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Sample records for asia carbon storage

  1. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  2. Effect of Land Use History and Pattern on Soil Carbon Storage in Arid Region of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Lijuan; Luo, Geping; Li, Yan; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) in arid areas due to differences in the cultivation history, land use, and soil salinization. The study area is the lower Sangong River basin on the piedmont of the northern TianShan mountains, which experiences heavy land-use activities. In 1982 and 2005,127(152) and 74 (161) samples in old (new) oasis were collected from each site at the surface soil (i.e., 0–20 cm). The data reveal that the mean value of the surface soil organic carbon content of the old oasis was higher than that of the new oasis by 4.01 g/kg in 1982 and 3.79 g/kg in 2005. Additionally, the soil organic carbon content decreased more rapidly in the newly reclaimed oasis than in the old oasis from 1982 to 2005. The spatial pattern of the SOC content was correlated with the exploitation time in the new oasis, the agricultural land use history, and the SOC content. The decreasing trend is clearer in the high SOC content area than in the low SOC content area. Farmland is the largest carbon pool in both the new and old oases. The carbon density of the old oasis was higher than that of the new oasis by 4.01 and 3.79 g/kg in 1982 and 2005 respectively. The loss of SOC in the agricultural watershed of the arid region in NW China is obvious. Improvements of land management practices, such as no tillage, straw returning to soil, and balanced fertilization techniques, should be adopted to increase the SOC content. PMID:23874601

  3. Effect of land use history and pattern on soil carbon storage in arid region of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Luo, Geping

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) in arid areas due to differences in the cultivation history, land use, and soil salinization. The study area is the lower Sangong River basin on the piedmont of the northern TianShan mountains, which experiences heavy land-use activities. In 1982 and 2005,127(152) and 74 (161) samples in old (new) oasis were collected from each site at the surface soil (i.e., 0-20 cm). The data reveal that the mean value of the surface soil organic carbon content of the old oasis was higher than that of the new oasis by 4.01 g/kg in 1982 and 3.79 g/kg in 2005. Additionally, the soil organic carbon content decreased more rapidly in the newly reclaimed oasis than in the old oasis from 1982 to 2005. The spatial pattern of the SOC content was correlated with the exploitation time in the new oasis, the agricultural land use history, and the SOC content. The decreasing trend is clearer in the high SOC content area than in the low SOC content area. Farmland is the largest carbon pool in both the new and old oases. The carbon density of the old oasis was higher than that of the new oasis by 4.01 and 3.79 g/kg in 1982 and 2005 respectively. The loss of SOC in the agricultural watershed of the arid region in NW China is obvious. Improvements of land management practices, such as no tillage, straw returning to soil, and balanced fertilization techniques, should be adopted to increase the SOC content.

  4. Regional carbon dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Moore, B.

    2003-01-01

    Data on three major determinants of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the global carbon release for this period. Carbon release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added carbon to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net carbon source and one acted as a net carbon sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net carbon storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on carbon dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  6. Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  9. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  10. The carbon budget of South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Canadell, J. G.; Houghton, R. A.; Piao, S. L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K. R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lasco, R.

    2012-10-01

    The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was a sink, estimated at -104 ± 150 Tg C yr-1 during 2007-2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be -191 ± 193 Tg C yr-1 during the period of 2000-2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1) the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration) of -220 ± 186 Tg C yr-1 (2) the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of -14 ± 50 Tg C yr-1, which resulted from a sink of -16 Tg C yr-1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr-1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3) the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr-1; and (4) the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr-1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr-1 for the decades of 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-to-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr-1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C-CH4 yr-1 were released to atmosphere from South Asia during the 2000s. Taking all CO2 and CH4 fluxes together, our best estimate of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux is a net source of 334 Tg C yr-1 for the South Asia region during the 2000s. If

  11. Forests and carbon storage

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forests store much carbon and their growth can be a carbon sink if disturbance or harvesting has killed or removed trees or if trees that can now regrow are planted where they did not historically occur. Forests and long-lived wood products currently offset 310 million metric tons of U.S. fossil fuel emissions of carbon--20 percent of the total (Pacala et al. 2007)....

  12. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  13. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  14. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites—indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change. PMID:27958272

  15. Carbon storage in US wetlands.

    PubMed

    Nahlik, A M; Fennessy, M S

    2016-12-13

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites-indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  16. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  17. The carbon budget of South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Canadell, J. G.; Houghton, R. A.; Piao, S. L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K. R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P. A.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Lasco, R.

    2013-01-01

    The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was a sink, estimated at -104 ± 150 Tg C yr-1 during 2007-2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be -191 ± 193 Tg C yr-1 during the period of 2000-2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1) the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration) of -220 ± 186 Tg C yr-1 (2) the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of -14 ± 50 Tg C yr-1, which resulted from a sink of -16 Tg C yr-1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr-1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3) the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr-1; and (4) the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr-1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr-1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr-1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr-1 were released to atmosphere from South Asia during the 2000s. Taking all CO2 and CH4 fluxes together, our best estimate of the net land-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux is a net source of 334 Tg C yr-1 for the South Asian region during the 2000s. If CH4 emissions are

  18. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  19. Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

  20. Carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Celia; Lucas, Yves; Pereira, Osvaldo; Merdy, Patricia; Santin, Roberta; Ishida, Débora; du Gardin, Beryl; Melfi, Adolpho

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that Amazonian podzols may store much larger quantities of carbon than previously thought, particularly in their deep Bh horizons (over 13.6 Pg for Brazilian Amazonia alone [1]). Similarly high carbon stocks are likely to exist in similar climate/soil areas, mainly in Africa and in Borneo. Such carbon stocks raise the problem of their stability in response to changes in land use or climate. Any significant changes in vegetation cover would significantly alter the soil water dynamics, which is likely to affect organic matter turnover in soils. The direction of the change, however, is not clear and is likely to depend on the specific conditions of carbon storage and properties of the soils. It is reasonable to assume that the drying of the Bh horizons of equatorial podzols, which are generally saturated, will lead to an increase in C mineralization, although the extent of this increase has not yet been determined. These unknowns resulted in research programs, granted by the Brazilian FAPESP and the French Région PACA-ARCUS and ANR, dedicated improving estimates of the Amazonian podzol carbon stocks and to an estimate of its mineralisability. Eight test areas were determined from the analysis of remote sensing data in the larger Amazonian podzol region located in the High Rio Negro catchment and studied in detail. Despite the extreme difficulties in carrying out the field work (difficulties in reaching the study sites and extracting the soils), more than a hundred points were sampled. In all podzols the presence of a thick deep Bh was confirmed, sometimes to depths greater than 12 m. The Bh carbon was quantified, indicating that carbon stocks in these podzols are even higher than estimated recently [1]. References 1- Montes, C.R.; Lucas, Y.; Pereira, O.J.R.; Achard, R.; Grimaldi, M.; Mefli, A.J. Deep plant?derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols. Biogeosciences, 8, 113?120, 2011.

  1. Is soil carbon storage underestimated?

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, José Luis

    2010-06-01

    An accurate evaluation of the carbon stored in soils is essential to fully understand the role of soils as source or sink of atmospheric CO(2), as well as the feedback processes involved in soil-atmosphere CO(2) exchange. Depth and strategies of sampling have been, and still are, sources of uncertainties, because most current estimates of carbon storage in soils are based on conventional soil surveys and data sets compiled primarily for agricultural purposes. In a study of the Guadix-Baza basin, a semiarid area of southern Spain, sizeable amounts of carbon have been found stored in the subsoil. Total carbon estimated within 2-m was 141.3 kg Cm(-2) compared to 36.1 kg Cm(-2) if estimates were based solely on conventional soil depths (e.g. 40-cm in Regosols and 100-cm in Fluvisols). Thus, the insufficient sampling depth could lead to considerable underestimation of global soil carbon. In order to correctly evaluate the carbon content in world soils, more specific studies must be planned and carried out, especially in those soils where caliche and other carbonated cemented horizons are present.

  2. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage: introductory lecture.

    PubMed

    Smit, Berend

    2016-10-20

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only available technology that allows us to significantly reduce our CO2 emissions while keeping up with the ever-increasing global energy demand. Research in CCS focuses on reducing the costs of carbon capture and increasing our knowledge of geological storage to ensure the safe and permanent storage of CO2. This brief review will discuss progress in different capture and storage technologies.

  4. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Sonké, Bonaventure; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Ojo, Lucas O; Phillips, Oliver L; Reitsma, Jan M; White, Lee; Comiskey, James A; Djuikouo K, Marie-Noël; Ewango, Corneille E N; Feldpausch, Ted R; Hamilton, Alan C; Gloor, Manuel; Hart, Terese; Hladik, Annette; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Mbago, Frank M; Ndangalasi, Henry J; Peacock, Julie; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terry; Swaine, Michael D; Taplin, James; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Votere, Raymond; Wöll, Hannsjörg

    2009-02-19

    The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that old-growth forests have increased in carbon storage over recent decades, but the response of one-third of the world's tropical forests in Africa is largely unknown owing to an absence of spatially extensive observation networks. Here we report data from a ten-country network of long-term monitoring plots in African tropical forests. We find that across 79 plots (163 ha) above-ground carbon storage in live trees increased by 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1968 and 2007 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.94; mean interval, 1987-96). Extrapolation to unmeasured forest components (live roots, small trees, necromass) and scaling to the continent implies a total increase in carbon storage in African tropical forest trees of 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.15-0.43). These reported changes in carbon storage are similar to those reported for Amazonian forests per unit area, providing evidence that increasing carbon storage in old-growth forests is a pan-tropical phenomenon. Indeed, combining all standardized inventory data from this study and from tropical America and Asia together yields a comparable figure of 0.49 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (n = 156; 562 ha; CI, 0.29-0.66; mean interval, 1987-97). This indicates a carbon sink of 1.3 Pg C yr(-1) (CI, 0.8-1.6) across all tropical forests during recent decades. Taxon-specific analyses of African inventory and other data suggest that widespread changes in resource availability, such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks, as some theory and models predict.

  5. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity. PMID:28094794

  6. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Martin J P; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J T; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Timothy R; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K, Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Leal, Miguel E; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R; Morandi, Paulo S; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R; Primack, Richard B; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W; Thomas, Sean C; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-17

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  7. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; de Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  8. Inversing grided land surface carbon fluxes focusing on Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huifang

    2013-04-01

    With the global carbon budget research carrying out, there is a growing scientific and political interest to better understand terrestrial carbon cycle at global and regional scales. Asia, contributed one of the largest uncertainties to global carbon budget, needs further more investigation and study. The contribution of Asia to the global carbon cycle is characterized by its high fossil fuel emissions due to economic booming and demand steep rising in energy, a rapidly increasing land cover change or degradation caused by population explosion and crop land expansion, a fast forest recovering in virtue of forest afforestation in the past 20 years. These unique characteristics force the exchange of terrestrial carbon more heterogeneous in Asian continent, and lead the Asian carbon balance research's implementation more difficult. In view of the Asian net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon characteristics, we used a state-of-the-art CO2 data assimilation system called CarbonTraker to estimate NEE of CO2 in Asia for every week during the years 2000-2009. This approach includes the following three steps: (1) the atmospheric transport model (TM5) used in the data assimilation system was nested to be 1x1 degree grid in Asian area while globally at 2x3 degree resolution; (2) the number of CO2 observation sites was expend with 22 in Asia (including CONTRAIL and NOAA's CO2 measurement); and (3) two different prior flux products were used to estimate uncertainty ranges. We find the Asian terrestrial biosphere absorbed about 1.89 PgC (1 petagram=1015 g) per year averaged over the period studied, partly offsetting the estimated 3.87 PgC/yr release by fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing. The estimated sink is located mainly in the boreal Asia, while the temperate Asia and the tropical Asia are a week sink and a very small source, respectively. The results also show that the surface fluxes produced by the CarbonTracker system were reasonably consistent with the recent

  9. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A.; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S.; Rocha, Mariana F.; Lima, Renato A. F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage. PMID:26824067

  10. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  11. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future. PMID:27708149

  12. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2016-10-12

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future.

