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Sample records for ash nasal lavage

  1. Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Hoppin, J A; Christiani, D C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed on the morning of the first day back to work after an average of 114 days away from work (range 36 hours to 1737 days). A lavage was performed after exposure on the morning three days after the baseline lavage. Exposure to respirable particulate matter of diameter < or = 10 microns (PM10) and respirable vanadium dust were estimated with daily work diaries and a personal sampling device for respirable particulates. These estimates were made for each subject on each workday during the three days between lavages. For each subject, the adjusted change in polymorphonuclear cells was calculated by dividing the change in polymorphonuclear cell counts by the average of the counts before and after exposure. The association between the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and exposure was assessed with multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and current smoking. RESULTS--Personal sampling (one to 10 hour time weighted average) showed a range of PM10 concentrations of 50 to 4510 micrograms/m3, and respirable vanadium dust concentration of 0.10 to 139 micrograms/m3. In smokers the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell count was not significantly different from zero (-0.1%, P > 0.5), but in nonsmokers it was significantly greater than zero (+50%, P < 0.05). In both non-smokers and smokers, there was considerable variability in adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and a dose-response relation between these adjusted cell counts and either PM10 or respirable vanadium dust exposure could not be found. CONCLUSION--A significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells in

  2. Biological monitoring of wood dust exposure in nasal lavage by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mämmelä, Pirjo; Tuomainen, Anneli; Vartiainen, Terttu; Lindroos, Lasse; Kangas, Juhani; Savolainen, Heikki

    2002-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for biomonitoring of occupational wood dust exposure based on nasal lavage as a biomonitoring matrix was developed. Gallic acid (GA) was chosen as the indicator compound for oak dust exposure. From the chromatographic profile of ash dust, four peaks were chosen as indicator compounds. Phenolic indicator compounds were analysed by HPLC. Personal dust samples and corresponding nasal lavage samples were collected from 16 workers exposed to oak dust and six to ash dust. The dust concentrations in the workers' breathing zone varied between 0.7 and 13.8 mg m(-3). The indicators revealed the nature of the wood dust inhaled. For the workers who did not use respirators, the correlation between the dust and corresponding indicator compound in their nasal lavage was significant; r2 = 0.59 (n = 12) for oak dust and r2 = 0.58 (n = 6) for ash dust, respectively. Further, the correlation for oak dust workers who used respirators was r = 0.67 (n = 4). Nasal lavage sampling and HPLC analysis of polyphenol indicator compounds are promising tools for measuring wood dust exposure. Although further validation is necessary, determination of the individual dose may prove invaluable in prospective epidemiological studies.

  3. Gene expression in nasal lavage from hairdressers exposed to persulphate.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Lena S; Broberg, Karin; Paulsson, Karin; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Nielsen, Jørn

    2009-11-01

    Many hairdressers experience work-related symptoms from the airways caused by bleaching powder. This contains persulphates, which could be irritating to the mucous membrane and also may evoke an allergic reaction. However, specific IgE antibodies are difficult to detect. We found earlier that hairdressers with work-related bleaching powder-associated nasal symptoms reacted to persulphate, but that atopics also did and that the mechanism appeared to be similar in the two groups. In this study, we analysed gene expression of cytokines in the nose in order to further investigate the mechanism for work-related bleaching powder-associated nasal symptoms. The study subjects belonged to either hairdressers with work-related bleaching powder-associated nasal symptoms (S; n = 6), hairdressers without work-related bleaching powder-associated symptoms (WS; n = 7) or atopics (A; n = 6). Nasal lavage was performed before and during (up to 4 h after the last challenge) provocation with potassium persulphate. Expression of two genes involved in allergic inflammation [interleukin 5 (IL5) and IL13] and one involved in cell-mediated immunity (interferon-gamma; IFNG) were analysed in nasal lavage with quantitative PCR. The change of IL5 in the S group differed when compared to the WS group (P = 0.0051), in the A group when compared to the WS group (P = 0.014), but not in the S group when compared to the A group (P = 0.82). The change of IL13 in the A group differed when compared to the S (P = 0.041) and WS (P = 0.014) groups, but no difference was noticed between the S and WS groups (P = 0.30). The relative level of IFNG increased from before challenge to during challenge in the S group (P = 0.031). Symptomatic hairdressers showed increased expression of IL5 and IFNG, but not IL13, during challenge. Hairdressers without work-related bleaching powder-associated nasal symptoms showed no markedly changed reaction. Atopics showed increased expression of IL5 and IL13. Thus, this may

  4. Nasal lavage levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and chronic nasal hypereosinophilia.

    PubMed

    De Corso, Eugenio; Baroni, Silvia; Lucidi, Daniela; Battista, Mariapina; Romanello, Matteo; Autilio, Chiara; Morelli, Renato; Di Nardo, Walter; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Sergi, Bruno; Bussu, Francesco; Fetoni, Anna Rita; Zuppi, Cecilia; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in nasal lavage of patients affected by chronic eosinophilic sinonasal inflammation to clarify the relationship with eosinophilic tissue infiltration and clinical features. Between November 2012 and June 2013, we selected 70 patients with chronic eosinophilic inflammation (average age 41.8 years) who were classified into the following groups: persistent allergic rhinitis (group 1), noninfectious non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (group 2) and chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (group 3). Finally, we enrolled 20 healthy subjects as controls (group 4). All patients underwent symptoms score questionnaire based on a visual analogue scale, nasal endoscopy and/or computed tomography (CT) scan, and allergy testing. Nasal cytology by scraping of the mucosa and GM-CSF assays in nasal lavage were performed in all subjects. Detectable levels of GM-CSF were found in 34 of 70 (48.57%) patients, with an average concentration of 2.67 ± 0.8 pg/mL, whereas in controls only 1 of 20 individuals showed detectable GM-CSF levels. Eosinophil infiltration was significantly higher in patients with detectable GM-CSF compared to those with undetectable levels (49.4% vs 39.2%, respectively; p < 0.05). Furthermore, significant weakly-moderate correlation was found between GM-CSF levels and percentage of eosinophil infiltration in tissue (p < 0.05). Correlation between symptom scores and GM-CSF levels was significant only in group 2, which showed higher average concentrations of GM-CSF compared to groups 1 and 3 (2.9 pg/mL vs 1.6 pg/mL and 1.8 pg/mL, respectively; p < 0.05). Our data confirm that GM-CSF is more frequently detectable in nasal lavages of patients affected by chronic sinonasal eosinophilic inflammation than in controls. Statistical analyses revealed a significant weakly-moderate correlation between GM-CSF levels in nasal lavage of all patients and

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus challenge increases cytokine levels in nasal lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Stark, H; Roponen, M; Purokivi, M; Randell, J; Tukiainen, H; Hirvonen, M-R

    2006-12-01

    Several studies have shown an association between exposure in moisture-damaged buildings and adverse health effects. There are several indicator microbes of moisture damage, but Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the best-documented molds provoking health problems in different occupational conditions. We assessed whether inhalation of a commercial A. fumigatus solution would affect cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, interferon [IFN]-gamma) in nasal lavage fluid (NAL) compared with that evoked by placebo challenge. Twenty-seven subjects were studied: 13 had occupational exposure in a moisture-damaged building, 4 were atopic, and 10 were considered as controls. In all the subjects, the IL-1beta levels were increased significantly both at 6 (p = 0.013) and 24 h (p = .005) after the A. fumigatus challenge compared to placebo. In subjects with previous occupational exposure in a moisture-damaged building, IL-4 concentrations were increased significantly both at 6 (p =.046) and 24 h (p =.008) after the A. fumigatus challenge compared with placebo. Furthermore, in the control group, TNF-alpha levels were significantly increased at 6 h after the A. fumigatus challenge compared to placebo (p = .028). Thus, these data show a link between markers of inflammation in NAL and experimental A. fumigatus challenge.

  6. Time-dependent proteomic iTRAQ analysis of nasal lavage of hairdressers challenged by persulfate.

    PubMed

    Kåredal, Monica H; Mortstedt, Harriet; Jeppsson, Marina C; Kronholm Diab, Kerstin; Nielsen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2010-11-05

    Hairdressers are frequently exposed to bleaching powder containing persulfates, a group of compounds that may induce hypersensitivity in the airways. The mechanism causing this reaction is not clear. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the nasal lavage fluid proteome after challenge with potassium persulfate in hairdressers with bleaching powder-associated rhinitis. Furthermore, we aimed to compare their response to that of hairdressers without nasal symptoms, and atopic subjects with pollen-associated nasal symptoms. To study the pathogenesis of persulfate-associated rhinitis, the response in protein expression from the upper airway was assessed by time-dependent proteomic expression analysis of nasal lavage fluids. Samples were prepared by pooling nasal lavage fluids from the groups at different time points after challenge. Samples were depleted of high-abundant proteins, labeled with iTRAQ and analyzed by online 2D-nanoLC-MS/MS. Differences in the protein pattern between the three groups were observed. Most proteins with differentially expressed levels were involved in pathways of lipid transportation and antimicrobial activities. The major finding was increased abundance of apolipoprotein A-1, 20 min postchallenge, detected solely in the group of symptomatic hairdressers. Our results suggest there may be differences between the mechanisms responsible for the rhinitis in the symptomatic and atopic group.

  7. Nasal lavage fluid examination in diagnostics of occupational allergy to chloramine.

    PubMed

    Pałczyński, Cezary; Walusiak, Jolanta; Krakowiak, Anna; Szymczak, Wiesław; Wittczak, Tomasz; Ruta, Urszula; Górski, Paweł; Szymczak, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Chloramine T is a known sensitising agent in the occupational environment of health care workers. In cases of occupational hazards induced by this agent, a clinical history may be far from conclusive, hence appropriate provocation tests are absolutely essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the nasal challenge test in diagnostics of respiratory allergy to chloramine T. A single-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 6 subjects with chloramine T asthma and rhinitis. Two control groups comprised 7 atopic subjects with asthma and rhinitis and 6 healthy persons. All the controls had negative results of skin prick tests with chloramine T and none displayed any respiratory symptoms under exposure to the agent. A "nasal pool" technique was used to evaluate morphological and biochemical parameters (mast cell tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein, permeability index) in nasal washings before and 30 min, 4 h and 24 h after the provocation with chloramine T and placebo. A significant increase was found in the total count and percentage of eosinophils and basophils, albumin, tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein levels in the nasal lavage fluid from patients with chloramine T respiratory allergy when compared to both control groups. Also a dual asthmatic reaction in 4 patients and an isolated late reaction in 2 cases were observed in chloramine-sensitive subjects. The results indicate the applicability of the "nasal pool" technique as a diagnostic procedure in chloramine T-induced airway allergy.

  8. Biomarkers of inflammation in ozone-exposed humans: Comparison of the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.E.; Koren, H.S.

    1989-06-01

    An influx of neutrophils (PMNs), a primary feature of acute inflammation, has been associated with the development of lower lung disorders, such as emphysema and idiopathic fibrosis, as well as airway hyperreactivity and increased mucus secretion. It was previously established that an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by analysis of nasal lavages (NL), which is inexpensive, non-invasive, and atraumatic. However, the relationship of the cellular changes in the upper respiratory tract to changes in the lower airways has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Here the cellular changes detected in the NL with those detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same individual have been compared. Ten subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with exercise, for 2 hrs. The NL was done prior to, immediately following an 18 hr post exposure, while the BAL was done only at 18 hr post exposure. A significant increase in PMNs was detected in the NL immediately post exposure to 03, (7.7-fold increase; p=.003), and remained elevated in the 18 hr post-03 NL (6.1-fold increase; p<.001).

  9. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOC under carefully controlled conditions. In the study 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOC (25 mg/cu m total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Since irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors have used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOC. The authors report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a four hour exposure to VOC, as well as 18 hours later.

  10. Cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after Bacillus clausii administration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Tosca, Maria Angela; Milanese, Manlio; Caligo, Giacomo; Ricca, Vittorio

    2004-04-01

    Respiratory infections are very frequent in children. Bacillus clausii has been demonstrated to exert some immunomodulatory activities and to be safe. We conducted a study to investigate whether B. clausii administration in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections might modulate cytokine pattern. Ten children (mean age 4.4 yr) attending the nursery school were enrolled at the end of school year (i.e. in the summer). Bacillus clausii spores (Enterogermina): 2 billion spores per vial) were administered at the dosage schedule of two vials a day for 4 wk. A panel of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, was measured by immunoassay in the fluid recovered from nasal lavage, performed before and after the treatment. Bacillus clausii treatment induced a significant decrease of IL-4 levels (p < 0.01) and a significant increase of IFN-gamma (p < 0.05), IL-12 (p < 0.001), TGF-beta (p < 0.05), and IL-10 (p < 0.05) levels. Other cytokines were not significantly modified. In conclusion, this study shows that the B. clausii may exert immunomodulating activity by affecting cytokine pattern at nasal level in allergic children with recurrent respiratory infections.

  11. Swine dust exposure is a model for rapid induction of non-allergic neutrophil inflammation in the nasal mucosa of healthy volunteers, and the symptoms as well as the microcirculation are modified by nasal lavage.

    PubMed

    Ehnhage, Anders; Kölbeck, Karl-Gustav; Juto, Jan-Erik; Grudemo, Hans; Stjärne, Pär

    2007-12-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of non-allergic rhinitis is not clear and there is a lack of models in healthy volunteers. It has previously been shown that swine dust exposure is an excellent method for inducing inflammatory changes in the lower airways. We have shown earlier that exposure to swine dust increases the histamine sensitivity of the nasal mucosa as measured by rhinostereometry. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of swine dust exposure on nasal symptoms as well as the microcirculation. Furthermore, the effect on nasal lavage was investigated. Seventeen subjects were exposed to swine dust during a three-hour period of work in a swine house. Nasal symptoms and the nasal mucosal response to histamine before and after exposure to swine dust were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry and nasal lavage. Exposure to swine dust increased nasal symptoms and levels of neutrophils, IL-8 and albumin. The increase in nasal symptoms and the microcirculation were modified by nasal lavage. CMBC correlated inversely with an increase in albumin (p = 0.018, R = -0.95). Swine dust exposure is a useful model for inducing nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, nasal lavage modifies subjective as well as objective parameters, which should be considered when designing studies. Nasal lavage may be useful in the treatment of workers in a swine dust environment.

  12. Airway Symptoms and Biological Markers in Nasal Lavage Fluid in Subjects Exposed to Metalworking Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Fornander, Louise; Graff, Pål; Wåhlén, Karin; Ydreborg, Kjell; Flodin, Ulf; Leanderson, Per; Lindahl, Mats; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Occurrence of airway irritation among industrial metal workers was investigated. The aims were to study the association between exposures from water-based metal working fluids (MWF) and the health outcome among the personnel, to assess potential effects on the proteome in nasal mucous membranes, and evaluate preventive actions. Methods The prevalence of airway symptoms related to work were examined among 271 metalworkers exposed to MWF and 24 metal workers not exposed to MWF at the same factory. At the same time, air levels of potentially harmful substances (oil mist, morpholine, monoethanolamine, formaldehyde) generated from MWF was measured. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 13 workers and 15 controls and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach. Results Airway symptoms were reported in 39% of the workers exposed to MWF although the measured levels of MWF substances in the work place air were low. Highest prevalence was found among workers handling the MWF machines but also those working in the same hall were affected. Improvement of the ventilation to reduce MWF exposure lowered the prevalence of airway problems. Protein profiling showed significantly higher levels of S100-A9 and lower levels of SPLUNC1, cystatin SN, Ig J and β2-microglobulin among workers with airway symptoms. Conclusions This study confirms that upper airway symptoms among metal workers are a common problem and despite low levels of MWF-generated substances, effects on airway immune proteins are found. Further studies to clarify the role of specific MWF components in connection to airway inflammation and the identified biological markers are warranted. PMID:24391738

  13. Airway symptoms and biological markers in nasal lavage fluid in subjects exposed to metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Fornander, Louise; Graff, Pål; Wåhlén, Karin; Ydreborg, Kjell; Flodin, Ulf; Leanderson, Per; Lindahl, Mats; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of airway irritation among industrial metal workers was investigated. The aims were to study the association between exposures from water-based metal working fluids (MWF) and the health outcome among the personnel, to assess potential effects on the proteome in nasal mucous membranes, and evaluate preventive actions. The prevalence of airway symptoms related to work were examined among 271 metalworkers exposed to MWF and 24 metal workers not exposed to MWF at the same factory. At the same time, air levels of potentially harmful substances (oil mist, morpholine, monoethanolamine, formaldehyde) generated from MWF was measured. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 13 workers and 15 controls and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach. Airway symptoms were reported in 39% of the workers exposed to MWF although the measured levels of MWF substances in the work place air were low. Highest prevalence was found among workers handling the MWF machines but also those working in the same hall were affected. Improvement of the ventilation to reduce MWF exposure lowered the prevalence of airway problems. Protein profiling showed significantly higher levels of S100-A9 and lower levels of SPLUNC1, cystatin SN, Ig J and β2-microglobulin among workers with airway symptoms. This study confirms that upper airway symptoms among metal workers are a common problem and despite low levels of MWF-generated substances, effects on airway immune proteins are found. Further studies to clarify the role of specific MWF components in connection to airway inflammation and the identified biological markers are warranted.

  14. Quantitative PCR method for detection of mycoplasma spp. DNA in nasal lavage samples from the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).

    PubMed

    duPre', S A; Tracy, C R; Hunter, K W

    2011-08-01

    Mycoplasma agassizii and M. testudineum have been associated with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Because microbiological culture methods have proven difficult to employ in wild desert tortoises, our goal was to develop a sensitive and specific qPCR method for detecting and quantifying mycoplasma DNA in nasal lavage fluid collected in the field. Primers for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences specific for M. agassizii and M. testudineum were designed, together with primers that recognize conserved sequences of both microorganisms. Standard curves generated with DNA extracted from known numbers of mycoplasma cells revealed a lower detection limit of approximately 5fg. The qPCR method did not recognize normal flora DNA, and nasal lavage fluid contained no interfering substances. Nasal lavage samples collected from 20 captive desert tortoises housed at the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Clark County, Nevada, USA) revealed the presence of M. agassizii DNA in 100% of the tortoises. Concentrations ranged from a low of 6pg ml(-1) to a high of 72,962pg ml(-1). Only one of the tortoises was positive for M. testudineum. Interestingly, not all of the qPCR positive tortoises showed evidence of seroconversion, suggesting that they were colonized but not infected. This new quantitative method will provide a critical tool for managing threatened populations of the desert tortoise.

  15. Analysis of inflammatory markers and metals in nasal lavage fluid of welders.

    PubMed

    Raulf, Monika; Weiss, Tobias; Lotz, Anne; Lehnert, Martin; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Liebers, Verena; Van Gelder, Rainer; Udo Käfferlein, Heiko; Hartwig, Andrea; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Welding fumes may produce adverse health effects in the respiratory tract. To assess the relationship between exposure to welding fumes and inflammation in the upper airways, 190 male welders were examined from the WELDOX study (median age 40 yr, 54.7% smokers, and 32.9% atopics). Inhalable welding fumes were collected in the breathing zone of welders during a single shift. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) were measured in the welding-fume samples and in postshift nasal lavage fluid (NALF). In addition, the numbers of particles and inflammatory biomarkers, including total and differential cell counts, interleukin (IL)-8, leukotriene (LT) B4, 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and immunoreactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, were determined. Metal concentrations in NALF correlated with airborne concentrations. No significant association was found between airborne metal concentrations and biomarkers of inflammation in NALF, whereas increasing metal concentrations in NALF resulted in increased concentrations of total protein, IL-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. LTB4 and 8-iso PGF2α were elevated at higher concentrations of Cr or Ni in NALF. The same was true for Fe, although the effects were less pronounced and of borderline significance. In conclusion, our results showed a significant association between the concentrations of metals and soluble inflammatory markers in the NALF of welders. The noninvasive collection of NALF is applicable in field studies, where it may serve as a suitable matrix to simultaneously assess biomarkers of exposure and effect in the upper respiratory tract in workers who are occupationally exposed to airborne hazardous substances.

  16. Ocular symptoms, tear film stability, nasal patency, and biomarkers in nasal lavage in indoor painters in relation to emissions from water-based paint.

    PubMed

    Wieslander, Gunilla; Norbäck, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Despite the decreased use of solvent-based paint (SBP) and increased use of water-based paints (WBP) with possible risk for microbial growth, few health studies are available. The aim was to study the symptoms and ocular and nasal biomarkers in house painters in relation to paint use and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) and microbial VOC (MVOC) during indoor painting with WBP. All house painters from three major companies and unexposed controls (janitors from one company) were invited, 94% (N = 31) and 95% (N = 20) of non-asthmatics participated, respectively. Tear film break-up time (BUT), nasal patency by acoustic rhinometry, and biomarkers in nasal lavage (NAL) were measured at work, and a doctor's administered questionnaire was answered. Personal sampling (8 h) of formaldehyde, VOC, and MVOC was performed in 17 house painters using WBP. House painters had increase in ocular symptoms, decreased BUT, and increased NAL-lysozyme, when compared to controls. Painters reporting mucosal irritation from WBP had less nasal patency and higher NAL-myeloperoxidase (NAL-MPO). A large proportion of the VOC consisted of propylenglycol, diglycol ethers, and Texanol. There was an association between 8-h exposure to propylene glycol and NAL-eosinophilic cationic protein (NAL-ECP), 2-phenoxyethanol levels and reduced BUT, sum of aliphatic glycol ethers and increased NAL-MPO. Increased levels of 1-octen-3-ol, one MVOC, were related to reduced nasal patency and increase in NAL-MPO. House painters may have a risk for adverse physiological reactions in the ocular and nasal mucosa. A minority of painters susceptible to WBP can react with neutrophilic nasal inflammation. Different chemicals in the paint could cause either neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation, or reduced tear film stability. In addition, house painters are exposed to MVOC which may affect the nasal mucosa.

  17. Comparison of inflammatory elements in nasal lavage and induced sputum following occupational exposure to moldy-building microbes.

    PubMed

    Purokivi, M; Hirvonen, M-R; Roponen, M; Randell, J; Vahteristo, M; Tukiainen, H

    2002-06-01

    Inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect corresponding processes in the lower airways due to the similarities in histology of nasal mucosa and bronchi. The objective of the current study was to determine whether the levels of inflammatory markers in nasal lavage fluid could be used as predictors of lower respiratory tract inflammation after exposure to microbes in indoor air of moisture-damaged buildings. Differential cell count, immunochemically measured concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (Interleukins [IL] IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFalpha]) and nitric oxide (NO), assessed as nitrite, were analyzed from nasal lavage (NL) and induced sputum (IS) samples of the occupants (n = 60) working in moisture-damaged and reference school buildings. The measurements of inflammation markers in NL and IS sample pairs, collected on the same day, were compared. Although the levels of NO (p =.026) and IL-4 (p =.014) in NL predicted their levels in IS in a statistically significant manner, their predictive values (6.9% and 7.8%, respectively) were low. There was no significant correlation between the concentrations of the studied proinflammatory cytokines or differential cell counts in NL and IS samples. Our results indicate that measurement of inflammatory mediators in NL is not per se a reliable method to evaluate the inflammatory status of the lower airways after exposure to indoor air pollutants of moisture damaged building. It is possible that NL is a more sensitive indicator of direct exposure to different irritants in inhaled air than is IS. This may be a reflection of the role of nasal mucosa as the primary physicochemical barrier to inhaled air.

  18. Analysis of nanoparticle-protein coronas formed in vitro between nanosized welding particles and nasal lavage proteins.

    PubMed

    Ali, Neserin; Mattsson, Karin; Rissler, Jenny; Karlsson, Helen Marg; Svensson, Christian R; Gudmundsson, Anders; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Cedervall, Tommy; Kåredal, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Welding fumes include agglomerated particles built up of primary nanoparticles. Particles inhaled through the nose will to some extent be deposited in the protein-rich nasal mucosa, and a protein corona will be formed around the particles. The aim was to identify the protein corona formed between nasal lavage proteins and four types of particles with different parameters. Two of the particles were formed and collected during welding and two were manufactured iron oxides. When nasal lavage proteins were added to the particles, differences were observed in the sizes of the aggregates that were formed. Measurements showed that the amount of protein bound to particles correlated with the relative size increase of the aggregates, suggesting that the surface area was associated with the binding capacity. However, differences in aggregate sizes were detected when nasal proteins were added to UFWF and Fe2O3 particles (having similar agglomerated size) suggesting that yet parameters other than size determine the binding. Relative quantitative mass spectrometric and gel-based analyses showed differences in the protein content of the coronas. High-affinity proteins were further assessed for network interactions. Additional experiments showed that the inhibitory function of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, a highly abundant nasal protein, was influenced by particle binding suggesting that an understanding of protein function following particle binding is necessary to properly evaluate pathophysiological events. Our results underscore the importance of including particles collected from real working environments when studying the toxic effects of particles because these effects might be mediated by the protein corona.

  19. Analysis of nanoparticle–protein coronas formed in vitro between nanosized welding particles and nasal lavage proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Neserin; Mattsson, Karin; Rissler, Jenny; Karlsson, Helen Marg; Svensson, Christian R.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Cedervall, Tommy; Kåredal, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Welding fumes include agglomerated particles built up of primary nanoparticles. Particles inhaled through the nose will to some extent be deposited in the protein-rich nasal mucosa, and a protein corona will be formed around the particles. The aim was to identify the protein corona formed between nasal lavage proteins and four types of particles with different parameters. Two of the particles were formed and collected during welding and two were manufactured iron oxides. When nasal lavage proteins were added to the particles, differences were observed in the sizes of the aggregates that were formed. Measurements showed that the amount of protein bound to particles correlated with the relative size increase of the aggregates, suggesting that the surface area was associated with the binding capacity. However, differences in aggregate sizes were detected when nasal proteins were added to UFWF and Fe2O3 particles (having similar agglomerated size) suggesting that yet parameters other than size determine the binding. Relative quantitative mass spectrometric and gel-based analyses showed differences in the protein content of the coronas. High-affinity proteins were further assessed for network interactions. Additional experiments showed that the inhibitory function of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, a highly abundant nasal protein, was influenced by particle binding suggesting that an understanding of protein function following particle binding is necessary to properly evaluate pathophysiological events. Our results underscore the importance of including particles collected from real working environments when studying the toxic effects of particles because these effects might be mediated by the protein corona. PMID:26186033

  20. Nasal lavage VEGF and TNF-α levels during a natural cold predict asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Manthei, D M; Schwantes, E A; Mathur, S K; Guadarrama, A G; Kelly, E A; Gern, J E; Jarjour, N N; Denlinger, L C

    2014-12-01

    Asthma exacerbations contribute to significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilization. Furthermore, viral infections are associated with asthma exacerbations by mechanisms that are not fully understood. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether cytokine patterns in patients with colds could identify risks for subsequent asthma exacerbations. We analysed cytokine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) in 59 subjects (46 with asthma) with acute upper respiratory symptoms and after symptomatic resolution. Analyte choice was based on potential relevance to asthma exacerbations: antiviral (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IFN-λ1, IP-10, TRAIL), cell recruiting (G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-3, TNF-α), polarizing (CXCL13, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TSLP), and injury remodelling (fibronectin, IL-33, MMP-9, VEGF). The overall cytokine response induced during viral infections was not different between asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals for a wide array of cytokines. However, mean levels of VEGF, TNF-α and IL-1β were 1.7-, 5.1- and 4.7-fold higher in samples from asthma subjects who exacerbated in the first 3 weeks of the cold compared with those who did not exacerbate (P = 0.006, 0.01, 0.048, respectively). Using receiver operating characteristic curve-defined thresholds, high VEGF and TNF-α levels predicted a shorter time-to-exacerbation after NLF sampling (25% exacerbation rate: 3 vs. 45 days, and 3 vs. 26 days; P = 0.03, 0.04, respectively). Although they produce similar cytokine responses to viral infection as non-asthmatics, asthmatics with higher levels of VEGF and TNF-α in NLF obtained during acute cold phases predicted subsequent asthma exacerbations in this cohort of patients with mild-to-moderate disease. In the future, stratifying the risk of an asthma exacerbation by cytokine profile may aid the targeting of personalized treatment and intervention strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

  2. EFFECT OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN NASAL LAVAGE CELLS AND DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall aim of this study is to determine (using a nasal challenge model) the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on nasal responses including induction of inflammation, immune changes and DNA damage. We are also examining how treatment of DEP with ozone (oz-DEP)modify ...

  3. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Modified function of immune cells in nasal secretions may playa role in the enhanced susceptibility to resp iratory viruses that is seen in smokers. Innate immune cells in nasal secretions have largely been characterized by cellular differentials using morphologic c...

  4. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Modified function of immune cells in nasal secretions may playa role in the enhanced susceptibility to resp iratory viruses that is seen in smokers. Innate immune cells in nasal secretions have largely been characterized by cellular differentials using morphologic c...

  5. A quantitative PCR method for assessing the presence of Pasteurella testudinis DNA in nasal lavage samples from the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).

    PubMed

    duPre', S A; Tracy, C R; Sandmeier, F C; Hunter, K W

    2012-12-01

    Pasteurella testudinis has been associated with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Our goal was to develop a sensitive and specific qPCR method for detecting DNA from P. testudinis in nasal lavage fluid collected from desert tortoises in the field. Probes for 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) genes were designed. A standard curve generated with DNA extracted from known numbers of bacterial cells determined by flow cytometry revealed a lower detection limit of 50 fg/ml (10 bacteria/ml). The nasal lavage fluid contained no interfering substances, and the qPCR method did not recognize normal flora DNA. The nasal lavage samples from 20 desert tortoises captured in Clark County, Nevada, USA in 2007 and housed at the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center, were all positive for P. testudinis DNA by qPCR. Another set of 19 lavage samples collected in 2010 from wild desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert were tested and 84% were positive for P. testudinis DNA. Fully validated, this qPCR method will provide a means of determining colonization rate. When used in conjunction with serological methods and clinical evaluations, both infection rate and disease rate can be determined for this potential URTD pathogen. This new assay provides an important tool for managing the threatened populations of the Mojave Desert tortoise.

  6. Effects of nasal saline lavage on pediatric sinusitis symptoms and disease-specific quality of life: a case series of 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sandra Y; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess (1) the effects of daily nasal irrigation in children with chronic sinonasal symptoms and (2) the impact that treatment had on disease-specific quality of life as assessed by a validated instrument, the five-item Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5), and by an overall nasal quality-of-life (NQL) score based on a 10-point faces scale. Our patient population was made up of 10 children-7 girls and 3 boys, aged 3 to 9 years (mean: 6.1)-who had presented with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis for more than 3 months and who had not responded to previous medical management. Patients were administered nasal saline lavage daily for 1 month. These patients and/or their caregivers completed an SN-5 questionnaire upon entry into the study and at the completion of treatment. At study's end, a comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores with paired Student t tests showed that the mean total SN-5 score improved significantly over baseline, falling 45% from 21.4 to 11.7 (p = 0.0002). Moreover, significant overall improvement was seen in each of the five subcategories of the SN-5 survey (p = 0.0009 to 0.038). The NQL scores also improved significantly from 4.7 to 7.7 (p = 0.0034). Compliance with nasal lavage was generally good among the 10 patients, as 8 of them used at least 75% of the recommended quantity of saline at least once a day. During a follow-up period that ranged from 2 to 23 months (mean: 10.4), only 1 patient required an adenoidectomy for symptom control. The results of this pilot study suggest that nasal saline lavage may significantly alleviate chronic sinonasal symptoms and improve disease-specific quality of life in children with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.

  7. Targeted proteomic analyses of nasal lavage fluid in persulfate-challenged hairdressers with bleaching powder-associated rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mörtstedt, Harriet; Ali, Neserin; Kåredal, Monica; Jacobsson, Helene; Rietz, Emelie; Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2015-02-06

    Hairdressers have an increased risk for developing airway symptoms, for example, asthma and rhinitis. Persulfates, which are oxidizing agents in bleaching powder, are considered important causal agents for these symptoms. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim was therefore to measure proteomic changes in nasal lavage fluid from persulfate-challenged subjects to identify proteins potentially involved in the pathogenesis of bleaching powder-associated rhinitis or candidate effect biomarkers for persulfate. Also, oxidized peptides were measured to evaluate their usefulness as biomarkers for persulfate exposure or effect, for example, oxidative stress. Samples from hairdressers with and without bleaching powder-associated rhinitis were analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring to target 246 proteins and five oxidized peptides. Pathway analysis was applied to obtain a functional overview of the proteins. Several proteins involved in biologically meaningful pathways, functions, or disorders, for example, inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, epithelium integrity, and dermatological disorders, changed after the persulfate challenge. A list with nine proteins that appeared to be affected by the persulfate challenge and should be followed up was defined. An albumin peptide containing oxidized tryptophan increased 2 h and 5 h after the challenge but not after 20 min, which indicates that such peptides may be useful as oxidative stress biomarkers.

  8. Microparticles in nasal lavage fluids in chronic rhinosinusitis: Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Kato, Atsushi; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Stevens, Whitney W; Suh, Lydia A; Norton, James E; Carter, Roderick G; Harris, Kathleen E; Peters, Anju T; Hulse, Kathryn E; Grammer, Leslie C; Welch, Kevin C; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Tan, Bruce K; Conley, David B; Kern, Robert C; Bochner, Bruce S; Schleimer, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron-sized shed membrane vesicles released from activated or injured cells and are detectable by flow cytometry. MP levels have been used as biomarkers to evaluate cell injury or activation in patients with pathological conditions. We sought to compare MP types and levels in nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) from controls and patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). We collected NLFs from patients with CRSsNP (n = 33), CRSwNP (n = 45), and AERD (n = 31) and control (n = 24) subjects. Standardized flow cytometry methods were used to characterize the following MP types: endothelial MPs, epithelial MPs (epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM](+)MPs, E-cadherin(+)MPs), platelet MPs (CD31(+)CD41(+)MPs), eosinophil MPs (EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1[EMR1](+)MPs), mast cell MPs (high-affinity IgE receptor [FcεRI](+)c-kit(+)MPs), and basophil MPs (CD203c(+)c-kit(-)MPs). Basophil activation was evaluated by the mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c on basophil MPs. Activated mast cell MPs (CD137(+) FcεRI(+)c-kit(+)MPs) were significantly increased in NLFs of controls compared with NLFs of patients with CRSsNP (2.3-fold; P < .02), CRSwNP (2.3-fold; P < .03), and AERD (7.4-fold; P < .0001). Platelet MPs (3.5-fold; P < .01) and basophil MPs (2.5-fold; P < .05) were increased only in patients with AERD. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c on MPs was increased in patients with CRSwNP (P < .002) and AERD (P < .0001), but not in patients with CRSsNP. EpCAM(+)MPs in patients with CRSwNP were no different from control (P = .91) and lower than those in patients with CRSsNP (P < .02) and AERD (P < .002). Based on released MPs, mast cells, platelets, and basophils were more highly activated in patients with AERD than in patients with CRS. Epithelial injury was lower in

  9. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1992-04-30

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades. These symptoms, which have been called the sick building syndrome, include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that VOCs present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. There have been few studies, however, in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOCs under carefully controlled conditions. In this study, 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOCs (25 mg/m3 total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Because irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, we have used NAL to monitor PMN influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOCs. We report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a 4-hr exposure to VOCs, as well as 18 hr later.

  10. Fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage of greenhouse workers and their relation to occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V

    2013-10-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently.

  11. Fungi, β-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W.; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

  12. Protein profiles of nasal lavage fluid from individuals with work-related upper airway symptoms associated with moldy and damp buildings.

    PubMed

    Wåhlén, K; Fornander, L; Olausson, P; Ydreborg, K; Flodin, U; Graff, P; Lindahl, M; Ghafouri, B

    2016-10-01

    Upper airway irritation is common among individuals working in moldy and damp buildings. The aim of this study was to investigate effects on the protein composition of the nasal lining fluid. The prevalence of symptoms in relation to work environment was examined in 37 individuals working in two damp buildings. Microbial growth was confirmed in one of the buildings. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 29 of the exposed subjects and 13 controls, not working in a damp building. Protein profiles were investigated with a proteomic approach and evaluated by multivariate statistical models. Subjects from both workplaces reported upper airway and ocular symptoms. Based on protein profiles, symptomatic subjects in the two workplaces were discriminated from each other and separated from healthy controls. The groups differed in proteins involved in inflammation and host defense. Measurements of innate immunity proteins showed a significant increase in protein S100-A8 and decrease in SPLUNC1 in subjects from one workplace, while alpha-1-antitrypsin was elevated in subjects from the other workplace, compared with healthy controls. The results show that protein profiles in nasal lavage fluid can be used to monitor airway mucosal effects in personnel working in damp buildings and indicate that the profile may be separated when the dampness is associated with the presence of molds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessment of the quantity of microorganisms associated with bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage after periodontal treatment: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Erika Horácio; Longo, Priscila Larcher; de Camargo, Caroline Cristina Batista; Dal Corso, Simone; Lanza, Fernanda De Cordoba; Stelmach, Rafael; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between periodontal disease (PD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely studied, with aspiration of periodontal pathogens being one of the most accepted causal mechanisms for pulmonary exacerbation. Periodontal treatment (PT) was associated with a decrease in these exacerbations. Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary disease that has many similarities to COPD; however, there are no studies correlating this condition to PD thus far. This study will evaluate if PT reduces proinflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva, as well as halitosis and the amount of microorganisms associated with exacerbation of bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage 3 months after PT. Methods and analysis A total of 182 patients with PD and bronchiectasis will be randomly allocated to group 1 (positive control; scaling and root planing (SRP)+oral hygiene (OH)) or group 2 (experimental; SRP+photodynamic therapy+OH). After 3 months, samples of saliva, nasal lavage and sputum will be collected to determine the level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonas gingivalis by quantitative PCR. This protocol will determine the efficacy of PT in reducing the most likely niches of bronchiectasis exacerbation by comparing pre- and post-treatment microbiology samples. Furthermore, there will be assessment of oral halitosis and verification of inflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Nove de Julho. Data will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT02514226. PMID:27084279

  14. Assessment of quantitative polymerase chain reaction for equine herpesvirus-5 in blood, nasal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the laboratory diagnosis of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Magdesian, K G; Mapes, S M; Zavodovskaya, R; Kass, P H

    2017-01-01

    The ante mortem diagnosis of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) relies on histopathological results and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive equine herpesvirus (EHV)-5 testing of lung tissue. Polymerase chain reaction detection of EHV-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly used to support a diagnosis of EMPF. However, the diagnostic power of EHV-5 testing on BALF and other biological samples such as blood and nasal secretions has yet to be shown to support a diagnosis of EMPF. To determine the frequency of detection and the viral loads of EHV-5 by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in blood, nasal secretions and BALF from horses confirmed with EMPF, healthy horses and horses with non-EMPF pulmonary diseases. Prospective study. The study population consisted of 70 adult horses divided into 4 groups based on a combination of clinical findings, cytology of BALF, imaging studies of the thoracic cavity and histopathology of pulmonary tissue: control group (n = 14), EMPF group (n = 11); inflammatory airway disease group (n = 32); and non-EMPF interstitial lung disease group (n = 13). For each horse, whole blood, nasal secretions and BALF were available for EHV-5 qPCR testing. Sensitivities, specificities and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for viral loads from blood, nasal secretions and BALF. In addition, these measures were calculated for combined use of blood and nasal secretions. The detection of EHV-5 in BALF was strongly associated with EMPF (sensitivity 91%, specificity 98.3%). Detection of EHV-5 in blood was, independent of the viral loads, strongly associated with EMPF with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 83.1%. The detection of EHV-5 in nasal secretions displayed the highest sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (83.1%) at a level of >245,890 glycoprotein B target genes/million cells to support a diagnosis of EMPF. Dually positive blood and nasal secretions at any viral loads in support of EMPF yielded a

  15. Expression of NKp46 Splice Variants in Nasal Lavage Following Respiratory Viral Infection: Domain 1-Negative Isoforms Predominate and Manifest Higher Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Kundu, Kiran; Shemesh, Avishai; Brusilovsky, Michael; Yossef, Rami; Meshesha, Mesfin; Solomon-Alemayehu, Semaria; Levin, Shai; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Campbell, Kerry S.; Porgador, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor NKp46/NCR1 plays a critical role in elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells. The NCR1 gene can be transcribed into five different splice variants, but the functional importance and physiological distribution of NKp46 isoforms are not yet fully understood. Here, we shed light on differential expression of NKp46 splice variants in viral respiratory tract infections and their functional difference at the cellular level. NKp46 was the most predominantly expressed natural cytotoxicity receptor in the nasal lavage of patients infected with four respiratory viruses: respiratory syncytia virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, or influenza A. Expression of NKp30 was far lower and NKp44 was absent in all patients. Domain 1-negative NKp46 splice variants (i.e., NKp46 isoform d) were the predominantly expressed isoform in nasal lavage following viral infections. Using our unique anti-NKp46 mAb, D2-9A5, which recognizes the D2 extracellular domain, and a commercial anti-NKp46 mAb, 9E2, which recognizes D1 domain, allowed us to identify a small subset of NKp46 D1-negative splice variant-expressing cells within cultured human primary NK cells. This NKp46 D1-negative subset also showed higher degranulation efficiency in term of CD107a surface expression. NK-92 cell lines expressing NKp46 D1-negative and NKp46 D1-positive splice variants also showed functional differences when interacting with targets. A NKp46 D1-negative isoform-expressing NK-92 cell line showed enhanced degranulation activity. To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence showing the physiological distribution and functional importance of human NKp46 splice variants under pathological conditions. PMID:28261217

  16. Assessment of the quantity of microorganisms associated with bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage after periodontal treatment: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Erika Horácio; Longo, Priscila Larcher; de Camargo, Caroline Cristina Batista; Dal Corso, Simone; Lanza, Fernanda De Cordoba; Stelmach, Rafael; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini

    2016-04-15

    The association between periodontal disease (PD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely studied, with aspiration of periodontal pathogens being one of the most accepted causal mechanisms for pulmonary exacerbation. Periodontal treatment (PT) was associated with a decrease in these exacerbations. Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary disease that has many similarities to COPD; however, there are no studies correlating this condition to PD thus far. This study will evaluate if PT reduces proinflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva, as well as halitosis and the amount of microorganisms associated with exacerbation of bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage 3 months after PT. A total of 182 patients with PD and bronchiectasis will be randomly allocated to group 1 (positive control; scaling and root planing (SRP)+oral hygiene (OH)) or group 2 (experimental; SRP+photodynamic therapy+OH). After 3 months, samples of saliva, nasal lavage and sputum will be collected to determine the level of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonas gingivalis by quantitative PCR. This protocol will determine the efficacy of PT in reducing the most likely niches of bronchiectasis exacerbation by comparing pre- and post-treatment microbiology samples. Furthermore, there will be assessment of oral halitosis and verification of inflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva. This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Nove de Julho. Data will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT02514226. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage profiling as a screening method for pulmonary damage induced by nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), fly ash, and NO/sub 2/-fly ash combinations

    SciTech Connect

    DeNicola, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profiling (BALP) was used to detect pulmonary injury induced by acute inhalation of NO/sub 2/ gas and fly ash alone and in combination. Also, BALP was utilized in an investigation into potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism. The components measured in the BALP included lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity levels, sialic acid and total protein contents, and total and differential cell counts. BALP analysis was effective in detecting the multifocal necrotizing terminal bronchiolitis produced in three groups of hamsters exposed to increasing concentrations of NO/sub 2/ gas (12, 17 and 22 ppM) for 48 continuous hours. BALP and histopathologic changes correlated well and followed a dose-related pattern. Increased numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were the most sensitive BALP indicators of NO/sub 2/ damage. To evaluate the potential acute toxic effects of fly ash, three groups of hamsters were exposed to increasing concentrations of fly ash alone (0, 69, and 123 mg/m/sup 3/). No significant BALP or histopathologic alterations were observed. To evaluate potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism, three groups of hamsters were exposed to 0, 12, and 17 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 48 continuous hours with the addition of 0, 115, and 105 mg/m/sup 3/ fly ash respectively during the initial 6 hours. No consistent significant BALP difference between hamsters exposed to NO/sub 2/ + fly ash exposed hamsters. To further evaluate synergistic effects between these two inhalants, the acute inhalation (48 continuous hours) LC/sub 50/ of NO/sub 2/ gas alone and in combination with fly ash were determined and estimated to be 36 and 31 ppM respectively, which represented a slight but insignificant decrease in the NO/sub 2/ + fly ash group.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A J

    1994-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has a well established role in the diagnosis of pulmonary infections, particularly those due to opportunistic organisms in an immunocompromised host. Recent studies of infants and adults with inflammatory lung disease have helped our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these disorders and their responses to treatment. With increasing recognition that pulmonary events in utero and in early infancy are important in the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as asthma, studies of the lung's responses to various environmental insults in this population might guide us to developing effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. Bronchoalveolar lavage is one method for assessing a number of pulmonary components and may be useful in this regard, particularly if combined with new methods for examining inflammatory responses, such as those utilising the polymerase chain reaction to assess cellular expression for inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. PMID:8135556

  19. Evaluation of nasal IgA secretion in normal subjects by nasal spray and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Chisa; Kido, Hiroshi; Sawabuchi, Takako; Mizuno, Dai; Hayama, Masaki; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2009-06-01

    Nasal washing (NW) is a popular method for collecting human nasal lavage fluid. However, for NW the subject must be trained, and the method is unsuitable for field studies on untrained subjects. To overcome this problem, we have developed an easy and painless method, a nasal spray and aspiration (NSA) method. This method is different from NW in that the nasal cavity is misted over with saline, and the nasal lavage fluid is aspirated from the nostrils through a silicon tube. First, nasal lavage fluid was obtained twice by NSA with an interval of a week between lavages to evaluate intraindividual variability, and the IgA and protein levels in the nasal lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Next, the IgA value determined by NSA was compared with that by NW in another 12 normal subjects 2 days after NSA. In 10 normal subjects, mean volume of saline sprayed into the nose was 0.46+/-0.15 ml (mean+/-S.D.). Mean volume of aspirated nasal lavage fluid containing both sprayed saline and nasal secretion was 0.44+/-0.37 ml. The mean IgA level/mg protein in the nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA was 112+/-18 microg/mg protein at the first and 99+/-20 at the second times of measurement, being highly reproducible. The mean value by NSA was 114+/-19 microg/mg protein, being almost the same as that by NW of 99+/-27. These findings suggest that the IgA level/mg protein in nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA instead of NW might be useful for assessing the variability of nasal IgA secretion.

