) to 13.63 (1.38), and 10.73 (3.57) to 14.93 (2.78), respectively, which were statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that holding the educational classes of pre-hospital triage before the disasters is effective in improving the knowledge and practice of employees such as EMS technicians and this resulted to decreased error in performing this process as well as reduced overload in hospitals.

  18. Web-based triage in a college health setting.

    PubMed

    Sole, Mary Lou; Stuart, Patricia L; Deichen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the initiation and use of a Web-based triage system in a college health setting. During the first 4 months of implementation, the system recorded 1,290 encounters. More women accessed the system (70%); the average age was 21.8 years. The Web-based triage system advised the majority of students to seek care within 24 hours; however, it recommended self-care management in 22.7% of encounters. Sore throat was the most frequent chief complaint (14.2%). A subset of 59 students received treatment at student health services after requesting an appointment via e-mail. The authors used kappa statistics to compare congruence between chief complaint and 24/7 WebMed classification (kappa = .94), between chief complaint and student health center diagnosis (kappa = .91), and between 24/7 WebMed classification and student health center diagnosis (kappa = .89). Initial evaluation showed high use and good accuracy of Web-based triage. This service provides education and advice to students about their health care concerns.

  19. Calibrating Urgency: Triage Decision-Making in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vimla L.; Gutnik, Lily A.; Karlin, Daniel R.; Pusic, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Triage, the first step in the assessment of emergency department patients, occurs in a highly dynamic environment that functions under constraints of time, physical space, and patient needs that may exceed available resources. Through triage, patients are placed into one of a limited number of categories using a subset of diagnostic information.…

  20. [How to implement a unique triage system in the emergency departments of Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Francia, C; Gabriele, S; Guasticchi, G

    2008-01-01

    Triage is an efficient system that emergency departments (EDs) use to sort out presenting patients on the basis of the speed with which they need treatment. Because triage is not used consistently in the EDs of Latium, a region in central Italy, the regional Public Health Agency (PHA) planned and implemented a regional model of triage in all EDs. This manuscript describe the regional implementation strategy. The PHA activated the "Regional Triage Program--RTP" including: development and testing of a "triage section" in the computerized EDs clinical chart; production of an operational handbook for the RTP for triage health professionals (HPs); implementation of an continuum educational program on the "RTP" in all EDs of Latium. The computerized triage section was tested and implemented in all EDs in the region. The handbook for triage HPs was produced. The educational program, has been ongoing since 2008 in all regional EDs. Selected HPs, identified as "facilitators", were trained on how to implement the RTP. They will organize, in their own EDs, small groups of nurses to conduct on-site training of the RTP. The RTP was received with enthusiasm by most HPs, however its introduction into current practice could be hampered by organizational/structural problems and conflicts between nurses and doctors. Next actions of the regional program will be to overcome the possible above mentioned troubles.

  1. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  2. Implementing an obstetric triage acuity scale: interrater reliability and patient flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Smithson, David S; Twohey, Rachel; Rice, Tim; Watts, Nancy; Fernandes, Christopher M; Gratton, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    A 5-category Obstetric Triage Acuity Scale (OTAS) was developed with a comprehensive set of obstetrical determinants. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to test the interrater reliability of OTAS and (2) to determine the distribution of patient acuity and flow by OTAS level. To test the interrater reliability, 110 triage charts were used to generate vignettes and the consistency of the OTAS level assigned by 8 triage nurses was measured. OTAS performed with substantial (Kappa, 0.61 - 0.77, OTAS 1-4) and near perfect correlation (0.87, OTAS 5). To assess patient flow, the times to primary and secondary health care provider assessments and lengths of stay stratified by acuity were abstracted from the patient management system. Two-thirds of triage visits were low acuity (OTAS 4, 5). There was a decrease in length of stay (median [interquartile range], minutes) as acuity decreased from OTAS 1 (120.0 [156.0] minutes) to OTAS 3 (75.0 [120.8]). The major contributor to length of stay was time to secondary health care provider assessment and this did not change with acuity. The percentage of patients admitted to the antenatal or birthing unit decreased from 80% (OTAS 1) to 12% (OTAS 5). OTAS provides a reliable assessment of acuity and its implementation has allowed for triaging of obstetric patients based on acuity, and a more in-depth assessment of the patient flow. By standardizing assessment, OTAS allows for opportunities to improve performance and make comparisons of patient care and flow across organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trauma triage in the emergency departments of nontrauma centers: an analysis of individual physician caseload on triage patterns.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Deepika; Barnato, Amber E; Rosengart, Matthew R; Farris, Coreen; Yealy, Donald M; Switzer, Galen E; Fischhoff, Baruch; Saul, Melissa; Angus, Derek C

    2013-06-01

    Treatment at Level I/II trauma centers improves outcomes for patients with severe injuries. Little is known about the role of physicians' clinical judgment in triage at outlying hospitals. We assessed the association between physician caseload, case mix, and the triage of trauma patients presenting to nontrauma centers. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients evaluated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, by emergency physicians working in eight community hospitals in western Pennsylvania. We linked billing records to hospital charts, summarized physicians' caseloads, and calculated rates of undertriage (proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe injuries not transferred to a trauma center), and overtriage (proportion of patients transferred with a minor injury). We measured the correlation between physician characteristics, caseload, and rates of triage. Of 50 eligible physicians, 29 (58%) participated in the study. Physicians had a mean (SD) of 16.8 (10.1) years of postresidency clinical experience; 21 (72%) were board certified in emergency medicine. They evaluated a median of 2,423 patients per year, of whom 148 (6%) were trauma patients and 3 (0.1%) had moderate-to-severe injuries. The median undertriage rate was 80%; the median overtriage rate was 91%. Physicians' caseload of patients with moderate-to-severe injuries was inversely associated with rates of undertriage (correlation coefficient, -0.42; p = 0.03). Compared with physicians in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile undertriaged 31% fewer patients. Emergency physicians working in nontrauma centers rarely encounter patients with moderate-to-severe injuries. Caseload was strongly associated with compliance with American College of Surgeons' Committee on Trauma guidelines. Therapeutic/care management, level IV.

  4. Automated imaging technologies for the diagnosis of glaucoma: a comparative diagnostic study for the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy, performance as triage tests and cost-effectiveness (GATE study).

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Banister, Katie; Boachie, Charles; McMeekin, Peter; Gray, Joanne; Burr, Jennifer; Bourne, Rupert; Garway-Heath, David; Batterbury, Mark; Hernández, Rodolfo; McPherson, Gladys; Ramsay, Craig; Cook, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Many glaucoma referrals from the community to hospital eye services are unnecessary. Imaging technologies can potentially be useful to triage this population. To assess the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of imaging technologies as triage tests for identifying people with glaucoma. Within-patient comparative diagnostic accuracy study. Markov economic model comparing the cost-effectiveness of a triage test with usual care. Secondary care. Adults referred from the community to hospital eye services for possible glaucoma. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT), including two diagnostic algorithms, glaucoma probability score (HRT-GPS) and Moorfields regression analysis (HRT-MRA); scanning laser polarimetry [glaucoma diagnostics (GDx)]; and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The reference standard was clinical examination by a consultant ophthalmologist with glaucoma expertise including visual field testing and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. (1) Diagnostic performance of imaging, using data from the eye with most severe disease. (2) Composite triage test performance (imaging test, IOP measurement and visual acuity measurement), using data from both eyes, in correctly identifying clinical management decisions, that is 'discharge' or 'do not discharge'. Outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Data from 943 of 955 participants were included in the analysis. The average age was 60.5 years (standard deviation 13.8 years) and 51.1% were females. Glaucoma was diagnosed by the clinician in at least one eye in 16.8% of participants; 37.9% of participants were discharged after the first visit. Regarding diagnosing glaucoma, HRT-MRA had the highest sensitivity [87.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 80.2% to 92.1%] but the lowest specificity (63.9%, 95% CI 60.2% to 67.4%) and GDx had the lowest sensitivity (35.1%, 95% CI 27.0% to 43.8%) but the highest specificity (97.2%, 95% CI 95.6% to 98

  5. Nurse telephone triage for same day appointments in general practice: multiple interrupted time series trial of effect on workload and costs

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David A; Meakins, Joan; Tawfik, Jane; Godfrey, Lesley; Dutton, Evelyn; Richardson, Gerald; Russell, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the workloads of general practitioners and nurses and costs of patient care for nurse telephone triage and standard management of requests for same day appointments in routine primary care. Design Multiple interrupted time series using sequential introduction of experimental triage system in different sites with repeated measures taken one week in every month for 12 months. Setting Three primary care sites in York. Participants 4685 patients: 1233 in standard management, 3452 in the triage system. All patients requesting same day appointments during study weeks were included in the trial. Main outcome measures Type of consultation (telephone, appointment, or visit), time taken for consultation, presenting complaints, use of services during the month after same day contact, and costs of drugs and same day, follow up, and emergency care. Results The triage system reduced appointments with general practitioner by 29-44%. Compared with standard management, the triage system had a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 0.85 (0.72 to 1.00) for home visits, 2.41 (2.08 to 2.80) for telephone care, and 3.79 (3.21 to 4.48) for nurse care. Mean overall time in the triage system was 1.70 minutes longer, but mean general practitioner time was reduced by 2.45 minutes. Routine appointments and nursing time increased, as did out of hours and accident and emergency attendance. Costs did not differ significantly between standard management and triage: mean difference £1.48 more per patient for triage (95% confidence interval –0.19 to 3.15). Conclusions Triage reduced the number of same day appointments with general practitioners but resulted in busier routine surgeries, increased nursing time, and a small but significant increase in out of hours and accident and emergency attendance. Consequently, triage does not reduce overall costs per patient for managing same day appointments. What is already known on this topicNurse telephone triage is used to manage

  6. Decision analytic model exploring the cost and cost-offset implications of street triage.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Margaret; Callaghan, Lynne; Packwood, Martin; Badu, Vincent; Byford, Sarah

    2016-02-11

    To determine if street triage is effective at reducing the total number of people with mental health needs detained under section 136, and is associated with cost savings compared to usual police response. Routine data from a 6-month period in the year before and after the implementation of a street triage scheme were used to explore detentions under section 136, and to populate a decision analytic model to explore the impact of street triage on the cost to the NHS and the criminal justice sector of supporting people with a mental health need. A predefined area of Sussex, South East England, UK. All people who were detained under section 136 within the predefined area or had contact with the street triage team. The street triage model used here was based on a psychiatric nurse attending incidents with a police constable. The primary outcome was change in the total number of detentions under section 136 between the before and after periods assessed. Secondary analysis focused on whether the additional costs of street triage were offset by cost savings as a result of changes in detentions under section 136. Detentions under section 136 in the street triage period were significantly lower than in the usual response period (118 vs 194 incidents, respectively; χ(2) (1df) 18.542, p<0.001). Total NHS and criminal justice costs were estimated to be £1043 in the street triage period compared to £1077 in the usual response period. Investment in street triage was offset by savings as a result of reduced detentions under section 136, particularly detentions in custody. Data available did not include assessment of patient outcomes, so a full economic evaluation was not possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Pulmonary Concerns in Remote Spaceflight Triage Environments.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Benjamin D; Blue, Rebecca S; Castleberry, Tarah L; Antonsen, Erik L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2018-02-01

    With the development of the commercial space industry, growing numbers of spaceflight participants will engage in activities with a risk for pulmonary injuries, including pneumothorax, ebullism, and decompression sickness, as well as other concomitant trauma. Medical triage capabilities for mishaps involving pulmonary conditions have not been systematically reviewed. Recent studies have advocated the use of point-of-care ultrasound to screen for lung injury or illness. The operational utility of portable ultrasound systems in disaster relief and other austere settings may be relevant to commercial spaceflight. A systematic review of published literature was conducted concerning the use of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound techniques in austere environments, including suggested examination protocols for triage and diagnosis. Recent studies support the utility of pulmonary ultrasound examinations when performed by skilled operators, and comparability of the results to computed tomography and chest radiography for certain conditions, with important implications for trauma management in austere environments. Pulmonary injury and illness are among the potential health risks facing spaceflight participants. Implementation of point-of-care ultrasound protocols could aid in the rapid diagnosis, triage, and treatment of such conditions. Though operator-dependent, ultrasound, with proper training, experience, and equipment, could be a valuable tool in the hands of a first responder supporting remote spaceflight operations.Johansen BD, Blue RS, Castleberry TL, Antonsen EL, Vanderploeg JM. Point-of-care ultrasound for pulmonary concerns in remote spaceflight triage environments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):122-129.

  8. A consensus-based gold standard for the evaluation of mass casualty triage systems.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; McKee, Courtney H; Cady, Charles E; Cone, David C; Colella, M Riccardo; Cooper, Arthur; Coule, Phillip L; Lairet, Julio R; Liu, J Marc; Pirrallo, Ronald G; Sasser, Scott M; Schwartz, Richard; Shepherd, Greene; Swienton, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy and effectiveness analyses of mass casualty triage systems are limited because there are no gold standard definitions for each of the triage categories. Until there is agreement on which patients should be identified by each triage category, it will be impossible to calculate sensitivity and specificity or to compare accuracy between triage systems. To develop a consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category. National experts were recruited through the lead investigators' contacts and their suggested contacts. Key informant interviews were conducted to develop a list of potential criteria for defining each triage category. Panelists were interviewed in order of their availability until redundancy of themes was achieved. Panelists were blinded to each other's responses during the interviews. A modified Delphi survey was developed with the potential criteria identified during the interview and delivered to all recruited experts. In the early rounds, panelists could add, remove, or modify criteria. In the final rounds edits were made to the criteria until at least 80% agreement was achieved. Thirteen national and local experts were recruited to participate in the project. Six interviews were conducted. Three rounds of voting were performed, with 12 panelists participating in the first round, 12 in the second round, and 13 in the third round. After the first two rounds, the criteria were modified according to respondent suggestions. In the final round, over 90% agreement was achieved for all but one criterion. A single e-mail vote was conducted on edits to the final criterion and consensus was achieved. A consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category was developed. These gold standard definitions can be used to evaluate the accuracy of mass casualty triage systems after an actual incident, during training, or for research.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes among African women with normal cervical cytology and neoplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogembo, Rebecca Kemunto; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru; Seymour, Alaina J; Park, Henry Soo-Min; Bain, Paul A; Maranda, Louise; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Several meta-analyses confirmed the five most prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) strains in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases are HPV16, 18, 31, 52, and 58. HPV16/18 are the predominant oncogenic genotypes, causing approximately 70% of global cervical cancer cases. The vast majority of the women studied in previous analyses were from Europe, North America, Asia, and most recently Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Africa, a robust meta-analysis of HPV genotype prevalence and distribution in African women is lacking. We systematically searched 14 major databases from inception to August 2013 without language restriction, following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Seventy-one studies from 23 African countries were identified after screening 1162 citations and data abstracted and study quality appraised from 195 articles. HPV type-specific prevalence and distribution was estimated from 17,273 cases of women with normal cervical cytology; 1019 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 1444 women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 1571 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); and 4,067 cases of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Overall prevalence of HPV16/18 were 4.4% and 2.8% of women with normal cytology, 12.0% and 4.4% with ASCUS, 14.5% and 10.0% with LSIL, 31.2% and 13.9% with HSIL, and 49.7% and 18.0% with ICC, respectively. Study limitations include the lack of adequate data from Middle and Northern African regions, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different genotyping protocols. To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive assessment of the overall prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in African women with and without different cervical neoplasias. We

  10. Are triage questions sufficient to assign fall risk precautions in the ED?

    PubMed

    Southerland, Lauren T; Slattery, Lauren; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Kegelmeyer, Deborah; Kloos, Anne

    2017-02-01

    The American College of Emergency Physicians Geriatric Emergency Department (ED) Guidelines and the Center for Disease Control recommend that older adults be assessed for risk of falls. The standard ED assessment is a verbal query of fall risk factors, which may be inadequate. We hypothesized that the addition of a functional balance test endorsed by the Center for Disease Control Stop Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries Falls Prevention Guidelines, the 4-Stage Balance Test (4SBT), would improve the detection of patients at risk for falls. Prospective pilot study of a convenience sample of ambulatory adults 65 years and older in the ED. All participants received the standard nursing triage fall risk assessment. After patients were stabilized in their ED room, the 4SBT was administered. The 58 participants had an average age of 74.1 years (range, 65-94), 40.0% were women, and 98% were community dwelling. Five (8.6%) presented to the ED for a fall-related chief complaint. The nursing triage screen identified 39.7% (n=23) as at risk for falls, whereas the 4SBT identified 43% (n=25). Combining triage questions with the 4SBT identified 60.3% (n=35) as at high risk for falls, as compared with 39.7% (n=23) with triage questions alone (P<.01). Ten (17%) of the patients at high risk by 4SBT and missed by triage questions were inpatients unaware that they were at risk for falls (new diagnoses). Incorporating a quick functional test of balance into the ED assessment for fall risk is feasible and significantly increases the detection of older adults at risk for falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of a first impression triage in the Japan railway west disaster.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Atsunori; Ueda, Takahiro; Kuboyama, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Taihei; Terashima, Mariko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Atsunori; Kotani, Joji

    2013-01-01

    On April 25, 2005, a Japanese express train derailed into a building, resulting in 107 deaths and 549 injuries. We used "First Impression Triage (FIT)", our new triage strategy based on general inspection and palpation without counting pulse/respiratory rates, and determined the feasibility of FIT in the chaotic situation of treating a large number of injured people in a brief time period. The subjects included 39 patients who required hospitalization among 113 victims transferred to our hospital. After initial assessment with FIT by an emergency physician, patients were retrospectively reassessed with the preexisting the modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) methodology, based on Injury Severity Score, probability of survival, and ICU stay. FIT resulted in shorter waiting time for triage. FIT designations comprised 11 red (immediate), 28 yellow (delayed), while START assigned six to red and 32 to yellow. There were no statistical differences between FIT and START in the accuracy rate calculated by means of probability of survival and ICU stay. Overall validity and reliability of FIT determined by outcome assessment were similar to those of START. FIT would be a simple and accurate technique to quickly triage a large number of patients.

  12. Evaluation of the on-site immunoassay drug-screening device Triage-TOX in routine forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Instrumental identification of drugs with quantification is essential in forensic toxicology, while on-site immunoassay urinalysis drug-screening devices conveniently provide preliminary information when adequately used. However, suitable or sufficient urine specimens are not always available. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new on-site immunoassay drug-screening device Triage-TOX (Alere Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), which has recently been developed to provide objective data on the one-step automated processor, using 51 urine and 19 pericardial fluid samples from 66 forensic autopsy cases, compared with Triage-Drug of Abuse (DOA) and Monitect-9. For benzodiazepines, the positive predictive value and specificity of Triage-TOX were higher than those of Triage-DOA; however, sensitivity was higher with Monitect-9, despite frequent false-positives. The results for the other drugs with the three devices also included a few false-negatives and false-positives. These observations indicate the applicability of Triage-TOX in preliminary drug screening using urine or alternative materials in routine forensic autopsy, when a possible false-negative is considered, especially for benzodiazepines, providing objective information; however, the combined use of another device such as Monitect-9 can help minimize misinterpretation prior to instrumental analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Usefulness of the Shock Index as a secondary triage tool.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, James; Horne, S; Ball, S; Smith, Je

    2015-03-01

    Secondary triage at a major incident allows for a more detailed assessment of the patient. In the UK, the Triage Sort (TSO) is the preferred method, combining GCS, systolic BP (SBP) and RR to categorise Priority 1 casualties. The Shock Index (SI) is calculated by dividing HR by SBP (HR/SBP). This study examines whether SI is better at predicting need for life-saving intervention (LSI) following trauma than TSO. A prospective observational study was undertaken. Physiological data and interventions performed in the Emergency Department and operating theatre were prospectively collected for 482 consecutive adult trauma patients presenting to Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, over a 6-month period. A patient was deemed to have required LSI if they received any intervention from a set described previously. Complete data were available for 345 patients (71.6%). Of these, 203 (58.8%) were gold standard P1, and 142 (41.2%) were non-P1. The TSO predicted need for LSI with a sensitivity of 58.6% (95% CI 51.8% to 65.4%) and specificity of 88.7% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.9%). Using an SI cut-off >0.75 provided greater sensitivity of 70.0% (95% CI 63.6% to 76.3%) while maintaining an acceptably high (although lower than TSO) specificity of 74.7% (95% CI 67.5% to 81.8%). At this SI cut-off, there was evidence of a difference between TSO and SI in terms of the way in which patients were triaged (p<0.0001). Our study showed that a SI >0.75 more accurately predicted the need for LSI, while maintaining acceptable specificity. SI may be more useful than TSO for secondary triage in a mass-casualty situation; this relationship in civilian trauma should be examined to clarify whether these results can be more widely translated into civilian practice. RCDM/Res/Audit/1036/12/0050. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Prehospital Trauma Triage Decision-making: A Model of What Happens between the 9-1-1 Call and the Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Cushman, Jeremy T; Lerner, E Brooke; Fisher, Susan G; Seplaki, Christopher L; Veazie, Peter J; Wasserman, Erin B; Dozier, Ann; Shah, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    We describe the decision-making process used by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in order to understand how 1) injured patients are evaluated in the prehospital setting; 2) field triage criteria are applied in-practice; and 3) selection of a destination hospital is determined. We conducted separate focus groups with advanced and basic life support providers from rural and urban/suburban regions. Four exploratory focus groups were conducted to identify overarching themes and five additional confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify initial focus group findings and provide additional detail regarding trauma triage decision-making and application of field triage criteria. All focus groups were conducted by a public health researcher with formal training in qualitative research. A standardized question guide was used to facilitate discussion at all focus groups. All focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses were coded and categorized into larger domains to describe how EMS providers approach trauma triage and apply the Field Triage Decision Scheme. We conducted 9 focus groups with 50 EMS providers. Participants highlighted that trauma triage is complex and there is often limited time to make destination decisions. Four overarching domains were identified within the context of trauma triage decision-making: 1) initial assessment; 2) importance of speed versus accuracy; 3) usability of current field triage criteria; and 4) consideration of patient and emergency care system-level factors. Field triage is a complex decision-making process which involves consideration of many patient and system-level factors. The decision model presented in this study suggests that EMS providers place significant emphasis on speed of decisions, relying on initial impressions and immediately observable information, rather than precise measurement of vital signs or systematic application of field triage criteria.