  13. Sociology: Learning lessons on carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, David

    2011-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage demonstration projects are focused on learning about technologies through conventional 'learning by doing'. Analysis of three case studies indicates that including other types of learning could bring significant rewards.

  14. Storage stability of ketones on carbon adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Alcaraz, M J; Fuentes, A; Garrido, J; Periago, J F

    2006-09-29

    Activated coconut carbon constitutes the more widely used sorbent for preconcentration of volatile organic compounds in sampling workplace air. Water vapour is always present in the air and its adsorption on the activated carbon surface is a serious drawback, mainly when sampling polar organic compounds, such as ketones. In this case, the recovery of the compounds diminishes; moreover, ketones can be decomposed during storage. Synthetic carbons contain less inorganic impurities and have a lower capacity for water adsorption than coconut charcoal. The aim of this work was to evaluate the storage stability of various ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and cyclohexanone) on different activated carbons and to study the effect of adsorbed water vapour under different storage conditions. The effect of storage temperature on extraction efficiencies was significant for each ketone in all the studied sorbents. Recovery was higher when samples were stored at 4 degrees C. The results obtained for storage stability of the studied ketones showed that the performance of synthetic carbons was better than for the coconut charcoals. The water adsorption and the ash content of the carbons can be a measure of the reactive sites that may chemisorb ketones or catalize their decomposition. Anasorb 747 showed good ketone stability at least for 7 days, except for cyclohexanone. After 30-days storage, the stability of the studied ketones was excellent on Carboxen 564. This sorbent had a nearly negligible ash content and the adsorbed water was much lower than for the other sorbents tested.

  15. Family Matters: Sphagnaceae Versus Cyperaceae in Peatland Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Gemma, M.; Fedio, C.; Pavia, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands are a vitally important part of the Earth's carbon cycle. What is unclear, however, is how peatland type influences the rate of carbon accumulation, the fate of that accumulated carbon in the short and long term, and the role of methane in the overall carbon cycle. Studies of modern peatlands have shown that fens (dominated by Cyperaceae) may accumulate peat more quickly than bogs (dominated by Sphagnaceae), but in many downcore studies, bog peat may have higher apparent accumulation rates. These generalizations, however, do not apply in all locations, climates, or times throughout the Holocene. To address this conundrum, we present data from several peatland locations throughout the circum-Arctic to determine what types of environments and climate regimes are effective for the long-term storage of carbon, fens or bogs, and what climate conditions promote the development of each peatland type. Our sites include peatlands in the Arctic and boreal regions of North America and Asia. We use a multiproxy approach to directly compare the apparent carbon accumulation rate and methane-recycling rate with peatland type and specific hydroclimatic parameters. To reconstruct peatland type, we use macrofossil analysis. We use compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers to assess hydrological parameters such as growing season evaporation and seasonality of precipitation. We use the carbon isotope ratios of these same compounds to reconstruct the rate of methane recycling. By reconstructing peat type, carbon cycle and hydroclimatic parameters in the same samples, we most effectively compare their mutual influence.

  16. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Sam

    2007-04-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a technology that could be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from large industrial installations such as fossil fuel-fired power stations by 80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial plant, its transport to a geological storage site and its long-term isolation in a geological storage reservoir. The technology has aroused considerable interest because it can help reduce emissions from fossil fuels which are likely to remain the dominant source of primary energy for decades to come. The main issues for the technology are cost and its implications for financing new or retrofitted plants, and the security of underground storage.

  17. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  18. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  19. The terrestrial carbon budget of South and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, Matthew; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Arneth, Almut; Canadell, Josep; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Houghton, Richard A.; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Patra, Prabir; Poulter, Ben; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Beni; Viovy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zeng, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Accomplishing the objective of the current climate policies will require establishing carbon budget and flux estimates in each region and county of the globe by comparing and reconciling multiple estimates including the observations and the results of top-down atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) inversions and bottom-up dynamic global vegetation models. With this in view, this study synthesizes the carbon source/sink due to net ecosystem productivity (NEP), land cover land use change (E LUC), fires and fossil burning (E FIRE) for the South Asia (SA), Southeast Asia (SEA) and South and Southeast Asia (SSEA = SA + SEA) and each country in these regions using the multiple top-down and bottom-up modeling results. The terrestrial net biome productivity (NBP = NEP - E LUC - E FIRE) calculated based on bottom-up models in combination with E FIRE based on GFED4s data show net carbon sinks of 217 ± 147, 10 ± 55, and 227 ± 279 TgC yr-1 for SA, SEA, and SSEA. The top-down models estimated NBP net carbon sinks were 20 ± 170, 4 ± 90 and 24 ± 180 TgC yr-1. In comparison, regional emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels were 495, 275, and 770 TgC yr-1, which are many times higher than the NBP sink estimates, suggesting that the contribution of the fossil fuel emissions to the carbon budget of SSEA results in a significant net carbon source during the 2000s. When considering both NBP and fossil fuel emissions for the individual countries within the regions, Bhutan and Laos were net carbon sinks and rest of the countries were net carbon source during the 2000s. The relative contributions of each of the fluxes (NBP, NEP, E LUC, and E FIRE, fossil fuel emissions) to a nation’s net carbon flux varied greatly from country to country, suggesting a heterogeneous dominant carbon fluxes on the country-level throughout SSEA.

  20. Prospects for carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Soren Anderson; Richard Newell

    2003-01-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies remove carbon dioxide from flue gases for storage in geologic formations or the ocean. The study found that CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive within the range of carbon policies discussed domestically and internationally. Current costs are about $200 to $250 per ton of carbon, although costs are sensitive to fuel prices and other assumptions and could be reduced significantly through technical improvements. Near-term prospects favor CCS for certain industrial sources and electric power plants, with storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Deep aquifers may provide an attractive longer-term storage option, whereas ocean storage poses greater technical and environmental uncertainty. Vast quantities of economically recoverable fossil fuels, sizable political obstacles to their abandonment, and inherent delay associated with developing alternative energy sources suggest that CCS should be seriously considered in the portfolio of options for addressing climate change, alongside energy efficiency and carbon-free energy. 61 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  2. Using Prokaryotes for Carbon Capture Storage.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Natalie; Vik, Unni; Taylor, Peter; Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Park, Joonsang; Kolisis, Frangiskos; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2017-01-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is a fast-developing technology that can mitigate rising carbon emissions. However, there are environmental concerns with the long-term storage and implications of a leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) site. Traditional monitoring lacks clear protocols and relies heavily on physical methods. Here, we discuss the potential of biotechnology, focusing on microbes with a natural ability to utilize and assimilate CO2 through different metabolic pathways. We propose the use of natural microbial communities for CCS monitoring and CO2 utilization, and, with examples, demonstrate how synthetic biology may maximize CO2 uptake within and above storage sites. An integrated physical and biological approach, combined with metagenomics data and biotechnological advances, will enhance CO2 sequestration and prevent large-scale leakages. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  4. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  5. Metal assisted carbon cold storage of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, J.A.

    1988-01-05

    This patent describes a method of storing hydrogen by sorption on a composite formed of carbon and a transition metal, comprising the steps of contacting gaseous hydrogen with a storage medium formed of high surface area activated carbon combined with an active transition metal in elemental form capable of dissociating the hydrogen, physisorbing the hydrogen on the storage medium, and storing the sorbed hydrogen by maintaining the pressure at or above one bar and maintaining the temperature of the medium in a cold temperature range below 293 K.

  6. Hydrogen storage on activated carbon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The project studied factors that influence the ability of carbon to store hydrogen and developed techniques to enhance that ability in naturally occurring and factory-produced commercial carbon materials. During testing of enhanced materials, levels of hydrogen storage were achieved that compare well with conventional forms of energy storage, including lead-acid batteries, gasoline, and diesel fuel. Using the best materials, an electric car with a modern fuel cell to convert the hydrogen directly to electricity would have a range of over 1,000 miles. This assumes that the total allowable weight of the fuel cell and carbon/hydrogen storage system is no greater than the present weight of batteries in an existing electric vehicle. By comparison, gasoline cars generally are limited to about a 450-mile range, and battery-electric cars to 40 to 60 miles. The project also developed a new class of carbon materials, based on polymers and other organic compounds, in which the best hydrogen-storing factors discovered earlier were {open_quotes}molecularly engineered{close_quotes} into the new materials. It is believed that these new molecularly engineered materials are likely to exceed the performance of the naturally occurring and manufactured carbons seen earlier with respect to hydrogen storage.

  7. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  8. Carbon Cycling and Storage in Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y-1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y-1) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  9. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  10. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    Fossil fuels can be burned to provide on-demand energy at any time, but cleaner renewable energy sources such as the sun and wind are intermittent. Energy storage systems, then, that are efficient and also economical and environmentally benign are key to a future fueled by renewable energy. Carbon-based materials are prototypical systems in all these aspects. Herein, three promising, novel carbon-based materials are presented. These include microporous carbon for supercapacitors produced by the condensation and carbonization of siloxane elastomers, porous graphitic carbon for supercapacitors produced by an aerosol route, and interpenetrating, binder-free carbon nanotube/vanadium nanowire composites for lithium ion battery electrodes produced by chemical crosslinking and aerogel fabrication. These materials syntheses are facile and can be easily scaled up, and their electrochemical performance, especially their energy densities and cycleability, are notable.

  11. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  12. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    2000-07-18

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  13. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Rogers, Michael Ray; Judkins, Roddie R.

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  14. Groundwater storage inferred from earthquake activities around East Asia and West Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater is a necessary and indispensable resource in the gradual depletion of the amount in the world. Groundwater storage is an important indicator to evaluate the capability of volume of water can be released from the aquifer. This research highlights a new assessment to infer the storage of aquifer using earthquakes activated around East Asia and the ring of fire at West Pacific Ocean. Ten significant seismic events are used to evaluate the groundwater storage at an observation station. By analyzing the spectra of groundwater level and seismogram, it is evident that the period varied in 7-25 s of Rayleigh waves significantly dominate propagation from the epicenter of earthquakes to the observation station. The storage coefficient is then shown in the order of 10-4-10-3. The major innovation of this study suggests that to concretely deduce the groundwater storage by earthquake activity has become feasible.

  15. Natural Carbonation of Peridotite and Applications for Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, E.; Kelemen, P.; Matter, J.