  20. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  1. Nasal PMN response to repeated challenge with endotoxin in healthy volunteers**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Rationale: We have employed nasal challenge with Iipopolysaccharid (lPS) followed by nasal lavage (NU to experimentally induce and examine upper airway inflammation in human volunteers.It is unclear however whether adaptation within individuals occurs following repeated ...

  2. Nasal PMN response to repeated challenge with endotoxin in healthy volunteers**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Rationale: We have employed nasal challenge with Iipopolysaccharid (lPS) followed by nasal lavage (NU to experimentally induce and examine upper airway inflammation in human volunteers.It is unclear however whether adaptation within individuals occurs following repeated ...

  3. Nasal polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... get rid of nasal polyps. Nasal steroid sprays shrink polyps. They help clear blocked nasal passages and ... is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. ...

  4. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indication URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100159.htm Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series—Indication To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  5. Histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage

    PubMed Central

    Wells, A. U.

    2008-01-01

    Although neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is recommended for routine clinical use in patients with SSc, studies employing lung biopsy material and BAL fluid (BALF) have provided insight into the pathogenesis of scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). Most often, SSc-ILD is classified as a non-specific interstitial pneumonia, with abundant myofibroblasts and evidence of both epithelial cell and endothelial cell injury. Recently, SSc-ILD fibroblasts have been shown to express reduced levels of the caveolin-1 protein which, in turn, may lead to activation of the signalling molecules associated with increased collagen production and overexpression of α-smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA). BALF often contains increased numbers of inflammatory cells as well as myofibroblasts expressing α-SMA. Analysis of BALF suggests an imbalance between pro-fibrotic and anti-fibrotic factors, e.g. an overabundance of TGF-β, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), PDGF, leucotriene B4, etc. and in some cases a deficiency of hepatocyte growth factor, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), lipoxin A, etc. Until the pathogenesis is fully understood, lung biopsy and BAL will remain useful research tools to better understand the inflammatory and fibrosing processes that underlie SSc-ILD. PMID:18784150

  6. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  7. Nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gerald A.

    1969-01-01

    A review of 313 cases of nasal polyposis indicates that there is a high incidence of recurrence in this disease. Other nasal pathology affects a significant number of these patients. Simple surgical removal of the polypi by a transnasal route is the common mode of treatment. PMID:4187956

  8. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jet lavage. 880.5475 Section 880.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jet lavage. 880.5475 Section 880.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Jet lavage. 880.5475 Section 880.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Jet lavage. 880.5475 Section 880.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Jet lavage. 880.5475 Section 880.5475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet...

  13. Desmopressin Nasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop some types of bleeding in people with hemophilia (condition in which the blood does not clot ... When desmopressin nasal (Stimate®) is used to treat hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease, 1 to 2 spray(s) ...

  14. Correlation of nasal inflammation and nasal airflow with forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio; Vizzaccaro, Andrea; Milanese, Manlio; Tosca, Maria Angela

    2004-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma are frequently associated and are characterized by TH2-dependent inflammation. Nasal and bronchial obstruction largely depend on allergic inflammation. To evaluate the relationships among nasal eosinophil counts, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels, nasal airflow, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma. Eight men and 7 women (mean +/- SD age, 24.8 +/- 4.7 years) with perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma were evaluated. All 15 patients had a moderate-to-severe grade of nasal obstruction. Total symptom score, rhinomanometry, nasal lavage, nasal scraping, and spirometry were evaluated in all patients. Eosinophils were counted using conventional staining; IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels were measured by immunoassay in fluids recovered from nasal lavage. Significant positive relationships were demonstrated between eosinophil infiltration and IL-4 levels, nasal airflow and IFN-gamma levels, FEV1 and IFN-gamma levels, and nasal airflow and FEV1 (P < .001 for all). Significant negative relationships were demonstrated between eosinophil infiltration and IFN-gamma levels, IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels, eosinophil infiltration and nasal airflow, IL-4 values and nasal airflow, nasal eosinophil counts and FEV1, and IL-4 values and FEV1 (P < .001 for all). There is a close association between TH2 cytokines and eosinophil infiltration in the nose. There is also clear evidence concerning the relationships among eosinophil infiltration, IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels, and nasal airflow. Nasal eosinophil, IL-4, and IFN-gamma levels correlate with FEV1. Finally, nasal airflow is related to FEV1. These findings constitute the first evidence of a relationship between TH2-related nasal inflammation and nasal and bronchial airflow in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  15. Exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children and adolescents after nasal allergen challenge.

    PubMed

    Pedroletti, Christophe; Lundahl, Joachim; Alving, Kjell; Hedlin, Gunilla

    2005-02-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a comorbidity link between nasal and bronchial allergic disease. Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of bronchial inflammation and increases after bronchial allergen provocation. We studied FENO in 19 children and adolescents with allergic asthma and 10 controls before and 2, 6 and 24 h after a single nasal allergen challenge. The correlation between FENO and other markers of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils in blood and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in serum and nasal lavage was also assessed. FENO remained unchanged 24 h post-challenge in both steroid and steroid-naive patients. At 6 h post-challenge, FENO decreased in both asthmatics and controls. The asthmatic subjects showed a positive correlation between FENO and blood eosinophils before (r=0.71, p=0.001) and after the challenge, and between FENO and ECP in nasal lavage (r=0.62, p=0.02) 2 h after the challenge. Mean ECP in nasal lavage increased post-challenge but not significantly. We conclude that a single nasal allergen challenge does not augment bronchial inflammation although FENO, is related to blood eosinophil count and to the nasal inflammatory response. Our data do not support the theory of a direct transmission of the nasal inflammation to the lower airways.

  16. Isolation of feline eosinophils via peritoneal lavage.

    PubMed

    Moriello, K A; Young, K M; Cooley, A J

    1993-02-01

    Fourteen cats were inoculated orally with 1 of 2 infective doses of Toxocara canis to induce eosinophilia. Cats were subsequently challenge exposed twice via intraperitoneal injection with 1 of 2 T canis antigen preparations. Peritoneal lavage was performed 2 days after antigenic challenge exposure, and eosinophils in the peritoneal lavage fluid were quantified. None of the cats developed clinical signs of disease after infection. All cats developed peripheral eosinophilia after infection. Significant (P < 0.05) difference in mean eosinophil count from the lavage fluid was observed between lavage 1 (prechallenge exposure) and lavages 2 and 3 (postchallenge exposure) in both groups of cats. Significant difference in eosinophil count was not found between cats given different doses of eggs. After initial challenge exposure, significantly (P < 0.05) more eosinophils were obtained from cats given antigen preparation 2 (prep-2) than from those given antigen prep-1. This difference was no longer observed after the second challenge exposure with higher doses of either antigen prep-1 or prep-2. In cats given antigen prep-2, significant difference was not found between lavages 2 and 3. However, in cats given antigen prep-1, eosinophil count was significantly (P = 0.005) greater in fluid obtained from lavage 3, compared with eosinophil count from lavage 2. Mean +/- SEM percentage of eosinophils in the fluid from lavage 3 in all cats was 70.8 +/- 2.2%. Other cell types included macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells. Gross postmortem findings were mild. One- to 3-mm nodular white foci of inflammation were observed on the serosal surfaces of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and omentum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Nasal ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is likely to have an increasing role in the management of acute ventilatory failure, weaning, and chronic ventilatory problems. Further improvements in ventilator and mask design will be seen. Appropriate application is likely to reduce both mortality and admissions to intensive care, while domiciliary use can improve life expectancy and/or quality of life in chronic ventilatory disorders. As with any new technique, enthusiasm should not outweigh clear outcome information, and possible new indications should always be subject to careful assessment. Images Figure 2 PMID:9799887

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage in talc induced lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, A A; Ettensohn, D B; Khan, M; Kessimian, N

    1988-01-01

    A 65 year old woman with a history of occupational talc inhalation presented with hypoxaemia, cough, and dyspnoea with a normal chest radiograph. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed considerable lymphocytosis, with a predominance of T8+ T lymphocytes, and open lung biopsy showed peribronchiolar granulomas containing talc crystals. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in dramatic improvement. Bronchoalveolar lavage may aid in the diagnosis of talc related lung injury. Images PMID:3238633

  19. Standardization of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Method Based on Suction Frequency Number and Lavage Fraction Number Using Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Ah; Yang, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kwon, Soonjin; Jung, Kyung Jin; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Cho, Kyu-Hyuk; Song, Chang Woo

    2010-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful tool in researches and in clinical medicine of lung diseases because the BAL fluid contains biochemical and cytological indicators of the cellular response to infection, drugs, or toxicants. However, the variability among laboratories regarding the technique and the processing of the BAL material limits clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine the suction frequency and lavage fraction number necessary to reduce the variability in lavage using male Sprague-Dawley rats. We compared the total cell number and protein level of each lavage fraction and concluded that more cells and protein can be obtained by repetitive lavage with a suction frequency of 2 or 3 than by lavage with a single suction. On the basis of total cell recovery, approximately 70% of cells were obtained from fractions 1~3. The first lavage fraction should be used for evaluation of protein concentration because fractions 2~5 of lavage fluid were diluted in manifolds. These observations were confirmed in bleomycin-induced inflamed lungs of rats. We further compared the BAL data from the whole lobes with data from the right lobes and concluded that BAL data of the right lobes represented data of the whole lobes. However, this conclusion can only be applied to general lung diseases. At the end, this study provides an insight into the technical or analytical problems of lavage study in vivo. PMID:24278525

  20. Role of nasal nitric oxide in the resolution of experimental rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scherer P; Proud, David; Permutt, Solbert; Siekierski, Edward S; Yachechko, Robin; Liu, Mark C

    2004-04-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are associated with exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sinusitis. Nitric oxide (NO) might play an important role in host defense through its potent antiviral properties. Previous studies have shown that HRV infection in human subjects increased nasal epithelial expression of type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), an isoform of the enzyme that produces NO. We sought to investigate whether increases in exhaled NO (eNO) would accompany the increased NOS2 expression and would be associated with clearance of the virus. Six human subjects were infected with HRV-16 intranasally. eNO from nasal and lower airways was measured by means of direct measurement at multiple controlled flow rates. eNO was monitored at baseline (day 1) and on days 2 to 5, 8, 14, and 42 after infection. Nasal lavages were performed on days 1 to 5 and 8, and nasal scrapings were performed on days 1 to 4. NOS2 mRNA expression in nasal cells was measured by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Viral shedding in nasal lavage fluid was monitored by using real-time RT-PCR and bioassay. Peak HRV titers and symptom scores were correlated on day 3, and HRV persisted until day 5 (n=4) or day 8 (n=2). Infection was associated with transient but significant increases in lymphocytes and monocytes in nasal lavage fluid. Significant increases in both nasal and lower airway eNO concentrations accompanied HRV infection and were positively correlated. Increased nasal eNO concentrations on day 3 were associated with increased expression of NOS2 mRNA in nasal scrapings. Symptom scores on day 4 were inversely correlated with the increases in nasal eNO concentration. We conclude that increased production of NO occurs as part of the host response to HRV infection and speculate that NO plays a beneficial role in viral clearance.

  1. A survey on bacterial contamination of lavage water in electric warm-water lavage toilet seats and of the gluteal cleft after lavage.

    PubMed

    Katano, Hideki; Yokoyama, Kumi; Takei, Yasushi; Tazume, Seiki; Tsukiji, Mami; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2014-06-01

    Electric warm-water lavage toilet seats are in wide use as an appliance beneficial for the maintenance of hygiene and the prophylaxis and improvement of conditions such as constipation and hemorrhoids. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial content in the lavage water of warm-water lavage toilet seats, and fecal bacterial contamination of the gluteal and genital regions due to droplet infection from post-defecation lavage, to examine the problems inherent to the use of such lavage units. The presence of viable bacteria in lavage water was confirmed in this survey. Viable bacterial counts in lavage water were 3-times higher in household units compared to units in public facilities, suggesting a correlation with the replenishment of lavage tank water with fresh water containing residual free chlorine.

  2. Nasalance, nasality, voice, and articulation after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Van Borsel, John; Moerman, Mieke; Van Cauwenberge, Paul

    2002-05-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the impact of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on nasalance and nasality. It was hypothesized that nasalance would change from the presurgical to the postsurgical condition because the surgical protocol involves removal of palatal tissue. An additional objective of the study was to provide objective and subjective data about changes in voice and articulation after UPPP. Because the surgical procedure of UPPP does not involve laryngeal tissue, it was hypothesized that the voice characteristics remain relatively stable. Because of removal of effective velar length, articulation problems of the uvular /R/ can occur in the Dutch language. Prospective study in which 26 men were studied before (1 week before UPPP) and after (3 weeks after UPPP) surgery. The Nasometer was used to obtain nasalance scores. The mirror-fogging test, a perceptual evaluation of each subject's readings, and the Gutzmann and the Bzoch hypernasality tests were used for the assessment of nasality. For the assessment of articulation, a phonetic analysis was performed. Voice assessment included a perceptual rating of the voice and a determination of fundamental frequency. No significant differences were found between the conditions before and after surgery regarding nasalance (except for the vowel /i/), nasality, and voice. Regarding articulation, only 1 patient showed a derhotacized /R/. The findings of the study indicate that UPPP does not have an impact on nasality, voice, and articulation. Regarding nasalance, no significant nasalance change occurred after UPPP, except for the high vowel /i/.

  3. Deprojecting the nasal profile.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Mabrie, D C

    1999-02-01

    The nose is the most prominent aesthetic feature of the facial profile. Nasal length, tip rotation, and tip projection are integral aspects in analysis of the nasal profile. In most rhinoplasties the surgeon has the difficult task of increasing or maintaining tip projection of an underprojected or normally projected nasal tip. Less commonly, the rhinoplastic surgeon is presented with an overprojected nasal tip, and efforts are focused on deprojecting the nasal profile. In this article, the authors present a discussion of the overprojected tip, elucidating strategies of analysis, etiologies, and management of the nasal profile and give clinical examples.

  4. Nasal Injuries in Sports.

    PubMed

    Marston, Alexander P; O'Brien, Erin K; Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-04-01

    Nasal trauma is a common consequence of athletic competition. The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured facial bone and are particularly at risk during sports participation. Acute management of trauma to the nose includes thorough evaluation of all injuries and may require immediate management for repair of facial lacerations, epistaxis control, or septal hematoma drainage. Nasal fractures can often be addressed with closed reduction techniques; however, in the setting of complex nasal trauma, an open approach may be indicated. Using appropriate treatment techniques, posttraumatic nasal sequelae can be minimized; most patients report satisfactory long-term nasal form and function.

  5. Air-pollution effects on nasal function. Final report, June 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, E.K.; Liu, J.; Bigby, B.G.; Boushey, H.A.

    1988-04-08

    The investigators performed a series of studies to determine whether sulfur dioxide or ozone increase nasal symptoms, nasal resistance to airflow, or nasal responses to other stimuli. In the first study, it was found that sulfur dioxide did not acutely increase nasal symptoms or resistance to airflow in 12 subjects with demonstrated nasal responsiveness to instillation of antigen, or in 10 subjects with a history of nasal responsiveness to antigenic or nonantigenic stimuli. In a second study, it was found that ozone tended to cause an increase in rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing. However, this increase in symptoms was not statistically significant, was small when compared to the effects of intranasal antigen, and was not associated with a statistically significant, increase in nasal resistance. Biochemical and cellular analysis of nasal lavage fluid from 8 of these subjects did not show a consistent or striking ozone-induced change in histamine, protein, or inflammatory cells in nasal secretions. Finally, results from the third study suggest that ozone augments nasal responsiveness to antigen in at least some subjects with allergic rhinitis.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...

  8. Effects of a honeybee lactic acid bacterial microbiome on human nasal symptoms, commensals, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Anders; Greiff, Lennart; Lamei, Sepideh S; Lindstedt, Malin; Olofsson, Tobias C; Vasquez, Alejandra; Cervin, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can restore commensal microbiomes and prevent infections. Arguably, nasal administrations of LAB may therefore be beneficial in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Previous studies have examined effects of topical/nasal LAB in children with secretory otitis media, but little is as yet known about their effects on the human nasal airway. The aim of this pilot study was to examine effects on nasal symptoms and commensal bacteria in healthy subjects of nasal administration of a honeybee LAB microbiome; ie, a mixture of 9 Lactobacillus spp. and 4 Bifidobacterium spp. obtained from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether or not the honeybee LAB produced a local inflammatory response. Twenty-two healthy subjects received a single administration of honeybee LAB in a sham-controlled, double-blinded, and crossover design. Using questionnaires, microbiological methods, and nasal lavages, they were assessed regarding symptoms, changes to commensal bacteria, and inflammatory products in nasal lavage fluids. The honeybee LAB did not produce any symptoms or other untoward effects. No changes were observed of commensal bacteria by the honeybee LAB, and no inflammatory response was detected (compared to sham); ie, unaffected nasal lavage fluid levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interleukin-15 (IL-15), epidermal growth factor (EGF), eotaxin, interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). A single human nasal administration of a honeybee LAB microbiome is well tolerated. Specifically, it does not affect commensal bacteria and does not produce an inflammatory response. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Mycological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage in cats with respiratory signs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leme, L R P; Schubach, T M P; Santos, I B; Figueiredo, F B; Pereira, S A; Reis, R S; Mello, M F V; Ferreira, A M R; Quintella, L P; Schubach, A O

    2007-05-01

    Twenty-three cats with respiratory signs who had domiciliary contact with cats with sporotrichosis were studied. Sneezing was the predominant extracutaneous sign. Twelve cats had no skin lesions and 11 had ulcerated skin lesions. Mycological culture of material obtained from the nasal cavity, oral cavity, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and skin lesions, when present, was performed for all cats. In the case of autopsy, lung fragments were cultured. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from four of the 12 cats without skin lesions: BAL (one cat) and oral and/or nasal cavity (three cats). The latter three animals developed nasal and distant skin lesions within the following 2-4 weeks. The cat with S. schenckii isolated from BAL did not develop skin lesions or lower respiratory tract symptoms during the 6 months of follow-up. S. schenckii was isolated from one or more biological samples of all 11 cats with skin lesions: oral cavity (five), nasal cavity (eight), BAL fluid (four), skin lesions (eight), and blood culture (one). No yeast-like structures were observed upon BAL cytology in any of the 23 cats. The results suggest that S. schenckii can cause infection of skin contiguous to the natural facial orifices through colonisation of the mucosal surfaces of the upper airways.

  10. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).Unneeded medications should be ...

  11. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not ... germs.Triamcinolone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever and allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  12. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  13. Nasal Harmony in Aguaruna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Gui-Sun

    A discussion of the nasal harmony of Aguaruna, a language of the Jivaroan family in South America, approaches the subject from the viewpoint of generative phonology. This theory of phonology proposes an underlying nasal consonant, later deleted, that accounts for vowel nasalization. Complex rules that suppose a complex system of vowel and…

  14. Nasal septal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, C M

    1998-04-01

    Nasal septal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication of nasal trauma. Proper management consists of early recognition, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma, and antimicrobial therapy if a secondary nasal septal abscess is suspected. Clindamycin is recommended as initial therapy until the results of cultures and susceptibility studies are available.

  15. Nasal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Ned F

    2006-05-01

    Chronic nasal disease is often a challenge to diagnose. Computed tomography greatly enhances the ability to diagnose chronic nasal disease in dogs and cats. Nasal computed tomography provides detailed information regarding the extent of disease, accurate discrimination of neoplastic versus nonneoplastic diseases, and identification of areas of the nose to examine rhinoscopically and suspicious regions to target for biopsy.

  16. Effects of leukotriene D4 nasal challenge on bronchial responsiveness and inflammation in asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Huang, Rongquan; Xia, Shu; Jian, Wenhua; Liang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background In asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), increased cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production in the secretion of nasal mucosa has been associated with greater bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) after nasal allergen challenge. However, the role of CysLTs in eliciting BHR after nasal allergen challenge has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LTD4 nasal challenge on BHR and inflammation in asthmatic patients with AR. Methods In this self-controlled study, fifteen eligible consecutively recruited subjects underwent methacholine (Mch) bronchial provocation test before and 30 minutes after LTD4 nasal provocation test. The cumulative concentration of LTD4 inducing a 60% increase in nasal airway resistance (PC60NAR) was calculated. The mean values of cumulative doses inducing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory flow in one second (PD20FEV1) for Mch before and after nasal challenge were compared. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), differential inflammatory cell counts in nasal lavage and induced sputum before and after nasal challenge were compared. Results House dust mites were the major allergens accounting for 10/15 (66.7%) of asthmatic patients with AR. The PC60NAR for LT was (8.39±3.48)×10−3 mg·mL−1. The PD20FEV1 before and after nasal challenge was 3.05±3.81 and 2.70±3.81 µmol, respectively (P=0.45). The percentages of eosinophils were (38.36±23.14)% and (45.70±24.86)% in nasal lavage, and (17.51±11.05)% and (24.29±16.52)% in induced sputum before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. The neutrophil counts were (60.64±23.14)% and (53.30±24.46)% in nasal lavage, and (53.83±23.27)% and (56.19±22.28)% in induced sputum before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. The values of FeNO were 40 [35] and 43 [30] ppb before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. No severe adverse effects were reported during the tests. Conclusions Although most asthmatic patients with AR were sensitive to LTD4 nasal

  17. Design of an intraoperative peritoneal lavage device.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Maria Ignacia; Pino, Esteban J

    2016-08-01

    This paper consists of the design and construction of an intraoperative peritoneal lavage device. It is intended for cleaning the intra-abdominal cavity during a surgical procedure, once the etiology of a peritonitis has been identified and treated. Its purpose is to improve the current standard treatment consisting of simple pouring saline solution. A good washing procedure aids stopping the inflammatory and infectious process generated after the contamination due to the perforation of a hollow viscera. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to simulate the biomechanical behavior of the liver against localized pressure. A graphical interface allows the user to predict liver deformation under different fluid pressures and positions simulating the lavage procedure. A preliminary prototype was implemented and a clinical trial was approved in an animal model. Three intraperitoneal structures belonging to a sheep were analyzed to observe the effect of the lavage. In closing, the final prototype implemented delivers a maximum force of 0.08 [N] and a pressure of 25.6 [kPa], and complied with the specialist's expectations.

  18. [Nasal fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Sannia; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-03-07

    The risk of complications warrants treatment of most dislocated nasal fractures. Other injuries including other facial fractures and septal haematoma must be treated if present at the initial presentation. The usual treatment for a simple nasal fracture is closed reduction in local anaesthesia after five to seven days. Complicated cases require open reduction in general anaesthesia. Later revision of the deviated nose may become necessary in patients suffering from complications such as persistent nasal stenosis and/or deformity.

  19. The supernumerary nasal tooth.

    PubMed

    Kirmeier, R; Truschnegg, A; Payer, M; Malyk, J; Daghighi, S; Jakse, N

    2009-11-01

    Teeth exceeding the normal dental complement that have erupted into the nasal cavity are a rare pathological entity. This case report describes a female patient with recurrent complaints and fetid discharge from the left nasal cavity. The suspected clinical diagnosis of a supernumerary nasal tooth was confirmed by computed tomography. After endoscopic removal, the tooth was examined using X-ray microtomography and thin-section preparations; these findings are presented for the first time. A literature search identified 25 supernumerary nasal teeth in 23 patients.

  20. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  1. Histamine release upon adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) nasal provocation in allergic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, R; Pagano, C; Prosperini, G; Low, J; Dokic, D; Church, M; Crimi, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nasal provocation with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) elicits nasal symptoms in subjects with rhinitis. Histamine released from mast cells may play a part in AMP induced nasal responses.
METHODS—Symptoms of rhinitis were recorded and histamine release in the fluid obtained by nasal lavage after AMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), and placebo instillations was measured in nine subjects with allergic rhinitis and nine non-allergic controls in a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study.
RESULTS—No symptoms or significant increases in histamine were observed after GMP and placebo challenge. Significantly higher levels of histamine were seen in the nasal lavage fluids of allergic subjects following AMP challenge than in non-allergic controls, the median (range) histamine concentration increasing from the baseline value of 1.62 (0.44-6.99) ng/ml to 6.45 (0.81-16.17) ng/ml at three minutes. No increase in histamine levels was seen in the non-allergic subjects in whom the median histamine concentration was 1.13 (0.29-4.25) ng/ml at baseline and 0.97 (0.31-5.89) ng/ml three minutes after AMP challenge.
CONCLUSIONS—AMP elicits an immediate rise in histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid of allergic subjects compared with non-allergic individuals. These findings indicate that the exaggerated nasal response to adenosine may reflect mast cell priming in vivo, thus supporting its application as a potential new marker of allergic inflammation.

 PMID:10325898

  2. Saving green ash

    Treesearch

    J. Romero-Severson; Jennifer L. Koch

    2017-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) continues to kill ash trees in North America at an alarmingly fast pace. Although EAB is a threat to all species of ash (Fraxinus) in the United States, green ash (F. pennsylvanica) is among the most susceptible. Among the most commonly planted landscape trees in the United States, green ash is also an important species...

  3. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  4. Antiseptic vs. saline lavage in purulent and faecal peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Vallance, S; Waldron, R

    1985-03-01

    A prospective randomized trial compared antiseptic solutions and normal saline as a means of preventing morbidity and mortality from residual sepsis in patients with generalized peritonitis. Fifty-three patients, all given broad-spectrum antibiotics, were entered into the study. Twenty patients received a saline lavage, 19 lavage with chlorhexidine-gluconate and 14 a saline lavage with instillation of povidone-iodine. All deaths were due either to the severity of the presenting disease or co-existing complicating conditions. The incidence of postoperative pyrexia, wound infection and duration of hospital stay of the surviving patients were unaffected by lavage grouping.

  5. Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Naclerio, R.M.; Fitzgerald, T.K.; Kagey-Sobotka, A.; Proud, D. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of oxidant inhalation on allergic illness is of interest because allergic patients often report increased respiratory symptoms during episodes of poor air quality, and epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of the air pollutant ozone and exacerbations of asthma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the upper respiratory response to ozone inhalation in asymptomatic, allergic subjects and to determine whether ozone pre-exposure increased the acute response to nasal challenge with antigen in these subjects. A group of 12 asymptomatic subjects with a history of allergic rhinitis were exposed in a randomized, cross-over design, at rest, on each of 2 days, separated by 2 wk, to 4 h of clean air or 0.5 ppm ozone in an environmental chamber. Following the exposure period, subjects underwent nasal challenge with four doses of antigen (1 to 1,000 PNU ragweed or grass). Symptoms were rated and nasal lavage performed after each dose. Measurement of histamine and albumin concentration and TAME-esterase activity and determination of cell counts and differentials were performed. Exposure to ozone caused significant increases in upper and lower respiratory symptoms, a mixed inflammatory cell influx with a sevenfold increase in naval lavage neutrophils, a 20-fold increase in eosinophils, and a tenfold increase in mononuclear cells, as well as an apparent sloughing of epithelial cells. There was a significant increase in nasal lavage albumin concentration on the ozone exposure day and a small increase in nasal lavage histamine concentration on both the ozone and clean air exposure days. TAME-esterase activity showed no significant increase overall, but increased at least twofold in 5 of 12 subjects.

  6. Nasality in Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ho-hsien

    2004-01-01

    This study used perceptual and articulatory data to investigate a language specific phonemic inventory, and allophonic rules for homorganic initial voiced stops versus homorganic nasal stops, and oral versus nasal vowels in Taiwanese. Four experiments were conducted: concept formation, gating, and two airflow studies. Results of a first nasal…

  7. Nasality in Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ho-hsien

    2004-01-01

    This study used perceptual and articulatory data to investigate a language specific phonemic inventory, and allophonic rules for homorganic initial voiced stops versus homorganic nasal stops, and oral versus nasal vowels in Taiwanese. Four experiments were conducted: concept formation, gating, and two airflow studies. Results of a first nasal…

  8. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  9. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    PubMed

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  10. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  11. Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Csaba, Noemi; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Alonso, Maria Jose

    2009-02-27

    The great interest in mucosal vaccine delivery arises from the fact that mucosal surfaces represent the major site of entry for many pathogens. Among other mucosal sites, nasal delivery is especially attractive for immunization, as the nasal epithelium is characterized by relatively high permeability, low enzymatic activity and by the presence of an important number of immunocompetent cells. In addition to these advantageous characteristics, the nasal route could offer simplified and more cost-effective protocols for vaccination with improved patient compliance. The use of nanocarriers provides a suitable way for the nasal delivery of antigenic molecules. Besides improved protection and facilitated transport of the antigen, nanoparticulate delivery systems could also provide more effective antigen recognition by immune cells. These represent key factors in the optimal processing and presentation of the antigen, and therefore in the subsequent development of a suitable immune response. In this sense, the design of optimized vaccine nanocarriers offers a promising way for nasal mucosal vaccination.

  12. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  13. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  14. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  15. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  16. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  17. Emerald ash borer infestation of ash stumps

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Buprestidae), was first found in North America in 2002. Eradication efforts are currently underway for this insect in both Canada and the United States. As part of the eradication program, thousands of ash trees are cut and chipped. Ash trees are known to produce stump sprouts, and therefore...

  18. Nasal septal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K D; Carpenter, R J; Kern, E B

    1979-07-01

    If the septal component of a nasal injury is adequately managed, usually the entire nasal injury will be well managed. Major or minor nasal trauma can cause cartilage fracture, deviation, dislocation, hematoma, or abscess formation, and the various associated sequelae, some of them life-threatening. A negative x-ray report should never be used as a substitute for a complete intranasal examination in any child with nasal trauma. Any nasal abnormality should be referred for immediate evaluation and treatment.

  19. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... best for decreasing symptoms during that season. Several brands of nasal corticosteroid sprays are available. They all ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by an allergy to pollen, mold, dust, or pets). Budesonide nasal spray should not be used to ... disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, ...

  1. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    MedlinePlus

    ... B12 can cause anemia (condition in which the red blood cells do not bring enough oxygen to the organs) ... be treated with vitamin B12 injections. After the red blood cells have returned to normal, cyanocobalamin nasal gel can ...

  2. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  3. Chapter 6: Nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Settipane, Russell A; Peters, Anju T; Chiu, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps occur in 1-4% of the population, usually occurring in the setting of an underlying local or systemic disease. The most common associated condition is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). A high prevalence of nasal polyps is also seen in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and cystic fibrosis. In the setting of CRS, nasal polyps are not likely to be cured by either medical or surgical therapy; however, control is generally attainable. The best medical evidence supports the use of intranasal corticosteroids for maintenance therapy and short courses of oral corticosteroids for exacerbations. The evidence for short- and long-term antibiotics is much less robust. For patients with symptomatic nasal polyposis nonresponsive to medical therapies, functional endoscopic sinus surgery provides an adjunctive therapeutic option.

  4. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  5. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be sure you only use distilled, boiled, or filtered water. While rare, some tap water may contain small ... pot or nasal bulb with distilled, boiled, or filtered water after every use and let it dry. Use ...

  6. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion

    PubMed Central

    Naclerio, Robert M; Bachert, Claus; Baraniuk, James N

    2010-01-01

    Nasal congestion is a common symptom in rhinitis (both allergic and nonallergic), rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Congestion can also be caused by physical obstruction of nasal passages and/or modulation of sensory perception. Mucosal inflammation underlies many of the specific and interrelated factors that contribute to nasal congestion, as well as other symptoms of both allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. A wide range of biologically active agents (eg, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, cell adhesion molecules) and cell types contribute to inflammation, which can manifest as venous engorgement, increased nasal secretions and tissue swelling/edema, ultimately leading to impaired airflow and the sensation of nasal congestion. Inflammation-induced changes in the properties of sensory afferents (eg, expression of peptides and receptors) that innervate the nose can also contribute to altered sensory perception, which may result in a subjective feeling of congestion. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying inflammation can facilitate improved treatment selection and the development of new therapies for congestion. PMID:20463823

  7. Titanium Mesh Nasal Repair without Nasal Lining.

    PubMed

    Zenga, Joseph; Kao, Katherine; Chen, Collin; Gross, Jennifer; Hahn, Samuel; Chi, John J; Branham, Gregory H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe outcomes for patients who underwent titanium mesh reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects without internal lining repair. This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with through-and-through nasal defects were identified at a single academic institution between 2008 and 2016. Nasal reconstruction was performed with either titanium mesh and external skin reconstruction without repair of the intranasal lining or traditional three-layer closure. Five patients underwent titanium mesh reconstruction and 11 underwent traditional three-layer repair. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-66 months). The only significant difference between groups was older age in patients undergoing titanium reconstruction (mean, 81 vs. 63 years; difference of 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-32 years). Defect extent including overall size and structures removed was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Paramedian forehead flap was the most common external reconstruction in both groups (100% for titanium mesh and 73% for three-layer closure). Time under anesthesia was significantly shorter for titanium mesh reconstruction (median, 119 vs. 314 minutes; difference of 195; 95% CI, 45-237). Estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Complication rates were substantial although not significantly different, 40 and 36% in titanium and three-layer reconstruction, respectively (p > 0.05). All patients with complications after titanium reconstruction had prior or postoperative radiotherapy. Titanium mesh reconstruction of through-and-through nasal defects can successfully be performed without reconstruction of the intranasal lining, significantly decreasing operative times. This reconstructive technique may not be suitable for patients who undergo radiotherapy.

  8. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Bahgat, Mohammed; Bahgat, Yassin; Bahgat, Ahmed; Elwany, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is a rare malignancy. When it occurs, early diagnosis is difficult because patients generally present with common, non-specific sinonasal complaints. This is the report of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month history of nasal obstruction, headache and anosmia. Nasal endoscopy showed a nasal mass obstructing both nasal cavities not separable from the septum. A wedge biopsy of the nasal mass was taken. Histopathology was suggestive of chondrosarcoma. The tumour was removed by an endoscopic approach. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this case as well as a review of the literature are discussed. PMID:22669930

  10. Human nasal mucosal changes after exposure to urban pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Garcia, R; Sanchez, G; Barragan, G; Camacho, R; Ramirez, L

    1994-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are living in areas where ozone (O3) concentrations exceed health standards (an hourly average of 235 micrograms/m3/0.12 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year). Ozone induces acute nasal inflammatory responses and significant epithelial lesions in experimental animals and humans. To determine the nasal effects of a 15-day exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere with O3 as the main pollutant, we studied a population of healthy, young males newly arrived to southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC). The study included 49 non-smoking residents in an unpolluted port, Veracruz City; 14 subjects stayed in the port and served as controls, while 35 subjects traveled to SWMMC and had serial nasal lavages at different times after arriving in SWMMC. Subjects had exposures to ambient O3 an average of 10.2 hr/day, with a total cumulative O3 exposure of 10.644 ppm.hr. Nasal inflammatory responses, polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMN-CD11b surface expression, rhinoscopic changes, and respiratory symptoms were evaluated. Exposed subjects had massive nasal epithelial shedding and significant responses in PMN nasal influx (p < 0.00001) and in PMN-CD11b expression (p < 0.05). Cumulative O3 exposure correlated with respiratory symptoms, PMNs (rs = 0.2374, p < 0.01), and CD11b (rs = 0.3094, p < 0.01); 94% of exposed subjects experienced respiratory symptoms, and 97% left the city with an abnormal nasal mucosa by rhinoscopy. Nasal epithelial changes persisted 2 weeks after the exposed subjects returned to their nonpolluted environment. Exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere induces significant and persistent nasal epithelial alterations in healthy subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 2. E Figure 2. F Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:7713020

  11. Infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Patrick; Crotty, Paul L; Hamilton, Sam; Colreavy, Michael; McShane, Donald

    2005-03-01

    Angiomatous nasal polyps are a rarely reported subtype of inflammatory sinonasal polyps that are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. Compromise of their vascular supply may occasionally lead to infarction, resulting in clinical, radiological and pathological features that simulate a neoplastic process. In the present paper, the salient characteristics of this unusual entity are described. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of two patients with infarcted angiomatous nasal polyps are presented. Grossly, the polyps had an unusual inhomogenous appearance and texture and were associated with a foul odor. CT findings included bony expansion and destruction. MRI findings included markedly inhomogenous contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. Histopathologically, both cases showed abundant vascular ectasia, with widespread intraluminal thrombosis and necrosis. Recanalization and reparative changes were also present. Angiomatous nasal polyps are poorly documented in the literature. Although entirely benign, they may simulate neoplastic processes, thus awareness of their existence is of considerable importance.