  15. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna C.; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury. PMID:21829319

  16. Impact of triage in accident and emergency departments in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Fateha, B E; Hamza, A Y

    2001-01-01

    We aimed to assess the impact of triage by physicians on the workload and expenditure of the Accident and Emergency (AE) Department of Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain. We analysed three sets of data: patient visits to the AE Department over a 9-month period; patient visits 1 year previously; and forecast patient visits over 9 months starting from July 1999. The referral of patients to AE cubicles was reduced by 54.4% after the implementation of the triage, and reduction in the workload was statistically significant. The reduction in health care expenditure was estimated at between 15.3% and 17.3%. We conclude that triage by physicians can be cost-effective and can reduce the AE Department workload, freeing more time to manage life-threatening and urgent cases.

  17. The use of a kiosk-model bilingual self-triage system in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Madhumita; Khor, Kai-Ning; Amresh, Ashish; Drachman, David; Frechette, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Streamlining the triage process is the key in improving emergency department (ED) workflow. Our objective was to determine if parents of pediatric ED patients in, low-literacy, inner-city hospital, who used the audio-assisted bilingual (English/Spanish) self-triage kiosk, were able to enter their child's medical history data using a touch screen panel with greater speed and accuracy than routine nurse-initiated triage. Parent/child dyads visiting the pediatric ED for nonurgent conditions (February to April 2012) were randomized prospectively to self-triage kiosk group (n = 200) and standard nurse triage group (n = 200). Both groups underwent routine nurse-initiated triage that included verbal elicitation of basic medical history and manual entry into patients' electronic medical records. The kiosk user was a parent in 88.5% of the cases, a patient (range, 11-17 years) in 9.5% of the cases, and a proxy user (sibling or friend) in 2% of the cases. Language choice for kiosk use was equally distributed (English vs Spanish, 50.5% vs 49.5%). The mean (SD) time to enter medical history data by the kiosk group was significantly shorter than the standard nurse triage group (94.38 [38.61] vs 126.72 [62.61] seconds; P < 0.001). Significant inverse relationship was observed between parent education level and kiosk usage time (r = -0.26; P < 0.001). The mean inaccuracies were significantly lower for kiosk group (P < 0.05) in areas of medical, medication and immunization histories, and total discrepancy score. Kiosk triage enabled users to enter basic medical triage history data quickly and accurately in an ED setting with future potential for its wider use in improving ED workflow efficiency.

  18. An Integrated Computerized Triage System in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Raines, Bill; Hemphill, Robin; Mayberry, Scott R; Luther, Melissa A; Slusser, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) triage is a fast-paced process that prioritizes the allocation of limited health care resources to patients in greatest need. This paper describes the experiences with an integrated, computerized triage application. The system exchanges information with other information systems, including the ED patient tracking board, the longitudinal electronic medical record, the computerized provider order entry, and the medication reconciliation application. The application includes decision support capabilities such as assessing the patient’s acuity level, age-dependent alerts for vital signs, and clinical reminders. The browser-based system utilizes the institution’s controlled vocabulary, improves data completeness and quality, such as compliance with capturing required data elements and screening questions, initiates clinical processes, such as pneumococcal vaccination ordering, and reminders to start clinical pathways, issues alerts for clinical trial eligibility, and facilitates various reporting needs. The system has supported the triage documentation of >290,000 pediatric and adult patients. PMID:18999190

  19. Ambulance smartphone tool for field triage of ruptured aortic aneurysms (FILTR): study protocol for a prospective observational validation of diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas L; Fothergill, Rachael T; Karthikesalingam, Alan

    2016-10-24

    Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) carries a considerable mortality rate and is often fatal. rAAA can be treated through open or endovascular surgical intervention and it is possible that more rapid access to definitive intervention might be a key aspect of improving mortality for rAAA. Diagnosis is not always straightforward with up to 42% of rAAA initially misdiagnosed, introducing potentially harmful delay. There is a need for an effective clinical decision support tool for accurate prehospital diagnosis and triage to enable transfer to an appropriate centre. Prospective multicentre observational study assessing the diagnostic accuracy of a prehospital smartphone triage tool for detection of rAAA. The study will be conducted across London in conjunction with London Ambulance Service (LAS). A logistic score predicting the risk of rAAA by assessing ten key parameters was developed and retrospectively validated through logistic regression analysis of ambulance records and Hospital Episode Statistics data for 2200 patients from 2005 to 2010. The triage tool is integrated into a secure mobile app for major smartphone platforms. Key parameters collected from the app will be retrospectively matched with final hospital discharge diagnosis for each patient encounter. The primary outcome is to assess the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the rAAA triage tool logistic score in prospective use as a mob app for prehospital ambulance clinicians. Data collection started in November 2014 and the study will recruit a minimum of 1150 non-consecutive patients over a time period of 2 years. Full ethical approval has been gained for this study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications, and international/national presentations. CPMS 16459; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Physiotherapy in Primary Care Triage - the effects on utilization of medical services at primary health care clinics by patients and sub-groups of patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bornhöft, Lena; Larsson, Maria E H; Thorn, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Primary Care Triage is a patient sorting system used in some primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in Sweden where patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are triaged directly to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sorting/triaging patients seeking a PHCC for MSD directly to physiotherapists affects their utilization of medical services at the clinic for the MSD and to determine whether the effects of the triaging system vary for different sub-groups of patients. A retrospective case-control study design was used at two PHCCs. At the intervention clinic, 656 patients with MSD were initially triaged to physiotherapists. At the control clinic, 1673 patients were initially assessed by general practitioners (GPs). The main outcome measures were the number of patients continuing to visit GPs after the initial assessment, the number of patients receiving referrals to specialists/external examinations, doctors' notes for sick-leave or prescriptions for analgesics during one year, all for the original MSD. Significantly fewer patients triaged to physiotherapists required multiple GP visits for the MSD or received MSD-related referrals to specialists/external examinations, sick-leave recommendations or prescriptions during the following year compared to the GP-assessed group. This applies to all sub-groups except for the group with lower extremity disorders, which did not reach significance for either multiple GP visits or sick-leave recommendations. The reduced utilization of medical services by patients with MSD who were triaged to physiotherapists at a PHCC is likely due to altered management of MSD with initial assessment by physiotherapists.

  1. The cognitive processes underpinning clinical decision in triage assessment: a theoretical conundrum?

    PubMed

    Noon, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    High quality clinical decision-making (CDM) has been highlighted as a priority across the nursing profession. Triage nurses, in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) department, work in considerable levels of uncertainty and require essential skills including: critical thinking, evaluation and decision-making. The content of this paper aims to promote awareness of how triage nurses make judgements and decisions in emergency situations. By exploring relevant literature on clinical judgement and decision-making theory, this paper demonstrates the importance of high quality decision-making skills underpinning the triage nurse's role. Having an awareness of how judgements and decisions are made is argued as essential, in a time where traditional nurse boundaries and responsibilities are never more challenged. It is hoped that the paper not only raises this awareness in general but also, in particular, engages the triage nurse to look more critically at how they make their own decisions in their everyday practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes of nighttime refusal of admission to the intensive care unit: The role of the intensivist in triage.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Nicholas; Borah, Amit; Yoo, Erika J

    2017-06-01

    To compare outcomes of patients refused medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission overnight to those refused during the day and to examine the impact of the intensivist in triage. Retrospective, observational study of patients refused MICU admission at an urban university hospital. Of 294 patients, 186 (63.3%) were refused admission overnight compared to 108 (36.7%) refused during the day. Severity-of-illness by the Mortality Probability Model was similar between the two groups (P=.20). Daytime triage refusals were more likely to be staffed by an intensivist (P=.01). After risk-adjustment, daytime refusals had a lower odds of subsequent ICU admission (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95, P=.04) than patients triaged at night. There was no evidence for interaction between time of triage and intensivist staffing of the patient (P=.99). Patients refused MICU admission overnight are more likely to be later admitted to an ICU than patients refused during the day. However, the mechanism for this observation does not appear to depend on the intensivist's direct evaluation of the patient. Further investigation into the clinician-specific effects of ICU triage and identification of potentially modifiable hospital triage practices will help to improve both ICU utilization and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SARP: a value-based approach to hospice admissions triage.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, D

    1995-01-01

    As hospices become established and case referrals increase, many programs are faced with the necessity of instituting waiting lists. Prioritizing cases for order of admission requires a triage method that is rational, fair, and consistent. This article describes the SARP method of hospice admissions triage, which evaluates prospective cases according to seniority, acuity, risk, and political significance. SARP's essential features, operative assumptions, advantages, and limitations are discussed, as well as the core hospice values which underlie its use. The article concludes with a call for trial and evaluation of SARP in other hospice settings.

  4. A New Triage Support Tool in Case of Explosion.

    PubMed

    Yavari-Sartakhti, Olivier; Briche, Frédérique; Jost, Daniel; Michaud, Nicolas; Bignand, Michel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Deafness frequently observed in explosion victims, currently following terrorist attack, is a barrier to communication between victims and first responders. This may result in a delay in the initial triage and evacuation. In such situations, Paris Fire Brigade (Paris, France) proposes the use of assistance cards to help conscious, but deafened patients at the site of an attack where there may be numerous victims. Yavari-Sartakhti O , Briche F , Jost D , Michaud N , Bignand M , Tourtier JP . A new triage support tool in case of explosion. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):213-214.

  5. Orthopaedic podiatry triage: process outcomes of a skill mix initiative.

    PubMed

    Homeming, Lyndon J; Kuipers, Pim; Nihal, Aneel

    2012-11-01

    The Orthopaedic Podiatry Triage Clinic (OPodTC) is a 'skill mix' model of care developed in Queensland Health to address the problem of lengthy waiting times for orthopaedic surgery on foot and ankle pathologies. It is based on the recognition that many orthopaedic surgery referrals can be identified early and treated conservatively with podiatry, averting the need for more costly and invasive surgical interventions. The model is collaborative and relies on screening and triage by the podiatrist, rather than delegation by the orthopaedic surgeon. Screening and triage through OPodTC was trialled at three Queensland Health hospital facilities during 2009 and 2010 to improve service timeliness. Patients identified by the OPodTC podiatrist as suitable for conservative management were provided with non-surgical podiatry interventions and discharged if appropriate. Those identified as still requiring surgical intervention after the benefit of interim conservative treatment provided by the podiatrist (or who chose to remain on the list) were returned to their previous place on the orthopaedic waiting list. This paper presents a summary and description of waiting list changes in association with this trial. The OPodTC intervention resulted in a reduction in the non-urgent category of the waiting list across the three hospitals of between 23.3% and 49.7%. Indications from wait-list service data demonstrated increased timeliness and improved patient flow, which are core goals of these skill mix initiatives. This study highlights the potential of screening and triage functions in the skill mix debate. In this example, conservative treatment options were considered first, suitable patients did not have to wait long periods to receive timely and appropriate interventions, and those for whom surgery was indicated, were provided with a more targeted service.

  6. [Case mix analysis of patients who can be referred from emergency department triage to primary care].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Jiménez, Josep; Becerra, Oscar; Boneu, Francisco; Burgués, Lluís; Pàmies, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Structured emergency department (ED) triage scales can be used to develop patient referral strategies from the ED to primary care. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the percentage of patients who could potentially be referred from triage to primary care and to describe their clinical characteristics. We analyzed all patients with low acuity (triage levels IV and V) and low complexity (patients discharged from the ED) triaged during 2003 with the Andorran Triage Model in the ED and estimated the percentage of patients who could potentially be referred on the basis of three primary care models: A, centers unable to deal with emergencies or perform complementary investigations; B, centers able to deal with emergencies and perform complementary investigations, and C, centers able to deal with emergencies but unable to perform complementary investigations. Of the 25,319 patients included in the study, 5.63% could be referred to model A, 75.22% to model B and 33.36% to model C. A total of 81.04% of these model C patients were classified in seven symptomatic categories: wounds and traumatisms, inflammation or fever, pediatric problems, rhinolaryngological infection or alterations, ocular symptoms, pain and cutaneous allergy or reactions. Casemix analysis, based on the level of acuity and discharge criteria, can be used to establish the percentage of patients that could potentially be referred to primary care. Analysis of their clinical profile is useful to design referral protocols.

  7. Automated Cervical Screening and Triage, Based on HPV Testing and Computer-Interpreted Cytology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Hyun, Noorie; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Zhang, Han; Stamps, Robin E; Poitras, Nancy E; Wheeler, William; Befano, Brian; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-11

    State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions. To permit completely automatable cervical screening/triage, we designed and validated a novel triage method, a cytologic risk score algorithm based on computer-scanned liquid-based slide features (FocalPoint, BD, Burlington, NC). We compared it with abnormal cytology in predicting precancer among 1839 women testing HPV positive (HC2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Precancer outcomes were ascertained by record linkage. As additional validation, we compared the algorithm prospectively with cytology results among 243 807 women screened at KPNC (2016-2017). All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, the algorithm matched the triage performance of abnormal cytology. Combined with HPV16/18/45 typing (Onclarity, BD, Sparks, MD), the automatable strategy referred 91.7% of HPV-positive CIN3/AIS cases to immediate colposcopy while deferring 38.4% of all HPV-positive women to one-year retesting (compared with 89.1% and 37.4%, respectively, for typing and cytology triage). In the 2016-2017 validation, the predicted risk scores strongly correlated with cytology (P < .001). High-quality cervical screening and triage performance is achievable using this completely automated approach. Automated technology could permit extension of high-quality cervical screening/triage coverage to currently underserved regions.

  8. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Sarah M; Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval.

  9. Progression and Regression of Cervical Pap Test Lesions in an Urban AIDS Clinic in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era: A Longitudinal, Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Talaat; Herring-Bailey, Gina; Birdsong, George; Mosunjac, Marina; Flowers, Lisa; Nguyen, Minh Ly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women during the late antiretroviral era. Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between 2004 and 2011. Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Progression was defined as those who developed a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), had low-grade SIL (LSIL) followed by atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H) or high-grade SIL (HSIL), or cancer. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing started in 2006 on atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Pap tests. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1,445 screened, 383 patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period. Of those, 309 had an intact cervix. The median age was 40 years and CD4+ cell count was 277 cells/mL. Four had AGC at enrollment. A quarter had persistently normal Pap tests, 64 (31%) regressed, and 50 (24%) progressed. Four developed cancer. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. In those with treated lesions, 24 (59%) had negative Pap tests at the end of follow-up. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up strategies of LSIL patients, potentially combined with HPV testing. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval. PMID:25693769

  10. In 'big bang' major incidents do triage tools accurately predict clinical priority?: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilner, T M; Brace, S J; Cooke, M W; Stallard, N; Bleetman, A; Perkins, G D

    2011-05-01

    The term "big bang" major incidents is used to describe sudden, usually traumatic,catastrophic events, involving relatively large numbers of injured individuals, where demands on clinical services rapidly outstrip the available resources. Triage tools support the pre-hospital provider to prioritise which patients to treat and/or transport first based upon clinical need. The aim of this review is to identify existing triage tools and to determine the extent to which their reliability and validity have been assessed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify and evaluate published data validating the efficacy of the triage tools. Studies using data from trauma patients that report on the derivation, validation and/or reliability of the specific pre-hospital triage tools were eligible for inclusion.Purely descriptive studies, reviews, exercises or reports (without supporting data) were excluded. The search yielded 1982 papers. After initial scrutiny of title and abstract, 181 papers were deemed potentially applicable and from these 11 were identified as relevant to this review (in first figure). There were two level of evidence one studies, three level of evidence two studies and six level of evidence three studies. The two level of evidence one studies were prospective validations of Clinical Decision Rules (CDR's) in children in South Africa, all the other studies were retrospective CDR derivation, validation or cohort studies. The quality of the papers was rated as good (n=3), fair (n=7), poor (n=1). There is limited evidence for the validity of existing triage tools in big bang major incidents.Where evidence does exist it focuses on sensitivity and specificity in relation to prediction of trauma death or severity of injury based on data from single or small number patient incidents. The Sacco system is unique in combining survivability modelling with the degree by which the system is overwhelmed in the triage decision system. The

  11. Effect of self-triage on waiting times at a walk-in sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Hitchings, Samantha; Barter, Janet

    2009-10-01

    Lengthy waiting times can be a major problem in walk-in sexual health clinics. They are stressful for both patients and staff and may lead to clients with significant health issues leaving the department before being seen by a clinician. A self-triage system may help reduce waiting times and duplication of work, improve patient pathways and decrease wasted visits. This paper describes implementation of a self-triage system in two busy sexual and reproductive health clinics. Patients were asked to complete a self-assessment form on registration to determine the reason for attendance. This then enabled patients to be directed to the most appropriate specialist or clinical service. The benefits of this approach were determined by measuring patient waiting times, reduction in unnecessary specialist review together with patient acceptability as tested by a patient satisfaction survey. The ease of comprehension of the triage form was also assessed by an independent readers' panel. A total of 193 patients were recruited over a 4-month period from November 2004 to February 2005. Patients from the November and December clinics were assigned to the 'traditional treatment' arm, with patients at subsequent clinics being assigned to the 'self-triage' system. Waiting times were collected by the receptionist and clinic staff. Ninety six patients followed the traditional route, 97 the new self-triage system. Sixty-nine (35.8%) patients completed the satisfaction survey. The self-triage system significantly reduced waiting time from 40 (22, 60) to 23 (10, 40) minutes [results expressed as median (interquartile range)]. There was a non-significant reduction in the proportion of patients seeing two clinicians from 21% to 13% (p = 0.17). Satisfaction levels were not significantly altered (95% compared to 97% satisfied, p = 0.64). The readers' panel found the triage form both easy to understand and to complete. Self-triage can effectively reduce clinic waiting times and allow better

  12. Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT)--a unified approach to HTS triage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Philip B; Gregg, Robert J; Vasudevan, Anil

    2012-07-15

    The selection of the highest quality chemical matter from high throughput screening (HTS) is the ultimate aim of any triage process. Typically there are many hundreds or thousands of hits capable of modulating a given biological target in HTS with a wide range of physicochemical properties that should be taken into consideration during triage. Given the multitude of physicochemical properties that define drug-like space, a system needs to be in place that allows for a rapid selection of chemical matter based on a prioritized range of these properties. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, coined Abbott Physicochemical Tiering (APT) that enables hit prioritization based on ranges of these important physicochemical properties. This tool is now used routinely at Abbott to help prioritize hits out of HTS during the triage process. Herein we describe how this tool was developed and validated using Abbott internal high throughput ADME data (HT-ADME). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision-making in crisis: Applying a healthcare triage methodology to business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Bethany; Bone, Eric A

    2017-01-01

    The concept of triage in healthcare has been around for centuries and continues to be applied today so that scarce resources are allocated according to need. A business impact analysis (BIA) is a form of triage in that it identifies which processes are most critical, which to address first and how to allocate limited resources. On its own, however, the BIA provides only a roadmap of the impacts and interdependencies of an event. When disaster strikes, organisational decision-makers often face difficult decisions with regard to allocating limited resources between multiple 'mission-critical' functions. Applying the concept of triage to business continuity provides those decision-makers navigating a rapidly evolving and unpredictable event with a path that protects the fundamental priorities of the organisation. A business triage methodology aids decision-makers in times of crisis by providing a simplified framework for decision-making based on objective, evidence-based criteria, which is universally accepted and understood. When disaster strikes, the survival of the organisation depends on critical decision-making and quick actions to stabilise the incident. This paper argues that organisations need to supplement BIA processes with a decision-making triage methodology that can be quickly applied during the chaos of an actual event.

  14. 911 Emergency Medical Services and Re-Triage to Level I Trauma Centers.