    2009-05-01

    Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail Ophiolite of Oman is surprisingly rapid and could be further enhanced to provide a safe, permanent method of CO2 storage through in situ formation of carbonate minerals. Carbonate veins form by low-temperature reaction between peridotite and groundwater in a shallow weathering horizon. Reaction with peridotite drives up the pH of the water, and extensive travertine terraces form where this groundwater emerges at the surface in alkaline springs. The potential sink for CO2 in peridotite is enormous: adding 1wt% CO2 to the peridotite in Oman could consume 1/4 of all atmospheric carbon, and several peridotite bodies of comparable size exist throughout the world. Thus carbonation rate and cost, not reservoir size, are the limiting factors on the usefulness of in situ mineral carbonation of peridotite for carbon storage. The carbonate veins in Oman are much younger than previously believed, yielding average 14C ages of 28,000 years. Age data plus estimated volumes of carbonate veins and terraces suggest 10,000 to 100,000 tons per year of CO2 are consumed by these peridotite weathering reactions in Oman. This rate can be enhanced by drilling, hydraulic fracture, injecting CO2-rich fluid, and increasing reaction temperature. Drilling and hydraulic fracture can increase volume of peridotite available for reaction. Additional fracture may occur due to the solid volume increase of the carbonation reaction, and field observations suggest that such reaction-assisted fracture may be responsible for hierarchical carbonate vein networks in peridotite. Natural carbonation of peridotite in Oman occurs at low pCO2, resulting in partial carbonation of peridotite, forming magnesite and serpentine. Raising pCO2 increases carbonation efficiency, forming of magnesite + talc, or at complete carbonation, magnesite + quartz, allowing ˜30wt% CO2 to be added to the peridotite. Increasing the temperature to 185°C can improve the reaction rate by

  16. [Carbon storage and carbon sink of mangrove wetland: research progress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhi-hua; Li, Zhi-yong

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove forest is a special wetland forest growing in the inter-tidal zone of tropical and subtropical regions, playing important roles in windbreak, promoting silt sedimentation, resisting extreme events such as cyclones and tsunamis, and protecting coastline, etc. The total area of global mangrove forests is about 152000 km2, only accounting for 0. 4% of all forest area. There are about 230 km2 mangrove forests in China. The mangrove forests in the tropics have an average carbon storage as high as 1023 Mg hm-2, and the global mangrove forests can sequestrate about 0. 18-0. 228 Pg C a-1. In addition to plant species composition, a variety of factors such as air temperature, seawater temperature and salinity, soil physical and chemical properties, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and human activities have significant effects on the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forests. Many approaches based onfield measurements, including allometric equations, remote sensing, and model simulation, are applied to quantify the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forest wetland. To study the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove wetland can promote the further understanding of the carbon cycle of mangrove wetland and related controlling mechanisms, being of significance for the protection and rational utilization of mangrove wetland.

  17. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    PubMed

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  18. Changes in Soil Carbon Storage After Cultivation

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mann, L. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Previously published data from 625 paired soil samples were used to predict carbon in cultivated soil as a function of initial carbon content. A 30-cm sampling depth provided a less variable estimate (r2 = 0.9) of changes in carbon than a 15-cm sampling depth (r2 = 0.6). Regression analyses of changes in carbon storage in relation to years of cultivation confirmed that the greatest rates of change occurred in the first 20 y. An initial carbon effect was present in all analyses: soils very low in carbon tended to gain slight amounts of carbon after cultivation, but soils high in carbon lost at least 20% during cultivation. Carbon losses from most agricultural soils are estimated to average less than 20% of initial values or less than 1.5 kg/m2 within the top 30 cm. These estimates should not be applied to depths greater than 30 cm and would be improved with more bulk density information and equivalent sample volumes.

  19. Carbon storage in forests and peatlands of Russia

    Treesearch

    V.A. Alexeyev; R.A. Birdsey; [Editors

    1998-01-01

    Contains information about carbon storage in the vegetation, soils, and peatlands of Russia. Estimates of carbon storage in forests are derived from statistical data from the 1988 national forest inventory of Russia and from other sources. Methods are presented for converting data on timber stock into phytomass of tree stands, and for estimating carbon storage in...

  20. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Lange, Markus; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sierra, Carlos A; Bessler, Holger; Engels, Christoph; Griffiths, Robert I; Mellado-Vázquez, Perla G; Malik, Ashish A; Roy, Jacques; Scheu, Stefan; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Thomson, Bruce C; Trumbore, Susan E; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-07

    Plant diversity strongly influences ecosystem functions and services, such as soil carbon storage. However, the mechanisms underlying the positive plant diversity effects on soil carbon storage are poorly understood. We explored this relationship using long-term data from a grassland biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and radiocarbon ((14)C) modelling. Here we show that higher plant diversity increases rhizosphere carbon inputs into the microbial community resulting in both increased microbial activity and carbon storage. Increases in soil carbon were related to the enhanced accumulation of recently fixed carbon in high-diversity plots, while plant diversity had less pronounced effects on the decomposition rate of existing carbon. The present study shows that elevated carbon storage at high plant diversity is a direct function of the soil microbial community, indicating that the increase in carbon storage is mainly limited by the integration of new carbon into soil and less by the decomposition of existing soil carbon.

  1. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  2. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the space...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the space...

  5. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  13. Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

    Treesearch

    Ellen Wohl; Kathleen Dwire; Nicholas Sutfin; Lina Polvi; Roberto Bazan

    2012-01-01

    Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that...

  14. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  15. Nitrogen and carbon storage in alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Monson, Russell K; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Forbis, Tara A; Lipson, David A; Jaeger, Charles H

    2006-02-01

    Alpine plants offer unique opportunities to study the processes and economics of nutrient storage. The short alpine growing season forces rapid completion of plant growth cycles, which in turn causes competition between vegetative and reproductive growth sinks during the early part of the growing season. Mobilization of stored nitrogen and carbon reserves facilitates competing sinks and permits successful completion of reproduction before the onset of winter stress. We discuss the theoretical framework for assessing the costs and benefits of nutrient storage in alpine plants in order to lay the foundation for interpretation of observations. A principal point that has emerged from past theoretical treatments is the distinction between reserve storage, defined as storage that occurs with a cost to growth, and resource accumulation, defined as storage that occurs when resource supply exceeds demand, and thus when there is no cost to growth. We then discuss two case studies, one already published and one not yet published, pertaining to the storage and utilization of nitrogen and carbon compounds in alpine plants from Niwot Ridge, Colorado. In the first case, we tested the hypothesis that the seasonal accumulation of amino acids in the rhizome of N-fertilized plants of Bistorta bistortoides provides an advantage to the plant by not imposing a cost to growth at the time of accumulation, but providing a benefit to growth when the accumulated N is remobilized. We show that, as predicted, there is no cost during N accumulation but, not as predicted, there is no benefit to future growth. In the presence of N accumulation, reliance on stored N for growth increases, but reliance on current-season, soil-derived N decreases; thus the utilization of available N in this species is a 'zero sum' process. Inherent meristematic constraints to growth cause negative feedback that limits the utilization of accumulated N and precludes long-term advantages to this form of storage. In the

  16. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  17. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  18. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  19. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  20. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods. PMID:19815522

  1. [Characteristics of carbon storage of Inner Mongolia forests: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Li, Sheng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    Forests in Inner Mongolia account for an important part of the forests in China in terms of their large area and high living standing volume. This study reported carbon storage, carbon density, carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia using the biomass carbon data from the related literature. Through analyzing the data of forest inventory and the generalized allometric equations between volume and biomass, previous studies had reported that biomass carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia was about 920 Tg C, which was 12 percent of the national forest carbon storage, the annual average growth rate was about 1.4%, and the average of carbon density was about 43 t · hm(-2). Carbon storage and carbon density showed an increasing trend over time. Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest and Betula platyphylla forest had higher carbon sequestration capacities. Carbon storage was reduced due to human activities such as thinning and clear cutting. There were few studies on carbon storage of the forests in Inner Mongolia with focus on the soil, showing that the soil car- bon density increased with the stand age. Study on the carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems was still less. Further study was required to examine dynamics of carbon storage in forest ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, i. e., to assess carbon storage in the forest soils together with biomass carbon storage, to compute biomass carbon content of species organs as 45% in the allometric equations, to build more species-specific and site-specific allometric equations including root biomass for different dominant species, and to take into account the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration potential.

  2. Carbon Storage in Biologic and Oceanic Reservoirs: Issues and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most discussion of carbon capture and storage have focused on geologic reservoirs because these are the reservoirs most likely to provide for long-term storage with a minimum of adverse environmental consequences. Nevertheless, there is interest in storage in other reservoirs such as the biosphere or the oceans. Storage in biological reservoirs such as forests or agricultural soils may in many cases be relatively inexpensive. Because this biological storage involves carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, it can potentially offset emissions from the transportation sector. Biological storage can be politically popular because it can be deployed with simple technologies, can be deployed in developing countries, and in many cases involves other environmental co-benefits. However, total capacity is limited. Furthermore, biological storage is temporary unless the store is actively maintained forever. Such temporary storage can be valuable, although it is clearly not as valuable as the quasi-permanent storage offered by good geologic storage reservoirs Ocean storage options fall into two main classes. The first involves conventional separation and compression of carbon dioxide from large point sources which would then be piped into the deep ocean and released either into the water or as a lake on the sea floor. In either case, the carbon dioxide would eventually interact with the atmosphere and contribute to ocean acidification. However, there is potential for the development of long-term engineered containment of carbon dioxide on or in the sea floor. The second main ocean storage option involves increasing ocean alkalinity, probably by dissolving carbonate minerals. This approach may offer safe, quasi- permanent, and cost-effective storage in settings where coastal carbon dioxide point sources are co-located with carbonate mineral deposits. Not every location or carbon dioxide source is suitable for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. At this early stage, it is

  3. Designing carbon nanoframeworks tailored for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath; Cheng, Hansong; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2007-05-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we propose a novel class of 3-D materials consisting of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized by organic ligands as potential hydrogen storage media. Specifically, we have carried out density functional theory calculations to determine the stable structures and properties of nanoframeworks consisting of (5, 0) and (3, 3) SWCNTs constrained by phenyl spacers. Valence and conduction properties, as well as normal modes, of pristine nanotubes are found to change significantly upon functionalization, in a way that can serve as experimental diagnostics of the successful synthesis of the proposed framework structures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that such systems are thermodynamically stable for on-board hydrogen storage.