  12. Vitreous lavage fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid have equal diagnostic value in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Inaba, Tohru; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-12-01

    Here, we elucidate the immunological features of both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and vitreous lavage fluid (VLF) samples from patients with histopathologically verified sarcoidosis. In addition, we assess the safety of vitrectomy in sarcoidosis patients by investigating the occurrence of complications and the recovery of visual acuity.Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with tissue-proven sarcoidosis were enrolled in this study. BALF and VLF samples were obtained and compared in each patient, and the clinical course (including visual acuity) was followed. The presence of sarcoidosis was assessed with a flow cytometric analysis of T-lymphocytes in the BALF and VLF samples.Our results indicated that the CD4 T-cell population and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly higher in the VLF T-lymphocytes than the BALF T-lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CD8+ T-cell population was significantly lower in the VLF T-lymphocytes.Therefore, our findings suggest that VLF samples have a high diagnostic value (equal to that of BALF samples) for sarcoidosis. Moreover, we found that the sample collection did not affect visual acuity and that there were no adverse events after surgery. A flow cytometric analysis of a VLF sample may therefore be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  13. Vitreous lavage fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid have equal diagnostic value in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Inaba, Tohru; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we elucidate the immunological features of both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and vitreous lavage fluid (VLF) samples from patients with histopathologically verified sarcoidosis. In addition, we assess the safety of vitrectomy in sarcoidosis patients by investigating the occurrence of complications and the recovery of visual acuity. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with tissue-proven sarcoidosis were enrolled in this study. BALF and VLF samples were obtained and compared in each patient, and the clinical course (including visual acuity) was followed. The presence of sarcoidosis was assessed with a flow cytometric analysis of T-lymphocytes in the BALF and VLF samples. Our results indicated that the CD4 T-cell population and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly higher in the VLF T-lymphocytes than the BALF T-lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CD8+ T-cell population was significantly lower in the VLF T-lymphocytes. Therefore, our findings suggest that VLF samples have a high diagnostic value (equal to that of BALF samples) for sarcoidosis. Moreover, we found that the sample collection did not affect visual acuity and that there were no adverse events after surgery. A flow cytometric analysis of a VLF sample may therefore be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:27930546

  14. Subacute inhalation toxicity assessment of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ilseob; Oh, Eunha; Yang, Sangyoung; Ryu, Taekwon; Soh, Jaewon; Sul, Donggeun; Kim, Pilje

    2012-09-01

    Fly ash from industrial waste incinerators has been a significant concern because of their constituent toxic heavy metals and organic compounds. The objective of this study was to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators, using whole body inhalation exposure chambers. Male and female groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fly ash by inhalation of concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200 mg/m(3), for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight, and relative organ weight to body weight, between the exposure groups and the control group. Hematological examinations revealed a significant increase of monocyte counts in fly ash exposed rats and brown pigment laden macrophage was found in the lungs of rats exposed to high concentration of fly ash. A decrease of blood glucose levels and an increase in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activity were observed in fly ash treated rats. There was also a significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase levels in rat blood exposed fly ash. A significant dose-dependent increase of DNA damage was found in lymphocytes, spleen, bronchoalveolar lavage, liver, lung, and thymus of rats exposed to fly ash. In addition, the level of lipid peroxidation was increased in the plasma of rats exposed to a high concentration of fly ash. These results suggest that inhalation of fly ash from industrial waste incinerators can induce histopathologic, hematological, and serum biochemical changes and oxidative damage.

  15. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  16. Nasalance in Cochlear Implantees

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, N; Lepcha, Anjali; Mathew, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Speech intelligibility is severely affected in children with congenital profound hearing loss. Hypernasality is a problem commonly encountered in their speech. Auditory information received from cochlear implants is expected to be far superior to that from hearing aids. Our study aimed at comparing the percentages of nasality in the speech of the cochlear implantees with hearing aid users and also with children with normal hearing. Methods Three groups of subjects took part in the study. Groups I and II comprised 12 children each, in the age range of 4-10 years, with prelingual bilateral profound hearing loss, using multichannel cochlear implants and digital hearing aids respectively. Both groups had received at least one year of speech therapy intervention since cochlear implant surgery and hearing aid fitting respectively. The third group consisted of age-matched and sex-matched children with normal hearing. The subjects were asked to say a sentence which consisted of only oral sounds and no nasal sounds ("Buy baby a bib"). The nasalance score as a percentage was calculated. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the children using hearing aids showed a high percentage of nasalance in their speech. The cochlear implantees showed a lower percentage of nasalance compared to children using hearing aids, but did not match with their normal hearing peers. Conclusion The quality of speech of the cochlear implantees was superior to that of the hearing aid users, but did not match with the normal controls. The study suggests that acoustic variables still exist after cochlear implantation in children, with hearing impairments at deviant levels, which needs attention. Further research needs to be carried out to explore the effect of the age at implantation as a variable in reducing nasality in the speech and attaining normative values in cochlear implantees, and also between unilateral versus bilateral implantees. PMID:26330912

  17. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction.

  18. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Large rhinolith causing nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dincer Kose, Onur; Kose, Taha Emre; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoliths are calcified masses located in the nasal cavity and may cause symptoms such as nasal obstruction, fetid odour and facial pain. They are usually diagnosed incidentally on radiographic examinations or depending on the symptoms. In this paper we report a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a calcified mass in the right nasal cavity causing nasal obstruction, anosmia and facial pain. The calcified mass was removed by endonasal approach. PMID:25759270

  20. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  1. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  2. Lysosomal exoglycosidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Chojnowska, Sylwia; Minarowska, Alina; Knaś, Małgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Kołodziejczyk, Paweł; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowski, Łukasz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nasal polyps are smooth outgrowths assuming a shape of grapes, formed from the nasal mucosa, limiting air flow by projecting into a lumen of a nasal cavity. Up to now the surgical resection is the best method of their treatment, but etiology and pathogenesis of the nasal polyps is not yet fully established. The aim of the study was the assessment of the selected lysosomal exoglycosidases activity in the nasal polyps. In this study the activity of β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase was determined in the tissue of the nasal polyps obtained from 40 patients (10F, 30M) and control tissues derived from mucosa of lower nasal conchas obtained during mucotomy from 20 patients (10F, 10M). We observed significant lower values of GAL, FUC and tendency to decrease of MAN and GLU concentration in nasal polyps (P) in comparison to control healthy nasal mucosa (C). In nasal polyp tissue (P) no differences of GAL, MAN and FUC specific activity in comparison to control mucosa (C) were found. Our research supports bioelectrical theory of the nasal polyps pathogenesis and directs attention at research on glycoconjugates and glycosidases of the nasal mucosa extracellular matrix. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  4. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  5. California Dust and Ash

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Airborne Dust and Ash over Southern California     ... during late fall and winter swept large amounts of dust and ash across the skies of San Diego and over the Pacific Ocean on November 27, ...

  6. Biomass ash utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B.; Parker, B.

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  7. The nasal dendritic cell-targeting Flt3 ligand as a safe adjuvant elicits effective protection against fatal pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Oma, Keita; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Hollingshead, Susan K; Sekine, Shinichi; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ito, Hiro-O; Briles, David E; Oishi, Kazunori

    2011-07-01

    We have previously shown that a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-based vaccine containing DNA plasmid encoding the Flt3 ligand (FL) gene (pFL) as a nasal adjuvant prevented nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we further investigated the safety and efficacy of this nasal vaccine for the induction of PspA-specific antibody (Ab) responses against lung infection with S. pneumoniae. C57BL/6 mice were nasally immunized with recombinant PspA/Rx1 (rPspA) plus pFL three times at weekly intervals. When dynamic translocation of pFL was initially examined, nasal pFL was taken up by nasal dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cells (nECs) but not in the central nervous systems, including olfactory nerve and epithelium. Of importance, nasal pFL induced FL protein synthesis with minimum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nasal washes (NWs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). NWs and BALF as well as plasma of mice given nasal rPspA plus pFL contained increased levels of rPspA-specific secretory IgA and IgG Ab responses that were correlated with elevated numbers of CD8(+) and CD11b(+) DCs and interleukin 2 (IL-2)- and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in the nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). The in vivo protection by rPspA-specific Abs was evident in markedly reduced numbers of CFU in the lungs, airway secretions, and blood when mice were nasally challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae WU2. Our findings show that nasal pFL is a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant for the enhancement of bacterial antigen (Ag) (rPspA)-specific protective immunity through DC-induced Th2-type and IL-2 cytokine responses.

  8. Comparison of nasal acceleration and nasalance across vowels.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Elias B; Virnik, Boris T; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using the KayPentax Nasometer II. Speech stimuli consisted of CVC syllables with the vowels (//, /æ/, /i/, /u/) and sentences loaded with high front, high back, low front, and low back vowels in both nasal and nonnasal contexts. NNA showed a small but significant effect of the vowel produced during syllable stimuli but no significant effect of vowel loading during sentence stimuli. Nasalance was significantly affected by the vowel being produced during both syllables and sentences with large effect sizes. Both NNA and nasalance were highly sensitive and specific to nasalization. NNA was less affected by vowel than nasalance. Discrimination of nasal versus nonnasal stimuli using NNA and nasalance was comparable, suggesting potential for use of NNA for biofeedback applications. Future work to improve calibration of NNA is needed to lower intersubject variability.

  9. Routine nasal packing follwoing nasal surgery-Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Basha, S I; Gupta, D; Kaluskar, S K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of routine nasal packing after nasal surgery is usually customary and not evidence based. Post operative complications, while uncoumon, are sometimes pack related. A retrospective analysis of 110 patients who underwent a variety of nasal operations was performed to determine the incidence of complications when nasal packs were not routinely inserted 9 cases (8.2%) [6 out of these were revision surgeries] needed nasal packing for haemostasis at the end of surgery. 4 cases (3.6%) required to be packed in the immediate post operative period. One patient who required nasal packing developed a unilateral adhesion. No patient developed septal hematoma. The need for routine nasal packing is not supported. Packing should be indicated where there continuous bleeding at.

  10. Asymmetric Ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  11. Alpha ash transport and ash control

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Hu, S.C.; Varadarajan, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses: thermal {alpha}-particle transport is a crucial issue in ash buildup. The transport will determine if buildup prevents ignition and if external control is necessary. Due to uncertainties in the transport coefficients, 1-1/2-D sensitivity study of the influence on the fusion power density is done using the BALDUR code. The Baldur simulations with varying diffusion coefficients for ash plasma are performed. The results of ash transport in the presence of sawteeth and varying edge conditions are discussed. Also, the nature of the fishbone oscillation in the presence of two hot species consisting of hot alphas and beam injected ions is discussed. The sawteeth and fishbones can be potential mechanisms for enhanced ash transport; the latter will indirectly influence the ash transport.

  12. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  13. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  14. Magnetism of cigarette ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Henry, Bernard; Le Goff, Maxime; Dimov, Dimo; Tsacheva, Tsenka

    2006-06-01

    Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively high amount of magnetic iron minerals, similar to that in wood ash from our study and other literature data. Magnetization data suggest that cigarette ashes contain some 0.1 wt% or lower quantity of magnetite, depending on the brand. Analyses of magnetic mineralogy imply that the main magnetic minerals in ashes from higher quality cigarette brands are magnetite and iron carbide cementite, while in ashes from lower quality brands without additives magnetic minerals are pure and substituted with foreign ions magnetite. Magnetic grain-size analysis shows that cigarette ashes contain significant amount of very fine, nano-meter sized magnetic particles, as well as coarser (up to several microns), magnetically stable grains. Thus, the magnetic study of cigarette ashes proved that these plant ashes possess non-negligible magnetic properties. The results could serve for better elucidation of mineralogy of cigarette ashes as a whole, as well as for future investigation on the presence of magnetic ultra fine particles in cigarette smoke, which may be inhaled in lungs during smoking.

  15. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.

  16. Management of nasal hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Marcelo; Mascareno, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas commonly involve the nose. Because of the nose's prominence as an aesthetically and functionally sensitive area, management of these lesions has important implications. The available options including medical therapy, lasers, and surgery are reviewed with recommendations specific to nasal tip and lobule lesions based on the senior author's (M.H.) experience.

  17. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rinse the tip of the dispenser with hot water or wipe it clean after you use it.Follow the directions for using the nasal spray that appear on the package label. If you are using a product that comes in a pump dispenser, press down on the rim several times ...

  18. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  19. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  20. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs.

  1. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  2. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation.

  3. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation. PMID:27438569

  4. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage: our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Amilcare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Petrina, Adolfo; Trastulli, Stefano; Grassi, Veronica; Sani, Marco; Pironi, Daniele; Santoro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. Aim This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Material and methods We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique); 21 (30%) patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7%) patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. Results The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients). In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. Conclusions Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. PMID:27458487

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage in HIV infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed Central

    de Blic, J; Blanche, S; Danel, C; Le Bourgeois, M; Caniglia, M; Scheinmann, P

    1989-01-01

    The value of taking microbiological and cytological specimens by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage under local anaesthesia was assessed on 43 occasions in 35 HIV infected children, aged 3 months to 16 years, with interstitial pneumonitis. In acute interstitial pneumonitis (n = 22, 26 specimens from bronchoalveolar lavages) the microbiological yield was 73%, Pneumocystis carinii being the commonest infective agent (n = 14). P carinii pneumonia was found only in children with deficient antigen induced lymphocyte proliferative responses who had not been treated with long term prophylactic co-trimoxazole. In contrast, in 13 children with chronic interstitial pneumonitis that was consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage on 17 occasions, there were two isolates of cytomegalovirus and one of adenovirus, but P carinii was not found. Ten of the 13 children had normal antigen induced lymphocyte proliferative responses. Useful cytological data were also gleaned from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Lymphocytosis was significantly higher in pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (36(SD 11)%) than in P carinii pneumonia (24(19)%) whereas the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was significantly lower (3(2)% compared with 12(13)%). Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is safe even in young infants and should reduce the necessity for open lung biopsy in the management of HIV infected children with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:2817943

  6. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell pattern from healthy human lung

    PubMed Central

    Heron, M; Grutters, J C; ten Dam-Molenkamp, K M; Hijdra, D; van Heugten-Roeling, A; Claessen, A M E; Ruven, H J T; van den Bosch, J M M; van Velzen-Blad, H

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is widely accepted as a key diagnostic procedure in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We performed a study to obtain reference intervals of differential cell patterns in BAL fluid with special attention to the origin of lavage fluid, e.g. bronchial/alveolar, to atopy and smoking status and to age of the healthy people. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage in 55 healthy subjects with known atopy status (age: 18–64 years, non-smokers/smokers: 34/21) and determined differential cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in BAL fluid and blood. Moreover, in a subgroup of non-smoking healthy individuals we measured the expression of the regulatory T cell marker forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) on blood and BAL fluid lymphocytes in addition to a comprehensive set of activation markers. Differential cell counts from the alveolar lavage fraction differed significantly from calculated pooled fractions (n = 11). In contrast, marginal differences were found between atopic and non-atopic subjects. Interestingly, the BAL fluid CD4+/CD8+ ratio correlated strongly with age (r2 = 0·50, P < 0·0001). We consider the bronchial and alveolar fraction to be lavage fluid from fundamentally different compartments and recommend analysis of the alveolar fraction in diagnostic work-up of ILD. In addition, our data suggest that age corrected BAL fluid CD4+/CD8+ ratios should be used in the clinical evaluation of patients with interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22288596

  7. Sulforaphane induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan; Kesic, Matthew J.; Clarke, John; Ho, Emily; Simmen, Rosalia C.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cells lining the respiratory tract are equipped with mechanisms that dampen the effects of oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a mediator involved in regulating oxidative stress. Recent data indicate Nrf2 also controls expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, enhances Nrf2 activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that SFN supplementation induces SLPI secretion in the nasal mucosa in an Nrf2 dependent manner. Healthy nonsmoking adults ingested SFN-containing broccoli shake homogenate (BSH) for 3 consecutive days. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was collected before and after BSH ingestion and analyzed for SLPI protein levels. In follow up in vitro experiments, differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells were used to evaluate the relationship between SFN, Nrf2, and SLPI. Epithelial cells were transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA to examine the regulatory role of Nrf2 on SLPI expression. Supplementation with BSH significantly increased SLPI levels in NLF. SFN supplementation in vitro significantly enhanced SLPI secretion and these effects were significantly decreased in cells transduced with Nrf2-specific shRNA. PMID:23195333

  8. Persulphate challenge in female hairdressers with nasal hyperreactivity suggests immune cell, but no IgE reaction.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Truedsson, Lennart; Albin, Maria; Nielsen, Jørn

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of persulphate on the nasal mucosa and on the immune cells in hairdressers suffering from bleaching powder associated rhinitis (BAR) versus subjects with rhinitis not previously exposed to bleaching powder. Fifteen hairdressers (S) with BAR, 14 without symptoms (WS) and 12 atopics (A) with rhinitis but without exposure to bleaching powder were studied. Each performed a nasal challenge with persulphates. Effect parameters were symptom score, acoustic rhinometry, albumin in nasal lavage, subpopulations of lymphocytes in blood and specific serum antibodies. The S group had a post-challenge increase in nasal symptoms and nasal lavage albumin. The A group reacted to a lesser intent. The S and A groups showed an increase in Th1 cells. An HLA class II cell expression was noticed in both groups of hairdressers. No evidence of a type 1 reaction (immediate type) to persulphate was noticed. Persulphate challenge affects hairdressers with BAR, but also atopics. The reaction may be driven by a Th1 cell activation.

  9. [Differential proteins analysis among human nasal inverted papilloma and nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-shu; Jin, Sheng; Zhang, Qiu-hang; Zhang, Man

    2010-04-01

    Proteomics-based approach was applied to analyze and compare the difference of proteins among human nasal inverted papilloma (NIP), nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa, in order to screen different proteins as marker. The total proteins of NIP, nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Protein image obtained by using the gel of Calibrated GS-800 Densitometer system, and determined different protein spots. Six differential proteins between NIP and nasal polyp tissue were identified, which were galectin-1, Manganese-superoxide dismutase, galectin-7, trichostatin A, prohibitin and transferring. All of them were increased in NIP. Six differential proteins were possibly involved in NIP, which provided a new way for discriminating NIP from nasal polyposis. The data would be good for the establishment of NIP protein 2-DE map.

  10. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  11. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  12. Impact of airflow communication between nasal cavities on nasal ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing; Huang, Qian; Cui, Shunjiu; Liu, Yingxi; Han, Demin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of airflow communication between bilateral nostril sides on nasal ventilation. In addition, we try to validate the efficacy of the Draf III procedure from the aerodynamics perspective. One health model and two disease models were constructed. These included 2 patients with nasal septum perforation and 1 patient who received the Draf III procedure. With the computational fluid dynamics method, indices such as airflow velocity and wall shear stress in the nasal cavity were detected and compared among the 3 subjects. The main pathway for airflow in the nasal cavity is the common meatus. Little airflow exchange occurred in the patient who underwent the Draf III procedure, and the wall shear stress around the communication site was as low as in the adjacent areas. However, when airflow communication occurred in the lower part of the nasal cavity, the airflow velocity and wall shear stress were obviously altered, and the ventilation function of the nasal cavity was impaired. Airflow communication in the upper part of the nasal cavity has little impact on nasal ventilation. Nonetheless, airflow communication occurring in the lower part of the nasal cavity disturbs the overall airflow distribution and a repair procedure is necessary. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Some acoustic features of nasal and nasalized vowels: a target for vowel nasalization.

    PubMed

    Feng, G; Castelli, E

    1996-06-01

    In order to characterize acoustic properties of nasal and nasalized vowels, these sounds will be considered as a dynamic trend from an oral configuration toward an [n]-like configuration. The latter can be viewed as a target for vowel nasalization. This target corresponds to the pharyngonasal tract and it can be modeled, with some simplifications, by a single tract without any parallel paths. Thus the first two resonance frequencies (at about 300 and 1000 Hz) characterize this target well. A series of measurements has been carried out in order to describe the acoustic characteristics of the target. Measured transfer functions confirm the resonator nature of the low-frequency peak. The introduction of such a target allows the conception of the nasal vowels as a trend beginning with a simple configuration, which is terminated in the same manner, so allowing the complex nasal phenomena to be bounded. A complete study of pole-zero evolutions for the nasalization of the 11 French vowels is presented. It allows the proposition of a common strategy for the nasalization of all vowels, so a true nasal vowel can be placed in this nasalization frame. The measured transfer functions for several French nasal vowels are also given.

  14. Nasal airflow during respiratory cycle.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Kyu; Son, Young Rak; Shin, Seok Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge on the airflow patterns in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the function of the nasal cavity. This study has attempted to observe the breath cycle of nasal airflow during respiration at rest. We constructed a nasal cavity model by rapid prototyping using 1.25-mm-thick CT data and devised a piston pump driven by a cam, to simulate respiration at rest. The airflow was evaluated with particle image velocimetry and visualized in coronal reconstructed images. During the inspiration, a maximal velocity was observed at the valve area and the main stream occurred in the middle and superior airways. During the expiration, main stream was noted in the middle airway and was slow compared with the flow during inspiration. Vortexes were observed between inspiration and expiration. This result widens our knowledge of nasal airflow and this technique will allow a more physiological understanding of nasal operations.

  15. Novel applications for a noninvasive sampling method of the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Speen, Adam M; Clapp, Phillip W; Jaspers, Ilona

    2017-02-01

    Reliable methods for sampling the nasal mucosa provide clinical researchers with key information regarding respiratory biomarkers of exposure and disease. For quick and noninvasive sampling of the nasal mucosa, nasal lavage (NL) collection has been widely used as a clinical tool; however, limitations including volume variability, sample dilution, and storage prevent NL collection from being used in nonlaboratory settings and analysis of low abundance biomarkers. In this study, we optimize and validate a novel methodology using absorbent Leukosorb paper cut to fit the nasal passage to extract epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from the nasal mucosa. The ELF sampling method limits the dilution of soluble mediators, allowing quantification of both high- and low-abundance soluble biomarkers such as IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, we demonstrate that this method can successfully detect the presence of respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus and markers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the nasal mucosa. Efficacy of ELF collection by this method is not diminished in consecutive-day sampling, and percent recovery of both recombinant IL-8 and soluble mediators are not changed despite freezing or room temperature storage for 24 h. Our results indicate that ELF collection using Leukosorb paper sampling of ELF provides a sensitive, easy-to-use, and reproducible methodology to collect concentrated amounts of soluble biomarkers from the nasal mucosa. Moreover, the methodology described herein improves upon the standard NL collection method and provides researchers with a novel tool to assess changes in nasal mucosal host defense status.

  16. HIF-1α Inhibition Reduces Nasal Inflammation in a Murine Allergic Rhinitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Lu-Ping; Cheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that nasal allergic inflammation is attenuated by HIF-1α inhibition and strengthened by HIF-1α stabilization. Objective To elucidate the role of HIF-1α in a murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods Mice were pretreated with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or the HIF-1α inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in an established AR murine model using ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice. HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in nasal mucosa was measured and multiple parameters of allergic responses were evaluated. Results HIF-1α and VEGF levels were locally up-regulated in nasal mucosa during AR. Inflammatory responses to OVA challenge, including nasal symptoms, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophil recruitment, up-regulation of T-helper type 2 cytokines in nasal lavage fluid, and serum OVA-specific IgE levels were present in the OVA-challenged mice. 2ME2 effectively inhibited HIF-1α and VEGF expression and attenuated the inflammatory responses. Stabilization of HIF-1α by CoCl2 facilitated nasal allergic inflammation. HIF-1α protein levels in nasal airways correlated with the severity of AR in mice. Conclusions HIF-1α is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of nasal allergies, and the inhibition of HIF-1α may be useful as a novel therapeutic approach for AR. PMID:23133644

  17. Objective monitoring of nasal patency and nasal physiology in rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A; Eccles, Ron; Howarth, Peter H; Steinsvåg, Sverre K; Togias, Alkis

    2005-03-01

    Nasal obstruction can be monitored objectively by measurement of nasal airflow, as evaluated by nasal peak flow, or as airways resistance/conductance as evaluated by rhinomanometry. Peak flow can be measured during inspiration or expiration. Of these measurements, nasal inspiratory peak flow is the best validated technique for home monitoring in clinical trials. The equipment is portable, relatively inexpensive, and simple to use. One disadvantage, however, is that nasal inspiratory peak flow is influenced by lower airway as well as upper airway function. Rhinomanometry is a more sensitive technique that is specific for nasal measurements. The equipment, however, requires an operator, is more expensive, and is not portable. Thus, it is applicable only for clinic visit measures in clinical trials. Measurements require patient cooperation and coordination, and not all can achieve repeatable results. Thus, this objective measure is best suited to laboratory challenge studies involving smaller numbers of selected volunteers. A nonphysiological measure of nasal patency is acoustic rhinometry. This sonic echo technique measures internal nasal luminal volume and the minimum cross-sectional area. The derivation of these measures from the reflected sound waves requires complex mathematical transformation and makes several theoretical assumptions. Despite this, however, such measures correlate well with the nasal physiological measures, and the nasal volume measures have been shown to relate well to results obtained by imaging techniques such as computed tomography scanning or magnetic resonance imaging. Like rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry is not suitable for home monitoring and can be applied only to clinic visit measures or for laboratory nasal challenge monitoring. It has advantages in being easy to use, in requiring little patient cooperation, and in providing repeatable results. In addition to nasal obstruction, allergic rhinitis is recognized to be associated with

  18. Lavage administration of dilute surfactant in a piglet model of meconium aspiration.

    PubMed

    Meister, Joan; Balaraman, Venkataraman; Ramirez, Malia; Uyehara, Catherine F T; Killeen, Jeffrey; Ku, Tercia; Person, Donald; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    Maldistribution of exogenous surfactant may preclude any clinical response in acute lung injury associated with surfactant dysfunction. Our previous studies have shown the effectiveness of surfactant lavage after homogenous lung injury. The present study utilizes a histologically confirmed non-homogeneous lung injury model induced by saline lung-lavage followed by meconium injected into a mainstem bronchus. Piglets were then treated with Infasurf or Exosurf by lavage (I-LAVAGE, n = 7; E-LAVAGE, n = 5) or bolus (I-BOLUS, n = 8; E-BOLUS, n = 5), or went untreated (CONTROL, n = 4). Lavage administration utilized a dilute surfactant (35 ml/kg; 4 mg phospholipid/ml) instilled into the lung, followed by gravity drainage. The retained doses of the respective surfactant in the lavage and bolus groups were similar. Results showed that the surfactant distribution was more uniform in the lavage groups compared to the bolus groups. Significant and consistent increases in PaO2 were observed in the lavage groups compared to the bolus groups and the controls. PaO2 (mmHg) at 240 min posttreatment: I-LAVAGE = 297 +/- 54, E-LAVAGE = 280 +/- 57; I-BOLUS = 139 +/- 31; E-BOLUS = 152 +/- 29; C = 119 +/- 73 (mean +/- SEM). Other improved pulmonary function parameters favored lavage administration. We conclude that better surfactant distribution achieved by lavage administration can be more effective than bolus administration in this type of non-homogeneous lung injury.

  19. Work-related airway symptoms, nasal reactivity and health-related quality of life in female hairdressers: a follow-up study during exposure.

    PubMed

    Kronholm Diab, K; Jönsson, B A G; Axmon, A; Nielsen, J

    2014-01-01

    Hairdressers often complain of work-related rhinitis (WR). They are infrequently sensitized to persulphates. The cause and mechanism of the symptoms and the effects on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains unclear. The objectives were to follow female hairdressers with WR mainly from bleaching powder regarding nasal reactivity to persulphate and to evaluate symptoms, HRQoL and inflammatory markers in nasal lavage during a working period after vacation and compared with hairdressers without symptoms and pollen allergic women. Skin prick tests to persulphate were performed in the hairdressers. Participants kept a diary of symptoms and of work tasks (hairdressers only). They completed HRQoL questionnaires. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid was examined. The symptomatic hairdressers performed nasal challenges with persulphate before and after the exposure. Skin prick tests were negative. Although the nasal reactivity to persulphate did not change a steady increase in nasal symptoms, especially blockage, and in ECP was noticed in the symptomatic hairdressers. The HRQoL deteriorated in the symptomatic hairdressers indicating an effect on their working situation and daily life. The atopics had more, but varying symptoms (itching, sneezing and secretion). The difference in the clinical picture between the symptomatic hairdressers and the pollen allergic women, the increase in symptoms and ECP in the nasal lavage support the view that a sensitization to hairdresser chemicals by a mechanism not yet understood is operating. The deterioration of the HRQoL in the symptomatic hairdressers indicates a considerable effect on their life.

  20. Peritoneal lavage and other diagnostic procedures in blunt abdominal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    Diagnostic procedures such as peritoneal lavage, computed tomography, emergency angiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and contrast studies of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts can assist in the identification, quantification, and localization of injury after blunt abdominal trauma. Use of these procedures should be determined by careful clinically assessment as part of an aggressive approach to the diagnosis of the injured patient. 22 references.

  1. Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:4060097

  2. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Drives Autocrine Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Survival in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sil; Myers, Allen; Kim, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The pathogenesis of nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis is poorly understood. Objectives: These studies seek to implicate a functional role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in perpetuating primary nasal epithelial cell overgrowth, a key feature of hyperplastic polyps. Methods: Comparison of VEGF and receptor expression was assessed by ELISA of nasal lavage, immunohistochemistry of sinus tissue, flow cytometry of nasal epithelial cells, and ELISA of supernatants. VEGF-dependent cell growth and apoptosis were assessed with blocking antibodies to VEGF, their receptors, or small interfering RNA knockdown of neuropilin-1 by cell proliferation assays and flow cytometric binding of annexin V. Measurements and Main Results: VEGF protein was sevenfold higher in nasal lavage from patients with polyposis compared with control subjects (P < 0.001). We also report elevated expression of VEGF (P < 0.012), receptors VEGFR2 and phospho-VEGFR2 (both P < 0.04), and identification of VEGF coreceptor neuropilin-1 in these tissues. Nasal epithelial cells from patients with polyps demonstrated faster growth rates (P < 0.005). Exposure of cells to blocking antibodies against VEGF resulted in inhibition of cell growth (P < 0.05). VEGF receptor blockade required blockade of neuropilin-1 (P < 0.05) and resulted in increased apoptosis (P < 0.001) and inhibition of autocrine epithelial VEGF production (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that VEGF is a novel biomarker for chronic rhinosinusitis with hyperplastic sinonasal polyposis that functions in an autocrine feed-forward manner to promote nasal epithelial cell growth and to inhibit apoptosis. These findings implicate a previously unrecognized and novel role of VEGF functioning through neuropilin-1 on nonneoplastic primary human airway epithelial cells, to amplify cell growth, contributing to exuberant hyperplastic polyposis. PMID:19762561

  3. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  4. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  5. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  6. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Cler, Meredith J; Lien, Yu-An S; Braden, Maia N; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara E

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects.

  7. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Results Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). Conclusion The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects. PMID:27618145

  8. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Magnus M.; Conti, Michele; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2009-09-15

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m{sup 3} sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  9. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Che, Magnus M; Conti, Michele; Chanda, Soma; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Amari, Ethery; Sciuto, Alfred M; Gordon, Richard K; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2009-09-15

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m(3) sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  10. Visual exploration of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Stefan; Muigg, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Doleisch, Helmut; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rhinologists are often faced with the challenge of assessing nasal breathing from a functional point of view to derive effective therapeutic interventions. While the complex nasal anatomy can be revealed by visual inspection and medical imaging, only vague information is available regarding the nasal airflow itself: Rhinomanometry delivers rather unspecific integral information on the pressure gradient as well as on total flow and nasal flow resistance. In this article we demonstrate how the understanding of physiological nasal breathing can be improved by simulating and visually analyzing nasal airflow, based on an anatomically correct model of the upper human respiratory tract. In particular we demonstrate how various Information Visualization (InfoVis) techniques, such as a highly scalable implementation of parallel coordinates, time series visualizations, as well as unstructured grid multi-volume rendering, all integrated within a multiple linked views framework, can be utilized to gain a deeper understanding of nasal breathing. Evaluation is accomplished by visual exploration of spatio-temporal airflow characteristics that include not only information on flow features but also on accompanying quantities such as temperature and humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth visual exploration of the physiological function of the nose over several simulated breathing cycles under consideration of a complete model of the nasal airways, realistic boundary conditions, and all physically relevant time-varying quantities.

  11. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  12. Long-term reactivity of lung and mediastinal lymph nodes following intratracheal instillation of sandy loam soil or Mount St. Helens volcanic ash

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Rhoads, K.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of Ritzville sandy loam soil and Mount St. Helens volcanic ash particles on the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes of Fischer rats were studied about 400 days after intratracheal instillation. A total of 22 or 77 mg of soil or ash was given in two or seven equally divided, consecutive, weekly intervals as a suspension in 0.5 ml saline. Significantly elevated levels of lipid-phosphorus and protein were found in lung lavages of rats given ash compared to those given soil. An enhanced histological degree of granulomatous reactivity, lipoproteinosis, fibrosis, and bronchiolar hyperplasia was seen in ash-exposed rats as compared to soil-exposed rats. Mediastinal lymph nodes of ash-exposed rats were 8-18 times larger than those of soil-exposed rats due to abundant cellular microgranuloma formation and early fibrosis. Mount St. Helens volcanic ash is apparently more biologically reactive than soil particles commonly found in eastern Washington.

  13. Long-term reactivity of lung and mediastinal lymph nodes following intratracheal instillation of sandy loam soil or Mount St. Helens volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Rhoads, K; Mahaffey, J A

    1983-10-01

    The effects of Ritzville sandy loam soil and Mount St. Helens volcanic ash particles on the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes of Fischer rats were studied about 400 days after intratracheal instillation. A total of 22 or 77 mg of soil or ash was given in two or seven equally divided, consecutive, weekly intervals as a suspension in 0.5 ml saline. Significantly elevated levels of lipid-phosphorus and protein were found in lung lavages of rats given ash compared to those given soil. An enhanced histological degree of granulomatous reactivity, lipoproteinosis, fibrosis, and bronchiolar hyperplasia was seen in ash-exposed rats as compared to soil-exposed rats. Mediastinal lymph nodes of ash-exposed rats were 8-18 times larger than those of soil-exposed rats due to abundant cellular microgranuloma formation and early fibrosis. Mount St. Helens volcanic ash is apparently more biologically reactive than soil particles commonly found in eastern Washington.

  14. The role of septoplasty in the management of nasal septum fracture: a randomized quality of life study.

    PubMed

    Younes, A; Elzayat, S

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the nasal septum is a common injury. Fracture reduction using Ash forceps is the standard treatment for non-severely comminuted cases. In this study, septoplasty was compared to Ash forceps reduction of nasal septum fractures with regard to the quality of life outcome of patient breathing. Thirty consecutive patients with non-comminuted septal fractures were divided randomly into two groups. In group I, fractures were managed by closed reduction (using Ash forceps), while in group II, fractures were managed by septoplasty surgery. Each patient completed a validated quality of life scale for breathing (Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation, NOSE) preoperatively and at 3 months postoperative. In group I, the mean difference between postoperative and preoperative NOSE scores was -28.33 (range -40 to -15), while in group II the mean difference was -44.33 (range -70 to -30). There was a significant improvement in nasal breathing quality of life in group II compared with group I (t-test, P=0.001). The results of this study showed a significant improvement in quality of life outcome with the use of septoplasty compared to closed reduction for acute septal fractures. Septoplasty could be recommended for patients with acute nasoseptal fractures to ensure better nasal breathing outcomes.

  15. Correlation between nasal airflow characteristics and clinical relevance of nasal septal deviation to nasal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Heo, Go Eun; Seo, Anna; Na, Yang; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Since the imbalance of the nasal cavities due to nasal septal deviation (NSD) is a commonly observed anatomic variation in healthy adults, clinicians must often decide whether or not it is clinically relevant to the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction (NAO). Main reason for this is a lack of data correlating the symptoms of NAO with objective findings. The aim of our study is to find the correlation between fluid dynamic parameters and the anatomy of nasal cavity with NSD by numerical simulation. We generated 6 computational models of nasal cavities with NSD were created from computed tomographic images: 3 symptomatic patients with NAO and 3 asymptomatic patients. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate steady inspiratory airflows in each nasal cavity model and compare the fluid dynamic properties of each. In the symptomatic cases, the pressure drop from the naris to the end of the septum was larger, and more uneven flow partitioning was observed. Local maximum velocity and wall shear stress were higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. The symptoms of NAO seem to be related more to the nasal resistance from the naris to the end of the septum than to the total nasal resistance from naris to nasopharynx. Factors correlated with NAO by CFD can be used as elements in patient-specific objective diagnostic tools for NAO in the presence of NSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  17. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  18. Intra-operative peritoneal lavage for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Guillaume; Mohkam, Kayvan; Cotte, Eddy; Glehen, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Free cancer cells can be detected in peritoneal fluid at the time of colorectal surgery. Peritoneal lavage in colorectal surgery for cancer is not used in routine, and the prognostic significance of intraperitoneal free cancer cells (IPCC) remains unclear. Data concerning the technique of peritoneal lavage to detect IPCC and its timing regarding colorectal resection are scarce. However, positive IPCC might be the first step of peritoneal spread in colorectal cancers, which could lead to early specific treatments. Because of the important heterogeneity of IPCC determination in reported studies, no treatment have been proposed to patients with positive IPCC. Herein, we provide an overview of IPCC detection and its impact on recurrence and survival, and we suggest further multi-institutional studies to evaluate new treatment strategies. PMID:24616569

  19. Intra-operative peritoneal lavage for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Passot, Guillaume; Mohkam, Kayvan; Cotte, Eddy; Glehen, Olivier

    2014-02-28

    Free cancer cells can be detected in peritoneal fluid at the time of colorectal surgery. Peritoneal lavage in colorectal surgery for cancer is not used in routine, and the prognostic significance of intraperitoneal free cancer cells (IPCC) remains unclear. Data concerning the technique of peritoneal lavage to detect IPCC and its timing regarding colorectal resection are scarce. However, positive IPCC might be the first step of peritoneal spread in colorectal cancers, which could lead to early specific treatments. Because of the important heterogeneity of IPCC determination in reported studies, no treatment have been proposed to patients with positive IPCC. Herein, we provide an overview of IPCC detection and its impact on recurrence and survival, and we suggest further multi-institutional studies to evaluate new treatment strategies.

  20. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  1. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage diagnostics in fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Knox, Kenneth S; Meinke, Laura

    2009-06-01

    Although a biopsy may need to be performed in complicated patients, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of pulmonary and disseminated fungal infections. Culture is the gold standard for diagnosis in many instances, but cytologic and morphologic analysis is often diagnostic. Although newer molecular and antigen techniques may be applied to BAL samples, the role of such tests is yet to be defined for many pathogens.

  2. Pathogenesis of nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, K. E.; Stevens, W. W.; Tan, B. K.; Schleimer, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex inflammatory condition that affects a large proportion of the population world-wide and is associated with high cost of management and significant morbidity. Yet, there is a lack of population-based epidemiologic studies using current definitions of CRSwNP, and the mechanisms that drive pathogenesis in this disease remain unclear. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the plethora of factors that likely contribute to CRSwNP pathogenesis. Defects in the innate function of the airway epithelial barrier, including diminished expression of antimicrobial products and loss of barrier integrity, combined with colonization by fungi and bacteria likely play a critical role in the development of chronic inflammation in CRSwNP. This chronic inflammation is characterized by elevated expression of many key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-5, thymic stromal lymphopoietin and CCL11, that help to initiate and perpetuate this chronic inflammatory response. Together, these factors likely combine to drive the influx of a variety of immune cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells and lymphocytes, which participate in the chronic inflammatory response within the nasal polyps. Importantly, however, future studies are needed to demonstrate the necessity and sufficiency of these potential drivers of disease in CRSwNP. In addition to the development of new tools and models to aid mechanistic studies, the field of CRSwNP research also needs the type of robust epidemiologic data that has served the asthma community so well. Given the high prevalence, costs and morbidity, there is a great need for continued research into CRS that could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment for patients who suffer from this disease. PMID:25482020

  3. Serial lobar lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Milind M; Nair, Jairaj; Athavale, Amita; Gavali, Varun; Sarkar, Manjula; Divate, Smita; Shah, Unmil

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 cases per million. We report a case of a PAP coexisting with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient was treated with serial lobar lung lavages, GM-CSF, cotrimoxazole, and antituberculosis drugs. His PaO2 on room air improved from 45.7 to 63.8 torr and pulmonary functions normalized (FVC 81.2%, FEV1 95.3%, FEV1/FVC 91.8). A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed clearing of both lower lobes. Whole-lung lavage is used in the treatment of PAP, but it may worsen the hypoxemia and lead to hemodynamic instability during the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bronchoscopic serial lobar lung lavages in cases of PAP performed in India. This method can be performed in bronchoscopic suites having general anesthesia facilities without the requirement of special gadgets.