    PubMed

    Kuncir, Eric; Spencer, Dean; Feldman, Kelly; Barrios, Cristobal; Miller, Kenneth; Lush, Stephanie; Dolich, Matthew; Lekawa, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Interfacility transfer of undertriaged patients to higher-level trauma centers has been found to result in a delay of appropriate care and an increase in mortality. To address this, for the last 10 years our region has used 911 emergency medical services (EMS) paramedics for rapid re-triage of undertriaged patients to our institution's Level I trauma center. We sought to determine whether using 911 EMS for re-triage to our institution was associated with worse outcomes-with mortality as the primary end point-compared with direct EMS transport from point of injury. We retrospectively reviewed all trauma activations to our institution during a 16-month period; 3,394 active traumas were analyzed. Two hundred and seventy patients (8%) arrived via 911 EMS re-triage and 3,124 (92%) arrived via direct EMS transport. Total EMS transport time was significantly longer (122.5 minutes vs 33.7 minutes; p < 0.001) between the 2 groups, but there was no significant difference in mortality rates (4.1% vs 3.6%; p = 0.67). These data show that although using 911 EMS for re-triage is associated with an increase in total transport time, it does not result in an increase in mortality compared with direct EMS transport. We conclude that the use of 911 EMS can be considered a safe method to re-triage patients to higher-level trauma centers. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A simple tool to predict admission at the time of triage.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Allan; Rodgers, Kenneth; Ireland, Alastair; Jamdar, Ravi; McKay, Gerard A

    2015-03-01

    To create and validate a simple clinical score to estimate the probability of admission at the time of triage. This was a multicentre, retrospective, cross-sectional study of triage records for all unscheduled adult attendances in North Glasgow over 2 years. Clinical variables that had significant associations with admission on logistic regression were entered into a mixed-effects multiple logistic model. This provided weightings for the score, which was then simplified and tested on a separate validation group by receiving operator characteristic (ROC) analysis and goodness-of-fit tests. 215 231 presentations were used for model derivation and 107 615 for validation. Variables in the final model showing clinically and statistically significant associations with admission were: triage category, age, National Early Warning Score (NEWS), arrival by ambulance, referral source and admission within the last year. The resulting 6-variable score showed excellent admission/discharge discrimination (area under ROC curve 0.8774, 95% CI 0.8752 to 0.8796). Higher scores also predicted early returns for those who were discharged: the odds of subsequent admission within 28 days doubled for every 7-point increase (log odds=+0.0933 per point, p<0.0001). This simple, 6-variable score accurately estimates the probability of admission purely from triage information. Most patients could accurately be assigned to 'admission likely', 'admission unlikely', 'admission very unlikely' etc., by setting appropriate cut-offs. This could have uses in patient streaming, bed management and decision support. It also has the potential to control for demographics when comparing performance over time or between departments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Multilocation teleradiology system for emergency triage consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, John M.; Yonas, Howard

    1996-05-01

    A remote consultation system is available at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) which links four outlying hospitals in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. This system has the potential to improve short and long term clinical outcomes and to reduce overall medical care cost by establishing improved emergency triage capability. An EMED, Inc. teleradiology system permits rapid, high-quality transfer of digitized film and CT images from the remote sites to the tertiary care center (UPMC). The images are sent over dial-on- demand ISDN and SW56 lines from the remote hospitals to a central server where they are transmitted to a dual 2K monitor workstation in the Emergency Department, thirteen Eastman Kodak PDS workstations within UPMC, and to three physician homes. Transmission to a workstation at each of the physician homes over ISDN lines enables `after hours' consultation. The radiographic images along with voice and fax communications provide a technique where physicians in outlying hospitals will be able to consult with specialists at any time. A study is in progress to evaluate the effectiveness of this system in terms of perception of utility and its potential to improve emergency triage capability, as well as selection of the appropriate transportation mode (helicopter versus ambulance).

  17. Pediatric emergency department triage-based pain guideline utilizing intranasal fentanyl: Effect of implementation.

    PubMed

    Schoolman-Anderson, Kristin; Lane, Roni D; Schunk, Jeff E; Mecham, Nancy; Thomas, Richard; Adelgais, Kathleen

    2018-01-16

    Pain management guidelines in the emergency department (ED) may reduce time to analgesia administration (TTA). Intranasal fentanyl (INF) is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous opiates. The effect of an ED pain management guideline providing standing orders for nurse-initiated administration of intranasal fentanyl (INF) is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a pediatric ED triage-based pain protocol utilizing intranasal fentanyl (INF) on time to analgesia administration (TTA) and patient and parent satisfaction. This was a prospective study of patients 3-17 years with an isolated orthopedic injury presenting to a pediatric ED before and after instituting a triage-based pain guideline allowing for administration of INF by triage nurses. Our primary outcome was median TTA and secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who received INF for pain, had unnecessary IV placement, and patient and parent satisfaction. We enrolled 132 patients; 72 pre-guideline, 60 post-guideline. Demographics were similar between groups. Median TTA was not different between groups (34.5 min vs. 33 min, p = .7). Utilization of INF increased from 41% pre-guideline to 60% post-guideline (p = .01) and unnecessary IV placement decreased from 24% to 0% (p = .002). Patients and parents preferred the IN route for analgesia administration. A triage-based pain protocol utilizing INF did not reduce TTA, but did result in increased INF use, decreased unnecessary IV placement, and was preferred by patients and parents to IV medication. INF is a viable analgesia alternative for children with isolated extremity injuries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Telephone triage by nurses in primary care out-of-hours services in Norway: an evaluation study based on written case scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hunskaar, Steinar

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of nurses for telephone-based triage in out-of-hours services is increasing in several countries. No investigations have been carried out in Norway into the quality of decisions made by nurses regarding our priority degree system. There are three levels: acute, urgent and non-urgent. Methods Nurses working in seven casualty clinics in out-of-hours districts in Norway (The Watchtowers) were all invited to participate in a study to assess priority grade on 20 written medical scenarios validated by an expert group. 83 nurses (response rate 76%) participated in the study. A one-out-of-five sample of the nurses assessed the same written cases after 3 months (n=18, response rate 90%) as a test–retest assessment. Results Among the acute, urgent and non-urgent scenarios, 82%, 74% and 81% were correctly classified according to national guidelines. There were significant differences in the proportion of correct classifications among the casualty clinics, but neither employment percentage nor profession or work experience affected the triage decision. The mean intraobserver variability measured by the Cohen kappa was 0.61 (CI 0.52 to 0.70), and there were significant differences in kappa with employment percentage. Casualty clinics and work experience did not affect intrarater agreement. Conclusion Correct classification of acute and non-urgent cases among nurses was quite high. Work experience and employment percentage did not affect triage decision. The intrarater agreement was good and about the same as in previous studies performed in other countries. Kappa increased significantly with increasing employment percentage. PMID:21262792

  19. Telephone triage by nurses in primary care out-of-hours services in Norway: an evaluation study based on written case scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Elisabeth Holm; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2011-05-01

    The use of nurses for telephone-based triage in out-of-hours services is increasing in several countries. No investigations have been carried out in Norway into the quality of decisions made by nurses regarding our priority degree system. There are three levels: acute, urgent and non-urgent. Nurses working in seven casualty clinics in out-of-hours districts in Norway (The Watchtowers) were all invited to participate in a study to assess priority grade on 20 written medical scenarios validated by an expert group. 83 nurses (response rate 76%) participated in the study. A one-out-of-five sample of the nurses assessed the same written cases after 3 months (n = 18, response rate 90%) as a test-retest assessment. Among the acute, urgent and non-urgent scenarios, 82%, 74% and 81% were correctly classified according to national guidelines. There were significant differences in the proportion of correct classifications among the casualty clinics, but neither employment percentage nor profession or work experience affected the triage decision. The mean intraobserver variability measured by the Cohen kappa was 0.61 (CI 0.52 to 0.70), and there were significant differences in kappa with employment percentage. Casualty clinics and work experience did not affect intrarater agreement. Correct classification of acute and non-urgent cases among nurses was quite high. Work experience and employment percentage did not affect triage decision. The intrarater agreement was good and about the same as in previous studies performed in other countries. Kappa increased significantly with increasing employment percentage.

  20. Community triage of otology patients using a store-and-forward telemedicine device: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishi; Chawla, Neeraj; Gupta, Digant; Dhawan, Nidhi; Janaki, Vidya R

    2017-07-01

    Chronic otitis media is a major contributor to acquired hearing loss in developing countries. Developing countries such as India, with huge populations and poor health infrastructures, have always felt the shortage of trained specialists who can provide quality care to meet the enormous demand for treatment of this disease. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of empowering trained health workers equipped with ENTraview, a store-and-forward telemedicine device that integrates a camera- enabled smart phone with an otoscope. This device allows the screening of otology patients within the community. Three months of extensive training was provided to five community health workers on primary ear and hearing care, including training on the use of the ENTraview device. Community otology screenings were conducted to triage otology patients and provide them with specialized ENT care at a tertiary hospital. In the initial 6 months of the project, 45 screening camps were organized, which screened 3,000 patients free of cost. Of these 3,000 screened patients, 54% (1,619) were referred for ENT consultation and 215 patients reported. Nearly 50% (103) of the 215 reporting patients required surgical intervention, and 29 patients underwent surgery. Reaching out to the community by remote screening of ear diseases by trained technicians with a telemedicine device seems to be an effective and cost-effective way to triage patients with otologic pathologies.

  1. Emergency Severity Index version 4: a valid and reliable tool in pediatric emergency department triage.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicole A; Durani, Yamini; Brecher, Deena; DePiero, Andrew; Loiselle, John; Attia, Magdy

    2012-08-01

    The Emergency Severity Index version 4 (ESI v.4) is the most recently implemented 5-level triage system. The validity and reliability of this triage tool in the pediatric population have not been extensively established. The goals of this study were to assess the validity of ESI v.4 in predicting hospital admission, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and number of resources utilized, as well as its reliability in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. The first arm of the study was a retrospective chart review of 780 pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED to determine the validity of ESI v.4. Abstracted data included acuity level assigned by the triage nurse using ESI v.4 algorithm, disposition (admission vs discharge), LOS, and number of resources utilized in the ED. To analyze the validity of ESI v.4, patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison: higher-acuity patients (ESI levels 1, 2, and 3) and lower-acuity patients (ESI levels 4 and 5). Pearson χ analysis was performed for categorical variables. For continuous variables, we conducted a comparison of means based on parametric distribution of variables. The second arm was a prospective cohort study to determine the interrater reliability of ESI v.4 among and between pediatric triage (PT) nurses and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians. Three raters (2 PT nurses and 1 PEM physician) independently assigned triage scores to 100 patients; k and interclass correlation coefficient were calculated among PT nurses and between the primary PT nurses and physicians. In the validity arm, the distribution of ESI score levels among the 780 cases are as follows: ESI 1: 2 (0.25%); ESI 2: 73 (9.4%); ESI 3: 289 (37%); ESI 4: 251 (32%); and ESI 5: 165 (21%). Hospital admission rates by ESI level were 1: 100%, 2: 42%, 3: 14.9%, 4: 1.2%, and 5: 0.6%. The admission rate of the higher-acuity group (76/364, 21%) was significantly greater than the lower-acuity group (4/415, 0.96%), P < 0

  2. Impact of a Two-step Emergency Department Triage Model with START, then CTAS, on Patient Flow During a Simulated Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Lee, James S; Franc, Jeffrey M

    2015-08-01

    A high influx of patients during a mass-casualty incident (MCI) may disrupt patient flow in an already overcrowded emergency department (ED) that is functioning beyond its operating capacity. This pilot study examined the impact of a two-step ED triage model using Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) for pre-triage, followed by triage with the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), on patient flow during a MCI simulation exercise. Hypothesis/Problem It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in time intervals nor patient volumes at each patient-flow milestone. Physicians and nurses participated in a computer-based tabletop disaster simulation exercise. Physicians were randomized into the intervention group using START, then CTAS, or the control group using START alone. Patient-flow milestones including time intervals and patient volumes from ED arrival to triage, ED arrival to bed assignment, ED arrival to physician assessment, and ED arrival to disposition decision were compared. Triage accuracy was compared for secondary purposes. There were no significant differences in the time interval from ED arrival to triage (mean difference 108 seconds; 95% CI, -353 to 596 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to bed assignment (mean difference 362 seconds; 95% CI, -1,269 to 545 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to physician assessment (mean difference 31 seconds; 95% CI, -1,104 to 348 seconds; P=0.92), and ED arrival to disposition decision (mean difference 175 seconds; 95% CI, -1,650 to 1,300 seconds; P=1.0) between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the volume of patients to be triaged (32% vs 34%; 95% CI for the difference -16% to 21%; P=1.0), assigned a bed (16% vs 21%; 95% CI for the difference -11% to 20%; P=1.0), assessed by a physician (20% vs 22%; 95% CI for the difference -14% to 19%; P=1.0), and with a disposition decision (20% vs 9%; 95% CI for the difference -25% to 4%; P=.34) between the two groups. The accuracy of triage was similar

  3. The reliability of the Australasian Triage Scale: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Heydari, Abbas; Mazlom, Reza; Mirhaghi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) has been developed two decades ago, its reliability has not been defined; therefore, we present a meta-analyis of the reliability of the ATS in order to reveal to what extent the ATS is reliable. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched to March 2014. The included studies were those that reported samples size, reliability coefficients, and adequate description of the ATS reliability assessment. The guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement studies (GRRAS) were used. Two reviewers independently examined abstracts and extracted data. The effect size was obtained by the z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models, and meta-regression was done based on the method of moment’s estimator. RESULTS: Six studies were included in this study at last. Pooled coefficient for the ATS was substantial 0.428 (95%CI 0.340–0.509). The rate of mis-triage was less than fifty percent. The agreement upon the adult version is higher than the pediatric version. CONCLUSION: The ATS has shown an acceptable level of overall reliability in the emergency department, but it needs more development to reach an almost perfect agreement. PMID:26056538

  4. Applying Lean: Implementation of a Rapid Triage and Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Karen L.; Offerman, Steven R.; Kauffman, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Emergency department (ED) crowding creates issues with patient satisfaction, long wait times and leaving the ED without being seen by a doctor (LWBS). Our objective was to evaluate how applying Lean principles to develop a Rapid Triage and Treatment (RTT) system affected ED metrics in our community hospital. Methods: Using Lean principles, we made ED process improvements that led to the RTT system. Using this system, patients undergo a rapid triage with low-acuity patients seen and treated by a physician in the triage area. No changes in staffing, physical space or hospital resources occurred during the study period. We then performed a retrospective, observational study comparing hospital electronic medical record data six months before and six months after implementation of the RTT system. Results: ED census was 30,981 in the six months prior to RTT and 33,926 after. Ambulance arrivals, ED patient acuity and hospital admission rates were unchanged throughout the study periods. Mean ED length of stay was longer in the period before RTT (4.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2–4.3; standard deviation [SD] = 3.9) than after (3.6 hours, 95% CI = 3.6–3.7; SD = 3.7). Mean ED arrival to physician start time was 62.2 minutes (95% CI = 61.5–63.0; SD = 58.9) prior to RTT and 41.9 minutes (95% CI = 41.5–42.4; SD = 30.9) after. The LWBS rate for the six months prior to RTT was 4.5% (95% CI = 3.1–5.5) and 1.5% (95% CI = 0.6–1.8) after RTT initiation. Conclusion: Our experience shows that changes in ED processes using Lean thinking and available resources can improve efficiency. In this community hospital ED, use of an RTT system decreased patient wait times and LWBS rates. PMID:21691524

  5. The effect of GP telephone triage on numbers seeking same-day appointments.

    PubMed

    Jiwa, Moyez; Mathers, Nigel; Campbell, Mike

    2002-05-01

    Telephone consultations with general practitioners (GPs) have not been shown to be an effective way to reduce the demandfor face-to face appointments during the surgery hours. This study aims to determine if GP telephone triage can effectively reduce the demandforface-to -face consultations for patients seeking same-day appointments in general practice. We report an interrupted time series, twoyears before and one year after introduction of GP-led telephone triage. Demand for face-to face appointments with a GPwas reduced by 39% (95% CI = 29 to 51%, P < 0.001). more than 92% of the telephone calls lasted less thanfive minutes. The telephone bill increased by 26%. For a substantial proportion of patients seeking same-day appointments telephone consultations were an acceptable alternative service.

  6. Does the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) represent the optimal tool for evaluating pain in the triage process of patients presenting to the ED? Results of a muticenter study.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Rebecca; Loguercio, Valentina; Guerrini, Stefania; Beltrami, Giampietro; Vesprini, Andrea; Giostra, Fabrizio

    2017-01-16

    Pain evaluation at triage in Emergency Department (ED) is fundamental, as it influences significantly patients color code determination. Different scales have been proposed to quantify pain but they are not always reliable. This study aims to determine a) how important is for triage nurses pain measurement b) reliability of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the most used instrument to evaluate pain in Italian EDs, because it frequently shows higher pain scores than others scales. End point 1: a questionnaire was administered to triage nurses in some hospitals of northern Italy. End point 2: 250 patients arriving at the ED referring pain have been evaluated using, randomly, either the NRS or a fake "30-50" scale. End point 1: Triage nurses acknowledge to modify frequently the referred pain intensity. This for several reasons: nurses think that patients may exaggerate to obtain a higher priority color code; they may be influenced by specific patients categories (non EU citizens, drugs-addicted, elderly); the pain score referred by patients is not correspondent to nurse perception. End point 2: Data show that the mean value obtained with NRS is significantly (p<0.05) higher that the mean obtained with the "30-50" scale. Manipulation on pain evaluation performed by nurses might result in a dangerous underestimation of this symptom. At the same time, the use of NRS seems to allow patients to exaggerate pain perception with consequent altered attribution of color code at triage.

  7. Compliance with telephone triage advice among adults aged 45 years and older: an Australian data linkage study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Gibson, Amy; Randall, Deborah; Havard, Alys; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Lawler, Anthony; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-08-01

    Middle-aged and older patients are prominent users of telephone triage services for timely access to health information and appropriate referrals. Non-compliance with advice to seek appropriate care could potentially lead to poorer health outcomes among those patients. It is imperative to assess the extent to which middle-aged and older patients follow triage advice and how this varies according to their socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics as well as features of the call. Records of calls to the Australian healthdirect helpline (July 2008-December 2011) were linked to baseline questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study (participants age ≥ 45 years), records of emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions, and medical consultation claims. Outcomes of the call included compliance with the advice "Attend ED immediately"; "See a doctor (immediately, within 4 hours, or within 24 hours)"; "Self-care"; and self-referral to ED or hospital within 24 h when given a self-care or low-urgency care advice. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate associations between call outcomes and patient and call characteristics. This study included 8406 adults (age ≥ 45 years) who were subjects of 11,088 calls to the healthdirect helpline. Rates of compliance with the advices "Attend ED immediately", "See a doctor" and "Self-care" were 68.6%, 64.6% and 77.5% respectively, while self-referral to ED within 24 h followed 7.0% of calls. Compliance with the advice "Attend ED immediately" was higher among patients who had three or more positive lifestyle behaviours, called after-hours, or stated that their original intention was to attend ED, while it was lower among those who lived in rural and remote areas or reported high or very high levels of psychological distress. Compliance with the advice "See a doctor" was higher in patients who were aged ≥65 years, worked full-time, or lived in socio-economically advantaged areas

  8. ED Triage Process Improvement: Timely Vital Signs for Less Acute Patients.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Stella S; Karuppan, Corinne M; Kiehne, Emily; Rama, Shravan

    2018-06-13

    Vital signs can result in an upgrade of patients' Emergency Severity Index (ESI) levels. It is therefore preferable to obtain vital signs early in the triage process, particularly for ESI level 3 patients. Emergency departments have an opportunity to redesign triage processes to meet required protocols while enhancing the quality and experience of care. We performed process analyses to redesign the door-to-vital signs process. We also developed spaghetti diagrams to reconfigure the patient arrival area. The door-to-vital signs time was reduced from 43.1 minutes to 6.44 minutes. Both patients and triage staff seemed more satisfied with the new process. The patient arrival area was less congested and more welcoming. Performing activities in parallel reduces flow time with no additional resources. Staff involvement in process planning, redesign, and control ensures engagement and early buy-in. One should anticipate how changes to one process might affect other processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Triage by ranking to support the curation of protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Rech de Laval, Valentine; Gleizes, Anne; Michel, Pierre-André; Bairoch, Amos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today, molecular biology databases are the cornerstone of knowledge sharing for life and health sciences. The curation and maintenance of these resources are labour intensive. Although text mining is gaining impetus among curators, its integration in curation workflow has not yet been widely adopted. The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics Text Mining and CALIPHO groups joined forces to design a new curation support system named nextA5. In this report, we explore the integration of novel triage services to support the curation of two types of biological data: protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and post-translational modifications (PTMs). The recognition of PPIs and PTMs poses a special challenge, as it not only requires the identification of biological entities (proteins or residues), but also that of particular relationships (e.g. binding or position). These relationships cannot be described with onto-terminological descriptors such as the Gene Ontology for molecular functions, which makes the triage task more challenging. Prioritizing papers for these tasks thus requires the development of different approaches. In this report, we propose a new method to prioritize articles containing information specific to PPIs and PTMs. The new resources (RESTful APIs, semantically annotated MEDLINE library) enrich the neXtA5 platform. We tuned the article prioritization model on a set of 100 proteins previously annotated by the CALIPHO group. The effectiveness of the triage service was tested with a dataset of 200 annotated proteins. We defined two sets of descriptors to support automatic triage: the first set to enrich for papers with PPI data, and the second for PTMs. All occurrences of these descriptors were marked-up in MEDLINE and indexed, thus constituting a semantically annotated version of MEDLINE. These annotations were then used to estimate the relevance of a particular article with respect to the chosen annotation type. This relevance score was combined

  10. HPV testing with cytology triage for cervical cancer screening in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Louvanto, Karolina; Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram Venkata; Franco, Eduardo Luis; Ferenczy, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of Viral Testing Alone with Pap (Papanicolaou) Triage for Screening Cervical Cancer in Routine Practice (VASCAR) in a publicly funded university-affiliated hospital in Montreal, Canada. Women who are 30-65 years old are screened with the Hybrid Capture-2 assay. Women with negative results are retested at 3-year intervals; women with positive results are triaged with conventional cytologic methods. Women with Papanicolaou positive test results (≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) are referred to colposcopy; women with Papanicolaou negative test results are retested with Hybrid Capture-2 assay and a Papanicolaou test in 1 year. Results were compared with a historic era (annual cytology with ≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance threshold for colposcopy referral) in the 3 years before VASCAR. VASCAR included 23,739 eligible women, among whom 1646 women (6.9%) tested positive for the human papillomavirus (HPV). Because of the need for subsequent sampling for cytologic testing, follow-up evaluation for cytologic triage was relatively poor; only 46% and 24% of HPV-positive women were Papanicolaou-triaged and underwent biopsy, respectively. Protocol violations occurred mainly in the early phases of implementation (12%). Detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia increased nearly 3-fold (rate ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.7) during VASCAR, mostly because of a doubling in the rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (34.0%; 95% CI, 21.2-48.8) compared with the historic cytology-only era (16.3%; 95% CI, 13.2-19.8). VASCAR reduced the median time to colposcopy from a positive screen from 11 months (95% CI, 10.48-11.50) to 3 months (95% CI, 2.64-3.80). VASCAR is feasible; however, it requires cosampling for HPV and cytology and for continuous education of healthcare providers of the HPV-Papanicolaou triage protocol