  4. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  5. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  6. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  8. Thermal effects on geologic carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Vilarrasa, Victor; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2016-12-27

    One of the most promising ways to significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions, while carbon-free energy sources are developed, is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Non-isothermal effects play a major role in all stages of CCS. In this paper, we review the literature on thermal effects related to CCS, which is receiving an increasing interest as a result of the awareness that the comprehension of non-isothermal processes is crucial for a successful deployment of CCS projects. We start by reviewing CO2 transport, which connects the regions where CO2 is captured with suitable geostorage sites. The optimal conditions for CO2 transport, both onshore (through pipelines) and offshore (through pipelines or ships), are such that CO2 stays in liquid state. To minimize costs, CO2 should ideally be injected at the wellhead in similar pressure and temperature conditions as it is delivered by transport. To optimize the injection conditions, coupled wellbore and reservoir simulators that solve the strongly non-linear problem of CO2 pressure, temperature and density within the wellbore and non-isothermal two-phase flow within the storage formation have been developed. CO2 in its way down the injection well heats up due to compression and friction at a lower rate than the geothermal gradient, and thus, reaches the storage formation at a lower temperature than that of the rock. Inside the storage formation, CO2 injection induces temperature changes due to the advection of the cool injected CO2, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect, endothermic water vaporization and exothermic CO2 dissolution. These thermal effects lead to thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with non-trivial interpretations. These coupled processes also play a relevant role in “Utilization” options that may provide an added value to the injected CO2 , such as Enhanced Oil

  9. Thermal effects on geologic carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Vilarrasa, Victor; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2016-12-27

    One of the most promising ways to significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions, while carbon-free energy sources are developed, is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Non-isothermal effects play a major role in all stages of CCS. In this paper, we review the literature on thermal effects related to CCS, which is receiving an increasing interest as a result of the awareness that the comprehension of non-isothermal processes is crucial for a successful deployment of CCS projects. We start by reviewing CO2 transport, which connects the regions where CO2 is captured with suitable geostorage sites. The optimal conditions for CO2 transport, bothmore » onshore (through pipelines) and offshore (through pipelines or ships), are such that CO2 stays in liquid state. To minimize costs, CO2 should ideally be injected at the wellhead in similar pressure and temperature conditions as it is delivered by transport. To optimize the injection conditions, coupled wellbore and reservoir simulators that solve the strongly non-linear problem of CO2 pressure, temperature and density within the wellbore and non-isothermal two-phase flow within the storage formation have been developed. CO2 in its way down the injection well heats up due to compression and friction at a lower rate than the geothermal gradient, and thus, reaches the storage formation at a lower temperature than that of the rock. Inside the storage formation, CO2 injection induces temperature changes due to the advection of the cool injected CO2, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect, endothermic water vaporization and exothermic CO2 dissolution. These thermal effects lead to thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with non-trivial interpretations. These coupled processes also play a relevant role in “Utilization” options that may provide an added value to the injected CO2 , such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) and geothermal energy extraction combined with CO2 storage. If the

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  13. Carbon storage in young growth coast redwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dryw A. Jones; Kevin A. O' Hara

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is an emerging forest management objective within California and around the world. With the passage of the California's Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32) our need to understand the dynamics of carbon sequestration and to accurately measure carbon storage is essential to insure successful implementation of carbon credit projects throughout...

  14. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  15. Spatial dynamics of carbon storage: a case study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sivrikaya, Fatih; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Bozali, Nuri

    2013-11-01

    Forest ecosystems have an important role in carbon cycle at both regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Forest degradation and land cover changes, caused by deforestation and conversion to non-forest area, have a strong impact on carbon storage. The carbon storage of forest biomass and its changes over time in the Hartlap planning unit of the southeastern part of Turkey have been estimated using the biomass expansion factor method based on field measurements of forests plots with forest inventory data between 1991 and 2002. The amount of carbon storage associated with land use and land cover changes were also analyzed. The results showed that the total forested area of the Hartlap planning unit slightly increased by 2.1%, from 27,978.7 ha to 28,282.6 ha during the 11-year period, and carbon storage increased by 9.6%, from 390,367.6 to 427,826.9 tons. Carbon storage of conifer and mixed forests accounted for about 70.6% of carbon storage in 1991, and 67.8% in 2002 which increased by 14,274.6 tons. Land use change and increasing forest area have a strong influence on increasing biomass and carbon storage.

  16. The economic value of grassland species for carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, Bruce A.; Barbier, Edward B.; Ando, Amy W.; Marks, Samuel P.; Reich, Peter B.; van Gestel, Natasja; Tilman, David; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Hooper, David U.; Butterfield, Bradley J.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon storage by ecosystems is valuable for climate protection. Biodiversity conservation may help increase carbon storage, but the value of this influence has been difficult to assess. We use plant, soil, and ecosystem carbon storage data from two grassland biodiversity experiments to show that greater species richness increases economic value: Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2. The marginal value of each additional species declined as species accumulated, reflecting the nonlinear relationship between species richness and plant biomass production. Our demonstration of the economic value of biodiversity for enhancing carbon storage provides a foundation for assessing the value of biodiversity for decisions about land management. Combining carbon storage with other ecosystem services affected by biodiversity may well enhance the economic arguments for conservation even further. PMID:28435876

  17. Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Williams, Kent Alan; Aaron, D

    2010-01-01

    Two of the greatest contemporary global challenges are anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and energy sustainability. A popular proposed solution to the former problem is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Unfortunately, CCS has little benefit for energy sustainability and introduces significant long-term costs and risks. Thus, we propose the adoption of 'virtual CCS' by directing the resources that would have been spent on CCS to alternative energy technologies. (The term 'virtual' is used here because the concept described in this work satisfies the Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of virtual: 'being such in essence or effect though not formally recognized or admitted.') In this example, we consider wind and nuclear power and use the funds that would have been required by CCS to invest in installation and operation of these technologies. Many other options exist in addition to wind and nuclear power including solar, biomass, geothermal, and others. These additional energy technologies can be considered in future studies. While CCS involves spending resources to concentrate CO{sub 2} in sinks, such as underground reservoirs, low-carbon alternative energy produces power, which will displace fossil fuel use while simultaneously generating revenues. Thus, these alternative energy technologies achieve the same objective as that of CCS, namely, the avoidance of atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions.

  18. Assessing Carbon Storage and Sequestration of Seagrass Meadows on the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, V. R.; McGowan, A. E.; Robinson, C.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Pellatt, M. G.; Yakimishyn, J.; Chastain, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that seagrasses are highly efficient carbon sinks, storing a disproportionate amount of carbon for their relatively small area (only approximately 0.2% of the global ocean), and that they may bury carbon up to 12 times faster than terrestrial forests. Unfortunately, seagrass meadows are being lost at a rate of 0.4-2.6% yr-1, potentially releasing 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tonnes) carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually. Research on seagrass carbon stocks has been mainly limited to areas in the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Australia, and specifically has been very limited in the Northeast Pacific. We aim to characterize the carbon storage and sequestration occurring in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and the Clayoquot Sound area, off the western coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC). Each of our sites varied in environmental characteristics representative of BC's seagrass meadows, including freshwater influence. Six cores, plus one from a "reference" site were taken from each meadow. Loss on ignition (LOI) and elemental analysis will be used to determine organic C and carbonate content. Additionally, we will use dry bulk density, 210Pb dating and seagrass density data to determine carbon accumulation rates and total meadow carbon stocks to provide a comprehensive picture of carbon storage and sequestration in BC's seagrass meadows. Carbon storage results will contribute to global estimates of seagrass carbon stocks via the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, as well as assist in marine ecosystem conservation planning and help in understanding the value of these ecosystems, especially as a means of climate change mitigation.

  19. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiran; Wei, Huige; Lu, Yang; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K.; Guo, Zhanhu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials.These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples. PMID:28347034

  20. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  1. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2).

  2. Carbon storage at defect sites in mantle mineral analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Buseck, Peter R.

    2013-10-01

    A significant fraction of Earth's carbon resides in the mantle, but the mode of carbon storage presents a long-standing problem. The mantle contains fluids rich in carbon dioxide and methane, carbonate-bearing melts, carbonate minerals, graphite, diamond and carbides, as well as dissolved carbon atoms in metals. However, it is uncertain whether these can sufficiently account for the total amount of carbon thought to be stored in the mantle and the volume of carbon degassed from the mantle at volcanoes. Moreover, such carbon hosts should significantly affect the physical and chemical behaviour of the mantle, including its melting temperature, electrical conductivity and oxidation state. Here we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to measure the storage of carbon within common mantle mineral analogues--nickel-doped lanthanum chromate perovskite and titanium dioxide--in laboratory experiments at high pressure and temperature. We detect elevated carbon concentrations at defect sites in the nanocrystals, maintained at high pressures within annealed carbon nanocages. Specifically, our experiments show that small stacking faults within the mantle analogue materials are effective carbon sinks at mantle conditions, potentially providing an efficient mechanism for carbon storage in the mantle. Furthermore, this carbon can be readily released under lower pressure conditions, and may therefore help to explain carbon release in volcanic eruptions.

  3. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  4. Sodium-Ion Storage in Pyroprotein-Based Carbon Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Soo; Park, Kyu-Young; Lee, Byoungju; Cho, Se Youn; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Sung Ju; Kim, Byung Hoon; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Kim, Haegyeom; Lee, Sungho; Park, Yung Woo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Kang, Kisuk

    2015-11-18

    Pyroprotein-based carbon nanoplates are fabricated from self-assembled silk proteins as a versatile platform to examine sodium-ion storage characteristics in various carbon environments. It is found that, depending on the local carbon structure, sodium ions are stored via chemi-/physisorption, insertion, or nanoclustering of metallic sodium.

  5. Carbon storage and flux in urban residential greenspace

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Hyun-Kil; McPherson, G.

    1995-10-01

    There is increasing concern about the predicted negative effects of the future doubling of carbon dioxide on the earth. This concern has evoked interest in the potential for urban greenspace to help reduce the levels of atmopsheric carbon. This study quantifies greenspace-related carbon storage and annual carbon fluxes for urban residential landscapes. For detailed quantification, the scale of this study was limited to two residential blocks in NW Chicago which had a significant difference in vegetation cover. Differences between the two blocks in the size of greenspace area and vegetation cover resulted in considerable differences in total carbon storage and annual carbon uptake. The principal net carbon release from greenspaces of the two residential lanscapes was from grass maintenance. Greenspace planning and management strategies were explored to minimize carbon release and maximize carbon uptake. 83 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Renwei

    2015-06-15

    Phase I concludes with significant progress made towards the SunShot ELEMENTS goals of high energy density, high power density, and high temperature by virtue of a SrO/SrCO3 based material. A detailed exploration of sintering inhibitors has been conducted and relatively stable materials supported by YSZ or SrZO3 have been identified as the leading candidates. In 15 cycle runs using a 3 hour carbonation duration, several materials demonstrated energy densities of roughly 1500 MJ/m3 or greater. The peak power density for the most productive materials consistently exceeded 40 MW/m3—an order of magnitude greater than the SOPO milestone. The team currently has a material demonstrating nearly 1000 MJ/m3 after 100 abbreviated (1 hour carbonation) cycles. A subsequent 8 hour carbonation after the 100 cycle test exhibited over 1500 MJ/m3, which is evidence that the material still has capacity for high storage albeit with slower kinetics. Kinetic carbonation experiments have shown three distinct periods: induction, kinetically-controlled, and finally a diffusion-controlled period. In contrast to thermodynamic equilibrium prediction, higher carbonation temperatures lead to greater conversions over a 1 hour periods, as diffusion of CO2 is more rapid at higher temperatures. A polynomial expression was fit to describe the temperature dependence of the linear kinetically-controlled regime, which does not obey a traditional Arrhenius relationship. Temperature and CO2 partial pressure effects on the induction period were also investigated. The CO2 partial pressure has a strong effect on the reaction progress at high temperatures but is insignificant at temperatures under 900°C. Tomography data for porous SrO/SrCO3 structures at initial stage and after multiple carbonation/decomposition cycles have been obtained. Both 2D slices and 3D reconstructed representations have

  7. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  8. New insights into the nation's carbon storage potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a method of securing carbon dioxide (CO2) to prevent its release into the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming as a greenhouse gas. Geologic storage of CO2 in porous and permeable rocks involves injecting high-pressure CO2 into a subsurface rock unit that has available pore space. Biologic carbon sequestration refers to both natural and anthropogenic processes by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored as carbon in vegetation, soils, and sediments.