  4. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage pepsin in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.S.; Song, J.W.; Wolters, P.J.; Elicker, B.M.; King, T.E.; Kim, D.S.; Collard, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis experience acute exacerbations in their respiratory status leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Occult aspiration of gastric contents has been proposed as one possible mechanism leading to these acute exacerbations. We sought to determine whether pepsin, amarker of gastric aspiration, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from patients during acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, compared with that obtained in stable disease. Lavage samples were obtained in a case–control study of well-characterised patients. Acute exacerbation was defined using standard criteria. Levels of lavage pepsin were compared in cases and controls, and were correlated with clinical features and disease course. 24 cases with acute exacerbations and 30 stable controls were identified. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics between the two groups. Pepsin level was an indicator of acute exacerbation status (p=0.04). On average, pepsin appeared higher in patients with acute exacerbations compared with stable controls. This difference was driven by a subgroup of eight patients (33%) with pepsin levels ≥70 ng·mL−1. Pepsin level was not an independent predictor of survival time. These results suggest occult aspiration may play a role in some cases of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:22183478

  6. Subjective results of joint lavage and viscosupplementation in hemophilic arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Rosa, Thiago Bittencourt Carvalho; Pasqualin, Thiago; Frucchi, Renato; Okazaki, Erica; Villaça, Paula Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether joint lavage, viscosupplementation and triamcinolone improve joint pain, function and quality of life in patients with severe hemophilic arthropathy. METHODS: Fourteen patients with knee and/or ankle hemophilic arthritis with and without involvement of other joints underwent joint lavage and subsequent injection of hylan G-F20 and triamcinolone in all affected joints. The patients answered algo-functional questionnaires (Lequesne and WOMAC), visual analog scale for pain (VAS) and SF-36 preoperatively, and at one, three, six and twelve months postoperatively. RESULTS: Sixteen knees, 15 ankles, 8 elbows and one shoulder were treated in 14 patients. Six patients had musculoskeletal bleeding [ankle (1), leg muscle (2) and knees (4)] at 3 months affecting the results. Pain did not improve significantly. Function improved (WOMAC p=0.02 and Lequesne p=0.01). The physical component of SF-36 improved at all time points except at 3 months, with best results at one-year follow-up (baseline = 33.4; 1 month = 39.6; 3 months= 37.6; 6 months 39.6 and 1 year = 44.6; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Joint lavage followed by injection of triamcinolone and hylan G-F20 improves function and quality of life progressively up to a year, even in severe hemophilic arthropathy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207096

  7. A device and technique for gastrointestinal lavage in the horse.

    PubMed

    Beroza, G A

    1989-06-01

    A device and technique for intra-operative gastro-intestinal lavage was developed to remove ingesta from the stomach, large intestine and caecum of horses. The Gastro-Intestinal Lavage System (GILS) is composed of a nozzle connected to both water under pressure and suction. Water jets across an intake portal in the nozzle, breaks up food and debris within the nozzle and is evacuated under negative pressure into the aspirating tube which is connected to a collection drum. The GILS nozzle was introduced at the pelvic flexure through a sterile enterotomy cuff and plastic sleeve. Water was first added through the GILS nozzle to mix intestinal ingesta to form a slurry and then the effluent was evacuated into the storage container by engaging the vacuum. Comparisons of this technique were made with the standard garden hose lavage technique. The GILS enables removal of 8.1 kg of large intestinal ingesta in less than 20 mins. Cleansing of the large bowel with the GILS was rapid, complete and a contamination free procedure which should prove applicable and beneficial for surgical treatment of small colonic, caecal, rectal and gastric impactions as well as sand colic and colonic torsions.

  8. The diagnostic importance of the bronchoalveolar lavage in lymphocytic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Kria, Nourane; Braham, Emna; Chebbi, Chokri; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2017-01-01

    Multidisciplinary concertation is mandatory in order to assess interstitial pneumonias. The study of the bronchoalveolar lavage helps evoking a diagnosis according to the lavage profile. In lymphocytic alveolitis, immunocytochemistry, or in flux cytometry are necessary in order to identify the different clusters of lymphocytes implicated. Our objective was to evaluate the profile of 31 lymphocytic alveolitis using 2 different techniques which are the immunocytochemistry and the in flow cytometry in order to evaluate the efficacy of each technique and to compare the different results to the final diagnoses. We describe a retrospective study about 31 patients admitted to our hospital in order to explore an interstitial pneumonia between January and July 2014. Bronchial endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed in all cases. The sensitivity of the in flow cytometry was estimated to 53% and its specificity reached 33%. On the other hand, the immunocytochemistry presented a specificity of 42.8% and a sensitivity of 42.8%. The final diagnoses retained consisted in sarcoidosis in 12 cases, infectious pneumonia in 10 cases, hypersensitivity pneumonia in 3 cases, cryptogenic pneumonia in 3 cases, idiopathic fibrosis in 2 cases, and adenocarcinoma in 1 case. The relevance of both techniques depends on many factors. They necessitate an available material, well-trained technicians, and experimented pathologists.

  9. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  11. The Relationship between Nasalance and Nasality in Children with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watterson, Thomas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study correlated measures of nasalance computed by the Nasometer with listener judgments of nasality of speech passages spoken by 25 children with craniofacial disorders. Results showed a significant correlation between nasalance and nasality only when nasal consonants were not included in the passage spoken. (Author/DB)

  12. Easy removal of nasal magnets.

    PubMed

    Starke, Lori

    2005-09-01

    This article uses a case report and discussion to demonstrate the removal of magnets which have become lodged in the nasal cavity as a result of using magnet-backed earrings to decorate the alae. If bi-alar decoration is used, removal of nasal magnets can present more of a challenge than other nasal foreign bodies. This is because of their attraction to each other through the septum and because of the edema that can form around the magnets. This case discusses that removal of magnets lodged in the nares can be easily achieved with minimal trauma, by the use of a household pocket magnet.

  13. [The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.

  14. Nasal fluid release of eotaxin-3 and eotaxin-2 in persistent sinonasal eosinophilic inflammation.

    PubMed

    De Corso, Eugenio; Baroni, Silvia; Battista, Mariapina; Romanello, Matteo; Penitente, Romina; Di Nardo, Walter; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Sergi, Bruno; Fetoni, Anna Rita; Bussu, Francesco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure eotaxin-3 (CCL26) and eotaxin-2 (CCL24) in nasal lavage fluid of patients with different forms of chronic sinonasal eosinophilic inflammation to evaluate their role in the pathophysiology of nasal hypereosinophilia. The study was an analytic cross-section study, level of evidence 3b. Patients (n = 80) with nasal hypereosinophilia were randomly recruited and grouped in the following categories: persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) (n = 25), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) (n = 30), and chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP) (n = 25). Non-rhinitic volunteers (n = 20) were recruited as controls. CCL24 and CCL26 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Quantikine Human Immunoassays (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) in nasal lavage fluids. Differential cell counts were performed by microscopic cytological examination of nasal tissue scraped from the inferior turbinate. Mean CCL26 levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in AR and in NARES (132.0 pg/mL and 187.63 pg/mL, respectively) than in the control group (13.5 pg/mL); in patients with CRSwNP, CCL26 values were increased compared to controls even though the difference was not statistically significant (58.9 pg/mL vs 16.5 pg/mL). Mean CCL24 levels measured in AR, NARES, and CRSwNP were significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls (96.7 pg/mL, 135.4 pg/mL, and 107.0 pg/mL, respectively, vs 32.2 pg/mL). Moreover, we observed a significant correlation between CCL24 and CCL26 levels, evaluating them intraindividually by Spearman's rank correlation test. Finally, a significant correlation was found between CCL24 and CCL26 levels and the percentage of eosinophilic infiltration of nasal mucosa. Our data suggest that CCL26 and CCL24 are likely involved in the pathogenesis of chronic nasal hypereosinophilia, with a complex cooperation and different involvement of the various members of eotaxin family. Further

  15. Specific immunotherapy with mugwort pollen allergoid reduce bradykinin release into the nasal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Alicja; Jawor, Barbara; Czecior, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A pathomechanism of allergic rhinitis is complex. A neurogenic mechanism seems to play a significant role in this phenomenon. Aim The evaluation of influence of specific immunotherapy of mugwort pollen allergic patients on the bradykinin concentration in the nasal lavage fluid. Material and methods The study included 22 seasonal allergic rhinitis patients. Thirty persons with monovalent allergy to mugwort pollen, confirmed with skin prick tests and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, underwent a 3-year-long allergen immunotherapy with the mugwort extract (Allergovit, Allergopharma, Germany). The control group was composed of 9 persons with polyvalent sensitivity to pollen, who were treated with pharmacotherapy. Before the allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) and in subsequent years before the pollen seasons, a provocation allergen test with the mugwort extract was performed, together with collection of nasal fluids, where bradykinin concentration was determined according to Proud method. Results There were similar levels of bradykinin in both groups at baseline prior to therapy (AIT group: 584.0 ±87.2 vs. controls 606.3 ±106.5 pg/ml) and changes after allergen challenge 1112.4 ±334.8 vs. 1013.3 ±305.9 pg/ml as well. The bradykinin concentration in nasal lavage fluid after mugwort challenge in 1 year was lower in the AIT group (824.1 ±184.2 pg/ml vs. 1000.4 ±411.5 pg/l; p < 005) with a further significant decrease after the 2nd and 3rd year of specific immunotherapy. Significant reduction of symptoms and medications use was observed in hyposensitized patients. Conclusions A decreased level of bradykinin as a result of AIT suggests that some of the symptomatic benefits of AIT may be related to the reduced release of bradykinin into nasal secretions. These values correlate with clinical improvement within the course of treatment. PMID:27605897

  16. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  17. The nose and nasal vault.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, P J; Babbel, R W; Harnsberger, H R

    1991-12-01

    In this article we have reviewed the anatomy of the nose and nasal vault, with emphasis on specific features that are imaged with the SSCT. Important areas of the lateral wall anatomy include the OMU and SER, areas that are key to understanding the obstructive patterns of inflammatory sinonasal disease. Lesions that result in these specific obstructive patterns include anatomic variants and other focal pathological lesions, such as polyps. Other types of sinonasal inflammatory disease include sinonasal polyposis and granulomatous and fungal disease. Congenital lesions of the nose may be understood through a knowledge of the relevant developmental anatomy. These lesions include nasal dermoids and epidermoids, cephaloceles, gliomas, and choanal atresia. Important benign masses include antrochoanal polyps, inverting papillomas, angiomatous polyps, JNAs, and osteomas. Benign nasal masses have characteristic features that distinguish them from malignant lesions. Malignant nasal tumors, such as SSCa, esthesioneuroblastoma, and others, are characterized by their more aggressive and destructive behavior.

  18. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  19. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-01-27

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  20. Cleft Nasal Deformity and Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Yoav; Buchanan, Edward P.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Stal, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The cleft nasal deformity is a complex challenge in plastic surgery involving the skin, cartilage, mucosa, and skeletal platform. Ever since Blair and Brown first described the intricacies of the cleft pathology in 1931, the appropriate approach has been extensively debated in the literature with respect to timing, technique, and extent of surgical intervention. In this article, the authors review the literature and summarize the various modalities for achieving a successful rhinoplasty in the patient with a cleft nasal deformity. PMID:24179452

  1. Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

    Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

  2. Angioleiomyoma of the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Milena Moreira; Monteiro, Daniela Yasbek; Fernandes, Atilio Maximino; Menegatti, Vanessa; Thomazzi, Emerson; Hubner, Ricardo Arthur; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular leiomyoma of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor that represents less than 1% of all vascular leiomyomas. It is more prevalent in women between the fourth and sixth decades, reaching primarily the inferior nasal turbinates. Objectives Reporting and assisting the systematization of more accurate diagnostic methods in clinical and complementary investigation of vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity. Resumed Report We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with vascular leiomyoma in the nasal cavity, which manifested mainly with nasal obstruction. During investigation, computer tomography was not diagnostic, the cytologic study was not conclusive, and according to the biopsy, it was a squamous papilloma. Conclusion We suggest that the technical difficulty in obtaining an adequate amount of material for preoperative biopsy, associated with the topography of the lesion in the vestibular nasal region, may have contributed to changing the postoperative diagnosis. Thus, pathologic study of the surgical fragment is the more accurate method for diagnosis. PMID:25992133

  3. The Impact of Pepsin on Human Nasal Epithelial Cells In Vitro: A Potential Mechanism for Extraesophageal Reflux Induced Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Southwood, Jessica E; Hoekzema, Craig R; Samuels, Tina L; Wells, Clive; Poetker, David M; Johnston, Nikki; Loehrl, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    To describe potential mechanisms by which pepsin induces inflammation in refractive chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our hypothesis was that pepsin induces mitochondrial damage and cytokine expression in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC) in vitro. Western blot was used to detect pepsin in sinus lavages from patients with CRS and controls. The HNEpC cells were treated with pepsin (pH 7; 0.1 mg/mL) for 1 or 16 hours and routine electron microscopy (EM) and MTT assay were performed. Cytokine ELISA was performed on media collected from HNEpC cells 16 hours following a 1-hour pepsin treatment. Pepsin was detected in sinus lavages from 4 out of 6 CRS patients and 0 out of 3 controls. The EM showed mitochondrial damage in pepsin-treated HNEpC cells but not in control cells. The MTT assay demonstrated reduced mitochondrial activity in pepsin-treated HNEpC cells compared to controls (P < .001). Pepsin increased IL-1A (P = .003) and IL-6 (P = .04) expression in HNEpC cells. Pepsin in sinus lavages from patients with CRS is consistent with previous studies. This study reveals the damaging effect of pepsin on mitochondria in nasal epithelial cells in vitro. Cytokines previously associated with CRS were elevated following pepsin treatment of HNEpC cells in vitro. These results demonstrate mechanisms by which pepsin may potentiate CRS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Nasal Reconstruction and Repair of Secondary Nasal Deformities Following Treatment of Nasal Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaona; Fan, Fei; Wang, Huan; You, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    Secondary nasal deformities and retardation of development due to treatment of nasal hemangioma during infancy are a challenge when it comes to nasal reconstruction. In order to evaluate nasal repair and reconstruction in these patients, the authors compared the ease and outcomes of using expanded forehead, nasolabial sulcus, and medial upper arm tube flaps. According to the deformities and patients' wishes, flaps were selected; using autogeneic rib cartilage, auricle cartilage, or silica gel as a scaffold or without framework; the inner lining were made by the residual scar tissue or the distal end of transferred flap. The esthetical and functional scores were recorded by the Nasal Appearance and Function Evaluation Questionnaire score to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods. From January 2010 to December 2015, 34 patients were included. Postoperative follow-up went for 12 to 36 months. The expanded forehead flap was used in 28 patients, the nasolabial sulcus flap in 5 patients, and the medial upper arm tube flap in 1 patient. Regarding framework, 20 patients used rib cartilage, 8 patients used auricle cartilage, 1 patient used silicone, and 5 patients did not use any framework. All patients reported the increasing nasal appearance and function evaluation. Repair of secondary nasal defects following treatment of hemangiomas in infants and young children using an expanded frontal flap and autogenous cartilage framework is a reliable method with great long-term esthetic results. The nasolabial sulcus flap is a relatively simple method, especially for patients with a unilateral nasal alar defect. Supporting structure is needed and appropriate overcorrection is necessary.

  5. [Peritoneal lavage and blunt abdominal injuries in childhood].

    PubMed

    Belgerden, S; Demirkol, K; Kayabali, M

    1987-01-01

    Traffic accidents are increasingly responsible for mortality in childhood in Turkey. Between 1982 and 1984, 197 children were admitted for contused abdominal injuries to the surgical casualty ward at the School of Medicine of Istanbul University. Most of these children had been involved in traffic accidents, and peritoneal lavage was applied to all of them. The diagnosis on admission was confirmed by laparotomy in 90 per cent of all cases. 20 children died (10.1 per cent). Uncontrollable abdominal bleeding was the cause of ten deaths and massive brain lesion of another six.

  6. Inverted Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy associated with bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Ok, Kyeong Sam; Song, Bong Gun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Jung, Hyun Gul; Jung, Hye-Jin; Park, I Nae; Yum, Ho-Kee; Cho, Wook-Hyun; Choi, Suk-Koo

    2011-07-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), also known as transient left ventricular (LV) ballooning syndrome or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is characterised by transient LV dysfunction in the absence of significant angiographic coronary stenoses, frequently provoked by an episode of emotional or physical stress. In TTC, typically transient akinesis or dyskinesis of the LV apical segments with normal or hypercontractile basal wall motions is observed. Recently, several cases of atypical or inverted transient TTC sparing the LV apex have been reported. We report a case of inverted TTC showing akinesis of the basal and mid-ventricular segments of the LV with apical hyperkinesia triggered by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage.

  7. Penetrating torso injuries: the role of paracentesis and lavage.

    PubMed

    Danto, L A; Thomas, C W; Gorenbein, S; Wolfman, E F

    1977-03-01

    Controversy still exists regarding the proper approach to patients with penetrating torso injuries. Mandatory immediate celiotomy and selective observation both have associated risks. Paracentesis with lavage is a rapid, easily performed and readily available technique which can, with a high degree of accuracy, differentiate on initial evaluation those patients with penetrating visceral injuries from those without such injuries. Complications are minimal. The use of these two procedures in evaluating penetrating torso injuries has led to improved patient care and produced major lowering of medical and socioeconomic costs.

  8. Human bronchoalveolar lavage cells and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A J; Cole, P J

    1981-01-01

    Human bronchoalveolar lavage cells from several different disease states were examined by the technique of zymosan-stimulated, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Light production correlated well with polymorphonuclear leucocyte contamination of the alveolar macrophage suspension but not with lymphocyte contamination. Regression analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages produce little if any luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Further investigation of metabolic activity, using measurements of superoxide release, oxygen consumption, and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence, showed that "respiratory burst" activity in alveolar macrophages was stimulated by opsonised zymosan. PMID:6262385

  9. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark. PMID:17204146

  10. Ductal lavage, nipple aspiration, and ductoscopy for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dooley, William C

    2003-01-01

    The intraductal approach to breast cancer has been invigorated this year by a series of papers exploring ductal-based screening through nipple aspiration and lavage and ductal exploration through endoscopy. The merging of these efforts to define the earliest biologic changes in the progression toward breast cancer is opening new fields for both bench-translational and clinical research. These techniques have already begun to show value in defining the presence and extent of proliferative disease in high-risk patients, allowing for more informed therapeutic decision making.

  11. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  12. Evaluation of polyvinylidene fluoride nasal sensor to assess deviated nasal septum in comparision with peak nasal inspiratory flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, K; Mahapatra, D Roy; Prakash, Surya

    2014-01-01

    Deviated nasal septum (DNS) is one of the major causes of nasal obstruction. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nasal sensor is the new technique developed to assess the nasal obstruction caused by DNS. This study evaluates the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in comparison with PEAK nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurements and visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal obstruction. Because of piezoelectric property, two PVDF nasal sensors provide output voltage signals corresponding to the right and left nostril when they are subjected to nasal airflow. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage signal corresponding to nasal airflow was analyzed to assess the nasal obstruction. PVDF nasal sensor and PNIF were performed on 30 healthy subjects and 30 DNS patients. Receiver operating characteristic was used to analyze the DNS of these two methods. Measurements of PVDF nasal sensor strongly correlated with findings of PNIF (r = 0.67; p < 0.01) in DNS patients. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between PVDF nasal sensor measurements and PNIF measurements of the DNS and the control group. A cutoff between normal and pathological of 0.51 Vp-p for PVDF nasal sensor and 120 L/min for PNIF was calculated. No significant difference in terms of sensitivity of PVDF nasal sensor and PNIF (89.7% versus 82.6%) and specificity (80.5% versus 78.8%) was calculated. The result shows that PVDF measurements closely agree with PNIF findings. Developed PVDF nasal sensor is an objective method that is simple, inexpensive, fast, and portable for determining DNS in clinical practice.

  13. Role of gastric lavage in vigorous neonates born with meconium stained amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Ameta, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Amit; Gothwal, Sunil; Singh, Kuldeep; Dubey, Kirti; Gupta, Abhilasha

    2013-03-01

    To compare reduction in incidence of feed intolerance in neonates born with meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) by use of gastric lavage to those who did not receive lavage. This Randomized controlled trial was conducted in all vigorous newborns delivered through MSAF, with birth weight ≥1800 g and gestation ≥34 wk. In the lavage group, gastric lavage with 10 ml/kg of normal saline was done. Twelve neonates in the lavage group (n = 124) developed feed intolerance compared to 16 neonates in control group (n = 120), (p = .309; OR 0.69; 95%CI 0.27-1.58). No difference in any other morbidity was noted. Gastric lavage in neonates with MSAF does not reduce feed intolerance, irrespective of thickness of MSAF and it confers no advantages.

  14. Effect of bronchopulmonary lavage on lung retention and clearance of particulate material in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Ellender, M.; Hodgson, A.; Wood, K.L.; Moody, J.C. )

    1992-07-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles (FAP) labeled with [sup 57]CO. Three groups of animals were given bronchopulmonary lavage, beginning at either 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months after exposure. Each treated group was lavaged eight times over a period of 25 days. Each lavage involved 10 saline washes of the lungs. For each group, about 60-70% of the body content of [sup 57]CO at the start of lavage treatment was removed; nearly half of this was recovered in the first two lavages. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the macrophage content and [sup 57]Co activity of the washings. The subsequent fractional clearance rate of [sup 57]Co from lavaged animals was not significantly different from that in a group of untreated control animals. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Swayne, Seanna L; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J Scott; Sears, William

    2012-09-01

    This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery.

  16. Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.

  17. The distribution of ash in North America

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin

    2010-01-01

    Ash trees have been important to the people of North America for thousands of years. Of the nine ash species, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica Marsh.) are the most widely distributed.

  18. Influence of nasal structure on the distribution of airflow in nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shen; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Li, Shouju

    2008-06-01

    Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity is essential in order to understand the relationship between nasal structure and airflow characteristics. Since the structure of the nasal cavity varies significantly, the relationship between nasal structure and airflow characteristics will be investigated by numerical simulation of airflow in twenty-four nasal models in this paper. Twenty-four three-dimensional models of the nasal cavity structure have been reconstructed on the basis of Computed Tomography medical images collected from twenty-four healthy volunteers. Modification of the turbinate has been applied to one of these models in order to simulate an operation. The results from this variant model have been compared with the original model. The numerical simulation for the airflow in the nasal cavity was performed by the finite element method. Pressure drop and the airflow distribution in nasal models are presented quantitatively in flow field. Main airflow will pass through the common nasal meatus. The nasal airway resistance in the region of nasal valve and nasal vestibule (flow limiting structure) accounts for 52.6%-78.3% of total nasal airway resistance. The numerical results show that differences in patients' nasal cavity structure may lead to different airflow distributions. Changes of nasal structure lead to variation of airflow in both sides of the nasal cavity as well as airflow redistribution in each side of the nasal cavity.

  19. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Chen, D; Wang, P H; Chen, J; Deng, J

    2016-08-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect.

  20. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  1. Synovitis induced by joint lavage with hypertonic saline solutions in healthy dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Damien; Francoz, David; Desrochers, André; Girard, Christiane; Piché, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single joint lavage with 7.2% or 15% hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) on the tarsocrural joints of healthy calves. The tarsi of 10 calves were randomly lavaged with 7.2% HSS, 15% HSS, or isotonic saline. Synovial fluid samples were collected aseptically on days 1 (before joint lavage), 2, 3, 4, and 8 for complete cytological analysis. Lameness, joint swelling, and pain were recorded daily. Calves were euthanized on day 8 for gross and histological analyses of synovial membranes and articular cartilage. Synovitis was evaluated using a scoring system reflecting inflammatory changes in synovial membranes. Joints irrigated with HSS were more distended and painful compared with isotonic control joints. Swelling decreased consistently in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS, whereas it remained unchanged in joints lavaged with 15% HSS. Slight to moderate lameness was observed in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS. In comparison to isotonic saline joints, total protein concentration was significantly increased on day 2 and 3 for the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS (P ≤ 0.01) and on days 2, 3, and 4 in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS (P ≤ 0.0006). Gross and histological findings revealed that synovitis was more severe in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS but variable in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS. No significant differences were observed for the articular cartilage. Fifteen percent HSS is not recommended for joint lavage. Although irrigation with 7.2% HSS may induce a variable synovitis, it was found appropriate for joint lavage. Its effects on septic joints remain undetermined. PMID:23024450

  2. Nasal bone clip: a novel approach to nasal bone fixation.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Sai, Kenshin; Shiratake, Yasuhisa; Ohjimi, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-01

    Nasal bone fracture is a common injury, but its repair can be unexpectedly difficult. To date, intranasal gauze packing has been used to support the nasal bone in position and to maintain contact between the mucosa of the septum and the cartilage. This gauze packing, however, has a tendency to shift, resulting in an inflammatory response characterized by a foul odor until removal, which detracts from the comfort of the patient. We developed a novel device, the nasal bone clip (NBC), which provides a satisfactory nasal airway and improved comfort. A 1.2-mm Kirschner wire and a small piece of hydrocolloid wound dressing are used. The single wire is bent into a double-curved shape, after which each of the 2 tips is curled with pliers. The end of the wire in the nasal passage is covered with a piece of wound dressing to protect the mucosa. After reduction, the external portion of the wire is inserted on the surface of the splint. The NBC was applied in 14 cases: 12 instances of fresh fractures and 2 of old fractures; there were 8 men and 6 women; their mean age was 19.9 years. Complications were not observed; moreover, no patients exhibited problems during the treatment. The advantages of the NBC are that all materials are available in the operating room or outpatient department, it is low cost, it is readily installable and detachable, it affords superior support for gauze packing, it provides effective external splinting with intranasal support, it never disturbs the nasal airway, and it offers comfort.

  3. Powered Endoscopic Nasal Septal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Aderito de; Iniciarte, Livia; Levine, Howard

    2005-01-01

    While nasal endoscopy is typically used for diagnosis and sinus surgery, endoscopy can be combined with powered instrumentation to perform nasal septal surgery. Powered Endoscopic Nasal Septum Surgery (PENSS) is an easy, effective and quick alternative to traditional headlight approaches to septoplasty. PENSS limits the dissection to the area of the deviation and markedly reduces the extent of subperichondrial dissection. This is particularly valuable in patients who have undergone prior septal cartilage resection. PENSS was used in 2,730 patients over 8 years. Surgical indications and technique are discussed. These patients had either isolated nasal septal deformities associated with other rhinologic pathology (sinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy polyps and external nasal deformity). PENSS was utilized with video assistance to allow an enhanced view of the endoscopic operative field. These patients were operated upon in an outpatient surgical suite and were seen for a post-operative video endoscopic evaluation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after surgery. The patients who had associated functional endoscopic sinus surgery were evaluated as needed until 6 weeks after surgery. There were no delayed complications. Endoscopic resection of septal spurs, deformities and deviations can be performed safely alone or in combination with endoscopic sinus surgery with minimal additional morbidity.

  4. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  5. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  6. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  7. Effect of nasal steroid treatment on airway inflammation determined by exhaled nitric oxide in allergic schoolchildren with perennial rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pedroletti, Christophe; Lundahl, Joachim; Alving, Kjell; Hedlin, Gunilla

    2008-05-01

    Rhinitis is common in asthmatic schoolchildren who are allergic to animal dander and constantly and indirectly exposed to these allergens in their everyday environment. As a patho-physiological linkage between nasal and bronchial inflammation has been proposed to exist, the primary objective of this study was to determine whether nasal administration of mometasone furoate (MSNF) can reduce bronchial inflammation, as reflected in the level of exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) in asthmatic schoolchildren with dander allergy and mild-to-moderate rhinitis. Forty such children were assigned randomly to be treated for 4 wk with MSNF or placebo, employing a double-blind procedure. F(E)NO was the primary end-point measured and secondary end-points were nasal levels of NO, the concentration of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage, the relative numbers of eosinophils in blood, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and scoring of symptoms. There was no significant difference in the F(E)NO values of the treated and control groups at any time-point, whereas the nasal level of ECP was lower in the treated group compared with placebo (p = 0.05) on both days 7 and 28, and compared with baseline for the treated group (p = 0.06 on day 7, p = 0.02 on day 28). Furthermore, the mean blood eosinophil count decreased in the treated group, which also demonstrated lower scores for nasal symptoms compared with placebo, but neither of these differences were statistically significant. FEV(1), PEF and nasal levels of NO remained unchanged in both groups. Four weeks of nasal treatment with MSNF had no effect on bronchial inflammation, as reflected by exhaled NO, whereas signs of nasal and systemic eosinophil activation were reduced. Thus, nasal administration of a steroid as a strategy to reduce asthmatic inflammation remains questionable in mild-to-moderately severe cases of perennial rhinitis and asthma.

  8. EFFECTS OF FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE ON MYELOPEROXIDASE LEVELS IN NASAL LAVAGE FLUIDS FROM SINUSITIS, ALLERGIC RHINITIS, AND NORMAL SUBJECTS. (R825814)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. EFFECTS OF FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE ON MYELOPEROXIDASE LEVELS IN NASAL LAVAGE FLUIDS FROM SINUSITIS, ALLERGIC RHINITIS, AND NORMAL SUBJECTS. (R825814)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Cardiopulmonary function and morphologic changes in beagle dogs after multiple lung lavages

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Halliwell, W.H.; Slauson, D.O.

    1980-03-01

    This study evaluated the long-term biomedical risks of multiple, massive saline lung lavage using dogs. Risks were assessed using clinical examinations of cardiopulmonary function, thoracic radiographs, auscultation of the chest, body temperature, and hematologic values. Thirty-six dogs given 10 lavages over a 49-day period had no gross lesions at time of necropsy 7 days after the last lavage. Six dogs, followed with clinical examinations after each of 10 lung lavages, had no detectable effects from the lavage except for elevated body temperature and bronchial breathing at 24 hr after some procedures. No gross lesions were found at sacrifice 28 days after the last lavage. The only histologic lesions found were those also found in unlavaged control dogs. Six dogs that were lavaged 10 or more times had normal pulmonary function values for 4 yr after the last lung lavage. No chronic sequelae were found in healthy beagle dogs given 10 or more lung lavages suggesting a minimal long-term risk associated with these procedures.

  11. Interleukin-22 is elevated in lavage from patients with lung cancer and other pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Tufman, Amanda; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Völk, Stefanie; Aigner, Frederic; Edelmann, Martin; Gamarra, Fernando; Kiefl, Rosemarie; Kahnert, Kathrin; Tian, Fei; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Endres, Stefan; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-07-07

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is involved in lung diseases such as pneumonia, asthma and lung cancer. Lavage mirrors the local environment, and may provide insights into the presence and role of IL-22 in patients. Bronchoscopic lavage (BL) samples (n = 195, including bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial washings) were analysed for IL-22 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical characteristics and parameters from lavage and serum were correlated with lavage IL-22 concentrations. IL-22 was higher in lavage from patients with lung disease than in controls (38.0 vs 15.3 pg/ml, p < 0.001). Patients with pneumonia and lung cancer had the highest concentrations (48.9 and 33.0 pg/ml, p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively). IL-22 concentration did not correlate with systemic inflammation. IL-22 concentrations did not relate to any of the analysed cell types in BL indicating a potential mixed contribution of different cell populations to IL-22 production. Lavage IL-22 concentrations are high in patients with lung cancer but do not correlate with systemic inflammation, thus suggesting that lavage IL-22 may be related to the underlying malignancy. Our results suggest that lavage may represent a distinct compartment where the role of IL-22 in thoracic malignancies can be studied.

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  13. Ductal lavage and ductoscopy: the opportunities and the limitations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Seema A; Baird, Carol; Staradub, Valerie L; Morrow, Monica

    2002-08-01

    Two related techniques of breast epithelial sampling have emerged in the past several years: ductal lavage, in which fluid-yielding nipple ducts are cannulated at their orifices and lavaged with saline while the breast is intermittently massaged; and ductoscopy, in which discharging or fluid-yielding duct orifices are dilated, intubated with a microendoscope, and the lumen directly visualized. Both of these techniques have significant potential in terms of allowing the repeated sampling of ductal epithelium over time and, as such, have generated considerable enthusiasm. However, data regarding the impact of these techniques on the detection of significant breast disease is very scant. It is important at the outset of the assessment of this new technology that breast cancer clinicians and clinical researchers think carefully about the standards of evidence that need to be met regarding the benefits of these procedures before they are widely adopted. In this review of the rationale and early results of these procedures, we attempt to define some of these evidentiary requirements.

  14. Effects of Nasal Port Area on Perception of Nasality and Measures of Nasalance Based on Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to extend previously published modeling work examining the relation between nasal port opening, measures of nasalance, and perceptual ratings of nasality by experienced listeners for three simulated English corner vowels, /i/, /u/, and /ɑ/. Design Samples were generated using a computational model that allowed for exact control of nasal port size and direct measures of nasalance. Perceptual ratings were obtained using a paired stimulus presentation. Participants Four experienced listeners. Main Outcome Measures Nasalance and perceptual ratings of nasality. Results Findings indicate that perceptual ratings of nasality and nasalance increased for samples generated with nasal port areas up to and including 0.16 cm2 but plateaued in samples generated with larger nasal port areas. No vowel differences were noted for perceptual ratings. Conclusions This work extends previously published work by including nasal port areas representative of those reported in the literature for clinical populations, however, continued work using samples with varied phonetic context, and varying suprasegmental and temporal characteristics are needed. PMID:24437587

  15. Tuberculous granuloma in haemangiomatous nasal polyp.

    PubMed

    S, Bal M; S, Kanwal; P, Ritu

    2003-03-01

    Tuberculosis of upper respiratory tract is quite infrequent especially the nasal involvement. Isolated cases have been reported by certain authors. A ease of nasal tubercolosis is being presented for its rare site and its association with haemangioma.

  16. [Nasal septum cyst of odontogenic origin].

    PubMed

    Calvo Boizas, E; Sancipriano Hernández, J A; Diego Pérez, C; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, A; Martínez-Alegría López, J; Gómez Toranzo, F

    1997-10-01

    Cysts in the nasal septum are unusual, and the presence of a dental cyst is even rarer. A cyst of dental origin was produced by dental root fracture in the nasal septum. The differential diagnosis and management are discussed.

  17. Matizaciones ortologicas: La nasalizacion (Orthoepic Variations: Nasalization)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Eduardo

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the slight nasalization occurring in Spanish to the vowels preceding "n" or "m" when placed before a "b" or "p" between two nasal consonants, in word-initial position or in elision. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  19. Nasal mucociliary clearance after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S P; Stiles, W; Slattery, W H; Krumerman, J; Parsons, J T; Mendenhall, W M; Cassisi, N J

    1995-04-01

    Irradiation has been demonstrated to cause decreased mucociliary clearance in animal models. We sought to verify this effect clinically by using the saccharin transport test to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance in 9 patients previously treated with radiation therapy to the nasal cavity. The patients also completed a questionnaire examining the prevalence of nasal symptoms before and after radiation therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy had no clearance of saccharin from the nasal cavity at a minimum of 20 minutes. The controls had a median clearance time of 5 minutes. The patients noted a higher prevalence of nasal congestion, drainage, and facial pain after radiation therapy. This study demonstrates that radiation therapy to the nasal cavity causes a decrease in nasal mucociliary clearance. This alteration should be considered when selecting therapy for malignancies in the nasal area.

  20. Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.

    PubMed

    Chorianopoulos, Dimitrios; Samitas, Konstantinos; Vittorakis, Stylianos; Kiriazi, Vasiliki; Rondoyianni, Dimitra; Tsaousis, Georgios; Skoutelis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    A 51-year-old previously healthy man, an ex-smoker, was admitted to the authors' medical department with a 3-month history of dry cough; intermittent fever; painless, ulcerated cutaneous lesions over the trunk and limbs (Figure 1); and progressive weight loss. He was of Greek descent. His medical history was remarkable for nasal polyps, which were surgically removed 15 years earlier. Initially, he had been treated with antibiotics, without improvement. Several days before admission, chest radiography revealed pulmonary infiltrates in the left lower lobe. On admission, physical examination revealed a well-orientated man in mild distress, with inspiratory rhonchi at the lower part of the left lung and scattered erythematous nodules of variable size, some of which were ulcerated. Laboratory values were notable for leukopenia, 3.3 x 10(9)/L; total protein, 5.9 g/dL; globulin, 2.2 g/dL; serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, 86 IU/L; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, 71 IU/L; and lactate dehydrogenase, 519 U/L. Computed tomograph (CT) of the chest showed multiple alveolar opacities bilaterally (Figure 2). Fiberoptic bronchoscopy did not reveal any important pathologic findings. Results of bronchial biopsy, cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage, washing, brushing, and sputum following bronchoscopy were negative. CT of the brai and sinonasal area revealed an abnormal low-density mass in the left nasal area. CT findings of the abdomen were negative, as were results of a bone marrow biopsy. There was no evidence of immunosuppression. The differential diagnosis, considering the evidence described, included granulomatous or infectious diseases, angiocentric lymphoproliferative lesions, and lymphomas. Biopsy of a skin lesion showed lymphoproliferative infiltration of the dermis with a follicular and angiocentric growth pattern and regional epidermal necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the tumor cell were positive for CD56 and CD3 (cytoplasmic positivity) and

  1. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar

    2017-10-04

    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Nasal pemphigoid: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Thomas; Pankhania, Miran; Hettige, Roland; Draper, Mark R

    2012-06-29

    Cicatricial pemphigoid is a chronic, systemic, immunobullous disorder affecting mucous membranes. Nasal manifestations of cicatricial pemphigoid are less common than in the rest of the upper aero-digestive tract, and may prove difficult to diagnose and manage effectively. We report one such case presenting with isolated nasal symptoms, in which diagnosis, treatment and ongoing management of the underlying cause was particularly challenging. A literature review was performed to ascertain the incidence of cicatricial pemphigoid and to establish the best evidence-based investigation and treatment.

  3. Quilting sutures for nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Hari, C; Marnane, C; Wormald, P J

    2008-05-01

    Suturing of the nasal septum after septal surgery is a commonly performed procedure designed to prevent complications such as septal haematoma and bleeding. It is also useful for closing any inadvertent tears of the septal mucosa and providing additional support for the cartilage pieces retained in septoplasty. In addition, the suture can be placed through the middle turbinates, stabilising them during the healing process. Placing knots for interrupted sutures in the posterior and middle part of the nasal septum can be technically difficult. We describe a continuous suturing technique for approximating the mucosal flaps following septal surgery.

  4. Nasal septal cyst--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chiang, C H; Juan, K H; Kuo, W R; Tai, C F; Wu, J R

    1996-04-01

    The usual complications of submucous resection of the nasal septum (SMR) are septal hematoma, infection, hemorrhage, septal perforation, and nasal deformity. We present a case of nasal septal cyst which may be a rare complication of SMR. Entrapment of free nasal mucosal remnants or inward folding of incised septal mucosa is thought to be the cause. The patient underwent deroofment of the left cystic wall by lateral rhinotomy. There was no recurrence after one year.

  5. Characterizing human nasal airflow physiologic variables by nasal index.

    PubMed

    Patki, Aniruddha; Frank-Ito, Dennis O

    2016-10-01

    Although variations in nasal index (NI) have been reported to represent adaptation to climatic conditions, assessments of NI with airflow variables have not been rigorously investigated. This study uses computational fluid dynamics modeling to investigate the relationship between NI and airflow variables in 16 subjects with normal nasal anatomy. Airflow simulations were conducted under constant inspiratory pressure. Nasal resistance (NR) against NI showed weak association from nostrils to anterior inferior turbinate (R(2)=0.26) and nostril to choanae (R(2)=0.12). NI accounted for 38% and 41% of the respective variation in wall shear stress (WSS) and heat flux (HF) at the nasal vestibule, and 52% and 49% of variability in WSS and HF across the entire nose. HF and WSS had strong correlation with NI<80, and weakly correlated with NI>80; these differences in HF and WSS for NI<80 and NI>80 were not statistically significant. Results suggest strong relationship between NI and both WSS and HF but not NR, particularly in subjects with NI<80. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasal sinus cavities.

    PubMed

    Lomeo, Paul E; McDonald, John E; Finneman, Judith; Shoreline

    2007-01-01

    This is case report of extramedullary plasmacytoma occurring in the nasal cavity. These are unusual tumors especially in the nasal area. Patients present mainly with nasal symptoms on the same side of the tumors. The treatment consists of surgery resection, or, radiation, or both. There is a fifty percent survival rate in five years.

  7. Does post septoplasty nasal packing reduce complications?

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Naghibzadeh, Ghazal

    2011-01-01

    The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not).Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  8. Circle of Ashes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-05

    This plot shows that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar.

  9. Emerald Ash Borer

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven A. Katovich

    2004-01-01

    An exotic beetle from Asia was discovered in July 2002 feeding on ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in southeastern Michigan. It was identified as Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Larvae feed in the cambium between the bark and wood, producing galleries that eventually girdle and kill branches and entire trees. Evidence suggests that A. planipennis has...

  10. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Treesearch

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  11. Comparison of bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage vs blind lavage with a modified nasogastric tube in the etiologic diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Leo, A; Galindo-Galindo, J; Folch, E; Guerrero, A; Bosques, F; Mercado, R; Arroliga, A C

    2008-04-01

    Our objective was to compare the results of a blind lavage vs a bronchoscopic-guided bronchoalveolar lavage for the etiologic diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Prospective study in consecutive patients with high probability of VAP. Every patient underwent both procedures, in a formally randomized fashion. The interpretation of quantitative cultures was done in a blind fashion. Single center study, with a 20 bed medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital in Monterrey, Mexico. Twenty-five patients with high probability of VAP. Every patient underwent blind bronchoalveolar lavage with a modified nasogastric tube, and a bronchoscopic-guided bronchoalveolar lavage. Twenty-one patients underwent both procedures. Four patients were excluded due to contamination of the cultures. The quantitative cultures were compared in a paired fashion. Only two patients had discordant cultures. The correlation coefficient between the number of colonies was very high, r=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.96; p=0.0001). The blind bronchoalveolar lavage with a modified nasogastric tube is a valuable tool for the identification of etiologic agent in VAP, particularly when trained bronchoscopists or the necessary resources for bronchoscopic-guided bronchoalveolar lavage are not readily available.