  11. TIA triage in emergency department using acute MRI (TIA-TEAM): a feasibility and safety study.

    PubMed

    Vora, Nirali; Tung, Christie E; Mlynash, Michael; Garcia, Madelleine; Kemp, Stephanie; Kleinman, Jonathan; Zaharchuk, Greg; Albers, Gregory; Olivot, Jean-Marc

    2015-04-01

    Positive diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) on MRI is associated with increased recurrent stroke risk in TIA patients. Acute MRI aids in TIA risk stratification and diagnosis. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TIA triage directly from the emergency department (ED) with acute MRI and neurological consultation. Consecutive ED TIA patients assessed by a neurologist underwent acute MRI/MRA of head/neck per protocol and were hospitalized if positive DWI, symptomatic vessel stenosis, or per clinical judgment. Stroke neurologist adjudicated the final TIA diagnosis as definite, possible, or not a cerebrovascular event. Stroke recurrence rates were calculated at 7, 90, 365 days and compared with predicted stroke rates derived from historical DWI and ABCD(2) score data. One hundred twenty-nine enrolled patients had a mean age of 69 years (± 17) and median ABCD(2) score of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 3-4). During triage, 112 (87%) patients underwent acute MRI after a median of 16 h (IQR 10-23) from symptom onset. No patients experienced a recurrent event before imaging. Twenty-four (21%) had positive DWI and 8 (7%) had symptomatic vessel stenosis. Of the total cohort, 83 (64%) were discharged and 46 (36%) were hospitalized. By one-year follow-up, one patient in each group had experienced a stroke. Of 92 patients with MRI and index cerebrovascular event, recurrent stroke rates were 1.1% at 7 and 90 days. These were similar to predicted recurrence rates. TIA triage in the ED using a protocol with neurological consultation and acute MRI is feasible and safe. The majority of patients were discharged without hospitalization and rates of recurrent stroke were not higher than predicted. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes among African Women with Normal Cervical Cytology and Neoplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ogembo, Rebecca Kemunto; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru; Seymour, Alaina J.; Park, Henry Soo-Min; Bain, Paul A.; Maranda, Louise; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background Several meta-analyses confirmed the five most prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) strains in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases are HPV16, 18, 31, 52, and 58. HPV16/18 are the predominant oncogenic genotypes, causing approximately 70% of global cervical cancer cases. The vast majority of the women studied in previous analyses were from Europe, North America, Asia, and most recently Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Africa, a robust meta-analysis of HPV genotype prevalence and distribution in African women is lacking. Methods and Findings We systematically searched 14 major databases from inception to August 2013 without language restriction, following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Seventy-one studies from 23 African countries were identified after screening 1162 citations and data abstracted and study quality appraised from 195 articles. HPV type-specific prevalence and distribution was estimated from 17,273 cases of women with normal cervical cytology; 1019 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 1444 women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 1571 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); and 4,067 cases of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Overall prevalence of HPV16/18 were 4.4% and 2.8% of women with normal cytology, 12.0% and 4.4% with ASCUS, 14.5% and 10.0% with LSIL, 31.2% and 13.9% with HSIL, and 49.7% and 18.0% with ICC, respectively. Study limitations include the lack of adequate data from Middle and Northern African regions, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different genotyping protocols. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive assessment of the overall prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in African women with and

  13. [Validation of a triage scale: first step in patient admission and in emergency service models].

    PubMed

    Legrand, A; Thys, F; Vermeiren, E; Touwaide, M; D'Hoore, W; Hubin, V; Reynaert, M S

    2003-03-01

    At present, most emergency services handle the multitude of various demands in the same unity of place and by the same team of nurses aides, with direct consequences on the waiting time and in the handling of problems of varying degrees of importance. Our service examines other administrative models based on a triage of time and of orientation. In a prospective study on 679 patients, we have validated a triage tool inspired from the ICEM model (International Cooperation of Emergency Medicine) allowing patients to receive, while they wait, information and training, based on the resources provided, in order to deal with their particular medical problem. The validation of this tool was carried out in terms of its utilization as well as its reliability. It appears that, with the type of triage offered, there is a theoretical reserve of waiting time for the patients in which the urgency is relative, and which could be better used in the handling of more vital cases.

  14. Overweight and Body Image Perception in Adolescents with Triage of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To verify the influence of overweight and alteration in the perception of the corporal image during the triage of eating disorders. Method A food disorder triage was performed in adolescents with 10 to 19 years of age using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), as well as a nutritional status evaluation. The perception of body image was evaluated in a subsample of adolescents with 10 to 14 years of age, using the Brazilian Silhouette Scale. The project was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results The prevalence of eating disorder triage was 11.4% (n = 242) for the 2,123 adolescents evaluated. Overweight was present in 21.1% (n = 447) of the students, being more prevalent in the early adolescence phase, which presented levels of distortion of 56.9% (n = 740) and dissatisfaction of 79.3% (n = 1031). Body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing by more than 13 times the chance of TA screening. Conclusion Overweight was correlated with the ED triage and body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing the chances of these disorders by more than 13 times. PMID:28856236

  15. Delivery room triage of large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Leandro; Rath, Krista; Zheng, Katherine; Landon, Mark B; Nankervis, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    To review our 4-year experience (2008-2011) with delivery room triage of large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers. Retrospective cohort investigation of 311 large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers (White's Class A1 (77), A2 (87), B (77), and C-R (70)). Of 311 women, 31% delivered at 34-36 weeks gestational age and 69% at term. While 70% were delivered by cesarean, 30% were vaginal deliveries. A total of 160 asymptomatic infants were triaged from the delivery room to the well baby nursery. Of these, 55 (34%) developed hypoglycemia. In 43 cases, the hypoglycemia was corrected by early feedings; in the remaining 12, intravenous dextrose treatment was required. A total of 151 infants were triaged from the delivery room to the neonatal intensive care unit. Admission diagnoses included respiratory distress (51%), prevention of hypoglycemia (27%), prematurity (21%), and asphyxia (1%). Hypoglycemia affected 66 (44%) of all neonatal intensive care unit infants. Safe triage of asymptomatic large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers from the delivery room to well baby nursery can be accomplished in the majority of cases. Those infants in need of specialized care can be accurately identified and effectively treated in the neonatal intensive care unit setting.

  16. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  17. Accountability Incentives: Do Schools Practice Educational Triage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly frequent journalistic accounts report that schools are responding to No Child Left Behind (NCLB) by engaging in what has come to be known as "educational triage." Although these accounts rely almost entirely on anecdotal evidence, the prospect is of real concern. The NCLB accountability system divides schools into those in…

  18. Effect of Geriatric-Specific Trauma Triage Criteria on Outcomes in Injured Older Adults: A Statewide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Caterino, Jeffrey M; Brown, Nicole V; Hamilton, Maya W; Ichwan, Brian; Khaliqdina, Salman; Evans, David C; Darbha, Subrahmanyan; Panchal, Ashish R; Shah, Manish N

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect on outcomes of the Ohio Department of Public Safety statewide geriatric triage criteria, established in 2009 for emergency medical services (EMS) to use for injured individuals aged 70 and older. Retrospective cohort study of the Ohio Trauma Registry. All hospitals in Ohio. Individuals aged 70 and older in the Ohio Trauma Registry from January 2006 through December 2011, 3 years before and 3 years after criteria adoption (N = 34,499). Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and discharge to home. Criteria effects were assessed using chi-square tests, multivariable logistic regression, interrupted time series plots, and multivariable segmented regression models. After geriatric criteria were adopted, the proportion of older adults qualifying for trauma center transport increased from 44% to 58%, but EMS transport rates did not change (44% vs 45%). There was no difference in unadjusted mortality (7.1% vs 6.6%) (P = .10). In adjusted analyses, subjects with an injury severity score (ISS) less than 10 had lower mortality after adoption (3.0% vs 2.5%) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.95, P = .01). Discharge to home increased after adoption in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.11, P = .02). There were no time-dependent changes for either outcome. Although the proportion of older adults meeting criteria for trauma center transport substantially increased with geriatric triage criteria, there were no increases in trauma center transports. Adoption of statewide geriatric triage guidelines did not decrease mortality in more severely injured older adults but was associated with slightly lower mortality in individuals with mild injuries (ISS <10) and with more individuals discharged to home. Improving outcomes in injured older adults will require further attention to implementation and use of geriatric-specific criteria. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics

  19. An investigation of the validity of the Work Assessment Triage Tool clinical decision support tool for selecting optimal rehabilitation interventions for workers with musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ziling; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the concurrent validity of a clinical decision support tool (Work Assessment Triage Tool (WATT)) developed to select rehabilitation treatments for injured workers with musculoskeletal conditions. Methodological study with cross-sectional and prospective components. Data were obtained from the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta rehabilitation facility in Edmonton, Canada. A total of 432 workers' compensation claimants evaluated between November 2011 and June 2012. Percentage agreement between the Work Assessment Triage Tool and clinician recommendations was used to determine concurrent validity. In claimants returning to work, frequencies of matching were calculated and compared between clinician and Work Assessment Triage Tool recommendations and the actual programs undertaken by claimants. The frequency of each intervention recommended by clinicians, Work Assessment Triage Tool, and case managers were also calculated and compared. Percentage agreement between clinician and Work Assessment Triage Tool recommendations was poor (19%) to moderate (46%) and Kappa = 0.37 (95% CI -0.02, 0.76). The Work Assessment Triage Tool did not improve upon clinician recommendations as only 14 out of 31 claimants returning to work had programs that contradicted clinician recommendations, but were consistent with Work Assessment Triage Tool recommendations. Clinicians and case managers were inclined to recommend functional restoration, physical therapy, or no rehabilitation while the Work Assessment Triage Tool recommended additional evidence-based interventions, such as workplace-based interventions. Our findings do not provide evidence of concurrent validity for the Work Assessment Triage Tool compared with clinician recommendations. Based on these results, we cannot recommend further implementation of the Work Assessment Triage Tool. However, the Work Assessment Triage Tool appeared more likely than clinicians to recommend interventions supported by evidence

  20. Comparison of cytology, HPV DNA testing and HPV 16/18 genotyping alone or combined targeting to the more balanced methodology for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Moschaki, Viktoria; Panteleris, Nikolaos; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the most effective cervical cancer screening algorithm incorporating different combinations of cytology, HPV testing and genotyping. Women 25-55years old recruited for the "HERMES" (HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening) study were screened in terms of cytology and high-risk (hr) HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping. Women positive for cytology or/and hrHPV were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment. Ten screening algorithms based on different combinations of cytology, HPV testing and HPV 16/18 genotyping were investigated in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Three clusters of algorithms were formed according to the balance between effectiveness and harm caused by screening. The cluster showing the best balance included two algorithms based on co-testing and two based on HPV primary screening with HPV 16/18 genotyping. Among these, hrHPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance - ASCUS threshold) presented the optimal combination of sensitivity (82.9%) and specificity relative to cytology alone (0.99) with 1.26 false positive rate relative to cytology alone. HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping, referring HPV 16/18 positive women directly to colposcopy, and hrHPV (non 16/18) positive women to reflex cytology (ASCUS threshold), as a triage method to colposcopy, reflects the best equilibrium between screening effectiveness and harm. Algorithms, based on cytology as initial screening method, on co-testing or HPV primary without genotyping, and on HPV primary with genotyping but without cytology triage, are not supported according to the present analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Schledermann, Doris; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2016-10-15

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13,729) were followed for up to 9.5 years for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. After 3 years' follow-up, mRNA testing had higher specificity for CIN3 or worse (CIN3+) than HC2 testing (88.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 86.8-89.6%] versus 59.3% [95% CI: 58.1-60.4%]) and higher positive predictive value (PPV) (38.2% [95% CI: 33.8%-43.1%] versus 19.5% [95% CI: 17.8-20.9%]). However, the sensitivity of mRNA testing was lower than that of HC2 testing (66.7% [95% CI: 59.3-74.5%] versus 97.0% [95% CI: 95.5-98.4%]), and women testing mRNA negative had higher 3-year risk for CIN3+ than those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA test is not optimal for ASC-US triage due to its low sensitivity and the substantial risk for precancer following a negative test. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Evaluation of field triage decision scheme educational resources: audience research with emergency medical service personnel.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Eckstein, Daniel; Zambon, Allison

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to encourage appropriate field triage procedures, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, convened the National Expert Panel on Field Triage to update the Field Triage Decision Scheme: The National Trauma Triage Protocol (Decision Scheme). In support of the Decision Scheme, CDC developed educational resources for emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, one of CDC's first efforts to develop and broadly disseminate educational information for the EMS community. CDC wanted to systematically collect information from the EMS community on what worked and what did not with respect to these educational materials and which materials were of most use. An evaluation was conducted to obtain feedback from EMS professionals about the Decision Scheme and use of Decision Scheme educational materials. The evaluation included a survey and a series of focus groups. Findings indicate that a segment of the Decision Scheme's intended audience is using the materials and learning from them, and they have had a positive influence on their triage practices. However, many of the individuals who participated in this research are not using the Decision Scheme and indicated that the materials have not affected their triage practices. Findings presented in this article can be used to inform development and distribution of additional Decision Scheme educational resources to ensure they reach a greater proportion of EMS professionals and to inform other education and dissemination efforts with the EMS community.

  3. Support to triage and public risk perception considering long-term response to a Cs-137 radiological dispersive device scenario.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cristiane Ps; Souza, Cláudio J; Camerini, Eduardo Sn; Alves, Isabela S; Vital, Hélio C; Healy, Matthew Jf; Ramos De Andrade, Edson

    2018-06-01

    A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities. The proposed methodology integrates capabilities from different platforms in a convergent way composed of three phases: (a) scenario simulation, (b) data generation, and (c) risk assessment for triage focused on follow-up epidemiological assessment. Simulations typically indicate that most of the affected population does not require immediate medical assistance. Medical triage for the few severely injured and the radiological triage to diminish the contamination with radioactivity will always be the priority. For this study, however, higher priorities should be given to individuals from radiological "warm" and "hot" zones as required by risk criteria. The proposed methodology could thus help to (a) filter and reduce the number of individuals to be attended, (b) optimize the prioritization of medical care, (c) reduce or prepare for future costs, (d) effectively locate the operational triage site to avoid possible contamination on the main facility, and (e) provide the scientific data needed to develop an adequate approach to risk and its proper communication.

  4. Specific timely appointments for triage reduced waiting lists in an outpatient physiotherapy service.

    PubMed

    Harding, K E; Bottrell, J

    2016-12-01

    Waiting lists with triage systems are commonly used in outpatient physiotherapy but may not be effective. Could an alternative model of access and triage reduce waiting times over a sustained period with no additional resources? Observational study comparing retrospective data for 11 months prior to the introduction of a new model of access compared with data for the equivalent 11 months afterwards. Patients referred to a physiotherapy outpatient department at an outer metropolitan hospital before (n=721) and after (n=707) the introduction of the new model. A model of access and triage known as 'specific timely appointments for triage' (STAT), in which appointment slots are preserved in advance specifically for new patients based on calculation of average demand. Time from referral to first assessment, number of appointments per patient, occasions of non-attendance and total length of stay in the service. Median time from referral to first appointment was 18 days [interquartile range (IQR) 11 to 33 days] in the pre-intervention group, compared with 14 days (IQR 9 to 21 days) in the post-intervention group (P<0.01). The number of physiotherapy appointments also reduced (IQR 2 to 6 vs IQR 1 to 4; P<0.01). There were no changes in non-attendance rates or total time in the service. Waiting time for outpatient physiotherapy was 22% lower in the year following the introduction of the STAT model. While acknowledging the limitations of a pre- and post-measurement design, this model may have potential for reducing waiting times for outpatient physiotherapy without additional resources. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using robotic telecommunications to triage pediatric disaster victims.

    PubMed

    Burke, Rita V; Berg, Bridget M; Vee, Paul; Morton, Inge; Nager, Alan; Neches, Robert; Wetzel, Randall; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    During a disaster, hospitals may be overwhelmed and have an insufficient number of pediatric specialists available to care for injured children. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of remotely providing pediatric expertise via a robot to treat pediatric victims. In 2008, Los Angeles County held 2 drills involving telemedicine. The first was the Tri-Hospital drill in which 3 Los Angeles County hospitals, one being a pediatric hospital, participated. The disaster scenario involved a Metrolink train crash, resulting in a large surge of traumatic injuries. The second drill involved multiple agencies and was called the Great California Shakeout, a simulated earthquake exercise. The telemedicine equipment installed is an InTouch Health, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA robotic telecommunications system. We used mixed-methods to evaluate the use of telemedicine during these drills. Pediatric specialists successfully provided remote triage and treatment consults of victims via the robot. The robot proved to be a useful means to extend resources and provide expert consult if pediatric specialists were unable to physically be at the site. Telemedicine can be used in the delayed treatment areas as well as for training first receivers to collaborate with specialists in remote locations to triage and treat seriously injured pediatric victims. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethical triage and scarce resource allocation during public health emergencies: tenets and procedures.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Ware G; Pollard, John B; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    Public health emergencies may result in mass casualties and a surge in demand for hospital-based care. Healthcare standards may need to be altered to respond to an imbalance between demands for care and resources. Clinical decisions that involve triage and scarce resource allocation may present unique ethical challenges. To address these challenges, the authors detailed tenets and procedures to guide triage and scarce resource allocation during public health emergencies. The authors propose health care organizations deploy a Triage and Scarce Resource Allocation Team to over-see and guide ethically challenging clinical decision-making during a crisis period. The authors' goal is to help healthcare organizations and clinicians balance public health responsibilities and their duty to individual patients during emergencies in as equitable and humane a manner as possible.

  7. Histological outcomes in conventional cervical cytology for invasive carcinoma: not always cancer.

    PubMed

    Peixoto Pereira, Flávia Regina; Soares, Leila Cristina; de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Pinho

    2017-11-01

    The value of cytology for the detection of invasive cancer remains unknown. We performed a retrospective cohort study with 884 patients diagnosed of premalignant lesions and invasive carcinoma in cytology. 382 (43.2%) of them had cytological results of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 244 (27.6%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 120 (13.6%) patients had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 67 (7.6%) patients with atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 38 (4.3%) had invasive carcinoma and 33 (3.7%) patients presented with atypical glandular cells (ACG). From 38 patients with cytological results of invasive carcinoma, 24 had confirmatory histological results (63.2%). The other 14 had 4 benign lesions and 10 HSIL. The predictive positive value (PPV) was 63.2%. Cytology results of carcinoma do not confer a definitive diagnosis of invasive lesion, but it is strongly an indication of, at least, a precancerous lesion.

  8. Accuracy and Reliability of Emergency Department Triage Using the Emergency Severity Index: An International Multicenter Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Binoy; Stewart De Ramirez, Sarah; Kelen, Gabor; Schmitz, Paulo S K; Balhara, Kamna S; Levin, Scott; Martinez, Diego; Psoter, Kevin; Anton, Xavier; Hinson, Jeremiah S

    2018-05-01

    We assess accuracy and variability of triage score assignment by emergency department (ED) nurses using the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) in 3 countries. In accordance with previous reports and clinical observation, we hypothesize low accuracy and high variability across all sites. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled 87 ESI-trained nurses from EDs in Brazil, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. Standardized triage scenarios published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) were used. Accuracy was defined by concordance with the AHRQ key and calculated as percentages. Accuracy comparisons were made with one-way ANOVA and paired t test. Interrater reliability was measured with Krippendorff's α. Subanalyses based on nursing experience and triage scenario type were also performed. Mean accuracy pooled across all sites and scenarios was 59.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 56.4% to 62.0%) and interrater reliability was modest (α=.730; 95% CI .692 to .767). There was no difference in overall accuracy between sites or according to nurse experience. Medium-acuity scenarios were scored with greater accuracy (76.4%; 95% CI 72.6% to 80.3%) than high- or low-acuity cases (44.1%, 95% CI 39.3% to 49.0% and 54%, 95% CI 49.9% to 58.2%), and adult scenarios were scored with greater accuracy than pediatric ones (66.2%, 95% CI 62.9% to 69.7% versus 46.9%, 95% CI 43.4% to 50.3%). In this multinational study, concordance of nurse-assigned ESI score with reference standard was universally poor and variability was high. Although the ESI is the most popular ED triage tool in the United States and is increasingly used worldwide, our findings point to a need for more reliable ED triage tools. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal triage test characteristics to improve the cost-effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for TB diagnosis: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    van't Hoog, Anna H; Cobelens, Frank; Vassall, Anna; van Kampen, Sanne; Dorman, Susan E; Alland, David; Ellner, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    High costs are a limitation to scaling up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in resource-constrained settings. A triaging strategy in which a sensitive but not necessarily highly specific rapid test is used to select patients for Xpert may result in a more affordable diagnostic algorithm. To inform the selection and development of particular diagnostics as a triage test we explored combinations of sensitivity, specificity and cost at which a hypothetical triage test will improve affordability of the Xpert assay. In a decision analytical model parameterized for Uganda, India and South Africa, we compared a diagnostic algorithm in which a cohort of patients with presumptive TB received Xpert to a triage algorithm whereby only those with a positive triage test were tested by Xpert. A triage test with sensitivity equal to Xpert, 75% specificity, and costs of US$5 per patient tested reduced total diagnostic costs by 42% in the Uganda setting, and by 34% and 39% respectively in the India and South Africa settings. When exploring triage algorithms with lower sensitivity, the use of an example triage test with 95% sensitivity relative to Xpert, 75% specificity and test costs $5 resulted in similar cost reduction, and was cost-effective by the WHO willingness-to-pay threshold compared to Xpert for all in Uganda, but not in India and South Africa. The gain in affordability of the examined triage algorithms increased with decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis among the cohort. A triage test strategy could potentially improve the affordability of Xpert for TB diagnosis, particularly in low-income countries and with enhanced case-finding. Tests and markers with lower accuracy than desired of a diagnostic test may fall within the ranges of sensitivity, specificity and cost required for triage tests and be developed as such.