  9. Controls Over Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean biological processes play a central role in controlling atmospheric CO2 levels with the size of this effect being largely dependent on the depth at which sinking organic carbon (C) is recycled in the ocean's mesopelagic, between 100 and 1000m. Until recently our understanding was so poor that we were unable to even create and close a budget for the processes involved in supplying and consuming organic C in the mesopelagic, let alone model them explicitly with our best estimates of C sources and sinks being an order of magnitude apart. In 2014 however we published the first balanced mesopelagic C budget, in the Northeast Atlantic. Large scale data syntheses suggest that a wide range of factors can influence remineralisation depth including surface biogeochemical processes, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature (T). However such correlation analyses cannot provide a mechanistic understanding of mesopelagic remineralisation. In light of this, we have proposed to the UK NERC a focussed project known as COMICS with this mechanistic understanding as its aim. We will use targeted fieldwork to develop new parameterisations of particle flux and implement them in an IPCC class global biogeochemical model. Cruises in the Southern Ocean and in the Benguela Upwelling will exploit strong local gradients in surface biogeochemistry, T and DO. We will compile 1-d C budgets and make intensive measurements of interior C cycling and ecosystem structure. We will synthesise the observations to determine which processes are key, create new parameterisations for interior remineralisation and evaluate them by their ability to reproduce global biogeochemical distributions. Finally we will use these tools to provide a new estimate of ocean C storage using the UK Earth System Model's ocean component. This poster will introduce the project and describe the major challenges we face in delivering it.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Films for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinda, Alina

    With the rising demands for small, lightweight, and long-lasting portable electronics, the need for energy storage devices with both large power and large energy densities becomes vitally important. From their usage in hybrid electric vehicles to wearable electronics, supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries have been the focus of many previous works. Electrode materials with large specific surface areas can enhance the charging speed and total amount of stored energy. To this end, vertically self-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests are well suited, as they possess outstanding electrical conductivities as well as high mechanical strength and large specific surface areas. In addition, forests of vertically aligned CNTs allow the ions within an electrolyte to pass freely between the individual CNTs from electrode to electrode. In order to minimize the system resistance of the battery or supercapacitor, a thin molybdenum current collector layer is deposited beneath catalyst of the CNT forest, thus ensuring that when the CNT forest grows from its substrate, each CNT has an innate connection to the current collector. This versatile CNT-Mo film architecture is used in this work as both supercapacitor as well as lithium-ion battery electrodes. It is desirable to have energy storage devices of adjustable shapes, such that they may conform to the shrinking form factors of modern portable electronics and mechanically flexible electrodes are an attractive prospect. The CNT-Mo film is shown here to easily release from its growth substrate, after which it may be placed onto a number of surfaces and topographies and densified. Two polymer films, KaptonRTM and Thermanox(TM) , have been used as substrates for the demonstrations of flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Test results show that the attached active CNT-Mo film can withstand bending to at least as large an angle as 180°. The specific capacitance of a 5 mm by 5 mm area electrode in the K2SO 4 aqueous electrolyte with

  11. Filled Carbon Nanotubes: Superior Latent Heat Storage Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a rstudy whose technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of filled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as latent heat storage enhancers, with potential applications as next generation thermal management fluids in diverse applications in industries ranging from high-demand microelectronic cooling, manufacturing, power generation, transportation, to solar energy storage.

  12. Harvest impacts on soil carbon storage in temperate forests

    Treesearch

    L.E. Nave; E.D. Vance; C.W. Swanston; P.S. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Forest soil carbon (C) storage is a significant component of the global C cycle, and is important for sustaining forest productivity. Although forest management may have substantial impacts on soil C storage, experimental data from forest harvesting studies have not been synthesized recently. To quantify the effects of harvesting on soil C, and to identify sources of...

  13. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

    2014-05-01

    data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

  14. Estimation of carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Ili River Valley, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jing, Guo; renping, Zhang; ranghui, Wang; aimaiti, Yusupujiang; tuerdi, Asiyemu; dongya, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Study on the forest carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution characteristic are helpful for improving the accuracy of carbon estimation and providing the practical basis for better policy making. In this research, the compiled data of 'Xinjiang Forest Resources Survey Results' in 2011 was used as a source data, by using the biomass-volume regression model and average biomass method, the carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution of forest resources in Ili River Valley region were analyzed. Results show that, the total biomass, carbon storage and average carbon density in Ili River valley were 69.647Tg, 34.823Tg and 41.45Mg/hm2 C respectively. From the aspect of spatial distribution, the northwest region of Ili River Valley has high carbon storage and the southeast region has low carbon storage. The southwest region has low carbon density and the northeast region has high carbon density. The value of forest Carbon storage from high to low was: Arbor > Shrub > Sparse forest > Odd tree > Economic forest > Scattered trees. Mature arbor forest plays an important role in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in Ili River Valley region.

  15. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  16. Carbon Storage in Wetlands and Lakes of the Eastern US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renik, Byrdie; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon stored underground may participate in a positive feedback with climate warming, as higher temperatures accelerate decomposition reactions and hence CO2 release. Assessing how below-ground carbon storage varies with modern climate and paleoclimate will advance understanding of this feedback in two ways. First, it will estimate the sensitivity of carbon storage to temperature and precipitation changes. Second, it will help quantify the size of carbon stocks available for the feedback, by indicating how current regional climate differences affect carbon storage. Whereas many studies of below-ground carbon storage concentrate on soils, this investigation focuses on the saturated and primarily organic material stored in wetlands and lake sediments. This study surveys research done on organic sediment depth and organic content at 50-100 sites in the eastern U.S., integrating our own research with the work of others. Storage depth is evaluated for sediments from the past 10,000 years, a date reflected in pollen profiles. Organic content is measured chiefly by loss-on-ignition (101). These variables are compared to characteristics of the sites such as latitude, altitude, and vegetation as well as local climate. Preliminary results suggest a strong relationship between latitude and depth of organic material stored over the last 10,000 years, with more accumulation in the northeastern US than the southeastern US. Linking the percent organic matter to actual carbon content is in progress with wetlands from Black Rock Forest and Alpine Swamp.

  17. Carbon Storage in Wetlands and Lakes of the Eastern US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renik, Byrdie; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon stored underground may participate in a positive feedback with climate warming, as higher temperatures accelerate decomposition reactions and hence CO2 release. Assessing how below-ground carbon storage varies with modern climate and paleoclimate will advance understanding of this feedback in two ways. First, it will estimate the sensitivity of carbon storage to temperature and precipitation changes. Second, it will help quantify the size of carbon stocks available for the feedback, by indicating how current regional climate differences affect carbon storage. Whereas many studies of below-ground carbon storage concentrate on soils, this investigation focuses on the saturated and primarily organic material stored in wetlands and lake sediments. This study surveys research done on organic sediment depth and organic content at 50-100 sites in the eastern U.S., integrating our own research with the work of others. Storage depth is evaluated for sediments from the past 10,000 years, a date reflected in pollen profiles. Organic content is measured chiefly by loss-on-ignition (101). These variables are compared to characteristics of the sites such as latitude, altitude, and vegetation as well as local climate. Preliminary results suggest a strong relationship between latitude and depth of organic material stored over the last 10,000 years, with more accumulation in the northeastern US than the southeastern US. Linking the percent organic matter to actual carbon content is in progress with wetlands from Black Rock Forest and Alpine Swamp.

  18. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  19. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  20. Land use and carbon storage in Georgia forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, D.M.; Johnson, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    Disparate estimates of trends in carbon storage in the major forest regions of the earth have focused attention on: (1) possible roles of forests in the global carbon budget, and in potential climatic change, and (2) the need for detailed regional studies of the impact of forest growth, exploitation, land use change, reforestation and storage of forest products on their carbon budgets as a preliminary for determining their aggregate impact on the global budgets as a preliminary for determining their aggregate impact on the global carbon budget. The carbon budget of the forests of the Upper Piedmont of Georgia is reconstructed from presettlement to the present, and the impact of alternative futures on the region's carbon budget modeled for the next three decades and for the next century. Historic trends are based on US Bureau of the Census and USDA Forest Service records. Alternative futures are assessed using a compartment model (each compartment is a forest type-biomass class) whose transfer coefficients were systematically altered to account for plausible changes in forest exploitation, management and area. Carbon storage declined from a presettlement value of 386 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes to about 40 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes during the height of agriculture. Post World War II reforestation increased it to 112 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes by 1972. Further increases are expected in the next several decades in spite of reductions in the forest land base. However, the impact on the global carbon cycle of a region undergoing agricultural development is five times that of a region in agricultural decline. Long-term projections suggest that the managed forests of a region may continue to be modest carbon sinks (increased carbon storage) largely through the storage of forest biomass and carbon in forest products.

  1. An Economic Approach to Planting Trees for Carbon Storage

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Parks; David O. Hall; Bengt Kristrom; Omar R. Masera; Robert J. Multon; Andrew J. Plantinga; Joel N. Swisher; Jack K. Winjum

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: Methods are described for evaluating economic and carbon storage aspects of tree planting projects (e.g., plantations for restoration, roundwood, bioenergy, and nonwood products). Total carbon (C) stock is dynamic and comprises C in vegetation, decomposing matter, soil, products, and fuel substituted. An alternative (reference) case is...

  2. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    SciTech Connect

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-08

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the 'Houghton' bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  3. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009

    DOE PAGES

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; ...

    2016-07-08

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the 'Houghton' bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and Southmore » Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%–40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%–25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990–2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.« less

  4. Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, Leonardo; Canadell, Josep G.; Patra, Prabir; Ciais, Philippe; Ichii, Kazuhito; Tian, Hanqin; Kondo, Masayuki; Piao, Shilong; Arneth, Almut; Harper, Anna B.; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charlie; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Vivoy, Nicolas; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    We present a synthesis of the land-atmosphere carbon flux from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Asia using multiple data sources and paying particular attention to deforestation and forest regrowth fluxes. The data sources are quasi-independent and include the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization-Forest Resource Assessment (FAO-FRA 2015; country-level inventory estimates), the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3), the ‘Houghton’ bookkeeping model that incorporates FAO-FRA data, an ensemble of 8 state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), and 2 recently published independent studies using primarily remote sensing techniques. The estimates are aggregated spatially to Southeast, East, and South Asia and temporally for three decades, 1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Since 1980, net carbon emissions from LULCC in Asia were responsible for 20%-40% of global LULCC emissions, with emissions from Southeast Asia alone accounting for 15%-25% of global LULCC emissions during the same period. In the 2000s and for all Asia, three estimates (FAO-FRA, DGVM, Houghton) were in agreement of a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with mean estimates ranging between 0.24 to 0.41 Pg C yr-1, whereas EDGARv4.3 suggested a net carbon sink of -0.17 Pg C yr-1. Three of 4 estimates suggest that LULCC carbon emissions declined by at least 34% in the preceding decade (1990-2000). Spread in the estimates is due to the inclusion of different flux components and their treatments, showing the importance to include emissions from carbon rich peatlands and land management, such as shifting cultivation and wood harvesting, which appear to be consistently underreported.

  5. Satellite-driven estimation of terrestrial carbon flux over Far East Asia with 30-second grid resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Nasahara, K. N.; Ito, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Hirata, R.; Ichii, K.; Takagi, K.; Saitoh, T. M.; Ohta, T.; Murakami, K.; Oikawa, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by local natural phenomena and local human-induced activities that alter carbon exchange via vegetation and soil activities. In order to accurately understand terrestrial carbon cycle mechanisms, it is necessary to estimate spatial and temporal variations in carbon flux and storage using process-based models with the highest possible resolution. We estimated terrestrial carbon fluxes using the biosphere model integrating eco-physiological and mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) and satellite observations with 30-second grid resolution. The study area is the central Far East Asia region, which lies between 30 degree and 50 degree north latitude and 125 degree and 150 degree east longitude. Aiming to simulate terrestrial carbon exchanges under realistic land surface conditions, we applied as many satellite-observation means as possible, such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products. Validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), net radiation and latent heat with ground measurements at six flux sites, the model estimations showed reasonable seasonal and annual patterns. In extensive analysis, total amounts of GPP and NPP were determined to be 2.1 PgC/year and 0.9 PgC/year. The total NEP estimate was +5.6 TgC/year, meaning that the land area played a role as a carbon sink for these six years. In analyses of areas with complicated topography, the 30-second grid estimation could prove to be an effective product to evaluate the effect of landscape on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The method presented here is an appropriate approach to gain a better understanding of terrestrial carbon exchange, both spatially and temporally.