  12. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum Infection With a Destructive Nasal Lesion Mimicking Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Takanori; Ishii, Makoto; Kikuchi, Taku; Kameyama, Kaori; Namkoong, Ho; Nakata, Noboru; Sugita, Kayoko; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Shimizu, Takayuki; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium marinum is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that mainly causes skin infection in immunocompetent patients, and its disseminated infection is rare. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) usually localizes at the nasal and/or paranasal area, but occasionally disseminates into the skin/soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Compromised immunity is a risk factor for developing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and malignant lymphoma, and the 2 diseases may share similar clinical presentation; however, only a few reports have described NTM infection mimicking malignant lymphoma. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of multiple progressive skin nodules and purulent nasal discharge for 3 weeks. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease with refractory enteropathic arthritis and has been treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents for 25 years. Fiberoptic nasal examination revealed septal perforation with hemorrhagic mucus and purulent rhinorrhea. Histological examination of the nasal septum revealed the infiltration of atypical medium-to-large-sized cells with erosion. The cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, and Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA. Histological examination of the skin nodules and auricle also showed infiltration of atypical lymphocytes. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with ENKL, and chemotherapy was considered. However, the skin lesions decreased in size after discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents and minocycline administration. Two weeks later, nasal septum and lavage fluid and left leg skin cultures were positive for M marinum, and minocycline was discontinued. The skin and the nasal lesions improved after 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated M marinum infection with a destructive nasal lesion mimicking ENKL. The differentiation between M marinum infection and ENKL is clinically important because

  14. Nasal intubation: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Varun; Acharya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Nasal intubation technique was first described in 1902 by Kuhn. The others pioneering the nasal intubation techniques were Macewen, Rosenberg, Meltzer and Auer, and Elsberg. It is the most common method used for giving anesthesia in oral surgeries as it provides a good field for surgeons to operate. The anatomy behind nasal intubation is necessary to know as it gives an idea about the pathway of the endotracheal tube and complications encountered during nasotracheal intubation. Various techniques can be used to intubate the patient by nasal route and all of them have their own associated complications which are discussed in this article. Various complications may arise while doing nasotracheal intubation but a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and physics behind the procedure can help reduce such complications and manage appropriately. It is important for an anesthesiologist to be well versed with the basics of nasotracheal intubation and advances in the techniques. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and the advent of newer devices have abolished the negative effect of blindness of the procedure. PMID:27994382

  15. Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Whitney W.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kern, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an important clinical entity diagnosed by the presence of both subjective and objective evidence of chronic sinonasal inflammation. Symptoms include anterior or posterior rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, hyposmia and/or facial pressure or pain that last for greater than 12 weeks duration. Nasal polyps are inflammatory lesions that project into the nasal airway, are typically bilateral, and originate from the ethmoid sinus. Males are more likely to be affected than females but no specific genetic or environmental factors have been strongly linked to the development of this disorder to date. CRSwNP is frequently associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the clinical symptoms are not fully understood. Defects in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, increased exposure to pathogenic and colonized bacteria, and dysregulation of the host immune system are all thought to play prominent roles in disease pathogenesis. Additional studies are needed to further explore the clinical and pathophysiological features of CRSwNP so that biomarkers can be identified and novel advances can be made to improve the treatment and management of this disease. PMID:27393770

  16. Determination of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Incharoen, Pimpin; Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Sanitthangkul, Katawut; Laohavich, Chariya; Sirikulchayanonta, Vorachai; Bovornkitti, Somchai

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos bodies (AB), ferroprotein-coated asbestos fiber may be present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asbestos exposed persons. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and number of asbestos bodies in the BALF of tenable asbestos exposed workers compare to general population in Thailand. Thirty workers of cement pipe and roof tile factories using chrysotile asbestos and 30 unexposed patients that underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy were included in this study. Determination of asbestos bodies was made by membrane filtration method as described in earlier reports. The findings were positive in six workers and in one control subject (0.1-3.6 vs. 0.2 AB/ml of BALF, p = 0.449). AB was identified in workers more often than in pulmonary disease patient. Two of workers had more than 1 AB/ml of BALF.

  17. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in ocular sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, M F; Hoogsteden, H C; Baarsma, G S; Adriaansen, H J; Verheijen-Breemhaar, L

    1987-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is an investigation which has already proven its value in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. It also appears to be a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of patients presenting with ocular sarcoidosis. We evaluated the findings in BAL in 16 cases with suspected ocular sarcoidosis (14 cases of uveitis, one with eyelid-swelling and one with an inflammatory process of the lacrimal gland). BAL was positive in 11 cases e.g. showed a lymphocytosis with predominantly T4+ helper lymphocytes. There was one patient with ocular signs very suspect for sarcoidosis (a perivasculitis with candle wax infiltrates) with a normal percentage T lymphocytes (2%) in BAL. In two cases BAL was positive and showed a subclinical alveolitis, whereas no changes were seen on the chest X-ray and in Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) level.

  18. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma. Immune complexes in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Silver, R M; Metcalf, J F; LeRoy, E C

    1986-04-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a common feature of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis), and it may be a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with scleroderma has shown evidence of inflammation in the lower respiratory tract of many patients. We have analyzed sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from scleroderma patients for the presence of immune complexes, which may play a role in the inflammatory process. Using a solid-phase C1q enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected immune complexes in the sera of 6 of 23 patients (26%) and in none of 32 controls (P less than 0.01). All 6 patients with serum immune complexes had inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the presence of serum immune complexes correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in lavage fluid (P less than 0.02). Immune complexes were detected in lavage fluid of 11 of 21 patients (52%) compared with 1 of 7 normal controls (14%). Subjects having immune complexes in lavage fluid had a lower forced vital capacity than did those without lavage fluid immune complexes (P less than 0.05). The levels of immune complexes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exceeded those in serum by a mean of 45-fold, suggesting either local formation or selective deposition of immune complexes in the lower respiratory tract of some scleroderma patients.

  19. Pediatric nasal fractures: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Arthur E; Thaller, Seth R

    2011-07-01

    Nasal fractures have been reported as 1 of the 3 most commonly encountered pediatric facial bone fractures. The most common causes of nasal fractures in this age group are auto accidents (40%), sports injuries (25%), intended injuries (15%), and home injuries (10%). Nasal fractures are usually treated with closed reduction (Higuera S, Lee EI, Stal S. Nasal trauma and the deviated nose. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;120:64S-75S). This results in a significant incidence of posttraumatic deformities, often requiring secondary surgical treatment. For this reason, it is paramount to pay careful attention to the underlying structural nasal anatomy during the initial diagnosis and management.

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient.

  1. Relationship between the degree and direction of nasal septum deviation and nasal bone morphology.

    PubMed

    Serifoglu, Ismail; Oz, İbrahim İlker; Damar, Murat; Buyukuysal, Mustafa Cagtay; Tosun, Alptekin; Tokgöz, Özlem

    2017-02-28

    Nasal septal deviation may affect nasal bone growth and facial morphology. Knowledge of nasal morphologic parameters may plays an important role in planning successful rhinoplasty and septoplasty operation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the direction and degree of nasal septal deviation with nasal bone morphology, along with factors such as age and gender. Maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) of 250 patients with nasal septal deviation was analyzed retrospectively in this study. We excluded patients with factors that could affect their nasal bone morphology, and a total of 203 patients (111 males, 92 females; mean age, 36.23 years; age range, 18-79 years) were evaluated. The nasal deviation angle was measured on coronal CT images as the angle between the most deviated point of the septum, and the midline nasal morphology was determined by measuring nasal length, internasal angle and lateral and intermediate nasal thickness on both sides. The deviation of nasal septum has been detected as to the right in 107 patients (52.7%) and to the left in 96 patients (47.3%). Lateral and intermediate nasal bone thickness and nasal bone length were significantly greater on the ipsilateral deviation side (Table 3). No significant correlation was found between the variation of the nasal deviation angle and nasal bone morphology (Table 4). There were significant differences between the sexes for all investigated parameters except for the nasal deviation angle (p = 0.660). We found that the only internasal angle increases with aging (p = 0.002). The study shows that the direction of nasal septal deviation may be a factor that affects nasal bone morphology.

  2. Cosmetic rhinoseptoplasty in acute nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Jung Woo; Park, Chan Hum

    2013-08-01

    Traditionally, rhinoseptoplasty for nasal bone fracture is only considered after an unsatisfactory outcome from initial closed reduction. However, better surgical outcomes may be achieved if rhinoseptoplasty is performed at the same time as the nasal bone fracture reduction. This study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent rhinoseptoplasty concomitantly with nasal bone fracture reduction according to their computed tomography image-based nasal bone fracture classifications. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care medical center. Fifty-six patients who underwent rhinoseptoplasty concomitantly with nasal bone fracture reduction were enrolled in this study. Nasal bone fractures were classified into 6 types by computed tomography scans. Two independent facial plastic surgeons evaluated the outcomes 6 months postoperatively using a visual analog scale. The nasal tip projection and rotation were measured using the pre- and postoperative profile views. The satisfaction scores of type I, IIo, and IIIo fractures without septal fracture were significantly higher than those of type II, III, and IV fractures with septal fractures. Among the patients, 82.1% underwent lower vault surgery. The nasal tip projection and rotation were increased after surgery in patients without septal fractures, whereas the tip rotation was elevated but the projection was unchanged postoperatively in patients with septal fractures. Rhinoseptoplasty for acute nasal bone fractures can be performed at the same time as nasal bone fracture reduction. However, nasal bone fracture with septal fracture should be managed carefully.

  3. [Airway inflammatory cell dynamics during late asthmatic reactions induced by toluene diisocyanate in guinea pigs. I. Bronchoalveolar lavage study].

    PubMed

    Niimi, A; Yamada, K; Amitani, R; Kawai, M; Kuze, F; Tanaka, K

    1993-10-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of late asthmatic reactions (LAR) induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and investigated airway inflammatory cell dynamics during LAR by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in this model. The guinea pigs were sensitized by nasal application of 10% TDI solution once daily for 7 consecutive days. Thereafter, the animals were challenged with 5% TDI solution, in the same manner, on every 7th day for 4 to 11 times. Each guinea pig was pretreated with metyrapone before challenge. BAL was performed at each time point after the final challenge. The immediate asthmatic reaction and the LAR induced in the challenges were found to be 66% and 55%, respectively. A significant BAL fluid eosinophilia was observed in the guinea pigs during and after LAR (i.e., 3, 6, 24 and 168 hours after challenge), in comparison to the animals without LAR and to the control animals only exposed to ethyl acetate, a solvent for TDI. The number of eosinophils peaked at 6 hours after challenge. However, no significant changes were observed in the numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes or neutrophils in BAL fluid during LAR. We conclude that eosinophils play an important role in LAR in this model. This model seems to be useful in investigating the pathophysiology of TDI-induced asthma.

  4. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  5. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in the nasal washes and mucosae of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gye Song; Moon, Byung-Jae; Lee, Bong-Jae; Gong, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, You-Sun; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viral infections are often implicated as triggers of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) flare-ups. However, there is a paucity of respiratory viral surveillance studies in CRS patients, and such studies could elucidate the potential role of viruses in promoting symptoms and aggravating mucosal inflammation. Therefore, a prospective case-control study was conducted to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses in CRS patients and non-CRS controls. Nasal lavage fluids and turbinate epithelial cells were collected prospectively from 111 CRS patients and 50 controls. Multiplex PCR was used to identify common respiratory viruses in both sample types and the infection rate was compared between groups. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50.5% of lavage samples and in 64.0% of scraping samples from CRS patients. The overall infection rate was significantly different in CRS patients and controls (odds ratio, 2.9 in lavage and 4.1 in scraping samples). Multiple viral infections were detected more frequently in lavage samples from CRS patients than those from controls (P < 0.01; odds ratio, 7.7). Rhinovirus was the most prevalent virus and the only virus with a significantly different infection rate in CRS patients and controls in both samples (odds ratio, 3.2 in lavage and 3.4 in scraping samples). This study detected a higher prevalence of respiratory viruses in CRS patients than controls, suggesting that there may be significant associations between inflammation of CRS and respiratory viruses, particularly rhinovirus. Further studies should investigate the exact role of highly prevalent respiratory viruses in CRS patients during symptomatic aggravation and ongoing mucosal inflammation.

  6. The effect of an adhesive external nasal dilator strip on the inspiratory nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Seren, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    We studied the affect of an adhesive external nasal dilator strip (ENDS) on the inspiratory nasal airflow. A prospective study was performed. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All volunteers analyzed the inspiratory nasal sound samples before and while wearing a commercially available ENDS. This nasal sound analysis includes the spectral analysis and average sound intensities in low frequency (Lf), medium frequency (Mf), and high frequency (Hf). In the sound analyses, an increase was found in sound intensity at Hf when the nasal strips were not worn whereas a decrease was found in sound intensity at Hf when the nasal strips were on. Changes in the nasal geometry of the anterior part of the nose by wearing nasal strips affects the pattern of nasal airflow and transforms it into a laminar pattern.

  7. Clinical evaluation of a novel internal nasal dilation stent for the improvement of nasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Michael G; Moore, Corey C; Doyle, Philip C

    2008-05-01

    This study assessed rhinometric improvement in nasal airflow, perceived comfort, and the utility of nasal dilation devices for individuals with nasal obstruction treated with an external nasal dilator (END) or a novel internal nasal dilation stent (INDS). Prospective, randomized, crossover trial. Individuals with symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three participants underwent rhinometry and a trial with a novel INDS and a validated END. Devices were used in a randomized, crossover fashion. Nasal airflow, maximum use, continuous use, comfort, and challenge with these devices were assessed. The END and INDS showed greater nasal airflow from baseline, with the INDS being significantly better than the END. The INDS was used significantly more than the END, and demonstrated significantly greater comfort and less associated challenge. The novel INDS showed 3.4 times improved nasal airflow from baseline, was used maximally and continuously longer than a validated END, and was judged to be significantly more tolerable.

  8. ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

    1999-12-01

    The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

  9. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  10. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200–2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  11. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  12. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and nasal cellularity in Indonesian wood workers: a dose-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Borm, P J A; Jetten, M; Hidayat, S; van de Burgh, N; Leunissen, P; Kant, I; Houba, R; Soeprapto, H

    2002-05-01

    It was hypothesised that inflammation plays a dominant part in the respiratory effects of exposure to wood dust. The purpose of this study was to relate the nasal inflammatory responses of workers exposed to meranti wood dust to (a) levels of exposure, (b) respiratory symptoms and (c) respiratory function. A cross sectional study was carried out in 1997 in a woodworking plant that used mainly meranti, among 982 workers exposed to different concentrations of wood dust. Personal sampling (n=243) of inhalable dust measurements indicated mean exposure in specific jobs, and enabled classification of 930 workers in three exposure classes (<2, 2-5, and >5 mg/m(3)) based on job title. Questionnaires were used to screen respiratory symptoms in the entire population. Lung function was measured with two different techniques, conventional flow-volume curves and the forced oscillation technique. Nasal lavage was done to assess inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. A negative trend between years of employment and most flow-volume variables was found in men, but not in women workers. Current exposure, however, was not related to spirometric outcomes, respiratory symptoms, or nasal cellularity. Some impedance variables were related to current exposure but also with better function at higher exposure. Exposure to meranti wood dust did not cause an inflammation in the upper respiratory tract nor an increase of respiratory symptoms or decrease of lung function. These data do not corroborate the hypothesis that inflammation plays a part in airway obstruction induced by wood dust.

  13. The Effect of Nasal Obstruction after Different Nasal Surgeries Using Acoustic Rhinometry and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Erkan; Cil, Yakup; Incesulu, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The efficiency of nasal surgeries can be determined by objective or subjective methods. We have assessed the effect of nasal obstruction after different nasal surgeries using Acoustic Rhinometry (AR) and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) Scale. METHODS Between May 2011 and May 2012, 40 young adult patients and 10 healthy volunteers as control group who referred to Otorhinolaryngology Clinic in Eskisehir Military Hospital due to nasal obstruction were enrolled. Depending on operation, patients were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: Septoplasty, Group 2: Septoplasty with sprader graft, Group 3: Septorinoplasty and Group 4: Septorhinoplasty with spreader graft. The patients completed NOSE scale, 1 week before and 1 month after the surgery and AR measurements. RESULTS There were a significant improvement in mean NOSE scores of patients and statistical difference was found between pre and post-operational values for each group. There was a statistically significant change of the mean minimal cross section areas (MCA) of the deviated side of nasal passages measured by AR between pre and postoperative period. CONCLUSION In patients with nasal obstruction, functional nasal surgeries which were performed after appropriate medical examination and with right operation methods had a positive impact on quality of life and patient satisfaction. We observed that nasal findings were correlated with NOSE scores and MCA values. So, we suggest that NOSE scale and AR to be used for evaluation of the efficiency of functional nasal surgeries. PMID:27853686

  14. The clinical value of peak nasal inspiratory flow, peak oral inspiratory flow, and the nasal patency index.

    PubMed

    Tsounis, Michael; Swart, Karin M A; Georgalas, Christos; Markou, Konstantinos; Menger, Dirk J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the most reliable objective measurement for the assessment of nasal patency by investigating the relationship between peak nasal inspiratory flow, peak oral inspiratory flow, and the nasal patency index in relation to the patient's subjective perception regarding nasal obstruction. Prospective cohort study. This study included 131 volunteers of both genders, aged 18 years or older, with or without nasal symptoms, who were able to give informed consent, completed the study protocol, and could speak and write Dutch fluently. Peak nasal inspiratory flow and peak oral inspiratory flow were performed and nasal patency index was computed. The results were evaluated and compared with the subjective perception of nasal passage, using the validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale and visual analog scale for nasal passage. Our study showed that peak nasal inspiratory flow, nasal patency index and nasal patency visual analog scale correlate with the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale in contrast to peak oral inspiratory flow. Peak nasal inspiratory flow and nasal patency index also showed significant association with the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale after adjustment for confounders. Peak nasal inspiratory flow is the most reliable method for the assessment of nasal patency. It is quick, inexpensive, and easy to perform, and correlates significantly with the subjective feeling of nasal obstruction. There is no clinical need to measure peak oral inspiratory flow or to calculate the nasal patency index in the evaluation of nasal patency. 4 © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  16. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-22

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  17. Circle of Ashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Circle of Ashes

    This plot tells astronomers that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar. Astronomers believe planets might rise up out of these stellar ashes.

    The data in this plot, or spectrum, were taken by ground-based telescopes and Spitzer. They show that light from around the pulsar can be divided into two categories: direct light from the pulsar, and light from the dusty disk swirling around the pulsar. This excess light was detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Dust gives off more infrared light than the pulsar because it's cooler.

    The pulsar, called 4U 0142+61, was once a massive star, until about 100,000 years ago, when it blew up in a supernova explosion and scattered dusty debris into space. Some of that debris was captured into what astronomers refer to as a 'fallback disk,' now circling the leftover stellar core, or pulsar. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks around young stars, out of which planets are thought to be born.

    The data have been corrected to remove the effects of light scattering from dust that lies between Earth and the pulsar.

    The ground-based data is from the Keck I telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  18. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  19. An atlas of volcanic ash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

  20. Ash in the Soil System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  1. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  2. Hemoglobin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Kelly; Hernandez, Margarita; Boles, Blaise R.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is an important risk factor for community and nosocomial infection. Despite the importance of S. aureus to human health, molecular mechanisms and host factors influencing nasal colonization are not well understood. To identify host factors contributing to nasal colonization, we collected human nasal secretions and analyzed their ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Some individuals produced secretions possessing the ability to significantly promote S. aureus surface colonization. Nasal secretions pretreated with protease no longer promoted S. aureus surface colonization, suggesting the involvement of protein factors. The major protein components of secretions were identified and subsequent analysis revealed that hemoglobin possessed the ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Immunoprecipitation of hemoglobin from nasal secretions resulted in reduced S. aureus surface colonization. Furthermore, exogenously added hemoglobin significantly decreased the inoculum necessary for nasal colonization in a rodent model. Finally, we found that hemoglobin prevented expression of the agr quorum sensing system and that aberrant constitutive expression of the agr effector molecule, RNAIII, resulted in reduced nasal colonization of S. aureus. Collectively our results suggest that the presence of hemoglobin in nasal secretions contributes to S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:21750673

  3. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  4. Nasal septal haematoma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukuezi, A B

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with nasal septal haematoma admitted at the General Hospital, Owerri, Nigeria over a five year period is presented. The disease was commoner in males than females. The majority of the cases (65.6 per cent) were of unknown cause and were therefore grouped as spontaneous haematoma while 30.4 per cent were due to trauma. Trauma was more common in patients below the age of 15 years while spontaneous haematoma was common in patients above that age. All the patients with septal haematoma represented 0.2 per cent of total attendances to the ENT clinic over the period. Most of the patients presented with severe and threatening symptoms necessitating intense aggressive management. All the patients were managed by surgical incision and drainage, four had marked nasal abnormalities. Three patients died from a brain abscess as a complication of infected haematoma.

  5. Nasal Lipopolysaccharide Challenge and Cytokine Measurement Reflects Innate Mucosal Immune Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, Jaideep; Kitson, Jeremy; Jones, Reema E.; Nicholson, Grant; Tunstall, Tanushree; Walton, Ross P.; Francombe, Grace; Gilbert, Jane; Tan, Andrew J.; Murdoch, Robert; Kon, Onn Min; Openshaw, Peter J.; Hansel, Trevor T.

    2015-01-01

    respiratory mucosa. Key Messages Ultrapure LPS was used as innate immune stimulus in a human nasal challenge model, with serial sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid (MLF) by nasosorption using a synthetic absorptive matrix (SAM), and nasal curettage of mucosal cells. A dose response could be demonstrated in terms of levels of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL3 in MLF, as well as ICAM-1 mRNA in nasal curettage specimens, and levels of neutrophils in nasal lavage. Depending on higher baseline levels of inflammation, there were occasional magnified innate inflammatory responses to LPS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT02284074 PMID:26367003

  6. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  7. Appraisal of gut lavage in the study of intestinal humoral immunity.

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, S; Barton, J R; Crichton, S; Ferguson, A

    1990-01-01

    Direct investigation of intestinal humoral immunity requires collection of intestinal secretions or mucosal biopsy specimens, or both. A non-invasive technique of gut lavage, with a polyethyleneglycol electrolyte lavage solution as a means of collecting intestinal secretions for immunoglobulin and antibody studies, was evaluated. Fifty patients were studied--25 immunologically normal patients or volunteers, 15 patients with untreated coeliac disease, and 10 patients with active Crohn's disease. Protease inhibitors were added promptly to samples to prevent proteolysis of immunoglobulin content. Treated lavage samples were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin and antibody content. Studies of serial lavage specimens showed that early, faecally contaminated specimens contained negligible quantities of immunoglobulin, but once the specimens became clear a steady state was reached, with little variation in immunoglobulin content between serial specimens and with a uniform dilution (around 20%) of the ingested polyethyleneglycol. Gut lavage fluid IgA was predominantly secretory, comprising 92%, 81.6%, and 76.7% respectively of the total IgA gut lavage fluid content in the control, coeliac, and Crohn's groups. High values of total IgM and IgA and IgM antigliadin antibodies were detected in the coeliac group, and high values of IgG in the Crohn's disease group. This method of gut lavage is not only an effective bowel cleanser, but also a noninvasive means of obtaining intestinal secretions for the study of humoral immunity in gastrointestinal disease. PMID:2265775

  8. Bronchoalveolar lavage versus bolus administration of lucinactant, a synthetic surfactant in meconium aspiration in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Rey-Santano, C; Alvarez-Diaz, F J; Mielgo, V; Murgia, X; Lafuente, H; Ruiz-Del-Yerro, E; Valls-I-Soler, A; Gastiasoro, E

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to study effects of lung lavage versus the classical bolus instillation with a peptide-based synthetic surfactant (lucinactant) in a model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS). Eighteen newborn lambs received meconium and were randomized to: the experimental meconium installation (eMAS) group-lambs with eMAS kept on conventional mechanical ventilation (control); the SF-Bolus group-eMAS receiving a lucinactant bolus (30 mg/ml); or the D-SF-Lavage group-eMAS treated with dilute lucinactant bronchoalveolar lavage (10 mg/ml). Systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, blood gases, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded for 180 min. In addition, the intrapulmonary distribution of the lucinactant was determined using dye-labeled microspheres. Following meconium instillation, severe hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and pulmonary hypertension developed, and dynamic compliance decreased (50% from baseline). After lung lavage with dilute lucinactant, gas exchange significantly improved versus bolus instillation (P < 0.05). Further, only in the lavage group did pulmonary arterial pressure return to basal values and dynamic compliance significantly increased. Both lung lavage and bolus techniques for the administration of lucinactant resulted in a non-uniform lung distribution. In conclusion, in newborn lambs with respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension induced by meconium, lung lavage with dilute lucinactant seems to be an effective and safe alternative for treatment for MAS.

  9. An in vitro comparison of tibial tray cementation using gun pressurization or pulsed lavage.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Ulf J; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Nagel, Katrin

    2014-05-01

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component remains a limitation to the highly successful procedure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Pulsed lavage improves bone cement penetration and interface strength in tibial tray cementation. This study tested whether pressurized cement application with a cement gun can compensate the use of jet lavage for bone surface preparation. Tibial components were implanted in six pairs of cadaveric tibiae. On one side, pulsed lavage of the tibial bone was combined with finger packing of bone cement; on the other side, syringe lavage and gun cementing was used. Cement penetration into the bone was determined from computed tomography scans, and Interface strength was determined by pull-out testing. Cement penetration was greater (p = 0.004) and interface strength was higher (p = 0.028) in the pulsed lavage group. Pressurization of cement by gun application could not compensate for the omission of pulsed lavage. Thus, pulsed lavage should be considered a crucial factor in TKA to improve implant fixation, which cannot be compensated for by cement application technique.

  10. Nasal gel and olfactory cleft.

    PubMed

    Herranz González-Botas, Jesús; Padín Seara, Anselmo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether a nasal gel, administrated using a radial-hole inhaler, reaches the olfactory cleft and if a different administration method influences distribution. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a nasal endoscopy at 1 and 7minutes after the administration of a intranasal gel, with a different method in each fossa. No dye deposition was identified at the olfactory cleft, middle turbinate or middle meatus. In all cases the gel was identified at the nasal vestibule. On the right side, the second most frequent dye identification area was the inferior turbinate, with a rate of 87% at the first minute and 75% at 7 minutes. It was followed by the septum (75 and 62%) and the inferior meatus (6.2 and 12.5%). On the left side, the second most frequent stained area was the septum (18.7 and 13.5%), followed by the inferior meatus (6.5 and 65%). No inferior turbinate staining was found in the left side. There was a significant difference in the deposition rate at the septum (P<.01) and inferior turbinate (P<.001), when both administration methods were compared. No nasal gel, administrated using a radial-hole inhaler, was found at the olfactory cleft, middle turbinate or middle meatus. Gel distribution was located at the anterior and inferior portion of the nose, independent of the administration method used. Significantly different gel distribution rates were found at the septum and inferior turbinate when the 2 administration methods were compared. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure and nasal inflammation in workers heating polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Littorin, Margareta; Welinder, Hans; Skarping, Gunnar; Dalene, Marianne; Skerfving, Staffan

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to thermal-degradation products of polyurethane (PUR), particularly isocyanates, induced nasal inflammation. Thirty-eight workers -14 with a history of work-related nasal symptoms (WRS/Nose), and 15 referents without such history - exposed to sprayed and heated PUR glue, were studied with regard to biomarkers of isocyanate exposure [4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate; MDI) and 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), determined as 4,4'-diphenylmethane (U-MDX) and 2,4- and 2,6-toluene (U-2,4 and U-2,6-TDX) diamine in hydrolysed urine and nasal lavage fluid (NAL)], inflammation [albumin; eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP); myeloperoxidase (MPO) and cells in NAL], serum IgG specific for MDI (S-IgG-MDI) and TDI (S-IgG-TDI), and nose symptoms. Nine unexposed office workers were also examined. The exposure to sprayed and heated PUR glue, especially when heated by gun, was associated with the presence of biomarkers of isocyanate exposure in urine; after work the levels [median (range)] in all workers were: U-MDX 0.32 (

  12. Nasal airway responses to nasal continuous positive airway pressure breathing: An in-vivo pilot study.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Bartley, Jim; Shakeel, Muhammad; Nates, Roy J; Hankin, Robin K S

    2016-06-14

    The nasal cycle, through variation in nasal airflow partitioning, allows the upper airway to accommodate the contrasting demands of air conditioning and removal of entrapped air contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) breathing has on both nasal airflow partitioning and nasal geometry. Using a custom-made nasal mask, twenty healthy participants had the airflow in each naris measured during normal nasal breathing followed by nCPAP breathing. Eight participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasal region during spontaneous nasal breathing, and then nCPAP breathing over a range of air pressures. During nCPAP breathing, a simultaneous reduction in airflow through the patent airway together with a corresponding increase in airway flow within the congested nasal airway were observed in sixteen of the twenty participants. Nasal airflow resistance is inversely proportional to airway cross-sectional area. MRI data analysis during nCPAP breathing confirmed airway cross-sectional area reduced along the patent airway while the congested airway experienced an increase in this parameter. During awake breathing, nCPAP disturbs the normal inter-nasal airflow partitioning. This could partially explain the adverse nasal drying symptoms frequently reported by many users of this therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of proteins from the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid proposal for a standardisation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, U; Mausolf, A; Barth, J; Welsch, U; Petermann, W

    1992-01-01

    In this study various precipitation methods have been used to concentrate the proteins from broncho-alveolar-lavages. The highest percentage of proteins was recovered from the broncho-alveolar-lavages using the method of Wessel & Flügge (Anal. Biochem. 138 (1984) 141-143). The recovered proteins were further analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Except for low molecular mass proteins, the method of Wessel & Flügge proved to be the most effective for the recovery of individual proteins. In general, the method of Wessel & Flügge seems to be the superior method for concentrating proteins of broncho-alveolar-lavages for further analysis.

  14. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-10-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  15. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  16. Effects of antitussive agents administered before bronchoalveolar lavage in horses.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Cornélie M; Laan, Tamarinde T; van Nieuwstadt, Roel A; Bull, Sarah; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether treatment of horses with antitussive agents before bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) reduces the frequency and intensity of the cough reflex during BAL. 8 healthy horses. Standard BAL was performed on each horse weekly for 6 weeks. Detomidine was used as a general sedative, and various antitussive agents were evaluated for their suitability to suppress undesirable coughing. Treatments administered prior to BAL consisted of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment), codeine, butorphanol tartrate, glycopyrrolate, lidocaine hydrochloride (final concentration, 0.33%), and lidocaine hydrochloride at a final concentration of 0.66% (lidocaine 0.66%). Frequency and intensity of coughing were digitally recorded throughout the BAL procedure. The volume of BAL fluid collected was measured, and the fluid was cytologically examined to assess potential effects of the medications on composition. Coughing frequency was significantly reduced after intratracheal administration of lidocaine 0.66%. Moreover, intratracheal administration of lidocaine 0.66% or IV administration of butorphanol resulted in a significant reduction in the intensity of coughing episodes. All other treatments failed to significantly suppress coughing frequency and intensity, compared with results for the saline treatment. Glycopyrrolate caused obvious adverse clinical effects. Treatments did not influence the volume of BAL fluid collected nor composition of the fluid. Intratracheal administration of lidocaine (final concentration, 0.66%) proved to be the most reliable method to reduce frequency and intensity of coughing in horses during BAL.

  17. Storage alters feline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R

    2011-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collection is a valuable respiratory diagnostic procedure in cats. This study evaluated effects of BALF storage on total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential cell counts (DCC), cell morphology, and cytological diagnosis. Forty-five research cats with neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and mixed inflammation, and healthy controls were enrolled. BALF samples were processed within 1h (baseline) or stored at 4°C (4C24) or room temperature (RT24) for 24h, or 4°C (4C48) or room temperature (RT48) for 48h before processing. Stored BALF at RT48 had decreased TNCC compared to baseline. The RT24 and RT48 samples had greater eosinophil % and the RT24, 4C48, and RT48 samples had decreased neutrophil % compared with baseline. Cellular morphology deteriorated in all stored samples. Storage resulted in a change in cytological diagnosis in up to 57% of stored samples. We conclude that cytological analysis of BALF in cats should be performed promptly for optimal results.

  18. Interrogating Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples via Exclusion-Based Analyte Extraction.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Jacob J; Warrick, Jay W; Guckenberger, David J; Sperger, Jamie M; Lang, Joshua M; Ferguson, J Scott; Beebe, David J

    2017-06-01

    Although average survival rates for lung cancer have improved, earlier and better diagnosis remains a priority. One promising approach to assisting earlier and safer diagnosis of lung lesions is bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which provides a sample of lung tissue as well as proteins and immune cells from the vicinity of the lesion, yet diagnostic sensitivity remains a challenge. Reproducible isolation of lung epithelia and multianalyte extraction have the potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and provide new information for developing personalized therapeutic approaches. We present the use of a recently developed exclusion-based, solid-phase-extraction technique called SLIDE (Sliding Lid for Immobilized Droplet Extraction) to facilitate analysis of BAL samples. We developed a SLIDE protocol for lung epithelial cell extraction and biomarker staining of patient BALs, testing both EpCAM and Trop2 as capture antigens. We characterized captured cells using TTF1 and p40 as immunostaining biomarkers of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. We achieved up to 90% (EpCAM) and 84% (Trop2) extraction efficiency of representative tumor cell lines. We then used the platform to process two patient BAL samples in parallel within the same sample plate to demonstrate feasibility and observed that Trop2-based extraction potentially extracts more target cells than EpCAM-based extraction.

  19. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma. Analysis by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Silver, R M; Metcalf, J F; Stanley, J H; LeRoy, E C

    1984-11-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is a common feature of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) which may result in impairment of pulmonary function and may be a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Clinicopathologic observations suggest that interstitial and alveolar inflammation may appear prior to fibrosis. Using the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) technique, we have characterized the nature of the inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tracts of 19 non-smoking scleroderma patients. Eleven of 19 patients (58%) had increased percentages of neutrophils and/or eosinophils in BAL fluid. Five of 10 patients (50%) had elevations of IgG in BAL fluid. The presence of neutrophils was associated with a decreased lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (P less than 0.05) and with more advanced radiographic features of interstitial fibrosis in patients with disease of more than 1 year's duration. This study suggests that scleroderma lung involvement may be characterized by an inflammatory alveolitis and that the presence of such inflammation may relate to the severity of the pulmonary disease.

  20. Unilateral nasal resistance and asymmetrical body pressure.

    PubMed

    Haight, J S; Cole, P

    1986-08-01

    Lateral recumbency causes ipsilateral nasal congestion and contralateral decongestion. Nasal resistances were measured before, during and after the application of pressure either regionally or by lateral recumbency. In some experiments an attempt was made to block the response by local anesthetic injection, splinting the nasal vestibules, or topical decongestants. In others an electric blanket was employed as a stimulus instead of pressure. It was concluded that the nasal resistance changes during lateral recumbency are due to pressure receptors in the pelvic and pectoral girdles, and thorax. These adapt slowly. They are probably situated in the intercostal spaces, parietal pleura, or sterno-costal joints. Their centripetal fibers probably travel in the intercostal nerves, and their efferents in the cervical sympathetic outflow to the nasal erectile tissue. Lateral recumbency of 12 minutes' duration induces changes in nasal resistance which persist after the pressure asymmetry has been terminated. This may be due to temporal summation.

  1. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  2. Post Septorhinoplasty Custom-Made Unilateral Nasal Stent for Nasal Cleft Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Bhoria, Mohaneesh; Boora, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nasal cleft deformity is a complicated problem. Utilization of nasal stent in post septorhinoplastyaims at establishing and maintaining airway patency, tissue position, and reduces tissue contracture after surgery. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient presented with history of surgical reconstruction of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate with secondary septorhinoplasty of nasal cleft deformity. Patient was referred for nasal stent 1 week after septorhinoplasty. This case report provides a novel technique for fabrication of esthetic nasal stent after postseptorhinoplasty for secondary cleft nose deformity correction. Conclusion: This case report presents a simple, convenient technique for nasal stent fabrication for prevention of restenosis for cleft nose deformity post secondary septorhinoplasty. Provision of nasal stent allows breathing, maintains esthetics, comfort, nasal patency, and contour with minimal discomfort. PMID:25789253

  3. Clinical evaluation of 368 patients with nasal rosacea: subtype classification and grading of nasal rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Joon Min; Won, Kwang Hee; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical features of nasal rosacea have not been described in detail. To describe the clinical features of nasal rosacea. 599 patients were classified into those with rosacea in both the nasal and extra-nasal areas (group A), localized nasal rosacea (group B) and rosacea without nasal involvement (group C). The mixed subtype was more common in group A (n = 337) than in group C (n = 231). The severity score was higher in group A than in group C. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was the most common subtype in group B (n = 31) and was more common in group B than in group A. Rosacea mainly affected the lower half of the nose in group B, but affected the entire nose in group A. Nasal involvement may be an index of severe rosacea. Localized nasal rosacea is a separate spectrum with different clinical features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Diminished levels of nasal S100A7 (psoriasin) in seasonal allergic rhinitis: an effect mediated by Th2 cytokines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S100A7 is an antimicrobial peptide involved in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and regulation of S100A7 in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Methods Nasal lavage (NAL) fluid was obtained from healthy controls before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provocation, from SAR patients before and after allergen challenge, and from SAR patients having completed allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Nasal biopsies, nasal epithelial cells and blood were acquired from healthy donors. The airway epithelial cell line FaDu was used for in vitro experiments. Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine S100A7 expression in nasal tissue and cells. Release of S100A7 in NAL and culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. The function of recombinant S100A7 was explored in epithelial cells, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results Nasal administration of LPS induced S100A7 release in healthy non-allergic subjects. The level of S100A7 was lower in NAL from SAR patients than from healthy controls, and it was further reduced in the SAR group 6 h post allergen provocation. In contrast, ASIT patients displayed higher levels after completed treatment. S100A7 was expressed in the nasal epithelium and in glands, and it was secreted by cultured epithelial cells. Stimulation with IL-4 and histamine repressed the epithelial S100A7 release. Further, recombinant S100A7 induced activation of neutrophils and PBMC. Conclusions The present study shows an epithelial expression and excretion of S100A7 in the nose after microbial stimulation. The levels are diminished in rhinitis patients and in the presence of an allergic cytokine milieu, suggesting that the antimicrobial defense is compromised in patients with SAR. PMID:22230654

  5. Ash, the emerald ash borer, and private forest land management

    Treesearch

    Tom. Crowe

    2010-01-01

    Forest management through emerald ash borer (EAB) will be a dynamic process that will change based on the best information available at the time. Management decisions will depend on the anticipated time of EAB arrival; the diameter and number of ash present in the forest stand; the diameter and number of other desirable and undesirable species present in the stand (...

  6. Air flow in the human nasal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Vetlutsky, V. N.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Shepelenko, V. N.; Melnikov, M. N.; Savina, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    A mathematical model of the air flow in the human nasal cavity is developed under the assumption of a turbulent viscous air flow. The shape of the nasal cavity is modeled with the use of the Gambit graphical software system and tomography data. A numerical solution is obtained by using the Fluent commercial software system. Calculations are performed for various variants of construction of the human nasal cavity.

  7. Nasal sequelae of Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plomp, Raul G; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Moolenburgh, Sanne E; van Montfort, Kees A G M; van der Meulen, Jacques J N M; Poublon, René M L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine external and endonasal deformity, and satisfaction with nasal functioning and appearance, in Treacher Collins syndrome. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted. Eleven adult patients with Treacher Collins syndrome were compared with 151 controls in terms of satisfaction with nasal functioning and appearance by means of the Nasal Appearance and Function Evaluation Questionnaire. In all patients with Treacher Collins syndrome, external nasal deformities were scored on standardized digital photographs of the nose as rated independently by three experienced physicians. Endonasal deformity was determined by standardized nasal endoscopy. The patients were relatively satisfied with the various esthetic nasal subunits. The most significant functional problems were snoring (P = 0.001) and quality of phonation (P = 0.003). The main external nasal deformities were the dorsal hump (73%), external deviation (≤55%), the bifid or bulbous nasal tip (55%), and columellar septal luxation (55%). In 82% of the patients, a septal deviation was found, often associated with spurs. Satisfaction with esthetics of the nose was fair, but these patients suffer from the functional problems of snoring and impaired quality of phonation. A structured nasal ENT physical examination with nasal endoscopy might determine aspects requiring more attention during treatment. Septorhinoplasty can be performed at an adult age if there is a considerable esthetic wish of the patient and/or nasal obstruction combined with septal deviation. Attention should be paid to dorsal hump reduction, correction of the deviated external osseous framework, septoplasty, and correction of the nasal tip shape. 2b. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  9. Nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Mark A; Parhiscar, Afshin

    2003-11-01

    Silicone rubber has been used safely and effectively for facial augmentation for nearly 5 decades in eastern Asia. We have used silicone rubber nasal implants in primary ethnic rhinoplasty and have found consistent and long-lasting results with low complication rates. Silicone dorsal nasal augmentation in primary rhinoplasty avoids donor site morbidity and implant resorption as seen with autogenous implants. Silicone nasal implants have a low extrusion and infection rate. In the appropriate patient with proper placement, silicone nasal implant is nearly the ideal implant material.

  10. Reconstruction of Small Soft Tissue Nasal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Cheng, David; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal defect repair has been one of the more challenging areas of reconstructive surgery due to the lack of uniform nasal skin thickness and complex contours. Currently, algorithms for medium to large nasal soft tissue defects have been well defined by various authors. Small defects, arbitrarily defined as 1 cm or less, still present significant challenges. In this article, the authors examine the options available to repair small soft tissue nasal defects and the appropriate situations in which each method is best suited. PMID:24872751

  11. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  12. A computational analysis of nasal vestibule morphologic variabilities on nasal function.