  10. Development and testing of the KERNset: an instrument to assess the quality of telephone triage in out-of-hours primary care services.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marleen; Keizer, Ellen; Ram, Paul; Giesen, Paul

    2017-12-02

    Telephone triage is a core but vulnerable part of the care process at out-of-hours general practitioner (GP) cooperatives. In the Netherlands, different instruments have been used for assessing the quality of telephone triage. These instruments focussed mainly on communicational aspects, and less on the medical quality of triage decisions. Our aim was to develop and test a minimum set of items to assess the quality of telephone triage. A national survey among all GP cooperatives in the Netherlands was performed to examine the most important aspects of telephone triage. Next, corresponding items from existing instruments were searched on these topics. Subsequently, an expert panel judged these items on importance, completeness and formulation. The concept KERNset consisted of 24 items about the telephone conversation: 13 medical, ten communicational and one regarding both types. It was pilot tested on measurement characteristics, reliability, validity and variation between triagists. In this pilot study, 114 anonymous calls from four GP cooperatives spread across the Netherlands were judged by three out of eight raters, both internal and external raters. Cronbach's alpha was .94 for the medical items and .75 for the communicational items. Inter-rater reliability: complete agreement between the external raters was 45% and reasonable agreement 73% (difference of maximally one point on the five-point scale). Intra-rater reliability: complete agreement within raters was 55% and reasonable agreement 84%. There were hardly any differences between internal and external raters, but there were differences in strictness between individual raters. The construct validity was confirmed by the high correlation between the general impression of the call and the items of the KERNset. Of the differences within items 19% could be explained by differences between triage nurses, which means the KERNset is able to demonstrate differences between triage nurses. The KERNset can be used to

  11. The essential roles of chemistry in high-throughput screening triage

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Walters, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that academic high-throughput screening (HTS) and virtual HTS triage suffers from a lack of scientists trained in the art and science of early drug discovery chemistry. Many recent publications report the discovery of compounds by screening that are most likely artifacts or promiscuous bioactive compounds, and these results are not placed into the context of previous studies. For HTS to be most successful, it is our contention that there must exist an early partnership between biologists and medicinal chemists. Their combined skill sets are necessary to design robust assays and efficient workflows that will weed out assay artifacts, false positives, promiscuous bioactive compounds and intractable screening hits, efforts that ultimately give projects a better chance at identifying truly useful chemical matter. Expertise in medicinal chemistry, cheminformatics and purification sciences (analytical chemistry) can enhance the post-HTS triage process by quickly removing these problematic chemotypes from consideration, while simultaneously prioritizing the more promising chemical matter for follow-up testing. It is only when biologists and chemists collaborate effectively that HTS can manifest its full promise. PMID:25163000

  12. Rapid response team patients triaged to remain on ward despite deranged vital signs: missed opportunities?

    PubMed

    Tirkkonen, J; Kontula, T; Hoppu, S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) triage most patients to stay on ward, even though some of them have deranged vital signs according to RRTs themselves. We investigated the prevalence and outcome of this RRT patient cohort. A prospective observational study was conducted in a Finnish tertiary referral centre, Tampere University Hospital. Data on RRT activations were collected between 1 May 2012 and 30 April 2015. Vital signs of patients triaged to stay on ward without treatment limitations were classified according to objective RRT trigger criteria observed during the reviews. During the study period, 860 patients had their first RRT review and were triaged to stay on ward. Of these, 564 (66%) had deranged vital signs, while 296 (34%) did not. RRT patients with deranged vital signs were of comparable age and comorbidity index as stable patients. Even though the patients with deranged vital signs had received RRT interventions, such as fluids and medications, more often than the stable patients, they required new RRT reviews more often and had higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality. Moreover, the former group had substantially higher 1-year mortality than the latter (37% vs. 29%, P = 0.014). In a multivariate regression analysis, deranged vital signs during RRT review was found to be independently associated with 30-day mortality (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.12-2.70). Patients triaged to stay on ward despite deranged vital signs are high-risk patients who could benefit from routine follow-up by RRT nurses before they deteriorate beyond salvation. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nursing Perceptions of the Emergency Severity Index as a Triage Tool in the United Arab Emirates: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Binoy; Balhara, Kamna S; Hinson, Jeremiah S; Anton, Xavier; Othman, Iman Yassin; E'nouz, Maysoon Abdel Latif; Avila, Norman Agustin; Henry, Sophia; Levin, Scott; De Ramirez, Sarah Stewart

    2017-11-19

    With emergency department crowding becoming an increasing problem across the globe, nursing triage to prioritize patients receiving care is ever more important. ESI is the most common triage system used in the United States and is increasingly used worldwide. This qualitative study that explores emergency nursing perceptions of the ESI identifies strengths, weaknesses, and barriers to implementation of the ESI internationally. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative analysis using semistructured interviews of 27 emergency triage nurses. Content analysis was performed by 2 independent coders, using NVivo software to identify and analyze important themes. Interview coding revealed 7 core themes related to use of the ESI (frequencies indicated in parentheses): ease of use (90), speed and efficiency (135), patient safety (12), accuracy and reliability (30), challenging patient characteristics (123), subjectivity and variability (173), and effect of triage system on team dynamics (100). Intercoder agreement was excellent (Cohen's unweighted kappa = 0.84). Subjectivity and variability in ESI score assignment consistently emerged in all interviews and included variability in number and use of resources, definition of "high risk," nursing experience, and subjectivity in pain assessment. Although emergency nurses perceive the ESI as easy to use, there are concerns about the subjectivity and variability inherent in the ESI that can lead to a functional lack of triage and a burden of undifferentiated ESI level 3 patients. These limitations in separating critically ill patients and in stratifying patients based on anticipated required resources points to the need for improvement in the ESI algorithm or a more objective triage system that can predict patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the characteristics of high-performing hospitals that influence trauma triage and transfer.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-02-01

    Many trauma patients might be first cared for at nondesignated centers before transfer to a trauma center. Limited research has investigated determinants of timely triage and transfer to identify those amenable to quality improvement. This study explored factors influencing timely triage and transfer in a regional trauma system. Centers (n = 15) with both long and short transfer times (emergency department length of stay before transfer) in Ontario were identified using a regional trauma registry. Physicians and nurses in these centers were interviewed with a view to determining factors that either impeded or enabled rapid decisions regarding the need for transfer to a trauma center. A grounded theory approach and constant comparative technique were used to collect and analyze data. Nineteen physicians and eight nurses participated. Clinician level (experience, training, personality, fear of judgment, nursing role), institutional level (guidelines, continuing education, trauma infrastructure, human resources) and system-level (bed availability, referral center, air transport, communication with trauma centers) factors influenced timely decision making. Participants offered several recommendations to improve care. These included guidelines for transfer, a "no refusal" policy at trauma centers, improved air transport and referral center services, as well as further regionalization. Additional features of hospitals with shorter transfer times included coaching of new staff, team meetings, leadership engagement, sharing of performance data, and minimum work hours for physicians. Numerous interacting factors that may influence trauma triage and transfer were identified. These findings can be used by policy makers, health care managers, and clinicians in emergency departments or trauma centers to evaluate and improve trauma triage and transfer, or plan new services. The findings can also be used by researchers to examine the relevance of these factors in other settings

  15. Ethics of emergency department triage: SAEM position statement. SAEM Ethics Committee (Society for Academic Emergency Medicine).

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    Emergency department overcrowding, the growth of managed care, and the high cost of emergency care are creating pressures to triage patients away from U.S. EDs. Paradoxically, this pressure to limit patient access to EDs has increased in spite of federal laws that restrict patient triage and transfer. The latter regulations view EDs as the safety net for the U.S. health care system. The SAEM Ethics Committee evaluated the ethical implications of policies that triage patients out of the ED prior to complete evaluation and treatment. The committee used these implications to develop practical guidelines, which are reported.

  16. Comparison of the 1999 and 2006 Trauma Triage Guidelines: Where do Patients Go?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Guse, Clare E.; Brasel, Karen; Blatt, Alan; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the CDC released a revised Field Triage Decision Scheme. It is unknown how this modified scheme will affect the number of patients identified by EMS for transport to a trauma center. Objective To determine the change in the number of patients transported by EMS who meet the 2006 scheme, compared to the 1999 scheme, and to determine how the scheme change would affect under- and over-triage rates. Methods EMS providers in charge of care for injured adult patients transported to a regional trauma center in three mid-sized cities were interviewed immediately after completing transport. All injured patients were included, regardless of severity. The interview included patient demographics, vital signs, apparent anatomic injury, and the mechanism of injury. Included patients were then followed through hospital discharge. The 1999 and 2006 scheme criteria were each retrospectively applied to the collected data. The number of patients identified by the two schemes was determined. Patients were considered to have needed a trauma center if they had non-orthopedic surgery within 24 hours, ICU admission, or died. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including 95% confidence intervals. Results EMS interviews were conducted for 11,892 patients and outcome data was unavailable for one patient. Average patient age was 48 years; 51% were men. Providers reported bringing 54% of the enrolled patients to the trauma center based on their local trauma protocol. 12% of enrolled patients were identified as needing a trauma center based on medical record review. Use of the 2006 scheme would have resulted in 1,423 fewer patients (12%; 95% CI:11-13%) being identified as needing a trauma center by EMS providers (40%; 95%CI:39-41% versus 28%; 95%CI:27-29%). 1,344 of those patients did not actually need the resources of a trauma center (94%). 78 (6%) of those patients actually needed the resources of a trauma center and would have been under-triaged. Conclusion Use of the

  17. A comparative study of the effect of triage training by role-playing and educational video on the knowledge and performance of emergency medical service staffs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghababaeian, Hamidreza; Sedaghat, Soheila; Tahery, Noorallah; Moghaddam, Ali Sadeghi; Maniei, Mohammad; Bahrami, Nosrat; Ahvazi, Ladan Araghi

    2013-12-01

    Educating emergency medical staffs in triage skills is an important aspect of disaster preparedness. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of role-playing and educational video presentation on the learning and performance of the emergency medical service staffs in Khozestan, Iran A total of 144 emergency technicians were randomly classified into two groups. A researcher trained the first group using an educational video method and the second group with a role-playing method. Data were collected before, immediately, and 15 days after training using a questionnaire covering the three domains of demographic information, triage knowledge, and triage performance. The data were analyzed using defined knowledge and performance parameters. There was no significant difference between the two training methods on performance and immediate knowledge (P = .2), lasting knowledge (P=.05) and immediate performance (P = .35), but there was a statistical advantage for the role-playing method on lasting performance (P = .02). The two educational methods equally increase knowledge and performance, but the role-playing method may have a more desirable and lasting effect on performance.

  18. Design and Implementation of a Telephone Triage/Advice Service: An Instrument of Demand Management at USA Medical Department Activity-Heidelberg.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    situations. The USAMH population includes 32,793 family members, many who are young spouses with small children . A recent study of USAMH emergency room...software is based on the work of Shiela Q. Wheeler, considered a pioneer in triage nursing and author of Telephone Triage: Theory . Practice and Protocol...personnel at USAMH established personnel levels at the Table of Distribution and Allowances ( TDA ) level with no overhires authorized. The working group

  19. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) over-triage and the financial implications for major trauma centres in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Colman B; Curtis, Kate; Jan, Stephen; Newcombe, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In NSW Australia, a formal trauma system including the use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has existed for over 20 years. Despite providing many advantages in NSW, HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged; leading to financial implications for major trauma centres that receive HEMS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the financial implications of HEMS over-triage from the perspective of major trauma centres in NSW. The study sample included all trauma patients transported via HEMS to 12 major trauma centres in NSW during the period: 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. Clinical data were gathered from individual hospital trauma registries and merged with financial information obtained from casemix units at respective hospitals. HEMS over-triage was estimated based on the local definition of minor to moderate trauma (ISS≤12) and hospital length of stay of less than 24 hrs. The actual treatment costs were determined and compared to state-wide peer group averages to obtain estimates of potential funding discrepancies. A total of 707 patients transported by HEMS were identified, including 72% pre-hospital (PH; n=507) and 28% inter-hospital (IH; n=200) transports. Over-triage was estimated at 51% for PH patients and 29% for IH patients. Compared to PH patients, IH patients were more costly to treat on average (IH: $42,604; PH: $25,162), however PH patients were more costly overall ($12,329,618 [PH]; $8,265,152 [IH]). When comparing actual treatment costs to peer group averages we found potential funding discrepancies ranging between 4% and 32% across patient groups. Using a sensitivity analysis, the potential funding discrepancy increased with increasing levels of over-triage. HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged in NSW, leading to funding implications for major trauma centres. In general, HEMS patient treatment costs are higher than the peer group average and the potential funding discrepancy varies by injury severity and the type of

  20. Perceptions of doctors and nurses at a Ugandan hospital regarding the introduction and use of the South African Triage Scale.

    PubMed

    Mulindwa, Francis; Blitz, Julia

    2016-03-29

    International Hospital Kampala (IHK) experienced a challenge with how to standardise the triaging and sorting of patients. There was no triage tool to help to prioritise which patients to attend to first, with very sick patient often being missed. To explore whether the introduction of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) was seen as valuable and sustainable by the IHK's outpatient department and emergency unit (OPD and EU) staff. The study used qualitative methods to introduce SATS in the OPD and EU at IHK and to obtain the perceptions of doctors and nurses who had used it for 3-6 months on its applicability and sustainability. Specific questions about challenges faced prior to its introduction, strengths and weaknesses of the triage tool, the impact it had on staff practices, and their recommendations on the continued use of the tool were asked. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 doctors and 12 nurses. SATS was found to be necessary, applicable and recommended for use in the IHK setting. It improved the sorting of patients, as well as nurse-patient and nurse-doctor communication.The IHK OPD & EU staff attained new skills, with nurses becoming more involved in-patient care. It is possibly also useful in telephone triaging and planning of hospital staffing. Adequate nurse staffing, a computer application for automated coding of patients, and regular training would encourage consistent use and sustainability of SATS. Setting up a hospital committee to review signs and symptoms would increase acceptability and sustainability. SATS is valuable in the IHK setting because it improved overall efficiency of triaging and care, with significantly more strengths than weaknesses.

  1. Marginal microleakage of triage sealant under different moisture contamination.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yawen; Stark, Paul C; Rich, Alfred; Loo, Cheen Y

    2011-01-01

    Glass ionomer sealants (GISs) are promoted in pediatric dentistry for their moisture-friendly properties. This study's purpose was to investigate the marginal leakage of a glass ionomer sealant (Fuji Triage) under different moisture environments. Eighty extracted teeth were distributed into 4 groups: (1) control; (2) saliva contamination with 1-second air-thinning; (3) saliva contamination with 10 seconds of air-drying; and (4) saliva contamination with reconditioning. Sealants were placed after contamination. All extracted teeth underwent thermocycling followed by 1% methylene blue dye and distilled water wash. All extracted teeth were then sectioned buccolingually into 3 cross-sections and examined at 60X under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was assessed using a dye penetration scoring system (score=0-3). Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The control group showed significantly lower marginal leakage than the other 3 groups (P<.02). There was no statistically significant difference among the 3 contaminated groups (P>.34). Fuji Triage sealant had the least marginal leakage under a moisture-controlled environment. When saliva was introduced during the application of the material, microleakage significantly increased. When contamination occurred, 1-second air-thinning of the saliva, 10-second air-drying of the saliva, or reconditioning before sealant application did not show a difference in decreasing microleakage.

  2. When the news crew descends: a media triage plan.

    PubMed

    Larson, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    Two high-profile media cases near Akron, Ohio, showed local hospital public relations staff that when dealing with a crisis, help from their colleagues could be a life saver. The result: a "media triage" plan steered by the Akron Regional Hospital Association.

  3. [Cervugid ovules in cervico-vaginal infections and cervix uteri precancerous conditions treatment].

    PubMed

    Zanoschi, Ch; Anton, C; Anton, E; Costăchescu, Gh; Teleman, S; Costăchescu, G; Ciupilan, I; Cărăuleanu, M; Cărăuleanu, A; Leica, V; Pânzaru, C; Grigore, M; Merticaru, I; Huianu, O; Huianu, L; Chifan, M

    2004-01-01

    This medicine was authorized by the National Drug Agency (ANM, Bucureşti) in 2001. To evaluate the effectiveness and the tolerance to Cervugid-ovules, a preparation that combines the polyvalent local antiinflammatory action of chloramphenicol, metronidazole and nystatin with the effect of hydrocortisone acetate, an unspecific anti-inflammatory agent; they all are embedded in a Lipex-403, semisynthetic fat. The evaluation of 500 patients ages between 15 and 85 years with genital infections, registered in the files of "Cl. II Obst. and Gynecology" of the Cuza-Vodă Hospital from Iaşi has been studied. We studied the subjective manifestations (local discomfort and pelvic pains, local burning and dryness,vulvovaginal itching and dyspareunia) and objective manifestations (vaginal and cervical secretion, the cytotest performed and colored though the Papanicolaou method and reported in the Bethesda system). Healing of the subjective symptoms in 98%, healing of the leukorrhea--as a main objective symptom--in 95%; The Bethesda system cytotest was one of the inflammatory type in the most of the cases and there wew found in 85 cases: 6 ASCUS, 41 LSIL, and 37 HSIL. The use of Cervugid had a healing response in most of the cases when used in acute and chronic cervico-vaginal inflammatory processes. Cervugid may be considered as an important agent in the treatment of the precancerous affections af the cervix uteri on the following reasons: zhe cure of the infections caused by chlamydia, involved in the etiology of cervical neoplasms, the cure of the HPV infection under episome form, classified in the Bethesda system within the ASCUS, AGUS or LSIL classes. When the cytotest was in the HSIL class, a conization in the LLETZ method was performed. Cervugid is conceived for those three main categories of pathogenic factors related to the etiology of cervico-vaginitis: microbia germs, protozoa and mycosis. In addition, it is active on chlamydia and mycoplasms, always sensitive to

  4. Patient Ethnicity Affects Triage Assessments and Patient Prioritization in U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Coulombe, Patrick; Alcock, Joe; Kruger, Eric; Stith, Sarah S.; Strenth, Chance; Parshall, Mark; Cichowski, Sara B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethnic minority patients receive lower priority triage assignments in Veteran's Affairs (VA) emergency departments (EDs) compared to White patients, but it is currently unknown whether this disparity arises from generalized biases across the triage assessment process or from differences in how objective and/or subjective institution-level or person-level information is incorporated into the triage assessment process, thus contributing to disparate treatment. The VA database of electronic medical records of patients who presented to the VA ED from 2008 to 2012 was used to measure patient ethnicity, self-reported pain intensity (PI) levels, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and nurse-provided triage assignment, the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) score. Multilevel, random effects linear modeling was used to control for demographic and clinical characteristics of patients as well as age, gender, and experience of triage nurses. A total of 359,642 patient/provider encounters between 129,991 VA patients and 774 nurses were included in the study. Patients were 61% non-Hispanic White [NHW], 28% African-American, 7% Hispanic, 2% Asian-American, <1% American Indian/Alaska Native, and 1% mixed ethnicity. After controlling for demographic characteristics of nurses and patients, African-American, Hispanic, and mixed-ethnicity patients reported higher average PI scores but lower HRs and RRs than NHW patients. NHW patients received higher priority ESI ratings with lower PI when compared against African-American patients. NHW patients with low to moderate HRs also received higher priority ESI scoring than African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, and Mixed-ethnicity patients; however, when HR was high NHWs received lower priority ESI ratings than each of the minority groups (except for African-Americans). This study provides evidence for systemic differences in how patients’ vital signs are applied for determining ESI scores for different ethnic groups

  5. The effect of nurses’ preparedness and nurse practitioner status on triage call management in primary care: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the ESTEEM trial

    PubMed Central

    Varley, Anna; Warren, Fiona C.; Richards, Suzanne H.; Calitri, Raff; Chaplin, Katherine; Fletcher, Emily; Holt, Tim A.; Lattimer, Valerie; Murdoch, Jamie; Richards, David A.; Campbell, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse-led telephone triage is increasingly used to manage demand for general practitioner consultations in UK general practice. Previous studies are equivocal about the relationship between clinical experience and the call outcomes of nurse triage. Most research is limited to investigating nurse telephone triage in out-of-hours settings. Objective To investigate whether the professional characteristics of primary care nurses undertaking computer decision supported software telephone triage are related to call disposition. Design Questionnaire survey of nurses delivering the nurse intervention arm of the ESTEEM trial, to capture role type (practice nurse or nurse practitioner), prescriber status, number of years’ nursing experience, graduate status, previous experience of triage, and perceived preparedness for triage. Our main outcome was the proportion of triaged patients recommended for follow-up within the practice (call disposition), including all contact types (face-to-face, telephone or home visit), by a general practitioner or nurse. Settings 15 general practices and 7012 patients receiving the nurse triage intervention in four regions of the UK. Participants 45 nurse practitioners and practice nurse trained in the use of clinical decision support software. Methods We investigated the associations between nursing characteristics and triage call disposition for patient ‘same-day’ appointment requests in general practice using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results Valid responses from 35 nurses (78%) from 14 practices: 31/35 (89%) had ≥10 years’ experience with 24/35 (69%) having ≥20 years. Most patient contacts (3842/4605; 86%) were recommended for follow-up within the practice. Nurse practitioners were less likely to recommend patients for follow-up odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.07; 0.49 than practice nurses. Nurses who reported that their previous experience had prepared them less well for triage were more

  6. Association of Human Papillomavirus 31 DNA Load with Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grades 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Schiffman, Mark; Hulbert, Ayaka; He, Zhonghu; Shen, Zhenping; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus 31 (HPV31) DNA loads and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2–3) was evaluated among women enrolled in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) triage study (ALTS), who were monitored semiannually over 2 years and who had HPV31 infections detected at ≥1 visit. HPV31 DNA loads in the first HPV31-positive samples and in a random set of the last positive samples from women with ≥2 HPV31-positive visits were measured by a real-time PCR assay. CIN2–3 was histologically confirmed at the same time as the first detection of HPV31 for 88 (16.6%) of 530 women. After adjustment for HPV31 lineages, coinfection with other oncogenic types, and the timing of the first positive detection, the odds ratio (OR) per 1-log-unit increase in viral loads for the risk of a concurrent diagnosis of CIN2–3 was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 1.9). Of 373 women without CIN2–3 at the first positive visit who had ≥1 later visit, 44 had subsequent diagnoses of CIN2–3. The initial viral loads were associated with CIN2–3 diagnosed within 6 months after the first positive visit (adjusted OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0 to 2.4]) but were unrelated to CIN2–3 diagnosed later. For a random set of 49 women who were tested for viral loads at the first and last positive visits, changes in viral loads were upward and downward among women with and without follow-up CIN2–3 diagnoses, respectively, although the difference was not statistically significant. Results suggest that HPV31 DNA load levels at the first positive visit signal a short-term but not long-term risk of CIN2–3. PMID:26292291

  7. Impact of an ABCDE team triage process combined with public guidance on the division of work in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, Jarmo; Lloyd, Robert; Mattila, Juho; Kauppila, Timo; Menezes, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of applying an emergency department (ED) triage system, combined with extensive publicity in local media about the "right" use of emergency services, on the division of work between ED nurses and general practitioners (GPs). An observational and quasi-experimental study based on before-after comparisons. Implementation of the ABCDE triage system in a Finnish combined ED where secondary care is adjacent, and in a traditional primary care ED where secondary care is located elsewhere. GPs and nurses from two different primary care EDs. Numbers of monthly visits to different professional groups before and after intervention in the studied primary care EDs and numbers of monthly visits to doctors in the local secondary care ED. The beginning of the triage process increased temporarily the number of independent consultations and patient record entries by ED nurses in both types of studied primary care EDs and reduced the number of patient visits to a doctor compared with previous years but had no effect on doctor visits in the adjacent secondary care ED. No further decrease in the number of nurse or GP visits was observed by inhibiting the entrance of non-urgent patients. The ABCDE triage system combined with public guidance may reduce non-urgent patient visits to doctors in different kinds of primary care EDs without increasing visits in the secondary care ED. However, the additional work to implement the ABCDE system is mainly directed to nurses, which may pose a challenge for staffing.