  6. Annual Report: Carbon Storage (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar, Brian; Guthrie, George

    2013-11-07

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  7. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2002-01-01

    Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 rnillion/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges From 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in...

  8. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng

    2011-09-26

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  9. Carbon materials for chemical capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

    2011-11-09

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High hydrogen storage capacity of porous carbons prepared by using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanlei; Gao, Qiuming; Hu, Juan

    2009-05-27

    A kind of activated carbon with further carbon dioxide and potassium hydroxide activations for hydrogen storage was investigated. The carbon dioxide and potassium hydroxide activations have apparently different effects on the pore structures and textures of the activated carbon which closely associated with the hydrogen storage properties. The potassium hydroxide activation can remarkably donate microporosity to the frameworks of the activated carbon. One of the resultant porous carbons exhibited a high surface area of up to 3190 m(2) g(-1) and large gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of 7.08 wt % at 77 K and 20 bar, which is one of the largest data reported for the porous carbon materials. This result suggests that the porous carbon with large amounts of active sites, high surface area, and high micropore volume related to optimum pore size could achieve high gravimetric hydrogen storage.

  11. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  12. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  13. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  14. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Hydrogen storage using carbon adsorbents: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, A. C.; Heben, M. J.

    2001-03-01

    Interest in hydrogen as a fuel has grown dramatically since 1990, and many advances in hydrogen production and utilization technologies have been made. However, hydrogen storage technologies must be significantly advanced if a hydrogen based energy system, particularly in the transportation sector, is to be established. Hydrogen can be made available on-board vehicles in containers of compressed or liquefied H2, in metal hydrides, via chemical storage or by gas-on-solid adsorption. Although each method possesses desirable characteristics, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. Gas-on-solid adsorption is an inherently safe and potentially high energy density hydrogen storage method that could be extremely energy efficient. Consequently, the hydrogen storage properties of high surface area ``activated'' carbons have been extensively studied. However, activated carbons are ineffective in storing hydrogen because only a small fraction of the pores in the typically wide pore-size distribution are small enough to interact strongly with hydrogen molecules at room temperatures and moderate pressures. Recently, many new carbon nanostructured absorbents have been produced including graphite nanofibers and carbon multi-wall and single-wall nanotubes. The following review provides a brief history of the hydrogen adsorption studies on activated carbons and comments on the recent experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrogen adsorption properties of the new nanostructured carbon materials.

  16. On carbon dioxide storage based on biomineralization strategies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Park, Seung-Bin; Jeong, Soon-Kwan; Lim, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Si-Hyun; Trachtenberg, Michael C

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the separation and storage of the global warming greenhouse gas CO(2), and the use of natural biocatalysts in the development of technologies to improve CO(2) storage rates and provide new methods for CO(2) capture. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has recently been used as a biocatalyst to sequester CO(2) through the conversion of CO(2) to HCO(-) in the mineralization of CaCO(3). Biomimetic CaCO(3) mineralization for carbon capture and storage offers potential as a stable CO(2) capture technology. In this report, we review recent developments in this field and assess disadvantages and improvements in the use of CA in industrial applications. We discuss the contribution that understanding of mechanisms of CO(2) conversion to CO(3)(-) in the formation and regeneration of bivalve shells will make to developments in biomimetic CO(2) storage.

  17. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  18. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in δ13C-WSOC. This is

  19. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  20. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  1. Enhancement in hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes under modified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumik; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the hydrogen adsorbing characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through fundamental molecular dynamics simulations that characterize the role of ambient pressure and temperature, the presence of surface charges on the CNTs, inclusion of metal ion interconnects, and nanocapillary effects. While the literature suggests that hydrogen spillover due to the presence of metallic contaminants enhances storage on and inside the nanotubes, we find this to be significant for alkali and not transition metals. Charging the CNT surfaces does not significantly enhance hydrogen storage. We find that the bulk of the hydrogen storage occurs inside CNTs due to their nanocapillarity effect. Storage is much more dependent on external thermodynamic conditions such as the temperature and the pressure than on these facets of the CNT structure. The dependence of storage on the external thermodynamic conditions is analyzed and the optimal range of operating conditions is identified.

  2. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Crane, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 million/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges from 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in Jersey City, NJ. Regions with the greatest proportion of urban land are the Northeast (8.5%) and the southeast (7.1%). Urban forests in the north central, northeast, south central and southeast regions of the USA store and sequester the most carbon, with average carbon storage per hectare greatest in southeast, north central, northeast and Pacific northwest regions, respectively. The national average urban forest carbon storage density is 25.1 tC/ha, compared with 53.5 tC/ha in forest stands. These data can be used to help assess the actual and potential role of urban forests in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas.

  3. Carbon stock and its responses to climate change in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofan; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Maisupova, Bagila; Madaminov, Abdullo A; Han, Qifei; Djenbaev, Bekmamat M

    2015-05-01

    Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 10(6) km(2) and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples) and process-based modeling approaches. The results showed that the C stock in Central Asia was 31.34-34.16 Pg in the top 1-m soil with another 10.42-11.43 Pg stored in deep soil (1-3 m) of the temperate deserts. They amounted to 18-24% of the global C stock in deserts and dry shrublands. The C stock was comparable to that of the neighboring regions in Eurasia or major drylands around the world (e.g. Australia). However, 90% of Central Asia C pool was stored in soil, and the fraction was much higher than in other regions. Compared to hot deserts of the world, the temperate deserts in Central Asia had relatively high soil organic carbon density. The C stock in Central Asia is under threat from dramatic climate change. During a decadal drought between 1998 and 2008, which was possibly related to protracted La Niña episodes, the dryland lost approximately 0.46 Pg C from 1979 to 2011. The largest C losses were found in northern Kazakhstan, where annual precipitation declined at a rate of 90 mm decade(-1) . The regional C dynamics were mainly determined by changes in the vegetation C pool, and the SOC pool was stable due to the balance between reduced plant-derived C influx and inhibited respiration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Varela, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

  5. Storage of Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Human Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown that urban areas have carbon density comparable with tropical forest. Carbon density of urban areas may be even higher, because the density of organic carbon only was taking into account. Human settlements store carbon in two forms such as organic and inorganic. Carbon is stored in organic form in living biomass such as trees, grasses or in artifacts derived from biomass such as wooden furniture, building structures, paper, clothes and shoes made from natural materials. Inorganic carbon or fossil carbon, meanwhile, is primarily stored in objects fabricated by people like concrete, plastic, asphalt, and bricks. The key difference between organic and inorganic forms of carbon is how they return to the gaseous state. Organic carbon can be returned to the atmosphere without applying additional artificial energy through decomposition of organic matter, whereas energy input such as burning is needed to release inorganic carbon. In this study I compare inorganic with organic carbon storage, discuss their carbon residence time, decomposition rates, and possible implications for carbon emissions.

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A comparative assessment of the financial costs and carbon benefits of REDD+ strategies in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; McGregor, Andrew; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    REDD+ holds potential for mitigating emissions from tropical forest loss by providing financial incentives for carbon stored in forests, but its economic viability is under scrutiny. The primary narrative raised in the literature is that REDD+ will be of limited utility for reducing forest carbon loss in Southeast Asia, while the level of finance committed falls short of profits from alternative land-use activities in the region, including large-scale timber and oil palm operations. Here we assess the financial costs and carbon benefits of various REDD+ strategies deployed in the region. We find the cost of reducing emissions ranges from 9 to 75 per tonne of avoided carbon emissions. The strategies focused on reducing forest degradation and promoting forest regrowth are the most cost-effective ways of reducing emissions and used in over 60% of REDD+ projects. By comparing the financial costs and carbon benefits of a broader range of strategies than previously assessed, we highlight the variation between different strategies and draw attention to opportunities where REDD+ can achieve maximum carbon benefits cost-effectively. These findings have broad policy implications for Southeast Asia. Until carbon finance escalates, emissions reductions can be maximized from reforestation, reduced-impact logging and investing in improved management of protected areas. Targeting cost-efficient opportunities for REDD+ is important to improve the efficiency of national REDD+ policy, which in-turn fosters greater financial and political support for the scheme.

  8. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  9. Lithium storage mechanism in nongraphitizable carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Aisaku; Ishikawa, Minoru; Masuko, Jiro; Sonobe, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Takao; Chuman, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    A nongraphitizable carbon prepared from the cross-linked petroleum pitch and carbonized at 1,473 K was found to have a unique structure and a charge capacity of more than 600 Ah/kg. A main peak of the {sup 7}Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra of the charged carbon shifted downfield with an increase of charge capacity. A Knight shift of lithium in the carbon charged to 600 Ah/kg reached 110 ppm when LiCl was used as the reference of 0 ppm. This shift was clearly distinguished from that of the lithium state in the first stage of the graphite intercalation compound, because the latter was observed at 45 ppm. A modified extended Huekel molecular orbital calculation showed that the average net electron density on lithium atoms drastically increased with increasing concentration of lithium atoms if the aromatic molecular planes are more than 0.5 nm apart. Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that lithium atoms form clusters in this nongraphitizable carbon.

  10. Can intensive management increase carbon storage in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.

    1991-01-01

    A possible response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is to attempt to increase the amount of carbon stored in terrestrial vegetation. One approach to increasing the size of the terrestrial carbon sink is to increase the growth of forests by utilizing intensive forest management practices. The paper uses data from the literature and from forest growth and yield models to analyze the impact of three management practices on carbon storage: thinning, fertilization, and control of competing vegetation. Using Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) as example species, results showed that thinning generally does not increase carbon storage, and may actually cause a decrease. The exception is thinning of very dense young stands.

  11. Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon (GOSAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J C

    2002-04-02

    GOSAC was an EC-funded project (1998-2001) focused on improving the predictive capacity and accelerating development of global-scale, three-dimensional, ocean carbon-cycle models by means of standardized model evaluation and model intercomparison. Through the EC Environment and Climate Programme, GOSAC supported the participation of seven European modeling groups in the second phase of the larger international effort OCMIP (the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project). OCMIP included model comparison and validation for both CO{sub 2} and other ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers. Beyond the international OCMIP effort, GOSAC also supported the same EC ocean carbon cycle modeling groups to make simulations to evaluate the efficiency of purposeful sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean. Such sequestration, below the thermocline has been proposed as a strategy to help mitigate the increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Some technical and scientific highlights of GOSAC are given.