    PubMed

    Ramprasad, Vaibhav H; Frank-Ito, Dennis O

    2016-02-08

    Although advances in computational modeling have led to increased understanding of nasal airflow, not much is known about the effects of normal sinonasal anatomic variabilities on nasal function. In this study, three distinct variations in the human nasal vestibule airspace that have not been previously described were identified. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of nasal airflow profile in each identified variation of nasal vestibule phenotype was conducted to assess the role of these phenotypes on nasal physiology. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the nasal geometry in sixteen subjects with normal radiographic sinonasal images were created and each respective unilateral nasal cavity was classified as Notched, Standard, or Elongated phenotype based nasal vestibule morphology. Steady state, laminar and incompressible flow simulations were performed in the nasal geometries under physiological, pressure-driven conditions with constant inspiratory pressure. Results showed that at localized regions of the unilateral nasal cavity, average resistance was significantly different among nasal vestibule phenotypes. However, global comparison from nostril to choana showed that average resistance was not significantly different across phenotypes; suggesting that with normal anatomic variations, the nose has a natural compensatory mechanism that modulates localized airflow in order to achieve a desired amount of global airflow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  14. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    PubMed

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  15. LADTAG Progress 2010 and Plans for 2011 and Provisional PELs from Lavage and Blood Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) plans and progress for 2010 and 2011. Provisional Permissible Exposure Limits (PPELs) from lavage fluid and blood data are also presented.

  16. [Limitations of colonic lavage in the cytopathological diagnosis of inflammatory and neoplastic lesions].

    PubMed

    Villanacci, V; Grigolato, P G; Bonardi, M; Gattamelata, M; Moreschetti, R; Ghirardi, M; Di Fabio, F; Nascimbeni, R; Salerni, B

    2003-04-01

    The authors describe the personal experience on colonic lavage cytology in neoplastic or inflammatory diseases. Although the presence of false negative results in the lesions of right colon, the method could be useful in the diagnosis of selected cases.

  17. Steroid-responsive interstitial pulmonary disease in systemic sclerosis. Monitoring by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Kallenberg, C G; Jansen, H M; Elema, J D; The, T H

    1984-09-01

    We describe a 38-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis of recent onset and progressive dyspnea. Studies of pulmonary function revealed a restrictive ventilatory disorder with decreased diffusing capacity. Interstitial fibrosis and infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells with formation of follicles were observed in the lung biopsy. Analysis of fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increase in the total number of cells, with a relative increase in neutrophils. Also, the relative amount of the immunoglobulins, IgG and IgM, was increased. During corticosteroid treatment, rapid improvement of pulmonary volumes occurred, together with disappearance of neutrophils and an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes in the lavage fluid. Later on, the total number of cells in the fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage and the percentage of lymphocytes reached normal values. Bronchoalveolar lavage may be of value in assessing and monitoring pulmonary disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  18. Association of Interleukin-8 and Neutrophils with Nasal Symptom Severity During Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Kelsey M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (rs = 0.082, P = 0.022; rs = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = <0.00001; r = 0.18, P = <0.003), plugged nose (r = 0.045, P = 0.003; r = 0.14, P = 0.058), and sneezing (r = −0.02, P = <0.0001; r = −0.0055, P = 0.31). Neutrophils correlate with some quality of life measures such as sleeping well (r = 0.15, P = 0.026). Thus, the study demonstrates that IL-8 and neutrophils are correlated with severity of nasal symptoms during acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. PMID:25132248

  19. Biogas purification with biomass ash.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado Juárez, M; Mostbauer, P; Knapp, A; Müller, W; Tertsch, S; Bockreis, A; Insam, H

    2017-10-07

    The aim of the study was to investigate the option to purify biogas from small-scale biogas plants by entrapping CO2 and H2S with regionally available biomass ash. Connected to the existing biogas plant Neustift (Tyrol) wood ash placed in a 1 m(3) container was used as a trap for CO2 and H2S in the biogas. With the process conditions chosen, for a period of a few hours CO2 was trapped resulting in pure methane. The removal of H2S was much longer-lasting (up to 34 d). The cumulative H2S uptake by the biomass ash ranged from 0.56 to 1.25 kg H2S per ton of ash. The pH of the ash and the leachability of Lead and Barium were reduced by the flushing with biogas, however toxicity towards plants was increased thus reducing the potential of ash use in agriculture. It can be concluded that biomass ash may be used for removal of hydrogen sulphide from biogas in small and medium biogas plants. The economic evaluation, however, indicated that the application of this system is limited by transport distances for the ash and its potential use afterwards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  1. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  2. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  4. Emerald ash borer life cycle

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Toby R. Petrice; Houping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was discovered in southeastern Michigan and nearby Ontario in June of 2002. EAB was identified as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in approximately 2,500 mi2, and...

  5. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Treesearch

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  6. Ash-Based Ceramic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This patent discloses a ceramic material made from raw coal fly ash or raw municipal solid waste fly ash and (1) sodium tetraborate or (2) a mixture of sodium tetraborate and a calcium containing material that is triple superphosphate, lime, dolomite lime, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Bottom ash boosts poor soil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.

    1993-04-01

    This article describes agricultural uses of fluidized bed bottom ash residue from burning limestone and coal in electric power generating plants: as a limestone substitute, to increase calcium levels in both soil and plants, and as a gypsom-containing soil amendment. Apples and tomatoes are the crops used. The industrial perspective and other uses of bottom ash are also briefly described.

  8. Ash Plume from Shiveluch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    When NASA’s Terra satellite passed over Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula at noon local time (00:00 Universal Time) on October 6, 2012, Shilveluch Volcano was quiet. By the time NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the area two hours later (bottom image), the volcano had erupted and sent a plume of ash over the Kamchatskiy Zaliv. The plume traveled about 90 kilometers (55 miles) toward the south-southeast, where a change in wind direction began pushing the plume toward the east. On October 6, 2012, the Kamchatka Volcanic Emergency Response Team (KVERT) reported that the ash plume from Shiveluch reached an altitude of 3 kilometers (9,800 feet) above sea level, and had traveled some 220 kilometers (140 miles) from the volcano summit. Shiveluch (also spelled Sheveluch) ranks among the biggest and most active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Rising to 3,283 meters (10,771 feet) above sea level, Shiveluch is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, compacted ash, and rocks ejected by previous eruptions. The beige-colored expanse of rock on the volcano’s southern slopes (visible in both images) is due to an explosive eruption that occurred in 1964. Part of Shiveluch’s southern flank collapsed, and the light-colored rock is avalanche debris left by that event. High-resolution imagery of Shiveluch shows very little vegetation within that avalanche zone. On October 6, 2012, KVERT cited observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on Terra and Aqua in detecting the Shiveluch eruption. This was not the first time that MODIS observed a Shiveluch eruption shortly after it started. In 2007, MODIS captured an image within minutes of the eruption’s start, before winds could blow the ash away from the summit. When NASA’s Terra satellite passed over Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula at noon local time (00:00 Universal Time) on October 6, 2012, Shilveluch Volcano was quiet (top image). By the time NASA

  9. Asbestosis occurring after brief inhalational exposure: usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barbers, R G; Abraham, J L

    1989-01-01

    A case of clinically and radiologically typical asbestosis manifesting in a 55 year old man occurred 36 years after a brief exposure period of less than one year. A transbronchial lung biopsy was performed but the samples were considered non-diagnostic. The diagnosis was supported by the use of bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain alveolar samples and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x ray analysis of fibres found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid which showed a predominance of amosite. Images PMID:2538140

  10. Asbestosis occurring after brief inhalational exposure: usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barbers, R G; Abraham, J L

    1989-02-01

    A case of clinically and radiologically typical asbestosis manifesting in a 55 year old man occurred 36 years after a brief exposure period of less than one year. A transbronchial lung biopsy was performed but the samples were considered non-diagnostic. The diagnosis was supported by the use of bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain alveolar samples and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x ray analysis of fibres found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid which showed a predominance of amosite.

  11. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk by Aberrant Methylation in Mammary Duct Lavage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    patients 67/108 (62.0) were lavaged per breast, and 3.5 ducts were lavaged History of ADH 1167 (1.51 per patient. There were 41 women with incident BRCA gene ...range from intraductal papilloma to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Laboratory studies indicate that methylation of tumor suppressor genes is an...ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Laboratory studies indicate that methylation of tumor suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis. We have

  12. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  13. Beneficial uses of CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.J.; Cotton, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Coal-fired generation accounts for almost 55 percent of the electricity produced in the United States. It has been estimated that over 90 million tons of coal combustion waste by-products were generated in 1990. Currently, only 30% of coal combustion waste is recycled for various beneficial applications. The remaining waste is primarily managed in landfills and surface impoundments. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will play an important role in supplying power for future load growth and Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments compliance. CFB ash by-products have many beneficial uses. This paper describes potential applications of CFB ashes based on the ash characteristics. The beneficial uses of CFB ash discussed in this study include agricultural applications, acidic waste stabilizer, ash rock, sludge stabilizer, strip mine reclamation, and structural fill.

  14. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  15. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and progression of scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Peluso, Giusy; Pinnelli, Michela; Alivernini, Stefano; Zizzo, Gaetano; Bocci, Mario; Capacci, Annunziata; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Pagliari, Gabriella; Varone, Francesco; Pistelli, Roberto; Danza, Francesco Maria; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    So far no clinical or experimental evidences clearly explain how and which systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients will experience a functional and radiological progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether any bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) characteristic, compared with clinical, functional and radiological parameters, is associated with the risk of progression of ILD and worse survival in SSc patients. Lung involvement was evaluated in 110 consecutively examined SSc patients with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 73 patients with evidence of ILD on HRCT underwent BAL. The progression of ILD was evaluated with PFTs and HRCT after 1-year follow-up. A 36-month survival analysis was assessed. ILD patients with alveolitis had a higher risk to have restrictive lung disease and honeycombing, to experience a worsening in honeycombing score or to develop honeycombing. ILD progression was associated with the evidence of honeycombing on HRCT, with the presence of eosinophils, with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and with a higher CD19 percentage count in the BALF or with a positive BALF microbiological culture. The patients with ILD had a worse overall survival. The diffuse disease was the only independent risk factor of overall mortality, and the extent of honeycombing on HRCT was the only independent risk factor of lung disease-related mortality. Our study suggests the importance of evaluating ILD with HRCT and BAL in order to characterize the risk factors of SSc lung involvement progression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Non-fibrous inorganic particles in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Yernault, J C

    1989-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a simple and non-invasive sampling technique of the deep lung. Analytical electron microscopy was used for the identification and quantification of non-fibrous inorganic particles recovered in BAL fluid samples from 51 subjects with various occupational exposures (silica, silicates, metals and alloys, metallic oxides, precious and hard metals, abrasives). Around 4750 particles were analysed. More than sixty different compounds were identified, among which silica, kaolinite, illite, mica, Fe oxides and hydroxides, appeared to be ubiquitous. Feldspar, talc, chlorite, Al oxide, Ti oxide, tungsten carbide, stainless steel, carbonaceous compounds and flyash were also frequently encountered. From 1 to 21 compounds were identified in each sample. Repeated BAL samples obtained for 2 subjects did not show significant differences. Particles characteristic of the occupational exposure were found in BAL up to 21 years after cessation. BAL content can also reflect mixed occupational exposures. Absolute particle concentrations measured in twelve samples ranged between 0.1 and 9.9 x 10(6) particles/ml BAL fluid and mean particle diameter ranged between 0.5 and 1.2 microns. Mineralogical analysis of non-fibrous particles in BAL can be a useful tool to investigate occupational exposures. It allows, in most cases, a better characterization of the exposure than medical questioning. It may be helpful in identifying pathogenic particles, however it must be kept in mind that a positive result is only a proof of exposure and never a proof of disease. The main limitations of this technique are difficulties in sampling severely diseased subjects and inaccuracy in detecting easily soluble compounds and particles with a high rate of alveolar clearance.

  18. Cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Turkish miners

    PubMed Central

    Kayacan, O; Beder, S; Karnak, D

    2003-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis. Twenty nine retired male miners and 17 controls, eight non-smokers (four male, four female) and nine smokers (six male, three female), without any dust exposure were evaluated. According to the International Labor Office 1980 classification system, the miners were allocated to three subgroups: eight without pneumoconiosis, 11 with simple pneumoconiosis, and 10 with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Spirometric tests and arterial blood gases analysis were done and fibreoptic bronchoscopy and BAL were performed in all subjects. The study and the control subjects were comparable in respect to age, smoking habits, except the non-smoker controls, and the duration of dust exposure, except the controls. The amount of recovered BAL fluid was lower in all miners compared with the non-smoker controls (p<0.05). The amount of recovered BAL fluid and the total cell count correlated significantly (r = 0.48, p<0.01). The percentage of lymphocytes in the BAL fluid of miners without pneumoconiosis and with PMF (p<0.05) and that of simple pneumoconiosis (p<0.01) was significantly lower compared with the non-smoker controls. Alveolitis was not a representative feature of Turkish subjects with an occupational history of underground mining, and BAL fluid cellular profile did not seem to be different in miners with or without pneumoconiosis. PMID:13679550

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage and response to cyclophosphamide in scleroderma alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Colaci, M; Sebastiani, M; Giuggioli, D; Manfredi, A; Spagnolo, P; Luppi, F; Richeldi, L; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2010-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by abnormal fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, particularly the lungs. Recent reports have revealed a lack of correlation between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) variations and response to cyclophosphamide (CYC) in patients with scleroderma-related alveolitis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether the normalization of BAL cellularity correlates with long-term response to CYC. We retrospectively studied 26 consecutive SSc patients with alveolitis diagnosed by BAL and treated with CYC therapy (cumulative dosage 26.5 +/- 11.7 g; 21.1 +/- 8.9 months of treatment). We evaluated high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), forced vital capacity (FVC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) variations before and after CYC. Radiological and functional parameters were re-evaluated in 23 patients after 1-year follow-up. BAL cellularity normalized after CYC therapy in 12/26 (46.2%) patients (group 1), while it remained abnormal in 14/26 (53.8%) (group 2). FVC and DLCO of group 1 slightly increased after CYC (p = 0.014 and p = 0.07, respectively) and remained stable at follow-up, whereas in group 2 they did not change after CYC and at follow-up (p = not significant). Moreover, at the end of CYC, FVC and/or DLCO showed a clinical improvement/stabilization in all patients of group 1 versus 8/14 of group 2, while at the re-evaluation 1 year after completing CYC, 2/11 patients of group 1 worsened versus 5/12 of group 2. HRCT progression was observed in 1/11 of group 1 and 8/12 of group 2 (p = 0.009). BAL fluid normalization after CYC therapy correlated with long-term response to treatment, contrary to what is observed in individuals with persistent alveolitis.

  20. Laparoscopic Lavage Is Feasible and Safe for the Treatment of Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Angenete, Eva; Thornell, Anders; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Skullman, Stefan; Bisgaard, Thue; Jess, Per; Läckberg, Zoltan; Matthiessen, Peter; Heath, Jane; Rosenberg, Jacob; Haglind, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate short-term outcomes of a new treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis in a randomized controlled trial. Background: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) has traditionally been treated with surgery including colon resection and stoma (Hartmann procedure) with considerable postoperative morbidity and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage has been suggested as a less invasive surgical treatment. Methods: Laparoscopic lavage was compared with colon resection and stoma in a randomized controlled multicenter trial, DILALA (ISRCTN82208287). Initial diagnostic laparoscopy showing Hinchey III was followed by randomization. Clinical data was collected up to 12 weeks postoperatively. Results: Eighty-three patients were randomized, out of whom 39 patients in laparoscopic lavage and 36 patients in the Hartmann procedure groups were available for analysis. Morbidity and mortality after laparoscopic lavage did not differ when compared with the Hartmann procedure. Laparoscopic lavage resulted in shorter operating time, shorter time in the recovery unit, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: In this trial, laparoscopic lavage as treatment for patients with perforated diverticulitis Hinchey III was feasible and safe in the short-term. PMID:25489672

  1. [Clinical analysis of nasal resistance and pulmonary function testing in patients with chronic nasal-sinusitis and nasal polyps].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Shen, Ying; Wang, Pengjun

    2015-05-01

    To study the pulmonary function and nasal resistance characteristics of patients with chronic nose-sinusitis and nasal polyps (CRSwNP), to explore the evaluation role of nasal resistance in nasal ventilation function and the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on pulmonary function in patients with CRSwNP. Fifty CRSwNP patients that met the study criteria were selected . The patients were performed endoscopic surgeries according to Messerklinger surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Extent of surgery was based on preoperative CT showing the range of the lesion of disease and endoscopic findings. Perioperative treatments contained intranasal corticosteroids, cephalosporin or penicillin antibiotics, nasal irrigation and other treatments. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), endoscopic Lind-Kennedy scores, nasal resistence, pulmonary function in patientsone week before and after surgery, three months and six months after surgery. Pulmonary function includes forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity FEV1/FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The study found that there were significantly positive correlations among VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score and nasal resistance (P < 0.05) in CRSwNP patients, but there is a significantly negative correlation between VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score, nasal resistance and pulmonary function indexes of FEV1, FVC and PEF (P < 0.05). The VAS score, Lund-Kennedy score and nasal resistance values of CRSwNP patients were decreased significantly after comprehensive treatments with nasal endoscopic operation as the major one, the difference was statistically different (P < 0.05). And the pulmonary function indexs (FEV1, FVC, PEF) were significantly increased after surgery in CRSwNP patients. The nasal resistance can objectively and reliably reflect the degree of nasal congestion and the recovery of nasal function in CRSwNP patients after endoscopic sinus surgery. The detection method of nasal

  2. Neurilemmoma of lateral nasal wall.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Gautam, Parul; Arora, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Neurilemmoma is a benign tumour of nerve sheath origin that can arise from myelinated nerve. The Head and neck is the most frequent site involved and other sites are scalp, face, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and ear. Neurilemmoma usually occur as solitary lesions and in association with NF type 2. Malignant transformation is very rare. We report a case of 18 year old male presented with complaint of nasal obstruction and swelling in right side of nose. We discuss the clinical presentation, histologic features, and therapeutic options for such a rare benign lesion.

  3. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  4. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  5. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kimbell, J.S.; Frank, D.O.; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G.J.M.; Rhee, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning. PMID:24063885

  6. Video-rhino-hygrometer: a new method for evaluation of nasal breathing after nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Casale, Manuele; Pappacena, Marco; Setola, Roberto; Soda, Paolo; Cusimano, Valerio; Vitali, Massimiliano; Mladina, Ranko; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Nasal obstruction is one of the most frequent symptoms in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) setting. It can be evaluated either subjectively or objectively. In a subjective way, a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT 20) can rapidly quantify the degree of obstruction, whereas the most commonly used objective methods are nasal endoscopy and active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR). It is still a matter of controversy to what extent the sense of nasal obstruction is associated with objective measures for nasal space and airflow. The aim of the study was to evaluate nasal breathing before and after functional nasal surgery by video-rhino-hygrometer (VRH) comparing the results with widely accepted methods. Twenty patient candidates for septoplasty and inferior turbinate reduction were included in the study. SNOT-20, VAS, nasal endoscopy, and AAR were analyzed and compared with VRH values. Before surgery VRH showed variability of nasal respiratory flow between individuals and between nostrils. After surgery we had an increase (p < 0.05) of airflow in both nostrils. VRH data were found to be correlated with VAS and SNOT-20 values (p < 0.05) both pre- and postoperatively. Despite the statistically significant correlation of AAR with SNOT-20 and VAS, no statistically significant correlation between AAR and VRH was found. VRH provides an immediate, easy, and noninvasive assessment of nasal respiration. For these reasons it can be used, in association with rhinoscopic data and other instrumental tests, to evaluate nasal breathing in daily ENT practice.

  7. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning.

  8. Transnasal microsurgical ethmoidectomy in nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1980-03-01

    A technique of microsurgical ethmoidectomy by a nasal route was devised for and applied to the treatment of nasal polyposis. A description of the operative procedure and the results in 30 cases with a 3-5 years of follow-up are reported.

  9. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  10. Respiratory mode, nasal patency and palatine dimensions.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Bellinaso, José Humberto; Pacheco, Andrielle de Bitencourt; Augé, Luciana Barros; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of breathing mode and nasal patency in the dimensions of the hard palate by comparing mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) adults. Seventy-seven individuals, distributed into the MB group (n=38) and the NB group (n=39), of both genders and aged between 18 and 30 years old, took part in the study. The respiratory mode diagnosis was based on anamnesis, physical characteristics, and otorhinolaryngological examination. The volunteers were evaluated in terms of nasal patency, with a peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) meter, and obstruction symptoms, by a Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale, and had their transversal and vertical hard palate dimensions measured with a digital caliper in plaster models. Comparing both groups, the MB group presented significantly higher values in the NOSE scale, lower values in the PNIF, lower values in the transversal distance of the palate in the intercanine region, and significantly higher values in the vertical distance in the regions of the first and second premolars and molars. There was a negative correlation between PNIF and NOSE, and a positive correlation between PNIF and transversal distance of the palate in the region of the first premolars. MB adults presented reduced nasal patency and a higher degree of nasal obstruction symptoms. The hard palate was morphologically narrower and deeper in adults with the MB mode compared to the NB mode. Moreover, it was concluded that the smaller the nasal patency, the greater the obstruction symptoms and the narrower the hard palate.

  11. Nasal Airway Resistance: Its Measurement and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lyle H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of regulation of nasal airway resistance (Rn). Describes methods of calculating Rn by measuring pressure-flow relationship. Data are presented on improved methods for measuring Rn and effects for expiratory and inspiratory Rn after topical application of phenylephrine nasal decongestant spray. (Author/SA)

  12. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong H; Kim, Dae Woo; Gevaert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and non-allergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. Additionally, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. CRSsNP is characterized by histologic abnormalities, including basement membrane thickening (fibrosis) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Neutrophils and several chemokines, TGF-β and CXCL-8, play a role in CRSsNP remodeling. However, there are conflicting data about CRSsNP endotypes, e.g., whether it is characterized by neutrophilia or eosinophilia or both. In spite of advancements and the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, additional study is necessary to better comprehend its underlying mechanisms, endotypes, and evidence based treatment strategies. PMID:27393771

  16. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, Klaus; Gruber, Maike; Jagsch, Reinhold; Roesner, Imme; Baumann, Arnulf; Wutzl, Arno; Denk-Linnert, Doris-Maria

    2017-03-15

    In patients with a repaired cleft palate, nasality is typically diagnosed by speech language pathologists. In addition, there are various instruments to objectively diagnose nasalance. To explore the potential of nasalance measurements after cleft palate repair by NasalView(®), we correlated perceptual nasality and instrumentally measured nasalance of eight speech items and determined the relationship between sensitivity and specificity of the nasalance measures by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and AUC (area under the curve) computation for each single test item and specific item groups. We recruited patients with a primarily repaired cleft palate receiving speech therapy during follow-up. During a single day visit, perceptive and instrumental assessments were obtained in 36 patients and analyzed. The individual perceptual nasality was assigned to one of four categories; the corresponding instrumental nasalance measures for the eight specific speech items were expressed on a metric scale (1-100). With reference to the perceptual diagnoses, we observed 3 nasal and one oral test item with high sensitivity. However, the specificity of the nasality indicating measures was rather low. The four best speech items with the highest sensitivity provided scores ranging from 96.43 to 100%, while the averaged sensitivity of all eight items was below 90%. We conclude that perceptive evaluation of nasality remains state of the art. For clinical follow-up, instrumental nasalance assessment can objectively document subtle changes by analysis of four speech items only. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of instrumental nasalance measures in the clinical routine, using discriminative items only.

  17. Fabrication of a provisional nasal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    A technique for making a provisional nasal prosthesis for interim use after the ablation of a midface tumor is described. The technique is especially useful for the re-creation of a nasal form in an expedient and cost-effective manner. A preoperative definitive cast, or moulage, of the patient that includes a nasal form is used to fabricate a vacuum form of the midface. The vacuum form is evaluated on the patient, the extension is adjusted, and an external adhesive knit liner is applied to give the appearance of a contoured nasal bandage. The provisional nasal prosthesis is attached with medical adhesive tape and removed daily by the patient. The prosthesis is easily replaced during the course of treatment and has been found to be functional and esthetically acceptable to those patients receiving care from the Dental Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

  18. Nasal foreign body removal in children.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Brenkert, Timothy E; Losek, Joseph D

    2008-11-01

    Nasal foreign bodies in children are often managed in the pediatric emergency department. The child is usually between 2 and 4 years old, and the foreign body is most commonly a plastic toy or bead. Nasal foreign bodies are removed by a number of techniques. Positive-pressure expulsion is accomplished by orally applied pressure via a parent's mouth or an Ambu bag or by nasally applied pressure via a catheter or an oxygen source. The object can be washed out with nasally applied saline. Direct mechanical extraction is possible with a variety of tools, including forceps, hooks, or balloon-tipped catheters. Each method carries its own risks and benefits. Serious complications of nasal foreign bodies include posterior dislodgement and aspiration, trauma caused by the object itself or removal attempts, infection, and choanal stenosis. Magnets and button batteries require emergent removal as they carry the risk of septal perforation or necrosis, which may develop within a relatively short time.

  19. [Nasal foreign body in infants].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Salanne, S; Debuisson, C; Maréchal, C; Rekhroukh, H; Grouteau, E

    2009-09-01

    Provide a descriptive analysis of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED) for a nasal foreign body (NFB) and describe the current knowledge and management of such accidents. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2003 to May 2008, including all patients aged less than 15 years admitted for a NFB. The data collected were age, sex, geographic origin, time and day of admission, duration in PED, duration of NFB insertion, nostril location, symptoms and clinical signs, prehospital extraction attempts, facial x-ray, extraction mode, referral to an ENT specialist, progression, and complications. For statistical analysis, the data were entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The data were analyzed with StatView 5.1 (SAS Institute) and EpiInfo 6.04fr (VF, ENSP Epiconcept). In the descriptive analysis, the data are presented as mean values with standard deviation, median with extreme values or with 95% confidence intervals where appropriate, unless otherwise indicated. To compare qualitative variables, a chi(2) test (Mantel-Haenszel) was used and the two-tailed Fisher exact test if the expected value was 5 or less. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. A total of 388 patients were included (393 NFB). The annual mean number of cases was 68. The annual distribution showed a higher number in January, March, April, and October following Christmas, Easter and Halloween celebrations, totaling 40% of all NFB admissions. The sex-ratio was 0.95. Children aged less than 4 years accounted for 71% of the studied population. The mean age was 3.5+/-1.6 years (range, 1.4-13 years). The majority of accidents occurred at home (95%). The length of time spent in the PED was 78+/-57 min. The NFB duration of insertion was unknown in one-quarter of cases, present for less than 4 h in 65% of cases. No symptoms were described in most cases (88%). When symptoms were described, bleeding, pain or nasal discomfort, and foul nasal odor were the

  20. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  1. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  2. Nasal deposition in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Guo, Mindy; Xi, Jinxiang; Irshad, Hammad; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2014-04-01

    The variability of particle deposition in infant and child nasal airways is significant due to the airway geometry and breathing rate. Estimation of particle deposition in the nasal airway of this age group is necessary, especially for inhalation drug delivery application. Previous studies on nasal aerosol deposition were focused mostly on adult. A few empirical equations were also developed to calculate nasal deposition in different age groups of children. However, those studies have their limitations. The aim of this study is to find a simple way to calculate the nasal aerosol deposition in all age groups. An in vitro test of micrometer particle deposition in nasal airways for three different ages of infants and children is conducted. An adult nasal replica is also studied as a comparison. Monodisperse oleic acid aerosols ranging in size between 2 and 28 μm are delivered into the replica at the rest condition. This size range covers the deposition efficiency up to around 100%. This study also compares results from our previous deposition tests with a 5-year-old replica. Nasal deposition of micrometer aerosols in small children and infants is higher than that in adults under equivalent breathing conditions, e.g., sitting awake in this study. Combining the data set of infants, children, and adults, we found the deposition in the nasal airway strongly depends on the particle size and pressure drop. The particle deposition can be calculated based on a single empirical equation in all age groups. The intersubject variability within the same age group was not addressed in this study. An empirical equation for all age groups is developed. From this equation, particle deposition efficiency in the nasal airway can best be estimated with input data of particle size and pressure drop of the airway.

  3. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 21...

  4. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 21...

  5. Large-scale reintroduction of ash

    Treesearch

    Ronald. Overton

    2010-01-01

    No strategies currently exist for reintroducing ash; progression of emerald ash borer (EAB) through the eastern United States is likely to be a decades-long process, and extirpation of ash from this area is likely to take even longer. Reintroduction of ash into areas where it has been extirpated by EAB will require addressing technical issues as well as social and...

  6. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 21...

  7. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 21...

  8. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 21...

  9. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or coal fired power stations. (b) This section applies...

  10. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or coal fired power stations. (b) This section applies...

  11. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or coal fired power stations. (b) This section applies...

  12. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or coal fired power stations. (b) This section applies...

  13. The quest for ash resistance to emerald ash borer: Towards a mechanistic understanding

    Treesearch

    D.A. Herms; D. Cipollini; K.S. Knight; J.L. Koch; T.M. Poland; C.M. Rigsby; J.G.A. Whitehill; P. Bonello

    2015-01-01

    Since emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, was discovered in North America in 2002, it has killed many millions of ash trees in North America, and ash mortality now exceeds 99% near the epicenter of the invasion in southeast Michigan (Klooster et al. 2014). The development of EAB-resistant ash trees will be critical for restoration of ash...

  14. The Relation Between Body Mass Index and Nasal Airflow.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mehmet Gökhan; Ylmaz, Hüseyin Baki

    2015-06-01

    Nasal obstruction and complaints are common attendance causes in otorhinolaryngology clinics. Obese patients are especially more vulnerable for these complaints. There is not enough data about nasal resistance and weight. One hundred ten patients who had no nasal complaint and nasal pathology were investigated by peak nasal inspiratory flow meter, nasal symptom evaluation scale (NOSE), and visual analog scale (VAS) calculation. According to the statistical analyses among the BMI groups, there is no significant difference detected. Peak nasal inspiratory flow values highly correlated with height. Height correlated with VAS and weight correlated with NOSE scores. VAS score highly correlated with NOSE score. Also, there is a negative statistically significant correlation between BMI and nasal congestion index. All these data show that there is no relation between BMI and nasal resistance, and although the nasal congestion cycle is preserved in all BMI groups, nasal congestion index is decreased when the weight is raised.

  15. Phosphate-Bonded Fly Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-09

    FCODE OC ______________ ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 - dis~bu~i.19~ 3 B Navy Case No. 75,787 PATENTS PHOSPHATE -BONDED FLY ASH IN’NA G. TALMY DEBORAH A. HAUGHT...2 3 , CaO. MgO, etc. with which the H.PO4 reacts to form the polymer-like phosphate bonds which hold the fly ash particles together. In the second...conventional means. The moisture (water) content of the aqueous HP0 4 /fly ash mixture is preferably from about 3 to about 5 weight percent for semidry

  16. Determination of bacterial aetiologic factor on tracheobronchial lavage in relation to clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    França Dias de Oliveira, Bernardo Augusto; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Mendonça Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Reyes Alemán, Mário Augusto; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Timenetsky, Jorge; Melville, Priscila Anne; Avansi Marques, Júlia; Marvulle, Valdecir; Gregory, Lilian

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Mannheimiahaemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp., in relation to clinical signs of respiratory disease. Tracheobronchial lavage samples were collected from 96 (healthy and unhealthy) cattle in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mycoplasma spp. (12.5 %) and Pasteurellamultocida (15.50 %) were the most prevalent species. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated. Mollicutes (70.83 %), Mycoplasmabovis (2.94 %) and Mycoplasma dispar (38.23 %) were identified using conventional PCR. Submassive sound on acoustic percussion of the thorax was associated with the absence of Mollicutes (P=0.025). Whistling (P=0.076) and coarse crackle (P=0.046) were associated with the absence of Mycoplasma dispar. Clear sound on acoustic percussion of the thorax was associated with the absence of Mycoplasmabovis (P=0.007). Coughing was associated with the presence of Pasteurellamultocida [P=0.035; confidence interval (CI), 1.12-26.89], but its absence was associated with mucopurulent (P=0.0215; CI, 1.55-34.5) and mucoid nasal discharge (P=0.068; CI, 19-28.5), submassive sound (P=0.031; CI, 1.23-75.5), fine crackle (P=0.058; CI, 1.23-20.1) and coarse crackle (P=0.046; CI, 2.38-70.8). The high prevalence of Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp. in unhealthy calves increases the importance of these micro-organisms in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. This study increases the information about the role of Mycoplasma dispar in respiratory diseases. Differences in some species in relation to clinical signs can be applied as a presumptive diagnosis.

  17. Alkali ash material: a novel fly ash-based cement.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hossein; Brendley, William

    2003-08-01

    The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material has been developed, called alkali ash material (AAM), which is used to produce concrete for construction. AAM can be used to create a variety of concrete strengths and could revolutionize the concrete product manufacturing industry due to its economic advantage. AAM contains 40-95% Class F fly ash and is used as cement to bind sand, stone, and fibers creating concrete. AAM concrete has been tested for strength, durability, mechanical properties, and, most importantly, economic viability. AAM concrete is economically and technically viable for many construction applications. Some properties include rapid strength gain (90% of ultimate in 1 d), high ultimate strengths (110 MPa or 16,000 psi in 1 d), excellent acid resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. AAM's resistance to chemical attack, such as sulfuric (H2SO4), nitric (HNO3), hydrochloric (HCl), and organic acids, is far better than portland cement concrete. AAM is resistant to freeze-thaw attack based on ASTM C-666 specifications. Potential immediate applications of AAM are blocks, pipe, median barriers, sound barriers, and overlaying materials. Eventual markets are high strength construction products, bridge beams, prestressed members, concrete tanks, highway appurtenances, and other concrete products.

  18. [Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis and effects of nasal steroids].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Y

    1999-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by the action of NO synthase (NOS) using L-arginine as a substrate in various cells and found in air exhaled by humans. Previous studies suggest that almost all exhaled NO is derived from the upper airways and increases in patients with untreated asthma and allergic rhinitis. Exhaled NO is inhibited by treatment with inhalation of steroids that may be caused by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether exhaled and nasal NO increases in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis compared with nonallergic healthy subjects, and whether it is affected by treatment with nasal steroids. Furthermore, we investigated its relation to nasal function and allergic rhinitis. 10 patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis and 5 healthy normal subjects were tested. All subjects had no history of respiratory infection for at least 2 weeks and did not smoke. Exhaled NO was collected in a sampling bag from oral and nasal breathing, and nasal NO was sampled directly from the nasal cavity. Both were measured by a chemiluminescence NO analyzer, ML9841, at a detection limit of 1 part per billion (ppb). Subjects used nasal steroids for 2 weeks and were measured similarly afterwards. NO concentrations in nasal air and air exhaled from the nose in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis (277.9 +/- 59.5 ppb, 34.4 +/- 3.9 ppb, n = 10) were higher than the normal subjects (153.3 +/- 30.6 ppb, 19.9 +/- 3.4 ppb, n = 5) (p < 0.05). NO exhaled from the mouth was not significantly different between patients (20.5 +/- 4.9 ppb) and normal subjects (23.7 +/- 2.6 ppb). In patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis, the concentration of nasal NO and nasal exhaled NO were significantly decreased after treatment with nasal steroids (144.0 +/- 21.0 ppb, 26.1 +/- 3.0 ppb) (p < 0.01, p < 0.05), but there was no change in oral exhaled NO (17.2 +/- 3.3 ppb). In normal subjects, oral (22.5 +/- 5.3 ppb), nasal exhaled NO (19

  19. [Dacryolithiasis: diagnosis using nasal endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Piaton, J-M; Keller, P; Sahel, J-A; Nguyen, R; Quesnot, S

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of two new clinical findings for the diagnosis of dacryolithiasis discovered with nasal endoscopy: anatomical abnormalities of the Hasner valve (HV) and mucopurulent discharge visible at this valve. The value of these findings is compared with other clinical and radiological signs of dacryolithiasis. A hypothesis is developed as to the responsibility of the HV in the formation of dacryolithiasis. This study was prospective and based on 797 operations performed for epiphora: 647 endonasal dacryocystorhinostomies and 150 meatotomies of the HV, with systematic preoperative nasal videoendoscopy. Ninety dacryocystographies (DCGs) and 129 lacrimal computed tomographies (LCT) were preoperatively performed. Dacryoliths were found in 55 of 797 patients (6.9%). The HV could be examined in 48 patients in the lithiasis group and in 687 patients in the control group. Mucopurulent discharge was observed in 22 patients with lithiasis (45.8%) and in 40 patients (5.8%) (p<10(-6)) of the control group. Anatomical abnormalities of the HV were found in 40 patients with dacryolithiasis (83.3%) as compared to 82 patients ing the control group (11.4%) (p<10(-6)). In 13 patients, the VH was very small (<2 mm), in 12 patients it was very long (>15 mm), and in 15 patients both abnormalities were observed. Other clinical signs were young age (mean, 48.2 years vs 59.1% in the control group) (p<0.05), a history of acute noninfectious dacryocystic retention (38.2% vs 9.5%) (p<10(-5)), partial obstruction of the lacrimal pathway (LP) (61.8% vs 30.5%) (p<10(-5)). The 28 LCTs that were performed in subjects who had lithiasis made it possible to diagnose 19 cases of dacryolithiasis and confirmed abnormalities of the HV causing narrowing of the LP in 20. Dacryolithiasis is frequent and often misdiagnosed. When dacryolithiasis is suspected, a nasal videoendoscopic exam must be done to seek HV abnormalities and mucopurulent discharge at this valve

  20. Perception of better nasal patency correlates with increased mucosal cooling after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Corbin D; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Kimbell, Julia S; Rhee, John S

    2014-01-01

    To (1) quantify mucosal cooling (ie, heat loss) spatially in the nasal passages of nasal airway obstruction (NAO) patients before and after surgery using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and (2) correlate mucosal cooling with patient-reported symptoms, as measured by the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for sensation of nasal airflow. Prospective. Academic tertiary medical center. Computed tomography (CT) scans and NOSE and VAS surveys were obtained from 10 patients before and after surgery to relieve NAO. Three-dimensional models of each patient's nasal anatomy were used to run steady-state CFD simulations of airflow and heat transfer during inspiration. Heat loss across the nasal vestibule and the entire nasal cavity, as well as the surface area of mucosa exposed to heat fluxes >50 W/m(2), were compared pre- and postoperatively. After surgery, heat loss increased significantly on the preoperative most obstructed side (P < .0002). A larger surface area of nasal mucosa was exposed to heat fluxes >50 W/m(2) after surgery. The best correlation between patient-reported and CFD measures of nasal patency was obtained for NOSE against surface area in which heat fluxes were >50 W/m(2) (Pearson r = -0.76). A significant postoperative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery. Computational fluid dynamics-derived heat fluxes may prove to be a valuable predictor of success in NAO surgery.

  1. Expression and distribution of epithelial sodium channel in nasal polyp and nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiming; Xu, Ji; Chen, Yanqing; Shi, Jiali; Zhang, Chun; Li, Jiping

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the expression and location of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in human nasal polyp and normal nasal mucosa, and to characterize the relevance of ENaCs to the development of NPs. Nasal polyp tissue from 17 patients and nasal mucosa from ten patients were obtained through endoscopic sinus surgery. The mRNA concentrations of ENaC-α, β, and γ were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of ENaC-α was detected using western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. The distribution of ENaC-α in mucosal tissue was observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The transcriptional expression of three subunits of ENaC was in the following order: α > β > γ, in both groups. The transcriptional expression of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC was elevated in nasal polyp compared to nasal mucosa (p < 0.01). ENaC-α expression was higher in nasal polyp than in nasal mucosa (p < 0.05). Immunofluorescent staining indicated that ENaC-α protein was distributed in the epithelial cell apical membrane. The expression of ENaC is upregulated in human nasal polyp, which might in turn facilitate the formation and development of nasal polyp.

  2. Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage Is T Cell Dependent and Mediated through Interleukin-17A Expression and Neutrophil Influx

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Nathan K.; Harro, Janette M.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior nares of humans are the major reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Approximately 20% of the healthy human population is persistently and 80% is intermittently colonized with S. aureus in the nasal cavity. Previous studies have shown a strong causal connection between S. aureus nasal carriage and increased risk of nosocomial infection, as well as increased carriage due to immune dysfunction. However, the immune responses that permit persistence or mediate clearance of S. aureus on the nasal mucosa are fundamentally undefined. In this study, we developed a carriage model in C57BL/6J mice and showed that clearance begins 14 days postinoculation. In contrast, SCID mice that have a deficient adaptive immune response are unable to eliminate S. aureus even after 28 days postinoculation. Furthermore, decolonization was found to be T cell mediated but B cell independent by evaluating carriage clearance in T-cell receptor β/δ (TCR-β/δ) knockout (KO) and IgH-μ KO mice, respectively. Upregulation of the cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), KC (also termed CXC ligand 1 [CXCL1]), and IL-17A occurred following inoculation with intranasal S. aureus. IL-17A production was crucial for clearance, since IL-17A-deficient mice were unable to effectively eliminate S. aureus carriage. Subsequently, cell differential counts were evaluated from nasal lavage fluid obtained from wild-type and IL-17A-deficient colonized mice. These counts displayed IL-17A-dependent neutrophil migration. Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils in colonized mice caused reduced clearance compared to that in isotype-treated controls. Our data suggest that the Th17-associated immune response is required for nasal decolonization. This response is T cell dependent and mediated via IL-17A production and neutrophil influx. Th17-associated immune responses may be targeted for strategies to mitigate distal infections originating from persistent S. aureus carriage in humans. PMID:23529621

  3. The effect of peritoneal lavage on the postoperative course after colonic anastomosis and perforation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Arnesjö, B; Breland, U; Petersson, B G

    1975-01-01

    Peritoneal lavage was given during four days to rats subjected either to transection and re-anastomosis or perforation of the descending part of the colon or caecum. Control rats were treated in the smae way but did not receive peritoneal lavage. The rats which were treated with a colonic anastomosis and peritoneal lavage had significantly less abdominal adhesions, peritonitis and peritoneal fluid observed at autopsy 11 or 60 days after surgery. No rats developed anastomosis insufficiency and all survived. Peritoneal lavage in rats subjected to colonic or caecal perforation increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate, the frequency of adhesions and the signs of peritonitis. An increased frequency of peritoneal adhesions was observed after extensive mobilization of the colon during operation when no peritoneal lavage had been given. The peritoneal lavage catheter per se did not cause adhesions.