  8. The FAST-ED App: A Smartphone Platform for the Field Triage of Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raul G; Silva, Gisele S; Lima, Fabricio O; Yeh, Yu-Chih; Fleming, Carol; Branco, Daniel; Yancey, Arthur H; Ratcliff, Jonathan J; Wages, Robert Keith; Doss, Earnest; Bouslama, Mehdi; Grossberg, Jonathan A; Haussen, Diogo C; Sakano, Teppei; Frankel, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    The Emergency Medical Services field triage to stroke centers has gained considerable complexity with the recent demonstration of clinical benefit of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. We sought to describe a new smartphone freeware application designed to assist Emergency Medical Services professionals with the field assessment and destination triage of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Review of the application's platform and its development as well as the different variables, assessments, algorithms, and assumptions involved. The FAST-ED (Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination) application is based on a built-in automated decision-making algorithm that relies on (1) a brief series of questions assessing patient's age, anticoagulant usage, time last known normal, motor weakness, gaze deviation, aphasia, and hemineglect; (2) a database of all regional stroke centers according to their capability to provide endovascular treatment; and (3) Global Positioning System technology with real-time traffic information to compute the patient's eligibility for intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator or endovascular treatment as well as the distances/transportation times to the different neighboring stroke centers in order to assist Emergency Medical Services professionals with the decision about the most suitable destination for any given patient with acute ischemic stroke. The FAST-ED smartphone application has great potential to improve the triage of patients with acute ischemic stroke, as it seems capable to optimize resources, reduce hospital arrivals times, and maximize the use of both intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and endovascular treatment ultimately leading to better clinical outcomes. Future field studies are needed to properly evaluate the impact of this tool in stroke outcomes and resource utilization. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Development and evaluation of an influenza pandemic intensive care unit triage protocol.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Winston; Myburgh, John; Seppelt, Ian M; Parr, Michael J; Blackwell, Nikki; Demonte, Shannon; Gandhi, Kalpesh; Hoyling, Larissa; Nair, Priya; Passer, Melissa; Reynolds, Claire; Saunders, Nicholas M; Saxena, Manoj K; Thanakrishnan, Govindasamy

    2012-09-01

    To develop an influenza pandemic ICU triage (iPIT) protocol that excludes patients with the highest and lowest predicted mortality rates, and to determine the increase in ICU bed availability that would result. Post-hoc analysis of a study evaluating two triage protocols, designed to determine which patients should be excluded from access to ICU resources during an influenza pandemic. ICU mortality rates were determined for the individual triage criteria in the protocols and included criteria based on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Criteria resulting in mortality rates outside the 25th and 75th percentiles were used as exclusion criteria in a new iPIT-1 protocol. The SOFA threshold component was modified further and reported as iPIT-2 and iPIT-3. Increase in ICU bed availability. The 25th and 75th percentiles for ICU mortality were 8.3% and 35.2%, respectively. Applying the iPIT-1 protocol resulted in an increase in ICU bed availability at admission of 71.7% ± 0.6%. Decreasing the lower SOFA score exclusion criteria to ≤6 (iPIT-2) and ≤4 (iPIT-3) resulted in an increase in ICU bed availability at admission of 66.9% ± 0.6% and 59.4 ± 0.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). The iPIT protocol excludes patients with the lowest and highest ICU mortality, and provides increases in ICU bed availability. Adjusting the lower SOFA score exclusion limit provides a method of escalation or de- escalation to cope with demand.

  10. Wearable, multimodal, vitals acquisition unit for intelligent field triage

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, the authors describe the characterisation design and development of the authors’ wearable, multimodal vitals acquisition unit for intelligent field triage. The unit is able to record the standard electrocardiogram, blood oxygen and body temperature parameters and also has the unique capability to record up to eight custom designed acoustic streams for heart and lung sound auscultation. These acquisition channels are highly synchronised to fully maintain the time correlation of the signals. The unit is a key component enabling systematic and intelligent field triage to continuously acquire vital patient information. With the realised unit a novel data-set with highly synchronised vital signs was recorded. The new data-set may be used for algorithm design in vital sign analysis or decision making. The monitoring unit is the only known body worn system that records standard emergency parameters plus eight multi-channel auscultatory streams and stores the recordings and wirelessly transmits them to mobile response teams. PMID:27733926

  11. Wearable, multimodal, vitals acquisition unit for intelligent field triage.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christoph; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, the authors describe the characterisation design and development of the authors' wearable, multimodal vitals acquisition unit for intelligent field triage. The unit is able to record the standard electrocardiogram, blood oxygen and body temperature parameters and also has the unique capability to record up to eight custom designed acoustic streams for heart and lung sound auscultation. These acquisition channels are highly synchronised to fully maintain the time correlation of the signals. The unit is a key component enabling systematic and intelligent field triage to continuously acquire vital patient information. With the realised unit a novel data-set with highly synchronised vital signs was recorded. The new data-set may be used for algorithm design in vital sign analysis or decision making. The monitoring unit is the only known body worn system that records standard emergency parameters plus eight multi-channel auscultatory streams and stores the recordings and wirelessly transmits them to mobile response teams.

  12. Nursing students' assessment of pain and decision of triage for different ethnic groups: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Pain management is a priority in nursing care but little is known about the factors that affect nursing students' assessment of pain expressed by patients of different ethnic backgrounds. This study examined undergraduate nursing students' assessment of pain and decision of triage when pain was expressed in different languages and their relation to students' empathy and social identity. Comparison between students with and without clinical experience was also carried out. This is a cross-sectional quantitative design. This study took place at a university in Hong Kong. 74 female undergraduate nursing students. Students listened to eight audio recordings in which an individual expressed pain in one of the two dialects of Chinese, either Cantonese or Putonghua. For each dialect, two recordings depicted mild pain and two depicted severe pain. After listening to each recording, students rated the pain level and indicated their decision of triage. Subsequently, students completed a questionnaire that measured their empathy and social identity and reported their demographics. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and t-tests. Severe pain described in Putonghua was rated as more intense than that described in Cantonese but it was not classified as more urgent. Students with clinical experience tended to perceive mild pain as less painful and less urgent than those without clinical experience. For mild pain described in Cantonese, students with clinical experience evaluated it as more urgent than those without such experience. The empathy level of students with and without clinical experience was comparable. Students with more empathy, especially those without clinical experience, reported heightened perceived intensity of severe pain described in Putonghua. Nurse educators should note that empathy, social identity, and clinical experience may alter students' pain assessment of patients from different ethnicities. Pain education needs to

  13. Using an original triage and on call management tool aids identification and assessment of the acutely unwell surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Stacie; Helliar, Sebastian; Macdonald, Hamish Ian; Mackey, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Until now, there have been no published surgical triage tools. We have developed the first such tool with a tiered escalation policy, aiming to improve identification and management of critically unwell patients. The existing sheet which is used to track new referrals and admissions to the surgical assessment unit was reviewed. The sheet was updated and a traffic light triage tool generated using National Early Warning Scores (NEWS), sepsis criteria and user discretion. A tiered escalation policy to guide urgency of assessment was introduced and education sessions for all staff undertaken, to ensure understanding and compliance. Through multiple 'plan-do-study-act' cycles, the new system and its efficiency have been analysed. Prior to intervention, documentation of NEWS did not occur and only 13% of admission observations were communicated to the surgical team. Following multiple cycles and interventions, 93% of patients were fully triaged, and 80% of 'red' and 'amber' patients' observations were communicated to the surgical team. The average time for a registrar to review a 'red' patient was 37 min and 79% of 'green' patients were reviewed within an hour of their presentation. Rapid identification of the unwell patient is crucial. Here we publish the first triage tool that enables early assessment of septic and otherwise potentially unwell surgical patients.

  14. Evaluation of the Triage TOX Drug Screen Assay for Detection of 11 Drugs of Abuse and Therapeutic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hae In; Jang, Mi Ae; Lee, Yong Wha

    2017-11-01

    The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). Precision was evaluated according to the CLSI EP12-A2 for analyte concentrations near the cutoff, including C₅₀ and±30% of C₅₀, for each drug using standard materials. The C₅₀ specimens yielded 35-65% positive results and the±30% concentration range of all evaluated drugs encompassed the C₅-C₉₅ interval. The overall percent agreement of the Triage TOX Drug Screen was 92.4-100% compared with UPLC-TMS; however, the Triage TOX Drug Screen results showed some discordant cases including acetaminophen, amphetamine, benzodiazepine, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants. The overall performance of the Triage TOX Drug Screen assay was comparable to that of UPLC-TMS for screening of drug intoxication in hospitals. This assay could constitute a useful screening method for drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs in urine. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  15. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) over-triage and the financial implications for major trauma centres in NSW, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In NSW Australia, a formal trauma system including the use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has existed for over 20 years. Despite providing many advantages in NSW, HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged; leading to financial implications for major trauma centres that receive HEMS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the financial implications of HEMS over-triage from the perspective of major trauma centres in NSW. Methods The study sample included all trauma patients transported via HEMS to 12 major trauma centres in NSW during the period: 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. Clinical data were gathered from individual hospital trauma registries and merged with financial information obtained from casemix units at respective hospitals. HEMS over-triage was estimated based on the local definition of minor to moderate trauma (ISS≤12) and hospital length of stay of less than 24 hrs. The actual treatment costs were determined and compared to state-wide peer group averages to obtain estimates of potential funding discrepancies. Results A total of 707 patients transported by HEMS were identified, including 72% pre-hospital (PH; n=507) and 28% inter-hospital (IH; n=200) transports. Over-triage was estimated at 51% for PH patients and 29% for IH patients. Compared to PH patients, IH patients were more costly to treat on average (IH: $42,604; PH: $25,162), however PH patients were more costly overall ($12,329,618 [PH]; $8,265,152 [IH]). When comparing actual treatment costs to peer group averages we found potential funding discrepancies ranging between 4% and 32% across patient groups. Using a sensitivity analysis, the potential funding discrepancy increased with increasing levels of over-triage. Conclusions HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged in NSW, leading to funding implications for major trauma centres. In general, HEMS patient treatment costs are higher than the peer group average and the potential funding discrepancy varies

  16. Triage of ASC-H: a meta-analysis of the accuracy of hrHPV testing and other markers to detect cervical precancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lan; Verdoodt, Freija; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bergeron, Christine; Arbyn, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) are usually immediately referred to colposcopy. However, triage may reduce the burden of diagnostic work-up and avoid over-treatment. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the accuracy of hrHPV testing, and testing for other molecular markers to detect CIN of grade II or III or worse (CIN2+ or CIN3+) in women with ASC-H. An additional question assessed was whether triage is useful given the relatively high pre-triage probability of underlying precancer. Results The pooled absolute sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ of HC2 (derived from 19 studies) was 93% (95% CI: 89–95%) and 45% (95% CI: 41–50%), respectively. The p16INK4a staining (only 3 studies) has similar sensitivity (93%, 95% CI:75–100%) but superior specificity (specificity ratio: 1.69) to HC2 for CIN2+. Testing for PAX1 gene methylation (only 1 study) showed a superior specificity of 95% (specificity ratio: 2.08). The average pre-test risk was 34% for CIN2+ and 20% for CIN3+. A negative HC2 result decreased this to 8% and 5%, whereas a positive result upgraded the risk to 47% and 28%. Conclusions Due to the high probability of precancer in ASC-H, the utility of triage is limited. The usual recommendation to refer women with ASC-H to colposcopy is not altered by a positive triage test, whatever the test used. A negative hrHPV DNA or p16INK4a test may allow for repeat testing but this recommendation will depend on local decision thresholds for referral. PMID:26618614

  17. The impact of using computer decision-support software in primary care nurse-led telephone triage: interactional dilemmas and conversational consequences.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jamie; Barnes, Rebecca; Pooler, Jillian; Lattimer, Valerie; Fletcher, Emily; Campbell, John L

    2015-02-01

    Telephone triage represents one strategy to manage demand for face-to-face GP appointments in primary care. Although computer decision-support software (CDSS) is increasingly used by nurses to triage patients, little is understood about how interaction is organized in this setting. Specifically any interactional dilemmas this computer-mediated setting invokes; and how these may be consequential for communication with patients. Using conversation analytic methods we undertook a multi-modal analysis of 22 audio-recorded telephone triage nurse-caller interactions from one GP practice in England, including 10 video-recordings of nurses' use of CDSS during triage. We draw on Goffman's theoretical notion of participation frameworks to make sense of these interactions, presenting 'telling cases' of interactional dilemmas nurses faced in meeting patient's needs and accurately documenting the patient's condition within the CDSS. Our findings highlight troubles in the 'interactional workability' of telephone triage exposing difficulties faced in aligning the proximal and wider distal context that structures CDSS-mediated interactions. Patients present with diverse symptoms, understanding of triage consultations, and communication skills which nurses need to negotiate turn-by-turn with CDSS requirements. Nurses therefore need to have sophisticated communication, technological and clinical skills to ensure patients' presenting problems are accurately captured within the CDSS to determine safe triage outcomes. Dilemmas around how nurses manage and record information, and the issues of professional accountability that may ensue, raise questions about the impact of CDSS and its use in supporting nurses to deliver safe and effective patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Injury Severity-, Time Sensitivity-, and Predictability-Based Advanced Automatic Crash Notification Algorithm Improves Motor Vehicle Crash Occupant Triage.

    PubMed

    Stitzel, Joel D; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Doud, Andrea N; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithms use vehicle telemetry measurements to predict risk of serious motor vehicle crash injury. The objective of the study was to develop an Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithm to reduce response time, increase triage efficiency, and improve patient outcomes by minimizing undertriage (<5%) and overtriage (<50%), as recommended by the American College of Surgeons. A list of injuries associated with a patient's need for Level I/II trauma center treatment known as the Target Injury List was determined using an approach based on 3 facets of injury: severity, time sensitivity, and predictability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict an occupant's risk of sustaining an injury on the Target Injury List based on crash severity and restraint factors for occupants in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System 2000-2011. The Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithm was optimized and evaluated to minimize triage rates, per American College of Surgeons recommendations. The following rates were achieved: <50% overtriage and <5% undertriage in side impacts and 6% to 16% undertriage in other crash modes. Nationwide implementation of our algorithm is estimated to improve triage decisions for 44% of undertriaged and 38% of overtriaged occupants. Annually, this translates to more appropriate care for >2,700 seriously injured occupants and reduces unnecessary use of trauma center resources for >162,000 minimally injured occupants. The algorithm could be incorporated into vehicles to inform emergency personnel of recommended motor vehicle crash triage decisions. Lower under- and overtriage was achieved, and nationwide implementation of the algorithm would yield improved triage decision making for an estimated 165,000 occupants annually. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Creation and Delphi-method refinement of pediatric disaster triage simulations.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Mark X; Brown, Linda; Overly, Frank; Yarzebski, Jorge; Meckler, Garth; Fuchs, Susan; Tomassoni, Anthony; Aghababian, Richard; Chung, Sarita; Garrett, Andrew; Fagbuyi, Daniel; Adelgais, Kathleen; Goldman, Ran; Parker, James; Auerbach, Marc; Riera, Antonio; Cone, David; Baum, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rigorously designed pediatric disaster triage (PDT) training simulations for paramedics. First, we sought to design three multiple patient incidents for EMS provider training simulations. Our second objective was to determine the appropriate interventions and triage level for each victim in each of the simulations and develop evaluation instruments for each simulation. The final objective was to ensure that each simulation and evaluation tool was free of bias toward any specific PDT strategy. We created mixed-methods disaster simulation scenarios with pediatric victims: a school shooting, a school bus crash, and a multiple-victim house fire. Standardized patients, high-fidelity manikins, and low-fidelity manikins were used to portray the victims. Each simulation had similar acuity of injuries and 10 victims. Examples include children with special health-care needs, gunshot wounds, and smoke inhalation. Checklist-based evaluation tools and behaviorally anchored global assessments of function were created for each simulation. Eight physicians and paramedics from areas with differing PDT strategies were recruited as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) for a modified Delphi iterative critique of the simulations and evaluation tools. The modified Delphi was managed with an online survey tool. The SMEs provided an expected triage category for each patient. The target for modified Delphi consensus was ≥85%. Using Likert scales and free text, the SMEs assessed the validity of the simulations, including instances of bias toward a specific PDT strategy, clarity of learning objectives, and the correlation of the evaluation tools to the learning objectives and scenarios. After two rounds of the modified Delphi, consensus for expected triage level was >85% for 28 of 30 victims, with the remaining two achieving >85% consensus after three Delphi iterations. To achieve consensus, we amended 11 instances of bias toward a specific PDT strategy and corrected 10

  20. Patient compliance with telephone triage recommendations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Purc-Stephenson, Rebecca J; Thrasher, Christine

    2012-05-01

    To systematically investigate the extent to which patients comply with triage advice from telenurses and to identify factors that potentially influence compliance. Findings from 13 studies identified through interdisciplinary research databases (1990-2010) were meta-analyzed. Separate pooled analyses compared patients' compliance rates for emergency services and office care (13 outcomes), emergency services and self care (13 outcomes), and self care and office care (12 outcomes). Overall patient compliance was 62%, but varied by intensity of care recommended with low compliance rates for advice to see a general practitioner. Reasons for noncompliance include patients reporting to have heard a different disposition, patients' intentions and health beliefs. Patient compliance to triage recommendations was influenced by the interactive role of patient perceptions and the quality of provider communication, both of which were mediated by access to health services. Further research is needed to clarify whether noncompliance is attributable to poor communication by the nurse or patient misinterpretation. We highlight the need for communication-skills training in a telephone-consultation context that is patient centered, and specifically addresses building active listening and active advising skills and advantages to structuring the call. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Triage of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Apgar, B S; Zoschnick, L B

    1998-06-01

    Triage of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy requires colposcopic evaluation and directed biopsy. If histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is confirmed, the patient can be managed with observations and can be re-evaluated in the postpartum period. If evidence of microinvasion is present, conization must be performed. For patients with invasive disease, a delay in therapy until fetal maturity is achieved does not compromise survival.