  12. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  13. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  14. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  15. Impacts of Geological Variability on Carbon Storage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, Jordan Kaelin

    The changes to the environment caused by anthropogenic climate change pose major challenges for energy production in the next century. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a group of technologies that would permit the continued use of carbon-intense fuels such as coal for energy production while avoiding further impact on the global climate system. The mechanism most often proposed for storage is injection of CO2 below the surface of the Earth in geological media, with the most promising option for CO2 reservoirs being deep saline aquifers (DSA's). Unlike oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers are poorly characterized and the variability in their properties is large enough to have a high impact on the overall physical and economic viability of CCS. Storage in saline aquifers is likely to be a very high-capacity resource, but its economic viability is almost unknown. We consider the impact of geological variability on the total viability of the CO 2 storage system from several perspectives. First, we examine the theoretical range of costs of storage by coupling a physical and economic model of CO 2 storage with a range of possible geological settings. With the relevant properties of rock extending over several orders of magnitude, it is not surprising that we find costs and storage potential ranging over several orders of magnitude. Second, we use georeferenced data to evaluate the spatial distribution of cost and capacity. When paired together to build a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC), this cost and capacity data indicates that low cost and high capacity are collocated; storage in these promising areas is likely to be quite viable but may not be available to all CO2 sources. However, when we continue to explore the impact of geological variability on realistic, commercial-scale site sizes by invoking capacity and pressure management constraints, we find that the distribution costs and footprints of these sites may be prohibitively high. The combination

  16. The global potential for carbon capture and storage from forestry.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yuanming; Eskeland, Gunnar S; Giske, Jarl; Hansen, Jan-Petter

    2016-12-01

    Discussions about limiting anthropogenic emissions of CO[Formula: see text] often focus on transition to renewable energy sources and on carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO[Formula: see text]. The potential contributions from forests, forest products and other low-tech strategies are less frequently discussed. Here we develop a new simulation model to assess the global carbon content in forests and apply the model to study active annual carbon harvest 100 years into the future. The numerical experiments show that under a hypothetical scenario of globally sustainable forestry the world's forests could provide a large carbon sink, about one gigatonne per year, due to enhancement of carbon stock in tree biomass. In addition, a large amount of wood, 11.5 GT of carbon per year, could be extracted for reducing CO[Formula: see text] emissions by substitution of wood for fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that carbon harvest from forests and carbon storage in living forests have a significant potential for CCS on a global scale.

  17. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources. Its data and results are reported in three publications: the assessment data publication (this report), the assessment results publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a, USGS Circular 1386), and the assessment summary publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013b, USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3020). This data publication supports the results publication and contains (1) individual storage assessment unit (SAU) input data forms with all input parameters and details on the allocation of the SAU surface land area by State and general land-ownership category; (2) figures representing the distribution of all storage classes for each SAU; (3) a table containing most input data and assessment result values for each SAU; and (4) a pairwise correlation matrix specifying geological and methodological dependencies between SAUs that are needed for aggregation of results.

  18. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  19. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  20. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  1. Spatial patterns in carbon storage in a lake states' landscape

    Treesearch

    J. C. Bell; D. F. Grigal; P. C. Bates; C. A. Butler

    1996-01-01

    We estimated total organic carbon storage (C -- kg m-2) in biomass, forest floor, and soil for a gently undulating glacial outwash landscape in east-central Minnesota (45° 25'N, 93° 10'W). Abandoned agricultural tracts are common, and nearly 40 percent of the area is wet mineral or organic soil. Quantitative models...

  2. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  3. Decadal Anthropogenic Carbon Storage Along P16 and P02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Talley, L. D.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Siedlecki, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Ocean has the largest ocean basin anthropogenic carbon (Canth) inventory due to the large size of the basin. We estimate anthropogenic carbon (Canth) concentrations and decadal storages along the meridional P16 and zonal P02 lines since the mid 90s using a modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (EMLR) technique with data from the WOCE, CLIVAR, and GO-SHIP occupations of these lines. We present our estimates and map the aragonite saturation state (ΩA) decreases and saturation horizon shoaling resulting from continued Canth storage. The average storage rate was larger along both sections during the most recent decade (2000's to 2010's) than during the previous decade (1990's to 2000's), especially along P02. Significant decadal concentration increases were found in the mixed layers, shallow thermoclines, mode waters, and portions of the intermediate water masses.

  4. Carbon nanoscrolls: a promising material for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Froudakis, George E

    2007-07-01

    A multiscale theoretical approach was used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in the recently synthesized carbon nanoscrolls. First, ab initio calculations at the density functional level of theory (DFT) were performed in order to (a) calculate the binding energy of H2 molecules at the walls of nanoscrolls and (b) fit the parameters of the interatomic potential used in Monte Carlo simulations. Second, classical Monte Carlo simulations were performed for estimating the H2 storage capacity of "experimental size" nanoscrolls containing thousands of atoms. Our results show that pure carbon nanoscrolls cannot accumulate hydrogen because the interlayer distance is too small. However, an opening of the spiral structure to approximately 7 A followed by alkali doping can make them very promising materials for hydrogen storage application, reaching 3 wt % at ambient temperature and pressure.

  5. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  6. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  7. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  8. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Morrison, Robert L.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  9. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  10. Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Daniel P

    2009-09-25

    The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely.

  11. Sensitivity of global and regional terrestrial carbon storage to the direct CO2 effect and climate change based on the CMIP5 model intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04 PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics.

  12. Sensitivity of Global and Regional Terrestrial Carbon Storage to the Direct CO2 Effect and Climate Change Based on the CMIP5 Model Intercomparison

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics. PMID:24748331

  13. Aerosol Absorption by Black Carbon and Dust: Implications of Climate Change and Air Quality in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the global model GOCART to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources. We show the seasonal and interannual variations of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere over Asia, mainly black carbon and dust. and their linkage to the changes of anthropogenic and dust emissions in the region. We compare our results with observations from satellite and ground-based networks, and estimate the importance of black carbon and dust on regional climate forcing and air quality.

  14. Aerosol Absorption by Black Carbon and Dust: Implications of Climate Change and Air Quality in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the global model GOCART to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources. We show the seasonal and interannual variations of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere over Asia, mainly black carbon and dust. and their linkage to the changes of anthropogenic and dust emissions in the region. We compare our results with observations from satellite and ground-based networks, and estimate the importance of black carbon and dust on regional climate forcing and air quality.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  16. Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Todd-Brown, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    The size of the terrestrial sink remains uncertain. This uncertainty presents a challenge for projecting future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Terrestrial carbon storage is dependent on the availability of nitrogen for plant growth, and nitrogen limitation is increasingly included in global models. Widespread phosphorus limitation in terrestrial ecosystems may also strongly regulate the global carbon cycle, but explicit considerations of phosphorus limitation in global models are uncommon. Here we use global state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate model projections of terrestrial net primary productivity and carbon storage from 1860-2100 estimates of annual new nutrient inputs from deposition, nitrogen fixation, and weathering; and estimates of carbon allocation and stoichiometry to evaluate how simulated CO2 fertilization effects could be constrained by nutrient availability. We find that the nutrients required for the projected increases in net primary productivity greatly exceed estimated nutrient supply rates, suggesting that projected productivity increases may be unrealistically high. Accounting for nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus limitation lowers projected end-of-century estimates of net primary productivity by 19% and 25%, respectively, and turns the land surface into a net source of CO2 by 2100. We conclude that potential effects of nutrient limitation must be considered in estimates of the terrestrial carbon sink strength through the twenty-first century.

  17. How Bedrock Nitrogen Influences Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, C.; Mitchell, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how trees, specifically Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) responds at sites with high amounts of nitrogen (N) from rocks. In forests where Douglas firs are found, their growth is usually limited by the amount of N available to them. By providing the trees with more N from the rocks, the trees can consume more carbon (C) from the atmosphere. This explores carbon sequestration, capturing C from the atmosphere in the biomass of the trees and reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. My hypothesis is that trees with access to more N from the rocks, which acts like a fertilizer, will be larger and capture more C from the atmosphere storing it as biomass. We will be collecting measurements from 12 sites in northern California. The sites range from 60 to 1000 parts per million (ppm) of N in the rocks. We will use the diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements to calculate the leaf area index (LAI), which tells us how much C the trees are holding per acre. Contributing to the research will also be the counting tree rings which indicate the age of trees, so we may also see if trees are able to see if trees with more N are growing more annually. The larger amount of N taken from the bedrock resulted in more CO2 taken from the atmosphere as biomass. This resulted in more photosynthetic vegetation per unit area which means the trees are more productive. Carbon stored at these sites helps to slow the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2.

  18. [Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and its potential role to mitigate carbon emission in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Wu, Zong-Xin; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been widely recognized as one of the options to mitigate carbon emission to eventually stabilize carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Three parts of CCS, which are carbon capture, transport, and storage are assessed in this paper, covering comparisons of techno-economic parameters for different carbon capture technologies, comparisons of storage mechanism, capacity and cost for various storage formations, and etc. In addition, the role of CCS to mitigate global carbon emission is introduced. Finally, China MARKAL model is updated to include various CCS technologies, especially indirect coal liquefaction and poly-generation technologies with CCS, in order to consider carbon emission reduction as well as energy security issue. The model is used to generate different scenarios to study potential role of CCS to mitigate carbon emissions by 2050 in China. It is concluded that application of CCS can decrease marginal abatement cost and the decrease rate can reach 45% for the emission reduction rate of 50%, and it can lessen the dependence on nuclear power development for stringent carbon constrains. Moreover, coal resources can be cleanly used for longer time with CCS, e.g., for the scenario C70, coal share in the primary energy consumption by 2050 will increase from 10% when without CCS to 30% when with CCS. Therefore, China should pay attention to CCS R&D activities and to developing demonstration projects.

  19. A Meta-analysis of Timber Harvest and Site Preparation Effects on Soil Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, L. E.; Swanston, C. S.; Vance, E. D.; Curtis, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Management practices can dramatically alter soil carbon (C) storage in forests. Timber harvesting and site preparation are a widely employed and studied form of forest management, yet abundant experimental data from this area of research have not recently been synthesized. We are using meta-analysis to test a database developed from 86 studies with published soil C storage values for paired harvested and un- harvested forests, in order to identify how timber harvesting and site preparation affect soil C pool sizes. Most of the studies in the database are from coniferous or hardwood forests of the continental United States, although temperate forests of Asia, Australia, Canada, and Europe also are represented. We have identified factors that influence soil C responses to harvest at global to regional scales, and estimated soil C storage shifts in pools of different vulnerability. At the global scale, soil C storage changes due to harvest differ according to soil horizon, soil taxonomic order, and species composition. Within soil types and at regional scales, climate, species composition, and harvest and site preparation methods appear to have more significant effects on forest soil C storage. At all spatial scales, forest floors and surface mineral soils show different levels of vulnerability to C loss or increase, highlighting the importance of constraining turnover times for C incorporated into these two soil pools as efforts to model the C cycle improve. As part of a larger effort to understand how soil C pools are impacted by management and global change, our meta-analysis identifies opportunities for increased soil C storage, situations where soil C losses are highly probable, and areas requiring improved understanding of mechanisms of forest soil C accumulation and loss.