  4. Adjuncts to Improve Nasal Reconstruction Results.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shayna Lee; Hurst, Eva A

    2017-02-01

    The final cosmetic appearance of nasal reconstruction scars is of paramount importance to both the patient and surgeon. Ideal postreconstruction nasal scars are flat and indistinguishable from surrounding skin. Unfortunately, even with meticulous surgical execution, nasal scars can occasionally be suboptimal. Abnormal fibroblast response can lead to hypertrophic nasal scars, and excessive angiogenesis may lead to telangiectasias or an erythematous scar. Imperfect surgical closure or poor postoperative management can lead to surgical outcomes with step-offs, depressions, suture marks, or dyspigmentation. Aesthetically unacceptable nasal scars can cause pruritus, tenderness, pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and depression in postsurgical patients. Fortunately, there are several minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques that allow for enhancement and improvement of cosmetic results with minimal risk and associated downtime. This article provides an overview of adjuncts to improve nasal reconstruction with a focus on techniques to be used in the postoperative period. Armed with an understanding of relevant available therapies, skillful surgeons may drastically improve the final cosmesis and outcome of nasal reconstruction scars.

  5. The effect of vowels on nasalance scores.

    PubMed

    Lewis, K E; Watterson, T; Quint, T

    2000-11-01

    Nasalance scores were compared for nine different speech stimuli with vowel content controlled. The nine speech stimuli included four vowels spoken in isolation and five sentences. The four vowels were /i/, /u/, /ae/, and /a/. Four of the five sentences were loaded with High Front, High Back, Low Front, or Low Back vowels, and the fifth sentence contained a mixture of vowel types. Academic and clinical craniofacial center. The subjects were 19 children with velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) and 19 children without history of communication disorder. The main outcome measures were the nasalance scores associated with the nine different speech stimuli for two groups of subjects. For the VPD group, analysis of variance procedures revealed that nasalance scores for high-vowel sentences and the mixed-vowel sentence were significantly higher than the nasalance scores for the two low-vowel sentences. This pattern was the same for the non-VPD group except for the High Back/Low Back contrast, which was not significant. In both groups, nasalance scores for sustained vowels were significantly higher for the High Front vowel /i/ than for any other vowel, and nasalance was significantly higher for the High Back vowel /u/ than for either of the Low vowels /ae/ or /a/. There was no significant difference between Low vowels. Nasalance scores may be affected by the vowel content of the speech stimulus. This should be taken into consideration on a clinical basis and for research purposes.

  6. Nonneoplastic nasal lesions in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T; Uraih, L

    1990-01-01

    Rodents are commonly used for inhalation toxicology studies, but until recently the nasal passages have often been overlooked or only superficially examined. The rodent nose is a complex organ in which toxicant-induced lesions may vary, depending on the test compound. A working knowledge of rodent nasal anatomy and histology is essential for the proper evaluation of these responses. Lack of a systematic approach for examining rodent nasal tissue has led to a paucity of information regarding nonneoplastic lesions in the rodent nose. Therefore, slides from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) were examined, and the literature was reviewed to assemble the spectrum of nonneoplastic rodent nasal pathology. Presented are lesions associated with the various types of epithelia lining the rodent nasal cavity plus lesions involving accessory nasal structures. Even though there are anatomic and physiologic differences between the rodent and human nose, both rats and mice provide valuable animal models for the study of nasal epithelial toxicity, following administration of chemical compounds. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PLATE 26. PLATE 27. PLATE 28. PLATE 29. PLATE 30. PLATE 31. PLATE 32. PLATE 33. PLATE 34. PLATE 35. PLATE 36. PLATE 37. PLATE 38. PMID:2200665

  7. Polypoidal Lesions in the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising from mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the histopathologic spectrum of polypoidal lesions of the nasal cavity. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 100 consecutive cases of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity, received in the department of pathology. The age and sex of the patients were recorded. The tissues were routinely processed for histopathologic sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains. Special stains like Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was done wherever applicable. The cases were classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The neoplastic lesions were further classified according to WHO classification on histopathologic examination. Results: Analysis of 100 polypoidal lesions in the nose and paranasal sinuses with clinical diagnosis of nasal polyps, revealed 66 cases were nonneoplastic and 34 were neoplastic;17 (50%)were benign and 17(50%) were malignant. True nasal polyps both inflammatory and allergic together comprised 44 cases of the 100 polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity. Angiofibroma and inverted papilloma were the most frequent benign tumour accounting for 12/17(0.7%). The most common malignant tumour was anaplastic carcinoma 7/17(0.4%). Nonneoplastic and benign tumours were common in younger age groups whereas malignant tumours were most common in older males. Conclusion: The majority of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity are nonneoplastic. PMID:23905098

  8. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  9. Disorders of the nasal valve area

    PubMed Central

    Bloching, Marc Boris

    2008-01-01

    The nasal valve area is not a singular structure, but a complex three-dimensional construct consisting of several morphological structures. From the physiologic point of view, it is the place of maximum nasal flow resistance (“flow limiting segment”). Therefore, according to Poiseuille’s law, even minor constrictions of this area result in a clinically relevant impairment of nasal breathing for the patient. This narrow passage, also called “ostium internum nasi”, is formed by the mobile lateral nasal wall, the anterior septum with the swell body, the head of the inferior turbinate and the osseous piriform aperture. Within the framework of aetiology, static and dynamic disorders of the nasal valve area have to be distinguished since they result in different therapeutic measures. In the context of diagnosis, the exploration of the case history for assessing the patient’s extent of suffering and the clinical examination are very important. In addition to the presentation of the basics of disorders of the nasal valves, this paper focuses on the treatment of dynamic disorders that mainly constitute the more important therapeutic issue. In this context, we distinguish between stabilisation techniques through grafts or implants and stabilising suture techniques. Following a thorough analysis, the correction of static nasal valve disorders requires various plastic-reconstructive measures using transposition grafting and skin or composite grafts. PMID:22073083

  10. Effectiveness of Lavage Techniques in Removing Immunogenic Elements from Osteochondral Allografts.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Maximilian A; McCarthy, Mark A; Gitelis, Matthew E; Poland, Sarah G; Urita, Atsushi; Chubinskaya, Susan; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2017-10-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare standard saline lavage to combination saline and high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) lavage in removing marrow elements from osteochondral allografts. Design Six fresh hemicondyles were obtained. Three osteochondral allograft plugs (15-mm diameter, 6-mm depth) were harvested from each hemicondyle and randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms: A, no lavage; B, 1 L standard saline lavage; C, simultaneous saline (1 L) and 1-minute high-pressure CO2 lavage. After hematoxylin and eosin staining, a "percentage fill" of remaining marrow elements was calculated for each overall sample and then repeated in 3 distinct compartments for each sample based on depth from surface: 1, deepest third; 2, middle third; and 3, most superficial third. Trial arms B and C were compared with 1-tailed Student t tests. Results Group A had an overall percentage fill of 51.2% ± 8.8%. While both lavage techniques decreased overall remaining marrow elements, group B yielded significantly higher percentages of remaining marrow elements than group C (28.6% ± 16.5%, 14.6% ± 8.7%, P = 0.045). On depth analysis, group A exhibited homogenous filling of trabecular space (63.0% ± 15.5%, 67.6% ± 13.7%, and 55.2% ± 10.1% in zones 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Both lavage arms equally removed marrow elements from superficial zone 3 (B, 17.4% ± 9.2%; C, 15.6% ± 12.4%, P = 0.41) and middle zone 2 (B, 30.2% ± 17.7%; C, 21.4% ± 15.5%, P = 0.18). However, group C lavage removed significantly more marrow elements in deep zone 1 than group B (29.7% ± 10.9%, 58.5% ± 25.2%, P = 0.01). Conclusion Combination saline and high-pressure CO2 lavage more effectively clears marrow elements from osteochondral allografts than saline alone.

  11. Canine and feline nasal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Christine

    2006-05-01

    Dogs and cats of our society have outgrown their status as merely pets and are now considered our close companions and even family members. This shift in their roles has led to pet owners seeking improved preventative medicine for their four-legged friends. Subsequently, dogs and cats are living longer lives than ever before and developing more old-age-related diseases. One of the most devastating diseases of older animals is cancer. Once a veterinarian has detected cancer in a pet, pet owners seek advice on their next course of action. This article is intended to provide concise information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intranasal tumors of the dog and cat. This article outlines the forms of nasal tumors that are the most common, the recommended imaging and biopsy techniques to diagnose the tumor, and the most appropriate treatments of them.

  12. Effects of video information on preoperative anxiety level and tolerability of joint lavage in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Xavier; Gicquere, Claudine; Duhalde, Annie; Boucheny, Denis; Dougados, Maxime

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the impact of video information on preoperative anxiety of patients scheduled to undergo joint lavage for knee osteoarthritis, and tolerability of the lavage. A video film on joint lavage (duration 4 minutes, 20 seconds) was made by medical communication professionals, based on recommendations of the medical and paramedical staff of the Institute of Rheumatology. Patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and scheduled for lavage were assigned, using a preestablished list of randomization, to either the video group or the no-video group. In the operating room, preoperative anxiety level was measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), and tolerability was assessed using a 4-grade scale. One hundred twelve patients (56 patients in each group) were included and completed the trial. Preoperative anxiety was lower by half for patients who had viewed the video (VAS 13 +/- 20 versus 26 +/- 27; P = 0.0056). Tolerability of knee lavage was also significantly better in the video group (very tolerable 91% versus 48%; P < 0.0001). This prospective, controlled, randomized study confirms the usefulness of video information prior to an invasive rheumatology procedure.

  13. Comparative Study on the Estimation of Estrous Cycle in Mice by Visual and Vaginal Lavage Method

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, Gnanagurudasan; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evaluation of estrous cycle in laboratory animals can be a useful measure of the integrity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. Assessment of vaginal cytology is crucial to assess the milieu and compare the endocrine status of animals among the experimental groups. Aim The present study was attempted to compare the estimation of estrous cycle by visual method and non invasive vaginal lavage method. Materials and Methods Sixty healthy female swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The appearance of the vagina with respect to the opening of vagina, vaginal swellings were observed. Non-invasive method was used in vaginal lavage method in which nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells and leucocytes present in vaginal smears were used to identify the estrous stages. Results The estimation of estrous cycle by visual method coincides with the vaginal lavage method. In Vaginal lavage method, the accurate proportion of cells and the transition phases can be evaluated. Conclusion The non-invasive method reduces the risk of pseudo -pregnancy and mechanical trauma. Though, visual method is quick and reliable, for accurate estimation of the stage of the estrous, non-invasive vaginal lavage method is ideal. PMID:28273958

  14. Comparison of Irrigation Times Using Gravity and High-Pressure Lavage.

    PubMed

    Muscatelli, Stefano; Howe, Andrea; O'Hara, Nathan N; O'Toole, Robert V; Sprague, Sheila A; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2017-01-11

    The benefits of high-pressure pulsatile lavage for open fracture irrigation have been controversial based on conflicting experimental animal research. Recently published data definitively demonstrated that irrigation pressure does not affect the incidence of reoperation for the treatment of open fractures. However, proponents of pulsatile lavage argue a faster irrigation time is an important benefit of the high-pressure treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in irrigation time between gravity and high-pressure lavage. The experimental setup was designed to mimic clinical practice and compared mean irrigation flow times for high-pressure pulsatile lavage and gravity flow with 2 commonly used tube diameters. Each irrigation setup was tested 5 times at 3 different irrigation bag heights. Analysis of variance and Student's t tests were used to compare the mean flow times of 3 irrigation methods at each height and among the 3 heights for each irrigation method. The mean irrigation flow time in the various experimental models ranged from 161 to 243 seconds. Gravity irrigation with wide tubing was significantly faster than pulsatile lavage or gravity with narrow tubing (P<.001). Increasing irrigation bag height had only a marginal effect on the overall flow times (<9% difference). The difference in mean flow time among the testing techniques was slightly longer than 1 minute, which is unlikely to have a material impact on procedural costs, operating times, and subsequent gains in patient safety. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  15. Cytopathologic diagnosis on joint lavage fluid for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Toshinari; Kumagai, Akiko; Aomura, Tomoyuki; Javed, Fawad; Sugiyama, Yoshiki; Mizuki, Harumi; Takeda, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) are usually diagnosed based on the patient's clinical findings and the results of image investigations; however, understanding of the inflammatory process in TMJ is difficult. In addition, many of the TMJ disease types share common principal symptoms. Therefore, TMJ diseases in the early stage can be misdiagnosed with TMD. It is hypothesized that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids is useful in interpreting the TMD-associated inflammatory process from a cellular aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the TMJ lavage fluid cytopathologically in TMD patients. Thirty-nine patients, clinically diagnosed as TMD, were included in the present study. Clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. Forty-four samples of TMJ lavage fluid were collected and paraffin-embedded cell sections were made by cell block tissue array method. Cytologic conditions in upper articular cavity of TMJ were cytopathologically diagnosed and were compared with the clinical symptoms of each patient. Cell components were detected in 22 of the 44 analyzed joint lavage fluids. There was a correlation between cytopathologic findings and clinical symptoms. Variety of cytopathology and inflammatory conditions in patients with similar clinical symptoms were also found. The results suggested that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids from TMD patients is helpful for gaining an understanding of the inner local conditions of TMJ at the cellular level.

  16. The effects of Aspergillus fumigatus challenge on exhaled and nasal NO levels.

    PubMed

    Stark, H J; Randell, J T; Hirvonen, M-R; Purokivi, M K; Roponen, M H; Tukiainen, H O

    2005-11-01

    Several studies have previously shown that exposure to indoor air microbes from moisture-damaged buildings can cause adverse health effects. Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the best-documented moulds causing health problems to those exposed. In this study, inhalation of a commercial A. fumigatus solution was assessed, to establish if it would have effects on fractional exhaled (FeNO) and nasal (FnNO) nitric oxide levels and on lung function. The results were compared with placebo challenge. A total of 28 subjects were divided into three study groups: group 1 had been exposed to occupational mould; group 2 consisted of atopic subjects; and group 3 was a control group. Some 3 h after A. fumigatus challenge, there was a considerable increase in FeNO, and a significant difference was observed between the A. fumigatus and placebo inhalations. The difference was seen in all study groups. No such differences were found in the levels of FnNO or nitrite in nasal lavage fluid. Subjects reported significantly more frequent respiratory tract symptoms after the A. fumigatus inhalation compared with placebo challenge. In conclusion, it was shown here that inhalation challenge of Aspergillus fumigatus elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. An increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide may serve as an indicator of respiratory inflammation of acute mould exposure.

  17. Nasal immunization with Lactococcus lactis expressing the pneumococcal protective protein A induces protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela; Villena, Julio; Vintiñi, Elisa; Hebert, Elvira María; Raya, Raúl; Alvarez, Susana

    2008-06-01

    Nisin-controlled gene expression was used to develop a recombinant strain of Lactococcus lactis that is able to express the pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) on its surface. Immunodetection assays confirmed that after the induction with nisin, the PppA antigen was predictably and efficiently displayed on the cell surface of the recombinant strain, which was termed L. lactis PppA. The production of mucosal and systemically specific antibodies in adult and young mice was evaluated after mice were nasally immunized with L. lactis PppA. Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA anti-PppA antibodies were detected in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of adult and young mice, which showed that PppA expressed in L. lactis was able to induce a strong mucosal and systemic immune response. Challenge survival experiments demonstrated that immunization with L. lactis PppA was able to increase resistance to systemic and respiratory infection with different pneumococcal serotypes, and passive immunization assays of naïve young mice demonstrated a direct correlation between anti-PppA antibodies and protection. The results presented in this study demonstrate three major characteristics of the effectiveness of nasal immunization with PppA expressed as a protein anchored to the cell wall of L. lactis: it elicited cross-protective immunity against different pneumococcal serotypes, it afforded protection against both systemic and respiratory challenges, and it induced protective immunity in mice of different ages.

  18. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  20. Microsurgery in nasal polyposis transnasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Bagatella, F; Mazzoni, A

    1986-01-01

    Transnasal ethmoidectomy is a current treatment in selected cases of nasal polyposis, and with its complicated anatomy offers a proper opportunity for microsurgery. Ten years' experience of microsurgical ethmoidectomy in 155 patients with nasal polyposis is reported. The surgical anatomy of the ethmoid sinus is reviewed with attention to the requirements of the microsurgical approach, and the operative procedure is described. The microsurgical approach is discussed both as a part of the treatment of nasal polyposis and as a new development in rhinologic surgery. Advantages of the technique are the objective safety against risks of the ethmoid area and enhanced sense of security for the surgeon.

  1. Pharmacology of Nasal Medications: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropium bromide shows promise in the treatment of rhinorrhea. The author also reviews the use of decongestants and emollients and remarks on the factors that affect patient compliance when nasal medications are prescribed. PMID:20469495

  2. Evaluation and Reduction of Nasal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian P.; Downey, Cara R.; Stal, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Nasal trauma plays a large and important role in the field of craniofacial trauma. The resulting aesthetic, structural, and functional sequelae associated with these injuries necessitate a thorough understanding of the topic. This includes an appreciation for the unique anatomic features of the region, the important aspects of the initial history and examination, nasal injury classification, and subsequent treatment timing and options. While a large body of literature has accumulated on the topic, the purpose of this article is to focus on both clinically relevant information and pearls of management. Additionally, age-specific concerns, secondary procedures, and nasal fracture grafting, will be addressed as well. PMID:22550458

  3. [Integrated approach to nasal defects reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Verbo, E V; Gorkush, K N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define and solve main problems in nasal defects reconstruction procedures planning. Fifty-two patients with nasal defects treated in Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2010-2015 were included in the study. In 28 cases the defects were reconstructed by means of paramedial forehead flap. The authors highlight typical procedure pitfalls mainly associated with the planning stage. The study results prove paramedical forehead flap to be the most useful tool for subtotal and total nasal defects reconstruction but meticulous procedure planning is a must for success.

  4. Enhanced alveolar clearance with chest percussion therapy and positional changes during whole-lung lavage for alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andrew; Rogers, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis has traditionally been treated with whole-lung lavage (WLL). The literature describes a variety of techniques used in performing the WLL, including mechanical vs manual chest percussion, use of prone positioning, and variances in lavage volume. We have quantified and compared the effective alveolar clearance for each component of the lavage by measuring the dry weight of material in the lavage effluent. We measured this in five patients who underwent six consecutive WLLs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We performed the lavage in the following three stages: stage I, passive drainage; stage II, assisted clearance; and stage III, positional clearance. Aliquots of lavage effluent were centrifuged to determine the dry weight of material present in sequentially recorded bottles within each stage. At the initiation of each augmentation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the clearance of material (stage II, p = 0.009; stage III, p = 0.012). Furthermore, we show that lipoproteinaceous material is present in the lavage effluent in all stages of latter portions of the lavage. The effective removal of material would be expected to have an impact on the physiologic and clinical response to WLL. This finding emphasizes the importance of performing an adequate and standardized lavage.

  5. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Tiina M; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  6. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, Tiina M.; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  7. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  8. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  9. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  10. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  11. Mouth leak with nasal continuous positive airway pressure increases nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Richards, G N; Cistulli, P A; Ungar, R G; Berthon-Jones, M; Sullivan, C E

    1996-07-01

    Nasal congestion, dry nose and throat, and sore throat affect approximately 40% of patients using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The mechanisms causing nasal symptoms are unclear, but mouth leaks causing high unidirectional nasal airflow may be important. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of mouth leak and the influence of humidification on nasal resistance in normal subjects. Nasal resistance was measured with posterior rhinomanometry in six normal subjects who deliberately produced a mouth leak for 10 min while using nasal CPAP. Nasal resistance was measured regularly for 20 min after the challenge. A series of tests were performed using air at differing temperatures and humidities. There was no change in nasal resistance when subjects breathed through their noses while on CPAP, but a mouth leak caused a large increase in resistance (at a flow of 0.5 L/s) from a baseline mean of 2.21 cm H2O/L/s to a maximum mean of 7.52 cm H2O/L/s at 1 min after the challenge. Use of a cold passover humidifier caused little change in the response (maximum mean: 8.27 cm H2O/L/s), but a hot water bath humidifier greatly attenuated the magnitude (maximum mean: 4.02 cm H2O/L/s) and duration of the response. Mouth leak with nasal CPAP leads to high unidirectional nasal airflow, which causes a large increase in nasal resistance. This response can be largely prevented by fully humidifying the inspired air.

  12. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  13. Gallium-67 scintigraphy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and pathologic changes in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Munakata, M.; Nishimura, M.; Tsuneta, Y.; Terai, T.; Nakano, I.; Ohsaki, Y.; Kawakami, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The intensity of gallium-67 scintiscans, lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and pathologic changes were studied in 26 patients with untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Noncaseating granulomas were recognized with significantly greater frequency in stage 2 (80 percent; 8/10 cases) than in stage 1 (43 percent; 6/14 cases). Alveolitis showed little relation to the roentgenographic stage. There was a strong correlation between the intensity of gallium uptake in pulmonary parenchyma and the detection rate of granuloma; however, the detection rate of alveolitis was not statistically different from the intensity of gallium uptake. A highly significant correlation was revealed between the lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the intensity of alveolitis. These observations suggest that the gallium uptake reflects mainly the presence of granuloma, and the lymphocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reflects the intensity of alveolitis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  14. Influence of cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning and nasal geometry.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Hoffmann, T; Koehl, A; Walz, E M; Sommer, F

    2017-06-01

    Nasal geometries and temperature of the nasal mucosa are the primary factors affecting nasal air conditioning. Data on intranasal air conditioning after provoking the trigeminal nerve with a cold stimulus simulating the effects of an arctic condition is still missing. The objective was to investigate the influence of skin cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning, mucosal temperature and nasal geometry. Standardized in vivo measurements of intranasal air temperature, humidity and mucosal temperature were performed in 55 healthy subjects at defined detection sites before and after wearing a cooling face mask. Measurements of skin temperature, rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were accomplished. After wearing the face mask the facial skin temperature was significantly reduced. Intranasal air temperature did not change. Absolute humidity and mucosal temperature increased significantly. The acoustic rhinometric results showed a significant increase of the volumes and the cross-sectional areas. There was no change in nasal airflow. Nasal mucosal temperature, humidity of inhaled air, and volume of the anterior nose increased after application of a cold face mask. The response is mediated by the trigeminal nerve. Increased mucosal temperatures as well as changes in nasal geometries seem to guarantee sufficient steady intranasal nasal air conditioning.

  15. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  16. Perceiving Nasal Patency through Mucosal Cooling Rather than Air Temperature or Nasal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive.The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool. PMID:22022361

  17. [Nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex for repairing nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip].

    PubMed

    Li, Qingwei; Sheng, Zunqi; Tang, Shengjian; Yang, Biaobing; Yu, Xiaohua

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the operative methods and therapeutic effects of nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex for two-stage repair of nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip. From June 2001 to June 2007, 38 cases of secondary nasal deformity and septum deviation of cleft lip were treated with transplanting nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex. Among of them, there were 21 males and 17 females, aging 14-23 years with an average of 17.6 years. All cases were with nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip, including 21 cases of complete cleft lip and 17 cases of incomplete cleft lip. The locations were left side in 26 cases and right side in 12 cases. Nasal deformities were columella nasi deflexion, flattened nasal tip, pteleorrhine and alanasi collapse. The patients received 1-4 times operations, and the interval of two operations was 3-10 years (mean 5.5 years). According to nasal deformity, the nasal septum cartilage of 1.8 cm x 1.2 cm was cut, and transplanted into the nose point phantom surface forming "the shield" to extend nose column and to raise the tip of the nose. At the same time the nasal tip fat-connective tissue flap graft with fat knot was given. After fixation, the nasal alar cartilage and soft tissues were reduced to normal position. Primary healing of the incisions was achieved in all cases. The nasal deformity was corrected. The postoperative follow-up period was 12-18 months with an average of 15.6 months. All the patients of regional cartilage scars had no complication. The figure of nose was slinky, the height of apex of nose and the shape of nose was natural, the apex of nose, nasal ala, nostrils and nasal columella were satisfactory [(the results were satisfactory in 30 cases (78.9%), general in 8 cases (21.1%)]. The nose department overall esthetics shape was improved in all the patients, no complications of the phantom sliding, shifting and exposure, hemorrhage and infection occurred. The nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex to repair

  18. A model of airflow in the nasal cavities: Implications for nasal air conditioning and epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Neil; Hanna, Brendan; Watterson, John; Gallagher, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    A friction force is generated when moving air contacts the nasal walls, referred to as wall shear stress. This interaction facilitates heat and mass transfer between the mucosa and air, i.e., air-conditioning. The objective of this research was to study the distribution of wall shear stress within the nasal cavity to identify areas that contribute significantly to air-conditioning within the nasal cavity. Three-dimensional computational models of the nasal airways of five healthy subjects (three male and two female subjects) were constructed from nasal CT scans. Numerical simulations of nasal airflow were conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code Fluent 6 (Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Wall shear stress was derived from the numerical simulation. Air-conditioning was simulated to confirm the relationship with wall shear stress. Nasal airflow simulations predicted high wall shear stress along the anterior aspect of the inferior turbinate, the anteroinferior aspect of the middle turbinate, and within Little's area. The airflow simulations indicate that the inferior and middle turbinates and Little's area on the anterior nasal septum contribute significantly to nasal air-conditioning. The concentration of wall shear stress within Little's area indicates a desiccating and potentially traumatic effect of inhaled air that may explain the predilection for spontaneous epistaxis at this site.

  19. MIG (CXCL9), IP-10 (CXCL10) and I-TAC (CXCL11) concentrations after nasal allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Tworek, Damian; Kuna, Piotr; Młynarski, Wojciech; Górski, Paweł; Pietras, Tadeusz; Antczak, Adam

    2013-10-31

    The role of monokine induced by interferon-γ (IFN-γ, MIG/CXCL9), IFN-γ-inducible protein (IP-10/CXCL10), and IFN-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11) in allergic inflammation has not been explored in detail in vivo. The aim of the study was to examine the changes in concentrations of MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 in nasal lavages collected from healthy and allergic subjects during nasal allergen challenge. Subjects allergic to grass pollen and healthy controls were included. Nasal allergen challenge preceded by placebo administration was performed outside the pollen season. Nasal lavages were collected before and 30 min after application of the placebo and 30 min after allergen administration. Concentrations of chemokines were determined using ELISA. We observed significantly higher concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10 in allergic patients compared to the healthy subjects before (354.49 ±329.24 vs. 164.62 ±175.94 pg/ml; p = 0.036), 30 min after placebo (420.3 ±421.28 vs. 246.88 ±353.24 pg/ml; p = 0.021) and 30 min after allergen administration (403.28 ±359.29 vs. 162.68 ±148.69 pg/ml; p = 0.025). IP-10/CXCL10 levels did not change 30 min after allergen provocation. In contrast, MIG/CXCL9 levels were similar in both groups before and after placebo. However, a significant rise in MIG/CXCL9 concentration was noted in allergic patients 30 min after the allergen (138.88 ±109.59 vs. 395.8 ±301.2 pg/ml; p = 0.00026). I-TAC/CXCL11 concentrations increased after placebo as well as the allergen in both groups. IP-10/CXCL10 concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients and this chemokine may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation. MIG/CXCL9 levels increase rapidly after allergen application, which may suggest its role in the early allergic response. Results on I-TAC/CXCL11 concentrations remain inconclusive.

  20. Effect of peritoneal lavage solution temperature on body temperature in anaesthetised cats and small dogs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D C; Leece, E A; Trimble, T A; Demetriou, J L

    2017-05-20

    A prospective, randomised, non-blinded, clinical study to assess the effect of peritoneal lavage using warmed fluid on body temperature in anesthetised cats and dogs of less than 10 kg body mass undergoing coeliotomy. A standardised anaesthetic protocol was used. Oesophageal and rectal temperatures were measured at various time points. At the end of surgery, group 1 patients (n=10) were lavaged with 200 ml/kg sterile isotonic saline at 34±1°C and group 2 (n=10) at 40±1°C. Groups were similar with respect to age, mass, body condition and surgical incision length. Duration of anaesthesia, surgical procedures and peritoneal lavage was similar between groups. Linear regression showed no significant change in oesophageal temperature during the lavage period for group 1 (P=0.64), but a significant increase for group 2 patients (P<0.0001), with mean temperature changes of -0.5°C (from (36.3°C to 35.9°C) and +0.9°C (from 35.4°C to 36.3°C), respectively. Similar results were found for rectal temperature, with mean changes of -0.5°C and +0.8°C (P=0.922 and 0.045), respectively. The use of isotonic crystalloid solution for peritoneal lavage at a temperature of 40±1°C significantly warms small animal patients, when applied in a clinical setting, compared with lavage solution at 34±1°C. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  2. Primary nasal tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Ravi C; Al Kaabi, Juma; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2004-03-01

    During the past 2 decades, tuberculosis--both pulmonary and extrapulmonary--has re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis--either primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus--is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal granulomas. We describe a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with a polypoid lesion in one nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment. Given the rising incidence of tuberculosis, it is prudent that otolaryngologists remain cognizant of this infection as a potential cause of unusual lesions in the head and neck.

  3. Development of the cetacean nasal skull.

    PubMed

    Klima, M

    1999-01-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the

  4. Anterior rhinomanometry in nasal allergen challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1998-11-01

    Even simple and relatively safe provocation procedures like nasal allergen challenges, should aim to allow detection of positivity with the less possible discomfort to the patient. The objective of this work was to evaluate if the use of rhinomanometric measurements during nasal provocation procedures could allow a decrease in the total administered allergen dose, causing less symptoms to the patients but without increasing the number of false-negatives, comparatively to clinical scores or nasal peak-flow measurements. Our results showed that performing rhinomanometric measurements during nasal HDM challenge procedures can lead in many patients to a reduction in the total dose of allergen administered during the challenge, without loss of sensitivity or specificity. This allergen dose reduction translates in less time consumed during the provocation and less patients' discomfort.

  5. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  6. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-05-15

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  7. Nasal toxicity of cocaine: a hypercoagulable effect?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R.; Shah, R.; Baredes, S.; Spillert, C. R.; Lazaro, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal insufflation of cocaine injures the nasal mucosa and can perforate the septum. Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction resulting in ischemia is one of the methods that may be responsible for this damage. We are determining whether cocaine also produces a hypercoagulable state that may compound factors which have been previously established to cause damage to the nasal mucosa and septum. This study uses Modified Recalcification Time (MRT), a test developed in our laboratory that has the ability to measure the overall coagulation process. Our study revealed no connection between cocaine and enhanced platelet function or monocyte-released tissue factor. The coagulation process was unaffected by the addition of the drug, so we conclude that cocaine does not cause a hypercoagulable state and cannot assist in the explanation regarding the ischemic changes of the nasal septum. PMID:10800286

  8. Fogarty catheter removal of nasal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R

    1980-01-01

    The removal, without incident, of 14 nasal foreign bodies is described. None of the bodies was amenable to anterior instrumental extraction, and all were removed using a small-diameter Fogarty catheter.

  9. Traffic-related air pollution affects peak expiratory flow, exhaled nitric oxide, and inflammatory nasal markers.

    PubMed

    Steerenberg, P A; Nierkens, S; Fischer, P H; van Loveren, H; Opperhuizen, A; Vos, J G; van Amsterdam, J G

    2001-01-01

    The authors used a longitudinal observational design, with repeated measures, to study the association between traffic-related air pollutants (i.e., nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and Black Smoke) and respiratory symptoms. Subjects (N = 82) attended an elementary school in either Utrecht (i.e., urban children) or Bilthoven (i.e., suburban children). These two geographic areas differed with respect to levels of Black Smoke (means = 53 microg/m3 and 18 microg/m3, respectively). Levels of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and Black Smoke were consistently higher in Utrecht than in Bilthoven (mean daily ratios were 8, 1.5, 1.8, and 2.7, respectively). The authors compared mean levels of short-term effects of the aforementioned air pollutants on suburban and urban children. Urban children had higher mean levels (p = .05) of interleukin-8 (32%), urea (39%), uric acid (26%), albumin (15%), and nitric oxide metabolites (21%) in nasal lavage than did suburban children. Peak expiratory flow, exhaled nitric oxide levels, and nasal markers were associated with levels of particulate matter with diameters less than or equal to 10 microm, Black Smoke, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide. With respect to per-unit increases in air pollution, urban children had more increased peak expiratory flow, higher levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and more increased release of uric acid, urea, and nitric oxide metabolites than suburban children. In summary, urban children had increased levels of inflammatory nasal markers, and their responses were more pronounced than were the suburban children's responses to the same increments of air pollution.

  10. Nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis improves local and systemic immune responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela; Villena, Julio; Salva, Susana; Vintiñi, Elisa; Langella, Philippe; Alvarez, Susana

    2008-08-01

    Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 is a non-pathogenic non-invasive bacterium extensively used for the delivery of antigens and cytokines at the mucosal level. However, there are no reports concerning the per se immunomodulatory capacity of this strain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrinsic immunostimulating properties of the nasal administration of L. lactis NZ9000 in a pneumococcal infection model. Mice were preventively treated with L. lactis (2, 5 or 7 days with 10(8) cells/day per mouse) and then challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The local and the systemic immune responses were evaluated. Our results showed that nasal administration of L. lactis for 5 days (LLN5d) increased the clearance rate of S. pneumoniae from lung and prevented the dissemination of pneumococci into blood. This effect coincided with an upregulation of the innate and specific immune responses in both local and systemic compartments. LLN5d increased phagocyte activation in lung, blood and bone marrow, determined by NBT and peroxidase tests. Anti-pneumococcal immunoglobulin (Ig)A in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in BAL and serum were increased in the LLN5d group. Lung tissue injury was reduced by LLN5d treatment as revealed by histopathological examination and albumin concentration and lactate dehydrogenase activity in BAL. The adjuvant effect of L. lactis in our infection model would be an important advantage for its use as a delivery vehicle of pneumococcal proteins and nasal immunization with recombinant L. lactis emerges as an effective route of vaccination for both systemic and mucosal immunity against pneumococcal infection.

  11. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Wong, Angela M; Lee, Tsz Ying Amy; Thames, Gail; Krak, Michael; Zhang, Yanjun; Nel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The generation of oxidative stress by ambient air pollution particles contributes to the development of allergic sensitization and asthma, as demonstrated by intranasal challenge with well-characterized diesel exhaust particle (DEP) suspensions in humans. This effect is due to the presence of redox active organic chemicals in DEP, and can be suppressed by antioxidants and inducers of phase II enzymes in animals. In this communication, we determined whether the administration of a standardized broccoli sprout extract (BSE), which contains a reproducible amount of the sulforaphane (SFN) precursor, glucoraphanin, could be used to suppress the nasal inflammatory response in human subjects challenged with 300 μg of an aqueous DEP suspension (equivalent to daily PM exposure levels on a Los Angeles freeway). SFN is capable of inducing an antioxidant and phase II response via activation of the nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Previous studies have shown that 70-90% SFN delivered by BSE is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in humans. An initial intranasal challenge with DEP in 29 human subjects was used to characterize the magnitude of the inflammatory response. Following a 4 week washout, a BSE that delivers a reproducible and standardized dose of 100 μmol SFN in mango juice was administered daily for four days. The nasal DEP challenge was repeated and lavage fluid collected to perform white blood cell (WBC) counts. The average nasal WBC increased by 66% over the initial screening levels and by 85% over the control levels 24 hours after DEP exposure. However, total cell counts decreased by 54% when DEP challenge was preceded by daily BSE administration for 4 days (p < 0.001). Since the SFN dose in these studies is equivalent to the consumption of 100-200 g broccoli, our study demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli or broccoli sprouts rich in glucoraphanin for reducing the impact of particulate

  12. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and nasal cellularity in Indonesian wood workers: a dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borm, P; Jetten, M; Hidayat, S; van de Burgh, N; Leunissen, P; Kant, I; Houba, R; Soeprapto, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: It was hypothesised that inflammation plays a dominant part in the respiratory effects of exposure to wood dust. The purpose of this study was to relate the nasal inflammatory responses of workers exposed to meranti wood dust to (a) levels of exposure, (b) respiratory symptoms and (c) respiratory function. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 1997 in a woodworking plant that used mainly meranti, among 982 workers exposed to different concentrations of wood dust. Personal sampling (n=243) of inhalable dust measurements indicated mean exposure in specific jobs, and enabled classification of 930 workers in three exposure classes (<2, 2–5, and >5 mg/m3) based on job title. Questionnaires were used to screen respiratory symptoms in the entire population. Lung function was measured with two different techniques, conventional flow-volume curves and the forced oscillation technique. Nasal lavage was done to assess inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. Results: A negative trend between years of employment and most flow-volume variables was found in men, but not in women workers. Current exposure, however, was not related to spirometric outcomes, respiratory symptoms, or nasal cellularity. Some impedance variables were related to current exposure but also with better function at higher exposure. Conclusions: Exposure to meranti wood dust did not cause an inflammation in the upper respiratory tract nor an increase of respiratory symptoms or decrease of lung function. These data do not corroborate the hypothesis that inflammation plays a part in airway obstruction induced by wood dust. PMID:11983850

  13. Estimates of nasal airflow at the nasal cycle mid-point improve the correlation between objective and subjective measures of nasal patency.

    PubMed

    Gaberino, Courtney; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2017-04-01

    The nasal cycle represents a significant challenge when comparing pre- and post-surgery objective measures of nasal airflow. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow were conducted in 12 nasal airway obstruction patients showing significant nasal cycling between pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. To correct for the nasal cycle, mid-cycle models were created virtually. Subjective scores of nasal patency were obtained via the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and unilateral visual analog scale (VAS). The correlation between objective and subjective measures of nasal patency increased after correcting for the nasal cycle. In contrast to biophysical variables in individual patients, cohort averages were not significantly affected by the nasal cycle correction. The ability to correct for the confounding effect of the nasal cycle is a key element that future virtual surgery planning software for nasal airway obstruction will need to account for when using anatomic models based on single instantaneous imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraoperative use of a chest physiotherapy system during whole lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avinash B; Schweiger, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition caused by the excessive alveolar accumulation of surfactant proteins. The current standard of care for removing these secretions is through therapeutic whole lung lavage (WLL). We describe two successful cases of bilateral WLL involving the novel use of the Vest™ chest physiotherapy system thereby avoiding the need for extensive changes in patient position in the intraoperative period. In brief, it involves the induction of general anesthesia followed by single-lung ventilation while simultaneously performing large volume lavages on the nonventilated lung. The washout was enhanced using the Vest™ system.

  15. Management of massive haemoptysis with the rigid bronchoscope and cold saline lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, A A; Hurwitz, S S

    1980-01-01

    Twelve successive patients with massive haemoptysis were treated by emergency rigid bronchoscopy and lavage of the bleeding lung with cold saline. All patients stopped bleeding during the procedure and all blood and clot was evacuated from the accessible airways. The bleeding source was localised to a lobe in seven cases, and lateralised in the remaining five patients. Five patients had a second haemorrhage during that hospital stay and cold saline lavage again terminated it. Further therapy, either surgical or medical was based on information obtained during the respite from haemorrhage achieved with this technique. There was no hospital mortality in the series. PMID:7268664

  16. [Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant for alveolar debris removal in newborns treated with mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Lista, G; Castoldi, F; Azzali, A; Compagnoni, G

    2000-01-01

    Lung debris in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) contribute to deteriorate pulmonary function. Surfactant lavage, also with minimal quantity of diluted surfactant, is an effective method for treatment of severe MAS and seems to be useful also in course of RDS evolving to chronic lung disease (CLD), by improving lung mechanics. Authors report a clinical study in which tracheobronchial lavage with surfactant (15 ml/Kg of diluted porcine surfactant) improved significantly lung function in 3 patients with RDS in prolonged mechanical ventilation and in 2 patients with MAS.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using bronchial lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, Masahito; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Komeno, Yukiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Ohishi, Nobuya; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detection of Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but it has not yet been able to distinguish infection from contamination. We have established a technique to quantify Aspergillus DNA using a real-time PCR method to resolve this problem, and we report herein a successful application of real-time PCR to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by comparing the amount of Aspergillus DNA in bronchial lavage fluid from an affected area to that from an unaffected area. This novel tool will provide rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  18. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  19. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  20. Ecogeographic variation in human nasal passages.