  2. Estimated Impact of Emergency Medical Service Triage of Stroke Patients on Comprehensive Stroke Centers: An Urban Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian S; Adeoye, Opeolu; Sucharew, Heidi; Broderick, Joseph P; McMullan, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Widener, Michael; Alwell, Kathleen S; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Mackey, Jason; Martini, Sharyl; De Los Rios la Rosa, Felipe; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-08-01

    The American Stroke Association recommends that Emergency Medical Service bypass acute stroke-ready hospital (ASRH)/primary stroke center (PSC) for comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) when transporting appropriate stroke patients, if the additional travel time is ≤15 minutes. However, data on additional transport time and the effect on hospital census remain unknown. Stroke patients ≥20 years old who were transported from home to an ASRH/PSC or CSC via Emergency Medical Service in 2010 were identified in the Greater Cincinnati area population of 1.3 million. Addresses of all patients' residences and hospitals were geocoded, and estimated travel times were calculated. We estimated the mean differences between the travel time for patients taken to an ASRH/PSC and the theoretical time had they been transported directly to the region's CSC. Of 929 patients with geocoded addresses, 806 were transported via Emergency Medical Service directly to an ASRH/PSC. Mean additional travel time of direct transport to the CSC, compared with transport to an ASRH/PSC, was 7.9±6.8 minutes; 85% would have ≤15 minutes added transport time. Triage of all stroke patients to the CSC would have added 727 patients to the CSC's census in 2010. Limiting triage to the CSC to patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥10 within 6 hours of onset would have added 116 patients (2.2 per week) to the CSC's annual census. Emergency Medical Service triage to CSCs based on stroke severity and symptom duration may be feasible. The impact on stroke systems of care and patient outcomes remains to be determined and requires prospective evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Prehospital telemedicine electrocardiogram triage for a regional public emergency medical service: is it worth it? A preliminary cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Lopriore, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luisa; Lanzone, Saverio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2014-03-01

    Telemedicine has been shown to improve quality of health-care delivery in several fields of medicine; its cost-effectiveness, however, is still a matter of debate. Pre-hospital telemedicine electrocardiogram triage for regional public emergency medical service may reduce costs. An economic evaluation (cost analysis) was performed from the perspective of regional health-care system. Patients enrolled in the study and considered for cost analysis were those who called the local emergency medical service (EMS; dialing 1-1-8) during 2012 and underwent prehospital field triage with a telemedicine electrocardiogram (ECG) in the case of suspected acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia). The prehospital ECGs were read by a remote cardiologist, available 24/7. Cost savings associated with this method were calculated by subtracting the cost of prehospital triage with telemedicine support from the cost of conventional emergency department triage (ECG and consultation by a cardiologist). During 2012, the regional EMS performed 109 750 ECGs by telemedicine support. The associated total cost for the regional health-care system was €1 833 333, with a €16.70 cost per single ECG/consultation. Given the cost of similar conventional emergency department treatment from a regional rate list of €24.80 to €55.20, the savings was €8.10 to €38.40 per ECG/consultation (total savings, €891 759.50 to €4 219 379.50). The cost for ruling out an acute cardiac disease was €25.30; for a prehospital diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, €49.20. With 629 prehospital diagnoses of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and reported reductions in mortality thanks to prehospital diagnosis deduced from prior studies, 69 lives per year presumably could be saved, with a cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of €1927, €990/€ - 2508 after correction for potential savings. Prehospital EMS triage with telemedicine ECG in patients with suspected

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Surveyed Emergency Responders and the Identified Factors That Affect First Stage of Primary Triage Decision-Making of Mass Casualty Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kelly R.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Swienton, Raymond; King, Richard V.; Lehman, Thomas; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. Methods: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage. Results: 403 unique completed surveys were analyzed. 92% practiced a structural triage approach with the rest reporting they used “gestalt”.(gut feeling) Twelve per cent were identified as having placed patients in an expectant category during triage. Respiratory status, ability to speak, perfusion/pulse were all ranked in the top three. Gut feeling regardless of statistical analysis was fourth. Supplies were ranked in the top four when analyzed for those who had placed patients in the expectant category. Conclusion: Primary triage decisions in a mass casualty scenario are multifactorial and encompass patient mobility, life saving interventions, situational instincts, and logistics. PMID:27651979

  5. Disaster triage after the Haitian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Dyer, G S M; Antonangeli, K; Arredondo, N; Bedlion, H; Dalal, A; Deveny, G M; Joseph, G; Lauria, D; Lockhart, S H; Lucien, S; Marsh, S; Rogers, S O; Salzarulo, H; Shah, S; Toussaint, R J; Wagoner, J

    2012-11-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating Haitian earthquake, we became the primary relief service for a large group of severely injured earthquake victims. Finding ourselves virtually isolated with extremely limited facilities and a group of critically injured patients whose needs vastly outstripped the available resources we employed a disaster triage system to organize their clinical care. This report describes the specific injury profile of this group of patients, their clinical course, and the management philosophy that we employed. It provides useful lessons for similar situations in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geriatric-specific triage criteria are more sensitive than standard adult criteria in identifying need for trauma center care in injured older adults.

    PubMed

    Ichwan, Brian; Darbha, Subrahmanyam; Shah, Manish N; Thompson, Laura; Evans, David C; Boulger, Creagh T; Caterino, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of Ohio's 2009 emergency medical services (EMS) geriatric trauma triage criteria compared with the previous adult triage criteria in identifying need for trauma center care among older adults. We studied a retrospective cohort of injured patients aged 16 years or older in the 2006 to 2011 Ohio Trauma Registry. Patients aged 70 years or older were considered geriatric. We identified whether each patient met the geriatric and the adult triage criteria. The outcome measure was need for trauma center care, defined by surrogate markers: Injury Severity Score greater than 15, operating room in fewer than 48 hours, any ICU stay, and inhospital mortality. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of both triage criteria for both age groups. We included 101,577 patients; 33,379 (33%) were geriatric. Overall, 57% of patients met adult criteria and 68% met geriatric criteria. Using Injury Severity Score, for older adults geriatric criteria were more sensitive for need for trauma center care (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 93%) than adult criteria (61%; 95% CI 60% to 62%). Geriatric criteria decreased specificity in older adults from 61% (95% CI 61% to 62%) to 49% (95% CI 48% to 49%). Geriatric criteria in older adults (93% sensitivity, 49% specificity) performed similarly to the adult criteria in younger adults (sensitivity 87% and specificity 44%). Similar patterns were observed for other outcomes. Standard adult EMS triage guidelines provide poor sensitivity in older adults. Ohio's geriatric trauma triage guidelines significantly improve sensitivity in identifying Injury Severity Score and other surrogate markers of the need for trauma center care, with modest decreases in specificity for older adults. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Call-duration and triage decisions in out of hours cooperatives with and without the use of an expert system.

    PubMed

    Ong, Rob S G; Post, Johan; van Rooij, Harry; de Haan, Jan

    2008-02-13

    Cooperatives delivering out of hours care in the Netherlands are hesitant about the use of expert systems during triage. Apart from the extra costs, cooperatives are not sure that quality of triage is sufficiently enhanced by these systems and believe that call duration will be prolonged drastically. No figures about the influence of the use of an expert system during triage on call duration and triage decisions in out of hours care in the Netherlands are available. Electronically registered data concerning call duration and triage decisions were collected in two cooperatives. One in Tilburg, a cooperative in a Southern city of the Netherlands using an expert system, and one in Groningen, a cooperative in a Northern city not using an expert system. Some other relevant information about the care process was collected additionally. Data about call duration was compared using an independent sample t-test. Data about call decisions was compared using Chi Square. The mean call time in the cooperative using the TAS expert system is 4.6 minutes, in the cooperative not using the expert system 3.9 minutes. A significant difference of 0.7 minutes (0.4 - 1.0, 95% CI) minutes. In the cooperative with an expert system a larger percentage of patients is handled by the assistant, patients are less often referred to a telephone consultation with the GP and are less likely to be offered a visit by the GP.A quick interpretation of the impact of the difference in triage decisions, show that these may be large enough to support the hypothesis that longer call duration is compensated for by less contacts with the GP (by telephone or face-to-face). There is no proof, however, that these differences are caused by the use of the triage system. The larger amount of calls handled by the assistant may be partly caused by the fact that the assistants in the cooperative with an expert system more often consult the GP during triage. And it is not likely that the larger amount of home visits in

  8. Call-duration and triage decisions in out of hours cooperatives with and without the use of an expert system

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Rob SG; Post, Johan; van Rooij, Harry; de Haan, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background Cooperatives delivering out of hours care in the Netherlands are hesitant about the use of expert systems during triage. Apart from the extra costs, cooperatives are not sure that quality of triage is sufficiently enhanced by these systems and believe that call duration will be prolonged drastically. No figures about the influence of the use of an expert system during triage on call duration and triage decisions in out of hours care in the Netherlands are available. Methods Electronically registered data concerning call duration and triage decisions were collected in two cooperatives. One in Tilburg, a cooperative in a Southern city of the Netherlands using an expert system, and one in Groningen, a cooperative in a Northern city not using an expert system. Some other relevant information about the care process was collected additionally. Data about call duration was compared using an independent sample t-test. Data about call decisions was compared using Chi Square. Results The mean call time in the cooperative using the TAS expert system is 4.6 minutes, in the cooperative not using the expert system 3.9 minutes. A significant difference of 0.7 minutes (0.4 – 1.0, 95% CI) minutes. In the cooperative with an expert system a larger percentage of patients is handled by the assistant, patients are less often referred to a telephone consultation with the GP and are less likely to be offered a visit by the GP. A quick interpretation of the impact of the difference in triage decisions, show that these may be large enough to support the hypothesis that longer call duration is compensated for by less contacts with the GP (by telephone or face-to-face). There is no proof, however, that these differences are caused by the use of the triage system. The larger amount of calls handled by the assistant may be partly caused by the fact that the assistants in the cooperative with an expert system more often consult the GP during triage. And it is not likely that the

  9. Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Philipp; Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Conca, Antoinette; Reutlinger, Barbara; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat

    2015-10-29

    Early risk stratification in the emergency department (ED) is vital to reduce time to effective treatment in high-risk patients and to improve patient flow. Yet, there is a lack of investigations evaluating the incremental usefulness of multiple biomarkers measured upon admission from distinct biological pathways for predicting fatal outcome and high initial treatment urgency in unselected ED patients in a multicenter and multinational setting. We included consecutive, adult, medical patients seeking ED care into this observational, cohort study in Switzerland, France and the USA. We recorded initial clinical parameters and batch-measured prognostic biomarkers of inflammation (pro-adrenomedullin [ProADM]), stress (copeptin) and infection (procalcitonin). During a 30-day follow-up, 331 of 7132 (4.6 %) participants reached the primary endpoint of death within 30 days. In logistic regression models adjusted for conventional risk factors available at ED admission, all three biomarkers strongly predicted the risk of death (AUC 0.83, 0.78 and 0.75), ICU admission (AUC 0.67, 0.69 and 0.62) and high initial triage priority (0.67, 0.66 and 0.58). For the prediction of death, ProADM significantly improved regression models including (a) clinical information available at ED admission (AUC increase from 0.79 to 0.84), (b) full clinical information at ED discharge (AUC increase from 0.85 to 0.88), and (c) triage information (AUC increase from 0.67 to 0.83) (p <0.01 for each comparison). Similarly, ProADM also improved clinical models for prediction of ICU admission and high initial treatment urgency. Results were robust in regard to predefined patient subgroups by center, main diagnosis, presenting symptoms, age and gender. Combination of clinical information with results of blood biomarkers measured upon ED admission allows early and more adequate risk stratification in individual unselected medical ED patients. A randomized trial is needed to answer the question whether

  10. The design and implementation of an obstetric triage system for unscheduled pregnancy related attendances: a mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Sara; Hewison, Alistair; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Easterbrook, Jolene; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Beckmann, April; Johns, Nina

    2017-09-18

    No standardised system of triage exists in Maternity Care and local audit identified this to be problematic. We designed, implemented and evaluated an Obstetric Triage System in a large UK maternity unit. This includes a standard clinical triage assessment by a midwife, within 15 min of attendance, leading to assignment to a category of clinical urgency (on a 4-category scale). This guides timing of subsequent standardised immediate care for the eight most common reasons for attendance. A training programme was integral to the introduction. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted. A structured audit of 994 sets of maternity notes before and after implementation identified the number of women seen within 15 min of attendance. Secondary measures reviewed included time to subsequent care and attendance. An inter-operator reliability study using scenarios was completed by midwives. A focus group and two questionnaire studies were undertaken to explore midwives' views of the system and to evaluate the training. In addition a national postal survey of practice in UK maternity units was undertaken in 2015. The structured audit of 974/992 (98%) of notes demonstrated an increase in the number of women seen within 15 min of attendance from 39% before implementation to 54% afterwards (RR (95% CI) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) p = <0.0001). Excellent inter-operator reliability (ICC 0.961 (95% CI 0.91-0.99)) was demonstrated with breakdown showing consistently good rates. Thematic analysis of focus group data (n = 12) informed the development of the questionnaire which was sent to all appropriate midwives. The response rate was 53/79 (67%) and the midwives reported that the new system helped them manage the department and improved safety. The National Survey (response rate 85/135 [63%]) demonstrated wide variation in where women are seen and staffing models in place. The majority of units 69/85 (81%) did not use a triage system based on clinical assessment to prioritise care. This

  11. Can urgency classification of the Manchester triage system predict serious bacterial infections in febrile children?

    PubMed

    Nijman, Ruud G; Zwinkels, Rob L J; van Veen, Mirjam; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Lei, Johan; Moll, Henriëtte A; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the discriminative ability of the Manchester triage system (MTS) to identify serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in children with fever in the emergency department (ED) and to study the association between predictors of SBI and discriminators of MTS urgency of care. This prospective observational study included 1255 children with fever (1 month-16 years) attending the ED of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands in 2008-9. Triage urgency was determined with the MTS (urgency (U) level 1-5). The relationship between triage urgency and SBI was assessed with multivariable logistic regression, including effects of age, sex and temperature. Discriminative ability was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. SBI prevalence was 11% (n=131, 95% CI 9% to 12%). The discriminative value of the MTS for predicting SBI was 0.57 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.62), and the MTS did not contribute to a model including age, sex and temperature. The sensitivity of the MTS (U1-2 vs U3-5) to detect SBI was 0.42 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.51) and specificity was 0.69 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.72). MTS high urgency discriminators include several known predictors of SBI, such as fever, work of breathing, meningism and oxygen saturation, but apply to non-SBI children as well. The MTS has poor discriminative ability to predict the presence of SBIs in children presenting with fever to the paediatric ED. Important predictors of SBI are represented within the MTS, but are used in a different way to classify urgency.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC) triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5%) were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%). In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%). Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302 PMID:20334685

  13. Development and implementation of a custom integrated database with dashboards to assist with hematopathology specimen triage and traffic

    PubMed Central

    Azzato, Elizabeth M.; Morrissette, Jennifer J. D.; Halbiger, Regina D.; Bagg, Adam; Daber, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: At some institutions, including ours, bone marrow aspirate specimen triage is complex, with hematopathology triage decisions that need to be communicated to downstream ancillary testing laboratories and many specimen aliquot transfers that are handled outside of the laboratory information system (LIS). We developed a custom integrated database with dashboards to facilitate and streamline this workflow. Methods: We developed user-specific dashboards that allow entry of specimen information by technologists in the hematology laboratory, have custom scripting to present relevant information for the hematopathology service and ancillary laboratories and allow communication of triage decisions from the hematopathology service to other laboratories. These dashboards are web-accessible on the local intranet and accessible from behind the hospital firewall on a computer or tablet. Secure user access and group rights ensure that relevant users can edit or access appropriate records. Results: After database and dashboard design, two-stage beta-testing and user education was performed, with the first focusing on technologist specimen entry and the second on downstream users. Commonly encountered issues and user functionality requests were resolved with database and dashboard redesign. Final implementation occurred within 6 months of initial design; users report improved triage efficiency and reduced need for interlaboratory communications. Conclusions: We successfully developed and implemented a custom database with dashboards that facilitates and streamlines our hematopathology bone marrow aspirate triage. This provides an example of a possible solution to specimen communications and traffic that are outside the purview of a standard LIS. PMID:25250187

  14. Triage and Treatment of Combined Injury in Mass Casualty Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    but not died yet"? Management of victims following a nuclear disaster has to include the successive complex of surgical and therapeutically treatment...Spec No):63-66, 1995. [2] Kumar P., Jagetia G.C. A review of triage and managements of bums victims following a nuclear disaster [Review]. Bums. 20(5

  15. Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ram-Tiktin, Efrat

    2017-07-01

    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals. The discussion focuses on three applications: the decision to include an intensive care unit, the decision to include obstetrics and neonatal units, and the treatment policy for compound fractures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Rollo, Francesca; Impara, Giampaolo; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2012-10-16

    The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR = 5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them from the development of HPV

  17. Major incident triage: A consensus based definition of the essential life-saving interventions during the definitive care phase of a major incident.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, James; Smith, Jason E; Bruijns, Stevan R; Wallis, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    Triage is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents. The process currently relies on algorithms assigning patients to specific triage categories; there is, however, little guidance as to what these categories represent. Previously, these algorithms were validated against injury severity scores, but it is accepted now that the need for life-saving intervention is a more important outcome. However, the definition of a life-saving intervention is unclear. The aim of this study was to define what constitutes a life-saving intervention, in order to facilitate the definition of an adult priority one patient during the definitive care phase of a major incident. We conducted a modified Delphi study, using a panel of subject matter experts drawn from the United Kingdom and Republic of South Africa with a background in Emergency Care or Major Incident Management. The study was conducted using an online survey tool, over three rounds between July and December 2013. A four point Likert scale was used to seek consensus for 50 possible interventions, with a consensus level set at 70%. 24 participants completed all three rounds of the Delphi, with 32 life-saving interventions reaching consensus. This study provides a consensus definition of what constitutes a life-saving intervention in the context of an adult, priority one patient during the definitive care phase of a major incident. The definition will contribute to further research into major incident triage, specifically in terms of validation of an adult major incident triage tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A technician-delivered 'virtual clinic' for triaging low-risk glaucoma referrals.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, A; Brookes, J; Foster, P J

    2017-06-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of a technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging service with 'virtual review' of resultant data by a consultant ophthalmologist.Patients and methodsThe Glaucoma Screening Clinic reviewed new optometrist or GP-initiated glaucoma suspect referrals into a specialist ophthalmic hospital. Patients underwent testing by three ophthalmic technicians in a dedicated clinical facility. Data were reviewed at a different time and date by a consultant glaucoma ophthalmologist. Approximately 10% of discharged patients were reviewed in a face-to-face consultant-led clinic to examine the false-negative rate of the service.ResultsBetween 1 March 2014 and 31 March 2016, 1380 patients were seen in the clinic. The number of patients discharged following consultant virtual review was 855 (62%). The positive predictive value of onward referrals was 84%. Three of the 82 patients brought back for face-to-face review were deemed to require treatment, equating to negative predictive value of 96%.ConclusionsOur technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging clinic incorporates consultant 'virtual review' to provide a service model that significantly reduces the number of onward referrals into the glaucoma outpatient department. This model may be an alternative to departments where there are difficulties in implementing optometrist-led community-based referral refinement schemes.

  19. Molecular Triage Trials in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mark H; Hamilton, Stanley R; O'Dwyer, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of genomic alterations in cancer, and the various therapies targeted to these alterations have permitted the design of trials directed to bringing this science to the clinic, with the ultimate goal of tailoring therapy to the individual. There is a high need for advances in targeted therapy in colorectal cancer, a disease in which only 2 classes of targeted therapies are approved for use in colorectal cancer, despite the majority of colorectal cancers containing a potentially targetable mutation. Here we outline the key elements to the design of these clinical trials and summarize the current active molecular triage trials in colorectal cancer.

  20. Door to disposition times for obstetric triage visits: Is there a July phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Mehra, S; Gavard, J A; Gross, G; Myles, T; Nguyen, T; Amon, E

    2016-01-01

    The July phenomenon refers to a change in patient outcomes within teaching hospitals with the arrival of new and inexperienced house staff at the start of the academic year (July to June). In our obstetric triage unit we retrospectively evaluated the door to disposition time (DTDT) for 1817 patients who presented across July, December and May of academic years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. DTDT was examined for three visit levels: non-urgent, urgent and emergent. No significant differences in disposition time were found for emergent visits. For urgent visits the median DTDT significantly decreased from 171 min in July to 155 min in December and 135 min in May (p < 0.001). Similarly for non-urgent visits, the median DTDT was greater during July than May (179 min vs. 133 min; p < 0.05). Electronic medical records (EMRs) were implemented in November 2010. Following the introduction of EMR shorter DTDT was seen in December 2010 versus December 2009 (median, 171 min vs. 150 min; p < 0.05), respectively. Our findings suggest a 'July Phenomenon' of greater disposition intervals for urgent and non-urgent obstetric triage visits across the academic year. Additionally the use of EMRs may facilitate patient flow through the OB triage unit.

  1. Using Triage Figuratively to Describe Effective Teaching in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents critical outcomes for physical education in a "triage" framework by comparing the process of determining the severity of injuries at the scene of an accident to the process of prioritizing decisions in the classroom. The intent is to reduce all possible outcomes of effective teaching to six nonnegotiable outcomes…

  2. Violence against nurses in the triage area: An Italian qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ramacciati, Nicola; Ceccagnoli, Andrea; Addey, Beniamino

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate the feelings experienced by nurses following episodes of violence in the workplace. Numerous studies show that healthcare professionals are increasingly finding themselves victims of violence; of all professionals, nurses in the Emergency Department and especially those performing triage are one of the staff categories which most frequently experience these episodes during their work. In Italy, this phenomenon has been studied very little in comparison to other countries but has recently been gaining increasing attention. Few studies have investigated the feelings experienced by nurses following episodes of violence in the workplace. For this study a phenomenological approach was used. Assumptions and previous findings were set aside (bracketing). A purposive sample of 9 nurses coming from 7 different Emergency Department in the region of Tuscany, Italy was interviewed during a focus group meeting. The data analysis was carried out using the Colaizzi method. Data analysis revealed 10 significant themes/responses. The quality of reporting was guaranteed by adopting the COREQ criteria. Data analysis revealed that nurses feel that violent episodes are "inevitable" and that they feel they have grown accustomed to high levels of violence, that they suffer feelings of "inadequacy" but also that they are aware that they themselves can trigger conflict with patients, and again suffer the feeling of "being alone" in facing these problems and a sense of "being left on their own" by the institution and feeling "hurt", "scared", "angry" and have a sense that "it is not fair". Last but not least, "the gender difference" appears to play an important role in the emotional response. To suffer episodes of violence has serious and severe "hidden costs" which are just as important as the direct, tangible costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Intervention to Improve the Comfort And Satisfaction of Nurses in the Telephone Triage of Child Maltreatment Calls.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are mandated reporters of actual or suspected child maltreatment or the threat thereof. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine the knowledge and comfort of nurses in telephone triage in pediatric clinics when dealing with suspected or actual child abuse calls. Nurses (N = 17) from three pediatric primary care clinics and one specialty care orthopedic clinic were surveyed. Based on results of the survey showing a lack of knowledge and adequate referral resources perceived by the nursing staff, resources and staff education were developed, along with a script for guiding maltreatment calls toward standardization of care. Following the intervention, nurses reported an increased comfort level when doing telephone triage for child maltreatment calls, an increase in knowledge of risk factors for county resources. Further, they reported a substantial shift in opinion about the need for a standardized script when responding to child maltreatment telephone calls. Nurses undertaking telephone triage of high-risk child maltreatment calls can improve their comfort and knowledge through a survey of their needs and directed education and resource development for the management of child maltreatment telephone triage.

  4. Systolic blood pressure criteria in the National Trauma Triage Protocol for geriatric trauma: 110 is the new 90.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua B; Gestring, Mark L; Forsythe, Raquel M; Stassen, Nicole A; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2015-02-01

    110 mm Hg increases sensitivity. SBP of less than 110 mm Hg has discrimination as good as that of SBP of less than 90 mm Hg, with superior improvements in undertriage relative to overtriage in geriatric patients. Geriatric patients newly triaged to be positive under this change have a risk of mortality similar to those under the current SBP criterion. This change in SBP criteria may be merited in geriatric patients, warranting further study to consider elevation to a Step 1 criterion in the NTTP. Diagnostic study, level IV.

  5. Making an IMPACT on emergency department flow: improving patient processing assisted by consultant at triage.

    PubMed

    Terris, J; Leman, P; O'Connor, N; Wood, R

    2004-09-01

    To assess whether initial patient consult by senior clinicians reduces numbers of patients waiting to be seen as an indirect measure of waiting time throughout the emergency department (ED). An emergency medicine consultant and a senior ED nurse (G or F grade), known as the IMPACT team, staffed the triage area for four periods of four hours per week, Monday to Friday between 9 am to 5 pm for three months between December 2001 and February 2002 when staffing levels permitted. Patients normally triaged by a nurse in this area instead had an early consultation with the IMPACT team. Data were collected prospectively on all patients seen by the IMPACT team. The number of patients waiting to be seen (for triage, in majors and in minors) was assessed every two hours during the IMPACT sessions and at corresponding times when no IMPACT team was operational. There was an overall reduction in the number of patients waiting to be seen in the department from 18.3 to 5.5 (p<0.0001) at formal two hourly assessments. The largest difference was seen in minors. Of the patients seen at triage by the IMPACT team, 48.9% were discharged home immediately after assessment and treatment. With the IMPACT team present, no patient waited more than four hours for initial clinical consult. By using a senior clinical team for initial patient consultation, the numbers of patients waiting fell dramatically throughout the ED. Many patients can be effectively treated and discharged after initial consult by the IMPACT team.

  6. Prognostic value of human papillomavirus 16/18 genotyping in low-grade cervical lesions preceded by mildly abnormal cytology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Cheng, Yi-Fan; Yao, Ye-Li; Xie, Xing; Lu, Wei-Guo; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    Histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (LSIL/CIN1) preceded by normal or mildly abnormal cytology is recommended for conservative follow-up, with no separated management. In this study, we assessed the triage value of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 genotyping in 273 patients with LSIL/CIN1. HPV16/18 genotyping was performed at baseline and follow-up was at 6-monthly intervals for up to 2 years. At each follow-up, women positive for cytology or high-risk HPV (hrHPV) were referred for colposcopy. Enrollment cytology, HPV16/18 genotyping, and questionnaire-obtained factors were linked to the 2-year cumulative progression rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed taking into account time-to-event with Cox proportional hazard regression. The results showed that 190 cases (69.6%) regressed, 37 (13.6%) persisted, and 46 (16.8%) progressed. HPV16/18 positivity (hazard ratio (HR), 2.708; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.432-5.121; P=0.002) is significantly associated with higher 2-year cumulative progression rate. Sub-analysis by enrollment cytology and age restricted the positive association among patients preceded by mildly abnormal cytology and aged 30 years or older. Immediate treatment is a rational recommendation for the high-risk subgroup, when good compliance is not assured.

  7. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hick, John L; O'Laughlin, Daniel T

    2006-02-01

    The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the growing potential of an influenza pandemic force us to consider the fact that despite great advances in critical care medicine, we lack the capacity to provide intensive care to the large number of patients that may be generated in an epidemic or multisite bioterrorism event. Because many epidemic and bioterrorist agent illnesses involve respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation is a frequently required intervention but one that is in limited supply. In advance of such an event, we must develop triage criteria that depend on clinical indicators of survivability and resource utilization to allocate scarce health care resources to those who are most likely to benefit. These criteria must be tiered, flexible, and implemented regionally, rather than institutionally, with the backing of public health agencies and relief of liability. This report provides a sample concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in epidemic situations and discusses some of the ethical principles and pitfalls of such systems.

  8. Triage management, survival, and the law in the age of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Burkle, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea lack the public health infrastructure, economic stability, and overall governance to stem the spread of Ebola. Even with robust outside assistance, the epidemiological data have not improved. Vital resource management is haphazard and left to the discretion of individual Ebola treatment units. Only recently has the International Health Regulations (IHR) and World Health Organization (WHO) declared Ebola a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, making this crisis their fifth ongoing level 3 emergency. In particular, the WHO has been severely compromised by post-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) staffing, budget cuts, a weakened IHR treaty, and no unambiguous legal mandate. Population-based triage management under a central authority is indicated to control the transmission and ensure fair and decisive resource allocation across all triage categories. The shared responsibilities critical to global health solutions must be realized and the rightful attention, sustained resources, and properly placed legal authority be assured within the WHO, the IHR, and the vulnerable nations.

  9. Temporal patterns of change in vital signs and Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage scores over the 48 hours preceding fatal in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Oh, HyunSoo; Lee, KangIm; Seo, WhaSook

    2016-05-01

    To determine temporal patterns of vital sign and Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage score changes over the 48-hour period preceding cardiac arrest in an ICU setting. Vital sign instability usually occurs prior to cardiac arrest. However, few studies have been conducted on the temporal patterns of individual vital signs preceding cardiac arrest. A retrospective case-control study. The study subjects were 140 ICU patients (1 June 2011-31 December 2012): 46 died of cardiac arrest (case group), 45 died of other illnesses (control I group) and 49 were discharged after recovering (control II group). Initial detectable changes in blood pressure appeared 18-20 hours and became dramatic at 5-10 hours before cardiac arrest. Noticeable changes in heart rates began at 4 hours and became more prominent at 2 hours pre-arrest. No apparent patterns in respiratory rate changes were observed. Body temperatures usually indicated a hypothermic state pre-arrest. Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage scores were 16-18 at 48 hours pre-arrest and then continuously increased to 20. Only mean values of systolic blood pressures were significantly different between the three study groups. Mean diastolic blood pressures, heart rates, respiratory rates and Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage scores differed between the case and control II groups and between the control I and II groups. The study demonstrates vital sign instability preceded cardiac arrest and that the temporal patterns of changes in individual vital signs and Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage scores differed between groups. The findings of this study may aid the development of management strategies for cardiac arrest. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Can emergency department triage nurses appropriately utilize the Ottawa Knee Rules to order radiographs?-An implementation trial.

    PubMed

    Kec, Robert M; Richman, Peter B; Szucs, Paul A; Mandell, Mark; Eskin, Barnet

    2003-02-01

    To determine whether triage nurses can successfully interpret the Ottawa Knee Rule (OKR) and order knee radiographs according to the OKR. This was a prospective implementation trial of a clinical decision rule, set in a suburban, community emergency department (ED), evaluating a convenience sample of ED patients aged > 17 years with acute knee injuries. Patients were excluded for altered mental status, distracting injuries, and knee lacerations. Triage nurses and attending emergency physicians (EPs) were trained in appropriate use of the OKR. The triage nurses evaluated eligible patients and radiographs were ordered according to their interpretation of the OKR. EPs who were initially blinded to the triage assessments also evaluated the patients. EPs could add an x-ray order if, according to their assessment of the OKR, one was indicated and a radiograph had not been ordered by the nurse. Nurses and EPs recorded their blinded assessments on standardized data collection instruments. Kappa values were calculated to assess interobserver agreement (IOA) between nurses and EPs; sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated as appropriate. One hundred three patients were enrolled; 53% were female; 10 fractures were identified (9.7%). The IOAs between the nurses and EPs for each of the criteria were moderate to almost perfect: age-0.94; fibular head tenderness-0.4; isolated patellar tenderness-0.68; inability to bend knee to 90 degrees-0.73; inability to bear weight-0.76. The IOA was moderate (0.52) for the overall interpretation of the OKR by nurses and EPs. Sensitivity of nurse interpretation of the OKR for fracture was 70%, specificity 33%, NPV 91%, PPV 10%. Sensitivity of EP interpretation of the OKR for fracture was 100%, specificity 25%, NPV 100%, PPV 13%. Triage nurses showed fair to good ability to appropriately apply the OKR to pre-order knee radiographs.

  11. Ontology-Driven Search and Triage: Design of a Web-Based Visual Interface for MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Diverse users need to search health and medical literature to satisfy open-ended goals such as making evidence-based decisions and updating their knowledge. However, doing so is challenging due to at least two major difficulties: (1) articulating information needs using accurate vocabulary and (2) dealing with large document sets returned from searches. Common search interfaces such as PubMed do not provide adequate support for exploratory search tasks. Objective Our objective was to improve support for exploratory search tasks by combining two strategies in the design of an interactive visual interface by (1) using a formal ontology to help users build domain-specific knowledge and vocabulary and (2) providing multi-stage triaging support to help mitigate the information overload problem. Methods We developed a Web-based tool, Ontology-Driven Visual Search and Triage Interface for MEDLINE (OVERT-MED), to test our design ideas. We implemented a custom searchable index of MEDLINE, which comprises approximately 25 million document citations. We chose a popular biomedical ontology, the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), to test our solution to the vocabulary problem. We implemented multistage triaging support in OVERT-MED, with the aid of interactive visualization techniques, to help users deal with large document sets returned from searches. Results Formative evaluation suggests that the design features in OVERT-MED are helpful in addressing the two major difficulties described above. Using a formal ontology seems to help users articulate their information needs with more accurate vocabulary. In addition, multistage triaging combined with interactive visualizations shows promise in mitigating the information overload problem. Conclusions Our strategies appear to be valuable in addressing the two major problems in exploratory search. Although we tested OVERT-MED with a particular ontology and document collection, we anticipate that our strategies can be

  12. Efficacy of educational video game versus traditional educational apps at improving physician decision making in trauma triage: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Deepika; Farris, Coreen; Fischhoff, Baruch; Rosengart, Matthew R; Angus, Derek C; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2017-12-12

    To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. Randomized clinical trial. Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers. A random sample (n=200) of those with primary outcome data was reassessed at six months. Physicians were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one hour of exposure to an adventure video game (Night Shift) or apps based on traditional didactic education (myATLS and Trauma Life Support MCQ Review), both on iPads. Night Shift was developed to recalibrate the process of using pattern recognition to recognize moderate-severe injuries (representativeness heuristics) through the use of stories to promote behavior change (narrative engagement). Physicians were randomized with a 2×2 factorial design to intervention (game v traditional education apps) and then to the experimental condition under which they completed the outcome assessment tool (low v high cognitive load). Blinding could not be maintained after allocation but group assignment was masked during the analysis phase. Outcomes of a virtual simulation that included 10 cases; in four of these the patients had severe injuries. Participants completed the simulation within four weeks of their intervention. Decisions to admit, discharge, or transfer were measured. The proportion of patients under-triaged (patients with severe injuries not transferred to a trauma center) was calculated then (primary outcome) and again six months later, with a different set of cases (primary outcome of follow-up study). The secondary outcome was effect of cognitive load on under-triage. 149 (81%) physicians in the game arm and 148 (80%) in the traditional education arm completed the trial. Of these, 64/100 (64%) and 58/100 (58%), respectively

  13. Efficacy of educational video game versus traditional educational apps at improving physician decision making in trauma triage: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Fischhoff, Baruch; Rosengart, Matthew R; Angus, Derek C; Yealy, Donald M; Wallace, David J; Barnato, Amber E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. Participants 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers. A random sample (n=200) of those with primary outcome data was reassessed at six months. Interventions Physicians were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one hour of exposure to an adventure video game (Night Shift) or apps based on traditional didactic education (myATLS and Trauma Life Support MCQ Review), both on iPads. Night Shift was developed to recalibrate the process of using pattern recognition to recognize moderate-severe injuries (representativeness heuristics) through the use of stories to promote behavior change (narrative engagement). Physicians were randomized with a 2×2 factorial design to intervention (game v traditional education apps) and then to the experimental condition under which they completed the outcome assessment tool (low v high cognitive load). Blinding could not be maintained after allocation but group assignment was masked during the analysis phase. Main outcome measures Outcomes of a virtual simulation that included 10 cases; in four of these the patients had severe injuries. Participants completed the simulation within four weeks of their intervention. Decisions to admit, discharge, or transfer were measured. The proportion of patients under-triaged (patients with severe injuries not transferred to a trauma center) was calculated then (primary outcome) and again six months later, with a different set of cases (primary outcome of follow-up study). The secondary outcome was effect of cognitive load on under-triage. Results 149 (81%) physicians in the game arm and 148 (80%) in the traditional

  14. Microarray detection of human papilloma virus genotypes among Turkish women with abnormal cytology at a colposcopy unit

    PubMed Central

    Uzun Çilingir, Işıl; Bengisu, Ergin; Ağaçfidan, Ali; Koksal, Muammer Osman; Topuz, Samet; Berkman, Sinan; İyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a well-known association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of HPV DNA and to compare the results with colposcopic findings among women with abnormal cytology. Material and Methods: A series of 76 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy,punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing. For HPV genotyping, we used a commercially avaliable HPV DNA chip (Genomica-CLART) which is a PCR based microarray system.The HPV test detected 35types of HPV (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18/-26/-31/-33/-35/-39/-40/-42/-43/-44/-45/-51/-52/-53/-54/-56/-58/-59/-61/-62/-66/-70/-71/-72/-73/-81/-83/84/-85/-89). Results: Overall, 44.7% of all patients were HPV positive. HPV was positive in 35%, 51.9%, 77.7% of the ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL groups respectively and HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all groups. 6 %of patients had mutiple infections. 57.8% of biopsy proven SIL’s were HPV positive. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV 16 (54.5%).Colposcopic assessment revealed pathologic findings in 94.7% of biopsy proven SIL cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that the prevalence of HPV in the general population is lower than Western countries, and the prevalence and distribution of genotypes are smilar in patients with abnormal cytology. Further population based studies are needed to determine the prevalance and type distribution of HPV with normal and abnormal cytology in Turkish women. Despite the new technological progress in HPV virion, colposcopy is still very important diagnostic tool in the management of abnormal smears. PMID:24592066

  15. The Swine Flu Triage (SwiFT) study: development and ongoing refinement of a triage tool to provide regular information to guide immediate policy and practice for the use of critical care services during the H1N1 swine influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rowan, K M; Harrison, D A; Walsh, T S; McAuley, D F; Perkins, G D; Taylor, B L; Menon, D K

    2010-12-01

    To use, existing critical care and early pandemic, data to inform care during the pandemic influenza A 2009 (H1N1) pandemic (with a possible use for triage - if the demand for critical care seriously exceeded supply). To monitor the impact of the H1N1 pandemic on critical care services, in real time, with regular feedback to critical care clinicians and other relevant jurisdictions to inform ongoing policy and practice. Modelling of data and cohort study. Modelling - 148 adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme. Cohort study - 192 acute hospitals in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. Modelling - 105,397 admissions to adult, general critical care units. Cohort study - 1728 H1N1 pandemic-related admissions referred and assessed as requiring critical care. Modelling - requirement for organ support and acute hospital mortality. Cohort study - survival to the end of critical care. Modelling - cancelled or postponed, elective or scheduled surgery resulted in savings in calendar days of critical, Level 3 and advanced respiratory care of 17, 11 and 10%, respectively. These savings varied across units. Using routine, physiological variables, the best triage models, for all and for acute respiratory admissions, achieved only satisfactory concordance of 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. Application of the best model on all admissions indicated that approximately 12.5% of calendar days of critical care could be saved. Cohort study - research governance approvals were achieved for 192 acute hospitals, for 91 within 1 day of central research and development approval across the five countries. A total of 1725 cases (562 confirmed) were reported. Confirmed cases were young (mean age of 40 years), had low severity of acute illness on presentation [61% CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age over 65 years) 0-1], but had

  16. Triage and Injury Severity Scoring Systems Conference Held at Washington, D.C. on 26-28 September 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    AD = 37 925 TRIAGE AND INJURY SEVERITY SCORING SYSTEMS CONFERENCE i (U) WASHINGTON HOSPITAL CENTER DC H R CHAMPION ET AL. FEB 84 DAMDI7-83-G-9529...PROCESSING SHEET PREVIOUS EDITION MAY 3E USED UNTIL CDTIC 70A STOCK IS EXHAUSTED. AD TRIAGE ALM INJURY SEVERITY SCORING SYSTEMS CONFERENCE FINAL REPORT... WORK UNIT NUMBERS The Washington Hospital Center 62734A.3MI62734A875.AG.151 Washington, D.C. 20010 I I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT

  17. Prediction of Emergent Heart Failure Death by Semi-Quantitative Triage Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Van Spall, Harriette G. C.; Atzema, Clare; Schull, Michael J.; Newton, Gary E.; Mak, Susanna; Chong, Alice; Tu, Jack V.; Stukel, Thérèse A.; Lee, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Generic triage risk assessments are widely used in the emergency department (ED), but have not been validated for prediction of short-term risk among patients with acute heart failure (HF). Our objective was to evaluate the Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) for prediction of early death among HF patients. Methods We included patients presenting with HF to an ED in Ontario from Apr 2003 to Mar 2007. We used the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and vital statistics databases to examine care and outcomes. Results Among 68,380 patients (76±12 years, 49.4% men), early mortality was stratified with death rates of 9.9%, 1.9%, 0.9%, and 0.5% at 1-day, and 17.2%, 5.9%, 3.8%, and 2.5% at 7-days, for CTAS 1, 2, 3, and 4–5, respectively. Compared to lower acuity (CTAS 4–5) patients, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for 1-day death were 1.32 (95%CI; 0.93–1.88; p = 0.12) for CTAS 3, 2.41 (95%CI; 1.71–3.40; p<0.001) for CTAS 2, and highest for CTAS 1: 9.06 (95%CI; 6.28–13.06; p<0.001). Predictors of triage-critical (CTAS 1) status included oxygen saturation <90% (aOR 5.92, 95%CI; 3.09–11.81; p<0.001), respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute (aOR 1.96, 95%CI; 1.05–3.67; p = 0.034), and arrival by paramedic (aOR 3.52, 95%CI; 1.70–8.02; p = 0.001). While age/sex-adjusted CTAS score provided good discrimination for ED (c-statistic = 0.817) and 1-day (c-statistic = 0.724) death, mortality prediction was improved further after accounting for cardiac and non-cardiac co-morbidities (c-statistics 0.882 and 0.810, respectively; both p<0.001). Conclusions A semi-quantitative triage acuity scale assigned at ED presentation and based largely on respiratory factors predicted emergent death among HF patients. PMID:21853068

  18. Chapter 7. Critical care triage. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael D; Joynt, Gavin M; Hick, John L; Colvin, John; Danis, Marion; Sprung, Charles L

    2010-04-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on critical care triage. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including critical care triage. Key recommendations include: (1) establish an Incident Management System with Emergency Executive Control Groups at facility, local, regional/state or national levels to exercise authority and direction over resources; (2) developing fair and equitable policies may require restricting ICU services to patients most likely to benefit; (3) usual treatments and standards of practice may be impossible to deliver; (4) ICU care and treatments may have to be withheld from patients likely to die even with ICU care and withdrawn after a trial in patients who do not improve or deteriorate; (5) triage criteria should be objective, ethical, transparent, applied equitably and be publically disclosed; (6) trigger triage protocols for pandemic influenza only when critical care resources across a broad geographic area are or will be overwhelmed despite all reasonable efforts to extend resources or obtain additional resources; (7) triage of patients for ICU should be based on those who are likely to benefit most or a 'first come, first served' basis; (8) a triage officer should apply inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine patient qualification for ICU admission. Judicious planning and adoption of protocols for critical care triage are necessary to optimize outcomes during a pandemic.

  19. "Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, cannot exclude high-grade:" TBS says "Don't Use It!" should I really stop it?

    PubMed

    Chiaffarano, Jeanine M; Alexander, Melissa; Rogers, Robert; Zhou, Fang; Cangiarella, Joan; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Elgert, Paul; Simsir, Aylin

    2017-01-01

    The Bethesda System uses a two-tiered approach in the diagnosis of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Occasionally, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests with evident low-grade SIL (LSIL) also have some features suggestive but not diagnostic of high-grade SIL (HSIL). This study reviews our experience with "Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, Cannot Exclude High-grade" (LSIL-H) and discusses the best approach to report such Paps if the LSIL-H interpretation is abandoned. Abnormal Paps were identified between January and December 2014 that had surgical follow-up within 6 months. Their biopsy outcomes were compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square and McNemar tests in SPSS software version 23. Statistical significance was defined as P ≤ 0.05. There were a total of 1049 abnormal Paps with follow-up. High-grade dysplasia/carcinoma (HGD+) was found in 8% of LSIL, 30% of LSIL-H, 52% of atypical squamous cells (ASCs), cannot rule out HSIL (ASC-H), and 77% of HSIL Paps. The detection rate of HGD+ for LSIL-H was between that of