    PubMed

    Yokley, Todd R

    2009-01-01

    Theoretically, individuals whose ancestors evolved in cold and/or dry climates should have greater nasal mucosal surface area relative to air volume of the nasal passages than individuals whose ancestors evolved in warm, humid climates. A high surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratio allows relatively more air to come in contact with the mucosa and facilitates more efficient heat and moisture exchange during inspiration and expiration, which would be adaptive in a cold, dry environment. Conversely, a low SA/V ratio is not as efficient at recapturing heat and moisture during expiration and allows for better heat dissipation, which would be adaptive in a warm, humid environment. To test this hypothesis, cross-sectional measurements of the nasal passages that reflect surface area and volume were collected from a sample of CT scans of patients of European and African ancestry. Results indicate that individuals of European descent do have higher SA/V ratios than individuals of African descent, but only when decongested. Otherwise, the two groups show little difference. This pattern of variation may be due to selection for different SA/V configurations during times of physical exertion, which has been shown to elicit decongestion. Relationships between linear measurements of the skeletal nasal aperture and cavity and cross-sectional dimensions were also examined. Contrary to predictions, the nasal index, the ratio of nasal breadth to nasal height, is not strongly correlated with internal dimensions. However, differences between the nasal indices of the two groups are highly significant. These results may be indicative of different adaptive solutions to the same problem.

  1. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  2. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning.

  3. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  5. Reduction effect of bacterial counts by preoperative saline lavage of the stomach in performing laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Morishita, Asahiro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-11-14

    To investigate the effects of gastric lavage with 2000 mL of saline in laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery. Twenty two patients who were diagnosed with a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor were enrolled. In former term, irrigations of the stomach were conducted whenever it was necessary, not systematically (Non systemic lavage group). In latter term, the stomach was thoroughly cleaned with 2000 mL of saline using an endoscope with a water jet, and Duodenal balloon occlusion was conducted to prevent refluxed bile and pancreatic juice (Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group). The gastric wall was sprayed with 20 mL of distilled water, and 20 mL of gastric juice was collected in a sterile tube and submitted for culture. 20 mL of ascites was also collected from the laparoscopic ports and submitted for culture. We compared WBC, CRP, BT between two groups, and verify the reduction effect of bacterial counts in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. WBC count before, 1 d after, and 3 d after laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) were 5060 (95%CI: 4250-9640), 12140 (6050-14110), and 6910 (5320-12520) in Non systemic lavage group, 4400 (3660-7620), 8910 (6480-10980), and 5950 (4840-7860) in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. Significant differences between two groups at the day after LECS (P = 0.029) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.042). CRP levels in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.005) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.028). BTs (°C) in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were also significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.004) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.006). In a logarithmic comparison, bacterial load before gastric lavage, after lavage, and ascites culture were 6.08 (95%CI: 4.04-6.97), 0.48 (0-0.85), and 0.21 (0-0.56). The bacterial counts before and after gastric lavage were

  6. Hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

  7. Sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Karim, Muneeb Uddin; Khan, Khursheed; Ali, Nasir; Ikram, Mubasher

    2015-04-29

    A 49-year-old man with a history of left nasal discharge and nasal cavity blockage for 5 months was diagnosed with sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma on nasal biopsy. On CT scan, the tumour involved the nasal cavity, left maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus and medial left orbit. The tumour was grossly excised and adjuvant radiation therapy was offered. The patient was planned for an Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy technique to keep tolerance doses of organs at risk within normal limits and at same time deliver the intended dose of radiation to the tumour site, using 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Owing to the anatomical complexity of the sino-nasal region, precision radiotherapy (RT) is mandatory to optimally irradiate the tumour area while sparing critical surrounding normal structures from late toxicity of RT. Established dose constraints for at-risk organs can only be accomplished through this novel technique of RT. However, despite advances in techniques, current treatment modalities have not significantly made an impact on survival of these patients. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  9. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  10. Nasal Dorsum Reconstruction With Alloplastic Material.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Domenico; Amodeo, Giulia

    2016-10-01

    The secondary nasal surgery represents a challenging surgical procedure. The difficulties in fact are several: the surgeon must make an effort to achieve the functional and aesthetic consequences of the previous surgical procedure, has to correct the aesthetic and functional imperfections, and has to work on a fibrotic and altered framework.The goal of the secondary nasal surgery is then to restore the normal nasal proportions correcting any functional inability unresolved by the previous surgery or determined by it.The aim of our study is to present our experience in dorsum reconstruction using Medpor. It became necessary as a result of previous surgery procedures responsible for an important sagittal projection deficiency.In the past the autologous grafts were used to restore the correct anatomical relationships.With the improvement in the surgical procedure, the alloplastic implants become of a wider use. Among these, Medpor represents the first choice because of its own intrinsic characteristics.Between 2004 and 2014, 18 patients underwent nasal dorsum reconstruction procedure using Medpor. Medpor was used to reconstruct the nasal dorsum and to augment the columella, supporting the nasal tip.The 18 patients treated by Medpor reported an aesthetic and functional improvement.Medpor represents a safe method in the secondary rhinoplasty to restore the nose anatomy and functionality and to achieve good aesthetic results.

  11. [Model of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses created for studying the dynamics of the nasal airflow].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guang-Li; Xu, Geng

    2008-09-01

    To create a model from an adult cadaver's nasal cavity and verify whether it can be used to study the airflow dynamics in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. (1) The model was made by the material of transparent resin and Bengal gelatin according to a nasal cast of a cadaver. (2) The model was check by Acoustic Rhino-meter, CT scan and nasal endoscope, then compared with the normal. (3) To observe the smoke flow in the model and record it by a digital camera It was succeeded in creating a model of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus. The model was good at simulation and transparency. The structure of the model, the cross-sectional areas of the nasal passage and the CT scan results of the model were similar to the normal. The airflows in the model could be recorded by a digital camera. It showed that there were two types of airflows in the nose. The majority of airflows were found in the common and middle nasal meatus, the little part of the airflows passed through the upper of the nose like a parabola. There was an increasing proportion of airflows in the olfactory region when elevated the airflow rates. A relatively large vortex formed in the upper part of the nose, just behind the nasal valve, and another one was in the pharynx nasals. (1) The transparent resin and Bengal gelatin are suitable for making the model of the nose. The model can be used to study the airflows dynamics of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. (2) The majority of inspired airflows go straightly to the pharynx nasals through the combined middle and inferior airways, a little part of inspired airflows through the olfactory region like a parabola. (3) The inspired airflows first arrived at the front position of the middle and inferior turbinate. The airflows can go into the maxillary sinus, a vortex can be see in the maxillary sinus during breath.

  12. Assessments of nasal bone fracture effects on nasal airflow: A computational fluid dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao Bing; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin; Wang, De Yun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of nasal bone fractures on nasal aerodynamic flow patterns using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A three-dimensional model of nasal cavity with a nasal bone fracture was constructed from computerized tomography (CT) scans of a patient with use of software Mimics 13.0 (The Materilize Group, Leuven, Belgium). CFD simulations were performed using Fluent 6.3 (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA) with a turbulent flow model. Numerical results were presented with velocity, streamline, and pressure contour distributions in left and right nasal cavities and were compared with those of a healthy one. Possible outcomes on functional performances or patencies of the nose were also examined and discussed. For the nose with a nasal bone fracture, distributions of velocity contours showed there was more airflow in the right nasal cavity than in the left one, especially for inspiration status. In the left cavity, the airflow was redirected irregularly and there were also more circulations with larger sizes, higher pressure jumps, and greater wall shear stresses. Flow partitioning in the right and left cavities was noticeable with a larger nasal resistance compared with the healthy one. When the inspirational flow rate was increased, pressure jump from the nostril to the nasopharynx increased faster. The aerodynamic flow was redistributed greatly for the nose with a nasal bone fracture compared with the healthy one, which might affect local normal nasal functions. Such physical assessments of nasal airflow based on a model from the patients' CT scans may help clinicians determine the best treatment in advance.

  13. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  14. Ash phloem reduction models vary among species and growing conditions

    Treesearch

    Tara L. Bal; Andrew J. Storer; Linda M. Nagel

    2011-01-01

    The exotic insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is responsible for the death of millions of ash trees. Removal of ash from areas in close proximity to outlier populations will reduce the potential population density of emerald ash borer (EAB).

  15. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  16. Arthroscopic lavage and debridement for osteoarthritis of the knee: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of arthroscopic lavage and debridement, with or without lavage, in the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, and to conduct an economic analysis if evidence for effectiveness can be established. QUESTIONS ASKED: Does arthroscopic lavage improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?Does arthroscopic debridement improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee?If evidence for effectiveness can be established, what is the duration of effect?What are the adverse effects of these procedures?What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness can be established? Osteoarthritis, the most common rheumatologic musculoskeletal disorder, affects about 10% of the Canadian adult population. Although the natural history of OA is not known, it is a degenerative condition that affects the bone cartilage in the joint. It can be diagnosed at earlier ages, particularly within the sports injuries population, though the prevalence of non-injury-related OA increases with increasing age and varies with gender, with women being twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with this condition. Thus, with an aging population, the impact of OA on the health care system is expected to be considerable. Treatments for OA of the knee include conservative or nonpharmacological therapy, like physiotherapy, weight management and exercise; and more generally, intra-articular injections, arthroscopic surgery and knee replacement surgery. Whereas knee replacement surgery is considered an end-of-line intervention, the less invasive surgical procedures of lavage or debridement may be recommended for earlier and more severe disease. Both arthroscopic lavage and debridement are generally indicated in patients with knee joint pain, with or without mechanical problems, that are refractory to medical therapy. The clinical utility of these procedures is unclear, hence

  17. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  18. Correlations of nasal responses to leukotriene D4 and histamine nasal provocation with quality of life in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Xia, Shu; Shi, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) greatly affect the quality of life (QoL) in the patients with AR. The correlations of nasal response to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and histamine nasal provocation with health related QoL in AR are not clear. Objective To evaluate the correlations of nasal response to LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge with QoL in AR. Methods Patients randomly underwent LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge tests, completed the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQoLQ), and rating the symptom severity score (total symptom score 4, TSS4) in the previous week. The correlations between nasal challenge tests induced nasal responses and QoL in RQoLQ were analyzed. Results A total of 25 eligible AR patients enrolled and finished both LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge and completed the questionnaire of RQoLQ. Histamine nasal challenge induced sneezing, increased nasal resistant were correlated with most of the dimensions (general, practical, nasal, eye problems, and quality of sleep, p < 0.05), while LTD4 nasal challenge induced sneeze, increased nasal resistant only correlated with nasal and ocular problems. On the contrary, the severity of the sneeze assessed by TSS4, was not correlated with QoL, while the severity of rhinorrhea, congestion, and nasal pruritus were correlated with nasal and practical problems, and nasal congestion was also correlated with ocular problems (r = 0.60, p = 0.01). Conclusion LTD4 and histamine nasal challenge induced nasal responses were correlated with different clinical symptoms severity and QoL, which can be used as a good diagnosis and evaluation methods for the management of AR. PMID:27803885

  19. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters.

    PubMed

    Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W

    2010-12-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both p<0.001). NP size correlated with VAS scores for nasal blockage (p<0.01) but not with VAS for other symptoms. NP size showed an inverse correlation with PNIF and SS scores (both p<0.05). Blood eosinophilia correlated with subjective smell reduction (p<0.05). The presence of SA or total IgE levels were not associated with symptoms of NP disease. PNIF and SS are good tools to evaluate symptoms of nasal obstruction and smell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.

  20. Visualization and Quantification of Nasal and Olfactory Deposition in a Sectional Adult Nasal Airway Cast.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Zhang, Yu; Nevorski, Dannielle; Wang, Zhaoxuan; Zhou, Yue

    2016-06-01

    To compare drug deposition in the nose and olfactory region with different nasal devices and administration techniques. A Sar-Gel based colorimetry method will be developed to quantify local deposition rates. A sectional nasal airway cast was developed based on an MRI-based nasal airway model to visualize deposition patterns and measure regional dosages. Four nasal spray pumps and four nebulizers were tested with both standard and point-release administration techniques. Delivered dosages were measured using a high-precision scale. The colorimetry correlation for deposited mass was developed via image processing in Matlab and its performance was evaluated through comparison to experimental measurements. Results show that the majority of nasal spray droplets deposited in the anterior nose while only a small fraction (less than 4.6%) reached the olfactory region. For all nebulizers considered, more droplets went beyond the nasal valve, leading to distinct deposition patterns as a function of both the nebulizer type (droplet size and initial speed) and inhalation flow rate. With the point-release administration, up to 9.0% (±1.9%) of administered drugs were delivered to the olfactory region and 15.7 (±2.4%) to the upper nose using Pari Sinus. Standard nasal devices are inadequate to deliver clinically significant olfactory dosages without excess drug losses in other nasal epitheliums. The Sar-Gel based colorimetry method appears to provide a simple and practical approach to visualize and quantify regional deposition.

  1. Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing?

    PubMed

    Lemmens, W; Lemkens, P

    2001-01-01

    Septal suturing following nasal septoplasty, a valid alternative for nasal packing? After septal surgery most surgeons still routinely perform nasal packing since this is generally recommended. The aims of packing are numerous: haemostasis, prevention of haematoma, increase septal flap apposition, closure of dead space and prevention of displacement of the replaced cartilage. However, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure and may lead to cardiovascular changes, continued bleeding, nasal injury, hypoxia, foreign body reaction or infection. The major disadvantage of nasal packing is patient discomfort--usually necessitating hospital stay--and the need to administer antibiotics. Therefore alternatives were sought. Sessions, Lee and Vukovic conceived and reported in the eighties forms of continuous septal suturing, but are not widely used. A similar technique of septal suturing after nasal septoplasty without nasal packing was used in 226 consecutive surgical procedures and reviewed retrospectively. Complications like postoperative episodes of bleeding, infections, septal haematomas, septal perforations or synechia were not noted. On one patient a recurrence of the septal deviation occurred. Patients reported almost no discomfort. Moreover, the septal surgery procedure could be carried out on a day-surgery basis. Readmission of a patient was never necessary. Based on these observations the septal suturing technique is a valid alternative to intranasal packing following septal surgery.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: soda ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostic, Dennis S.

    2006-01-01

    Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an alkali chemical that can be refined from the mineral trona and from sodium carbonate-bearing brines. Several chemical processes exist for manufacturing synthetic soda ash.

  3. The spatial distribution of riparian ash: implications for the dispersal of the emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Mark D. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study to assess riparian ash connectivity and its implications for emerald ash borer dispersal was conducted in three subbasins in Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula. Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to estimate ash biomass. The nineteen percent of plots in riparian physiographic classes contained 40 percent of ash biomass. Connectivity of...

  4. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  5. Host resistance to emerald ash borer: development of novel ash hybrids

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Richard Larson

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the rapid destruction of ash trees in the United States by emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), outbreaks of EAB in Asia appear to be isolated responses to stress, such as drought, and do not devastate the ash population. This indicates that in Asia, ash trees may have a level of inherent resistance. This resistance...

  6. Effect of Deviated Nasal Septum Type on Nasal Mucociliary Clearance, Olfactory Function, Quality of Life, and Efficiency of Nasal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of deviated nasal septum (DNS) type on nasal mucociliary clearance, quality of life (QoL), olfactory function, and efficiency of nasal surgery (septoplasty with or without inferior turbinate reduction and partial middle turbinectomy). Fifty patients (20 females and 30 males) with septal deviation were included in the study and were divided into 6 groups according to deviation type after examination by nasal endoscopy and paranasal computed tomography. The saccharin clearance test to evaluate the nasal mucociliary clearance time, Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center smell test for olfactory function, and sinonasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22) for patient satisfaction were applied preoperatively and postoperatively at the sixth week after surgery. Nasal mucociliary clearance, smell, and SNOT-22 scores were measured before surgery and at the sixth week following surgery. No significant difference was found in olfactory and SNOT-22 scores for any of the DNS types (both convex and concave sides) (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no difference in the saccharin clearance time (SCT) of the concave and convex sides (P > 0.05). According to the DNS type, the mean SCT of the convex sides showed no difference, but that of the concave sides showed a difference in types 3, 4, 5, and 6. These types had a prolonged SCT (P < 0.05). Olfactory scores revealed no difference postoperatively in types 5 and 6 but were decreased significantly in types 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the healing of both the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and olfactory functions. SNOT-22 results showed a significant decrease in type 3. All DNS types disturb the QoL regarding nasal MCC and olfaction functions. MCC values, olfactory function, and QoL scores are similar among the DNS types. Both sides of the DNS types affect the MCC scores symmetrically. Septal surgery improves olfaction function and QoL at the

  7. Bilateral lavage with diluted surfactant improves lung function after unilateral lung contusion in pigs.

    PubMed

    Strohmaier, Wolfgang; Trupka, Arnold; Pfeiler, Claudia; Thurnher, Martin; Khakpour, Zafar; Gippner-Steppert, Cornelia; Jochum, Marianne; Redl, Heinz

    2005-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted surfactant on unilateral lung contusion-induced lung dysfunction. Randomized prospective animal study. An animal laboratory. Twenty adult pigs, weighing 25-35 kg. Animals were randomly assigned to controls and surfactant treatment. Bilateral lavage with surfactant treatment began 30 mins after unilateral lung contusion. Then 25 mg/kg of body weight diluted Curosurf (5 mg/mL) was applied in a volume of 5 mL/kg of body weight. Observation time was 8 hrs postinjury. The Pao2/Fio2 ratio fell from 500 to 250 and then recovered gradually in controls and surfactant-treated pigs. After another 4 hrs, the Pao2/Fio2 ratio deteriorated again in controls, but not in surfactant-treated animals. Total compliance fell by 50% after injury but was completely restored by surfactant treatment. Lung contusion increased the median number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 2% to 30% of total cells and peaked >60% at 480 mins in the contused lungs of control pigs. Surfactant-treated pigs had 40% neutrophils at 480 mins without reaching significant difference to controls. The leukocyte neutral proteinase inhibitor increased to 500 ng/mL at 30 mins postinjury in the contused lungs and increased to 2000 ng/mL after surfactant treatment. Bilateral bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted surfactant can effectively improve lung function after experimental unilateral lung contusion in pigs.

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention by Inducing Apoptosis in DCIS Using Breast Ductal Lavage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Determine effect of treatment on programmed cell death markers using assays for DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. We have also completed Task...programmed cell death markers using assays for DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. The vast majority of these lavage samples did not have any cells

  9. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  10. Comparison of elastolytic activity in lung lavage from current, ex- and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Guz, A; Burton, G H; Cooke, N T; Tetley, T D

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing a wide variety of lung diseases compared to non-smokers, and there have been many studies of the possible biochemical changes underlying this increased susceptibility. However, although epidemiological and physiological studies have shown that in the ex-smoker, the risk of smoking-related lung diseases falls between that of current and non-smokers, the biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for this intermediate status have not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, the extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage fluid from current, ex- and non-smokers have been compared. Elastolytic enzyme activity was investigated, since it is significantly elevated in lung lavage from smokers, and because it has been implicated in the development of pulmonary emphysema. In the subjects studied, extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage from ex-smokers were intermediate between those from current and non-smokers. There was no correlation between the time of abstinence from smoking, or the number of pack-years smoked and the extracellular elastolytic activities in ex-smokers' lung lavage. Elastolytic activity may remain elevated in ex-smokers' lungs for a number of reasons, including the persistence of particulate matter which may activate phagocytic cells on the lung surface. The possible significance of the raised elastolytic activity remains to be fully determined.

  11. Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...

  12. The measurement and comparison of jet characteristics of surgical pulse lavage devices.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J; Holder, G; Desoutter, G

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of pulse waveform, pulse duration, pulse frequency, impact force/pressure, and flow rate of 4 commercially available pulse lavage devices are measured and compared. Validation of the measurements obtained is provided by a laboratory system that generates and measures precise jet waveforms. However, the value of the devices studied awaits clinical trials.

  13. Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...

  14. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  15. Response of nasal airway and heart rate variability to controlled nasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Fan, W-H; Ko, J-H; Lee, M-J; Xu, G; Lee, Guo-She

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the responses of nasal airway and autonomic nervous system (ANS) under controlled nasal breathings. Ten healthy volunteers, aged between 21 and 37 years, were enrolled. The participants breathed either through bilateral nostrils (BNB) or unilaterally through the left nostril (UNB) at 0.25 Hz for 5 min. The electrocardiography was simultaneously recorded and the ANS activities were evaluated using heart rate variability analysis. Nasal airway resistance and related factors were measured by rhinomanometry. The results showed that the mean heartbeat interval during UNB was significantly greater than during BNB. The sympathetic modulation decreased significantly during UNB. The correlations between nasal airway resistance and mean heartbeat interval were significant for both UNB and BNB. The increase of heartbeat intervals during UNB was associated with the decrease of cardiac sympathetic activities. The changes of ANS activities and nasal airway resistance during UNB are similar to the changes caused by a prolonged lying.

  16. Effect of silicon gel sheeting in nasal injury associated with nasal CPAP in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Günlemez, Ayla; Isken, Tonguç; Gökalp, Ayse S; Türker, Gülcan; Arisoy, Engin A

    2010-03-01

    We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the silicon gel application on the nares in prevention of nasal injury in preterm infants ventilated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Patients (n=179) were randomized into two groups: Group 1 (n=87) had no silicon gel applied to nares, and in Group 2 (n=92), the silicon gel sheeting was used on the surface of nares during ventilation with NCPAP. Nasal injury developed in 13 (14.9%) neonates in Group 1 and 4 (4.3%) newborns in Group 2 (OR:3.43; 95% CI: 1.1-10.1; P<0.05). The incidence of columella necrosis was also significantly higher in the Group 1 (OR: 6.34; 95% CI: 0.78-51.6; P<0.05). We conclude that the silicon gel application may reduce the incidence and the severity of nasal injury in preterm infants on nasal CPAP.

  17. Aesthetic and functional outcome following nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mureau, Marc A M; Moolenburgh, Sanne E; Levendag, Peter C; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2007-10-01

    Few reports on outcome of aesthetic nasal reconstruction exist. Therefore, subjective and objective aesthetic and functional outcome following nasal reconstruction was assessed. Outcome was assessed in 38 consecutive patients treated for subtotal nasal defects using standardized semistructured interviews. Standardized physical examination forms and photographs were used. In six patients, one aesthetic subunit was involved; in 14, two; and in 18, three or more. Defects were classified as skin only (13 percent), skin/cartilage (21 percent), and full thickness (66 percent). Some defects (32 percent) involved adjacent aesthetic units. Inner lining was reconstructed with local mucosa or turnover skin flaps. Support was provided with regional cartilage grafts and/or composite septal flaps. Skin defects were reconstructed with forehead, nasolabial, cheek advancement, Abbé, facial artery perforator, or free radial forearm flaps. Nasal reconstructions required 116 procedures. Thirty-three patients participated in the follow-up study. Mucosal crusting was noted in 36 percent, passage difficulties in 31 percent, and worse olfaction in 16 percent. Phonation was unchanged. Eighty-one percent were very satisfied with nasal function. Flap color match was moderate to good in 97 percent; hair growth occurred in 61 percent. At critical inspection, a thicker flap (58 percent), smaller ostium nasi (77 percent), thicker alar rim (86 percent), and minor alar rim retraction (46 percent) were noted. Seventy-nine percent were very satisfied with total nasal appearance. Although objective functional and aesthetic outcome following nasal reconstruction sometimes shows impairment compared with the normal situation, it gives high subjective patient satisfaction with function and aesthetics.

  18. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary fibrosis: comparison of cells obtained with lung biopsy and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Turton, C W G; Heard, B; Lukoszek, A; Collins, J V; Salsbury, A J; Turner-Warwick, M

    1980-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage, open lung biopsy, and cell extraction from the biopsy material have been studied in 21 symptomatic patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (18 with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, fulfilling also the criteria for “usual interstitial pneumonia” (UIP), and three with rapidly progressive disease probably related to asbestos exposure). The total and differential cell counts between the three different samples have been compared as well as the influence on them of smoking and their correlation with steroid responsiveness and later progress. There was no correlation between semiquantitative scores of cell types observed within alveolar spaces and in alveolar walls and the differential or total cell counts obtained from extraction or lung lavage samples. There was, however, some correlation between differential counts obtained from lung lavage and extractions (neutrophils p<0·02, eosinophils p<0·07, lymphocytes p<0·08) suggesting that lung lavage reflects the cellularity of the peripheral parts of the lung in patients without overt bronchial disease. Steroid responsiveness related to the percentage of lymphocytes found in extraction samples (p<0·01) and was associated with a complementary fall in the percentage of macrophages (p<0·02). There was no relationship between steroid response and the numbers of neutrophils or eosinophils in extracted samples. There was a trend towards increased numbers of lymphocytes in the lung wash in those patients responding to steroids. Those cases showing more rapid progression before starting treatment tended to have higher percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, or eosinophils in the lung lavage than more slowly deteriorating cases (p<0·01). Follow-up studies showed that three cases having predominant lymphocytes in the lung lavage continued to do well while nine cases with predominant neutrophils or eosinophils or both showed a less satisfactory response to steroids and often deteriorated

  20. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  1. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  2. Perception of better nasal patency correlates with increases in mucosal cooling after surgery for nasal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Corbin D.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Rhee, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1. Quantify mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) spatially in the nasal passages of nasal airway obstruction (NAO) patients before and after surgery using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 2. Correlate mucosal cooling with patient-reported symptoms, as measured by the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for sensation of nasal airflow. Study Design Prospective Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans and NOSE and VAS surveys were obtained from 10 patients before and after surgery to relieve NAO. Three-dimensional models of each patient’s nasal anatomy were used to run steady-state CFD simulations of airflow and heat transfer during inspiration. Heat loss across the nasal vestibule and the entire nasal cavity, and the surface area of mucosa exposed to heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 were compared pre- and post-operatively. Results After surgery, heat loss increased significantly on the pre-operative most obstructed side (p values < 0.0002). A larger surface area of nasal mucosa was exposed to heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 after surgery. The best correlation between patient-reported and CFD measures of nasal patency was obtained for NOSE against surface area in which heat fluxes > 50 W/m2 (Pearson r = −0.76). Conclusion A significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients’ perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery. CFD-derived heat fluxes may prove to be a valuable predictor of success in NAO surgery. PMID:24154749

  3. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Salam, Badar; Camilleri, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Nasal septal abscess is an uncommon condition. Most commonly it is secondary to nasal trauma, which leads to haematoma, and subsequent abscess formation. There are other less common causes like sinusitis, dental infections and furunculosis. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess has also been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of non-traumatic, spontaneous nasal septal abscess, in a healthy immunocompetent patient with no evidence of sinusitis or other localized infections. Using Medline and Google.co.uk search applications, there has been one previous report of such a condition. We stress the importance of excluding nasal septal abscess in patients presenting with nasal obstruction especially with signs of toxaemia.

  4. Same noses, different nasalance scores: data from normal subjects and cleft palate speakers for three systems for nasalance analysis.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences. The nasalance distance was largest for the Nasometer and smallest for the OroNasal System. When the calculation was based on nasalance magnitudes, results for sensitivity ranged from 57.9% to 81.8% and results for specificity ranged from 62.0% to 76.0%. When the calculation was based on nasalance distances, results for sensitivity ranged from 84.2% to 100.0% and results for specificity ranged from 82.0% to 100.0%. Results suggest that nasalance scores from the three systems are not interchangeable. Diagnostic efficacy improved when the calculations were based on nasalance distances rather than magnitudes, but further research is warranted to corroborate these findings.

  5. Survival of emerald ash borer in chips

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David L. Cappaert

    2005-01-01

    The ability of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to survive following chipping or grinding of infested ash trees remains a critical question for regulatory officials. In October 2002, we felled eight infested ash trees and sampled sections of the trunk and large branches from each tree to estimate EAB density.

  6. Efficacy of power-pulsed lavage in lower extremity wound infections: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mote, Gregory A; Malay, D Scot

    2010-01-01

    Power-pulsed lavage is a common adjunct to surgical wound debridement, although few studies have examined the effect of this technique in lower extremity wounds. Fifty-five consecutively enrolled patients underwent 73 surgical debridements with power-pulsed lavage, and specimens were obtained for Gram stain and culture and sensitivity analyses before and after lavage. A number of risk factors were analyzed in regard to a successful outcome, which was defined as the absence of any organisms observed on the immediate postlavage culture. The incidence of a successful outcome was 69.86%, and debridement plus power-pulsed lavage statistically significantly decreased bacteria between the immediate prelavage and immediate postlavage specimens, for Gram stain (P = .0004) and culture (P = .005) analyses. Generalized estimation equations provided fully adjusted effect estimates that revealed a decreased likelihood of observing success if the patient's age was 85 years or older, or if rare or many organisms, or gram-negative rods, were present on the immediate prelavage Gram stain; whereas an increased likelihood of success was observed if the patient's body mass index was indicative of normal weight, and if few bacteria were noted on the immediate prelavage culture specimen. Based on these results, we concluded that power-pulsed lavage can be effective in decreasing the presence of bacteria in lower extremity wounds, and an awareness of the patient characteristics and microbiological factors associated with the persistence of bacteria may be helpful to surgeons treating such wounds. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden generalized lung atelectasis during thoracotomy following thoracic lavage in 3 dogs.

    PubMed

    Drynan, Eleanor; Musk, Gabrielle; Raisis, Anthea

    2012-08-01

    To describe sudden onset of generalized pulmonary atelectasis following thoracic lavage in 3 dogs. Thoracic lavage was performed following ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus in case 1, prior to closure of a large traumatic full thickness wound in the chest wall in case 2, and during investigation of an idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax in case 3. In each case anesthesia and surgery were uneventful until thoracic lavage was performed, after which sudden generalized pulmonary atelectasis was observed. The atelectasis was visualized and was associated with oxyhemoglobin desaturation, decreased end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO(2)), and a marked increase in the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) required to achieve visible lung inflation. Occlusion of the endotracheal tube and cervical trachea was directly eliminated as the cause of atelectasis in cases 1 and 2, and indirectly eliminated in case 3. Improvement in pulmonary function occurred in all cases in response to increased PIP ± positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Generalized atelectasis should be considered a possible complication of thoracic lavage performed during thoracotomy. In the cases presented here, it is suspected that pre-existing reduction in lung volume (due to inadequate ventilation, surgical compression, absorption atelectasis) was exacerbated by the addition of the lavage fluid to the thoracic cavity. This pre-existing lung collapse is believed to have resulted in reduction of lung volume and that further reduction below the critical closing volume occurred following instillation of saline into the thorax resulting in the subsequent development of generalized atelectasis. The performance of regular arterial blood gas analyses and different ventilation protocols may have prevented the marked atelectasis that was observed in these cases. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  8. Effect of uterine lavage on neutrophil counts in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dini, P; Farhoodi, M; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Pascottini, O Bogado; Fazeli, M H; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    Subclinical endometritis affects approximately 30% of lactating dairy cows, causing significant economic losses to the dairy industry. Yet, there is no efficient treatment available for this condition. The present study examines the effect of uterine lavage in clinically normal cows with sterile saline solution at 30 days in milk (DIM) on the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) detected with endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis. It was hypothesized uterine lavage would be a technique to reduce the number of PMNs in the uterus, and hence be beneficial for cows affected by subclinical endometritis. Cytology samples were taken by low-volume flushing from 50 Holstein Friesian cows on 30 and 40 DIM. On Day 30, cows were clinically examined and randomly assigned into a treatment and control group. In the treatment group, the cytology sampling on Day 30 was immediately followed by uterine lavage with 500-600 mL of sterile physiological saline (35-40°C). Cytology sampling was repeated in all cows at 40 DIM. Lactation numbers >2, peripheral progesterone concentrations >1 ng/mL and uterine lavage at 30 DIM all were significantly associated with lesser PMN percentages at 40 DIM (P=0.0041; 0.0187 and 0.0043, respectively). Uterine lavage might, therefore, be a useful and practical method to decrease the number of PMNs in the uterus of cattle. Results from the current study can be used as preliminary data for designing in depth therapeutic protocols for treatment of subclinical endometritis in cattle.

  9. Intranasal challenge with aspirin induces cell influx and activation of eosinophils and mast cells in nasal secretions of ASA-sensitive patients.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, M L; Grzegorczyk, J; Wojciechowska, B; Poniatowska, M

    1996-07-01

    Although the mechanism of aspirin-sensitivity seems to be related to inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase by aspirin (ASA), the chain of biochemical events leading to the ASA-induced adverse reaction is not clear, and the contribution of particular mediators and inflammatory cells has not been elucidated. To investigate the involvement of secretory, vascular and cellular mechanisms in the pathophysiology of nasal reactions to aspirin. Six patients with ASA-sensitive asthma/rhinosinusitis and seven ASA-tolerant patients were challenged intranasaly with saline and lysine-acetylsalicylic acid (Lys-ASA) 12 mg, on separate occasions. Nasal lavages were obtained before, and then every 15 min after challenges, and analysed for biochemical and cellular composition. Lys-ASA challenge caused rhinorrhoea, sneezing and nasal congestion with parallel increases in total protein and albumin concentration, albumin % and lysozyme activity in the nasal secretions of ASA-sensitive patients. Concomitant with clinical symptoms, an influx of leucocytes into nasal secretions occurred with significant enrichment in eosinophils (mean prechallenge: 24 +/- 12%, postsaline 27 +/- 9%, postLys-ASA 51 +/- 10%; P < 0.03). The influx of eosinophils into nasal secretions was associated with a remarkable increase in Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) immunoreactivity in five of six patients (mean 9.3 +/- 3.8 micrograms/L and 140.9 +/- 45.8 micrograms/mL before and after Lys-ASA, respectively). At the peak of ASA-induced symptoms an increase in the tryptase level was also observed in five of six patients (mean pre-challenge: 2 +/- 0.1 U/L; postLys-ASA 16 +/- 5 U/L; P < 0.01) suggesting activation of mucosal mast cells. In ASA-tolerant patients Lys-ASA did not induce significant symptoms or changes in the biochemical and cellular composition of nasal secretions. The results show that the ASA-induced nasal adverse reaction involves changes in vascular permeability and serous cell secretion. Both activated

  10. Revision of the overresected nasal tip complex.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard E

    2012-08-01

    Tip deformities resulting from previous nasal surgery range from mild to profound. For the mild deformity, morbidity is low and successful correction is usually achieved with a modest and targeted surgical adjustment. However, for the profound deformity, overt cosmetic deformities and corresponding functional impairment are the byproducts of severe derangements in skeletal architecture. Hence, for the severely damaged nasal tip, a complex surgical revision in which the decimated nasal tip framework is reconstructed with autologous cartilage grafts is essential. However, rebuilding the decimated nasal tip is a challenging and risky procedure that is best left to the seasoned rhinoplasty specialist. Careful assessment of the previously operated tissues, combined with an accurate cosmetic analysis, must be juxtaposed with the patient's cosmetic desires to derive an individualized and effective treatment plan. Atraumatic soft tissue technique, combined with a strategic yet balanced and judicious application of graft material, often culminate in satisfactory surgical outcomes. Proper assessment, technical skill, and sound clinical judgment are all critical ingredients in successful restoration of the surgically compromise nasal tip. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

  11. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  12. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  13. Nasonasal reflexes, the nasal cycle, and sneeze.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Kim, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is a complex tissue that interacts with its environment and effects local and systemic changes. Receptors in the nose receive signals from stimuli, and respond locally through afferent, nociceptive, type C neurons to elicit nasonasal reflex responses mediated via cholinergic neurons. This efferent limb leads to responses in the nose (eg, rhinorrhea, glandular hyperplasia, hypersecretion with mucosal swelling). Anticholinergic agents appear useful against this limb for symptomatic relief of a "runny nose." Chronic exposure to allergens can lead to hyperresponsiveness of the nasal mucosa. As a result, receptors upregulate specific ion channels to increase the sensitivity and potency of their reflex response. Nasal stimuli also affect distant parts of the body. Nerves in the sinus mucosa cause vasodilation; the lacrimal glands can be stimulated by nasal afferent triggers. Even the cardiopulmonary system can be affected via the trigeminal chemosensory system, where sensed irritants can lead to changes in tidal volume, respiratory rate, and blink frequency. The sneeze is an airway defense mechanism that removes irritants from the nasal epithelial surface. It is generally benign, but can lead to problems in certain circumstances. The afferent pathway involves histamine-mediated depolarization of H1 receptor-bearing type C trigeminal neurons and a complex coordination of reactions to effect a response.

  14. Corrective Septorhinoplasty in Acute Nasal Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisung; Jung, Hahn Jin; Shim, Woo Sub

    2017-06-13

    Closed reduction is generally recommended for acute nasal bone fractures, and rhinoplasty is considered in cases with an unsatisfactory outcome. However, concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction might achieve better surgical outcomes. This study investigated the surgical techniques and outcomes in patients who underwent rhinoplasty and fracture reduction concomitantly, during the acute stage of nasal bone fracture. Forty-five patients who underwent concomitant rhinoplasty and fracture reduction were enrolled. Nasal bone fractures were classified into 3 major types (type I, simple fracture; type II, fracture line that mimics nasal osteotomy; and type III, comminuted fracture) based on computed tomography images and preoperative facial images. Two independent otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons evaluated the surgical outcomes and telephone based survey were made to evaluate patients satisfaction. Among 45 patients, there were 39 males and 6 females. Type I was the commonest type of fracture with 18 patients (40%), while the most frequently used surgical technique for corrective surgery was dorsal augmentation with 44 patients (97.8%). The mean visual analogue scale satisfaction score of the surgeons and patients were 7.62 and 8, respectively, with no significant differences between fracture types. Concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction can be performed for acute nasal bone fracture patients, and it might lead to better aesthetic outcomes.

  15. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  16. CR3 (CD11b/CD18) activation of nasal neutrophils: a measure of upper airway endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Seth, Romy; Romaschin, Alexander D; Ribeiro, Marcos; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-11-01

    Inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) initiates an inflammatory response and leads to the expression of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We determined if PMN activation in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) is a possible biomarker of occupational endotoxin exposure. Seven subjects exposed to endotoxin provided NLF samples that were split into three aliquots (negative control--1 M nicotinamide; sham; positive control--11 etag of exogenous LPS) and PMN activation was measured using a chemiluminometer. Differences in mean PMN activation were apparent, negative control: 548 +/- 15.65 RLU 100 microl(-1); sham: 11469 +/- 2582 RLU 100 microl(-1); positive control: 42026 +/- 16659 RLU 100 microl (n = 7; p <0.05). This technique shows promise as a diagnostic method for measuring upper airway LPS exposure.

  17. [Effect of the external nasal dilator breathe right and nasal cycle influence].

    PubMed

    Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Takegoshi, Hideki; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Iinuma, Toshitaka

    2005-11-01

    The external nasal dilator Breathe Right is a nonprescription disposable mechanical device worn over the bridge of the nose that supports the outer walls of the nasal vestibule to increase cross-sectional nasal valve area and enhance air flow through the nose. When worn, the device applies a gentle outward pull to the outside walls of the nasal vestibule that helps prevent collapse of the lateral walls of the nasal vestibule. The device appears similar to an adhesive bandage with two polyester springs attached lengthwise to the nonadhesive side of the backing material. The form of the external nose varies significantly between racial groups and some comment is possible about the form of the nasal valve, i.e., Caucasian noses are leptorrhine, Negroid noses platyrrhine, and Oriental noses intermediate. A question exists about whether Breathe Right is as effective in Japanese as in Caucasians against nasal obstruction. We measured the effect by acoustic rhinometry in 35 healthy subjects. We measured 2 cross-sectional areas-the I-notch and C-notch-and 3 nasal volumes-V(0-1), from 0 to 1 cm corresponding to the I-notch, V(1-3), from 1 to 3cm corresponding to the C notch, and V (3-6), from 3 to 6cm. We studied the influence of the nasal cycle on the effect of Breathe Right in the nasal cavity. We evaluated subjects in a stable sitting position before applying Breathe Right, after using 5 minutes, and in a free interval of 25 minutes following. The experiment was repeated 10 times. We found that Breathe Right increases the nasal volume especially in V(1-3) and the cross-sectional area especially in the C-notch. Interestingly, the change in the C-notch decreased gradually with time. One possible mechanism may be the change in compliance between the skin under the Breathe Right and the nasal mucous membrane. The nasal cycle did not significantly influence the effect of Breathe Right.

  18. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers? What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ...

  19. Expression of survivin and enhanced polypogenesis in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhe-Fu; Han, De-Min; Zhang, Luo; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Er-Zhong; Cui, Shun-Jiu; Huang, Qian; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nasal polyps still is not clear. This disease is believed to be inflammation related. Previous research has indicated that apoptosis in inflammatory cells is an important factor in the resolution of inflammation. Survivin is regarded as a novel member of the group of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. It is overexpressed in a number of tumor types. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the survivin gene in human nasal polyps. We investigated the expression of survivin in nasal polyps of adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Specimens of nasal polyps were harvested during endonasal sinus surgery (n=22), and the normal mucosa surrounding the nasal polyp tissues or inferior turbinate tissues served as control (n=7). Immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blotting were performed for detecting the expression of survivin in the nasal polyps. This study has clearly shown that immunoreactivity of survivin significantly increased in the nasal polyp compared with nasal mucosa specimens surrounding nasal polyps (p<0.001). The higher expression of survivin Western blotting and RT-PCR also was observed in the nasal polyp but not in normal nasal mucosa. With a markedly increased expression of survivin in nasal polyps at both the mRNA and the protein levels, we believe the elevated expression of survivin might play an important role of development in nasal polyps.

  20. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.