  20. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Takao

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  1. Relationships among carbon inputs, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil carbon storage in a monoculture corn ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M. J.; Brown, K.; Hofmockel, K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon inputs are positively associated with soil organic carbon storage. Soil organic carbon can be stored in relatively stable pools through: silt + clay association and aggregation. Current models predict that the proportion of new carbon inputs that can be stabilized by silt + clay and aggregates decreases in proportion to the amount of organic matter already present in the fraction. Accordingly, as the capacity to stabilize organic matter approaches zero (full capacity), the efficiency of organic matter stabilization decreases and a greater proportion of organic matter inputs is respired as CO2 or accumulate as litter or easily mineralizable particulate organic matter. The organic matter storage capacity of silt + clay particles is a function of soil texture and mineralogy whereas aggregate storage capacity is also affected by biological factors such as mycorrhizae abundance. We explored relationships among net primary production (carbon inputs), mycorrhizae, and soil organic matter storage in a long-term monoculture corn ecosystem. Replicated plots of corn were grown with one of five nitrogen fertilizer input rates (0-228 kg ha-1 h-y) to impart differences in net primary productivity. The fertilizer rates had no effect on soil C/N ratio. However, the fertilizer rate was positively associated with mycorrhizae abundance and soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increases were the result of an increase in soil aggregate-protected carbon only; silt + clay associated carbon did not differ with fertilizer rate. These results are inconsistent with models that predict aggregate and silt + clay pools reach capacity at similar rates. A positive correlation among soil carbon stored in aggregates and mycorrhizae helps to explain this result.

  2. Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Five Different Arctic Permafrost Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, M.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Maximov, G.; Strauss, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic river deltas and ice-rich permafrost regions are highly dynamic environments which will be strongly affected by future climate change. Rapid thaw of permafrost (thermokarst and thermo-erosion) may cause significant mobilization of organic carbon, which is assumed to be stored in large amounts in Arctic river deltas and ice-rich permafrost. This study presents and compares new data on organic carbon storage in thermokarst landforms and Arctic river delta deposits for the first two meters of soils for five different study areas in Alaska and Siberia. The sites include the Ikpikpuk river delta (North Alaska), Fish Creek river delta (North Alaska), Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (North Alaska), Sobo-Sise Island (Lena river delta, Northeast Siberia), and Bykovsky Peninsula (Northeast Siberia). Samples were taken with a SIPRE auger along transects covering the main geomorphological landscape units in the study regions. Our results show a high variability in soil organic carbon storage among the different study sites. The studied profiles in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area - dominated by drained thermokarst lake basins - contained significantly more carbon than the other areas. The Teshekpuk Lake Special Area contains 44 ± 9 kg C m-2 (0-100 cm, mean value of profiles ± Std dev) compared to 20 ± 7 kg C m-2 kg for Sobo-Sise Island - a Yedoma dominated island intersected by thaw lake basins and 24 ± 6 kg C m-2 for the deltaic dominated areas (Fish Creek and Ikpikpuk). However, especially for the Ikpikpuk river delta, a significant amount of carbon (25 ± 9 kg C m-2) is stored in the second meter of soil (100-200cm). This study shows the importance of including deltaic and thermokarst-affected landscapes as considerable carbon pools, but indicates that these areas are heterogeneous in terms of organic carbon storage and cannot be generalized. As a next step, the site-level carbon stocks will be upscaled to the landscape level using remote sensing-based land cover

  3. Elemental Carbon in Highly Polluted Urban Fog in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Khan, A. J.; Khan, A. R.; Ghauri, B. M.; Mirza, M. I.; Husain, L.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1998 severe winter fogs frequently occurred in Northeastern Pakistan and India. These fogs were closely related to the heavy load of aerosols and gases in the atmosphere due to the increasing emissions by the rapid industrialization in this region. In this study, aerosol data including elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), sulfate and trace element concentrations were determined during two particularly severe fog periods at Lahore, Pakistan. In the first episode, TSP samples were collected on Whatmann 41 filters with high-volume samplers every 12 hour during and after a heavy fog event from January 1 to 5, 1999. A technique had been developed to transfer EC to quartz filter without loss for analysis with thermal-optical method. High EC concentrations were found up to 25μg/m3. Extremely high sulfate concentration was found, up to 100μg/m3. The SO4/Se ratio and trace element factor analysis suggested sulfate were formed from a distant source of hundreds of kilometers away. In the second episode, TSP samples were collected on quartz filters in 6-hour (daytime) and 12-hour (nighttime) intervals for both EC and OC measurements during December 25-31, 1999 with different fog types (very light, light, medium and heavy) and without fog. High EC and OC concentrations ranging in 10 to 25μg/m3 and 100 to 300μg/m3 were observed. EC and OC had a high correlation with stable EC/OC ratios within 8 to 16%, which suggested EC and OC in aerosols were from the same source. High sulfate concentrations were also observed, 25 to 55μg/m3. The SO4/Se ratio and trace element factor analysis also suggested sulfate were formed during the fog period. Particularly, SO4/EC ratios had a very strong relation with fog types and sunlight strength. In daytime, the ratio obviously increased with sunlight strength, and significantly changed with and without fog. In nighttime, the ratio generally increased with fog density. Compared to sulfate profile, SO4/EC ratio could show photochemical

  4. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  6. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawai‘i

    Treesearch

    P.C. Selmants; C.P. Giardina; J.D. Jacobi; Zhiliang  Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Hawaii is unique among the United States because of its tropical climate, geographic isolation, high rates of species endemism and discontinuous land mass. The year-round warm, wet climate on the windward sides of islands and the high fertility of relatively young volcanically derived soils are ideal conditions for carbon input, storage and carbon sequestration in...

  7. Multi-tracer atmospheric inversion of Equatorial Asia fire carbon emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Ciais, P.; Chevallier, F.; van der Werf, G.; Fanin, T.; Broquet, G.; Boesch, H.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Szopa, S.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Equatorial Asia tropical peatlands hold about 70 Pg of organic carbon, a large pool comparable to the forest biomass of the Amazon. Abnormally large fires occur during El Niño droughts, causing negative health, ecological, and economic impacts. Bottom-up fire emission estimates of tropical peat fire are associated with large uncertainty given the difficulty in peat fire detection and the uncertainty in fuel consumption and burning depth estimation. Here, using a 4D-var atmospheric inversion of multiple combustion tracers, namely CH4, CO, and CH2O, we quantify the variability of fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia over the last decade and analyze its correlation with ENSO. Based on future climate projections from CMIP5 and an exponential empirical relationship found between fire carbon emissions and water deficit, we infer a total fire carbon loss ranging from 12 to 25 Pg by 2100 in the coming decades, which implies a significant positive feedback to future climate warming in the absence of actions to limit peat burning.

  8. Fluvial organic carbon losses from oil palm plantations on tropical peat, Sarawak, Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Sarah; Page, Susan; Evans, Chris; Whelan, Mick; Gauci, Vincent; Lip Khoon, Kho

    2017-04-01

    Tropical peatlands are valuable stores of carbon. However, tropical peat swamp forests (TPSFs) in Southeast Asia have increasingly been converted to other land-uses. For example, more than 25% of TPSFs are now under oil palm plantations. This conversion - requiring felling and burning of trees and drainage of the peat - can enhance carbon mineralization, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses and can contribute significantly to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, changing these natural carbon sinks into carbon sources. At present, relatively few scientifically sound studies provide dependable estimates of gaseous and fluvial carbon losses from oil palm plantations or from drained tropical peat in general. Here we present an annual (54 week) estimate of the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in water draining two oil palm estates and nearby stands of TPSF in Sarawak, Malaysia, subjected to varying degrees of past anthropogenic disturbance. Spectrophotometric techniques including SUVA254 (Specific Ultra-Violet Absorption) were used to gain insight into the aromaticity and subsequent bioavailability of the exported DOC. Water draining plantation and deforested land had a higher proportion of labile carbon compared to water draining forested areas. Preliminary data suggest a total fluvial DOC flux from plantations of ca. 190 g C m-2 year-1; nearly three times estimates from intact TPSFs (63 g C m-2 year-1). DOC accounted for between 86 % - 94 % of the total organic carbon lost (most of which was bioavailable). Wit et al. (2015) estimates that an average of 53 % of peat-derived DOC is decomposed and emitted as CO2, on a monthly basis. Based on these estimates our data suggests an additional 101 g CO2 m-2 may be emitted indirectly from fluvial organic carbon in degraded TPSFs per year. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of including fluvial organic carbon fluxes when quantifying the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the

  9. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Priyanka; Banerjee, Seemita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, 13C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp2 hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ˜ 10 kJ mol-1at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and hydrogen storage studies on porous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ruz, Priyanka Banerjee, Seemita; Sudarsan, V.; Pandey, M.

    2015-06-24

    Porous carbon sample has been prepared, using zeolite-Y as template followed by annealing at 800°C, with view to estimate the extent of hydrogen storage by the sample. Based on XRD, {sup 13}C MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopic studies it is confirmed that the porous Carbon sample contains only sp{sup 2} hybridized carbon. The hydrogen sorption isotherms have been recorded for the sample at 273, 223K and 123K and the maximum hydrogen absorption capacity is found to be 1.47wt% at 123K. The interaction energy of hydrogen with the carbon framework was determined to be ∼ 10 kJ mol{sup −1}at lower hydrogen uptake and gradually decreases with increase in hydrogen loading.

  11. Electrochemical hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotube paper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z P; Ng, S H; Wang, J Z; Huang, Z G; Liu, H K; Too, C O; Wallace, G G

    2006-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) papers were successfully prepared by dispersing SWNTs in Triton X-100 solution, then filtered by PVDF membrane (0.22 microm pore size). The electrochemical behavior and the reversible hydrogen storage capacity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) papers have been investigated in alkaline electrolytic solutions (6 N KOH) by cyclic voltammetry, linear micropolarization, and constant current charge/discharge measurements. The effect of thickness and the addition of carbon black on hydrogen adsorption/desorption were also investigated. It was found that the electrochemical charge-discharge mechanism occurring in SWNT paper electrodes is somewhere between that of carbon nanotubes (physical process) and that of metal hydride electrodes (chemical process), and consists of a charge-transfer reaction (Reduction/Oxidation) and a diffusion step (Diffusion).

  12. Multi model and data analysis of terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia: From 2001 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Ueyama, M.; Sasai, T.; Hirata, R.; Saigusa, N.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate monitoring and modeling of the current status and their causes of interannual variations in terrestrial carbon cycle are important. Recently, many studies analyze using multiple methods (e.g. satellite data and ecosystem models) to clarify the underlain mechanisms and recent trend since each single methodology contains its own biases. The multi-model and data ensemble approach is a powerful method to clarify the current status and their underlain mechanisms. So far, many studies using multiple sources of data and models are conducted in North America, Europe, Africa, Amazon, and Japan, however, studies in monsoon Asia are lacking. In this study, we analyzed interannual variations in terrestrial carbon cycles in monsoon Asia, and evaluated current capability of remote sensing and ecosystem model to capture them based on multiple model and data sources; flux observations, remote sensing (e.g. MODIS, AVHRR, and VGT), and ecosystem models (e.g. SVM, BEAMS, CASA, Biome-BGC, LPJ, and TRIFFID). The satellite observation and ecosystem models show clear characteristics in interannual variabilities in satellite-based NDVI and model-based GPP. These are characterized by (1) spring NDVI and modeled GPP anomalies related to temperature anomaly in mid and high latitudinal areas (positive anomalies in 2002 and 2005 and negative one in 2006), (2) NDVI and GPP anomalies in southeastern and central Asia related to precipitation (e.g. India from 2003-2006), and (3) summer NDVI and GPP anomalies in 2003 related to strong anomalies in solar radiations. NDVI anomalies related to radiation ones (2003 summer) were not accurately captured by terrestrial ecosystem models. For example, LPJ model rather shows GPP positive anomalies in Far East Asia regions probably caused by positive precipitation anomalies. Further analysis requires improvement of models to reproduce more consistent spatial patterns in NDVI anomaly, and longer term analysis (e.g. after 1982).

  13. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  14. Landscape configuration modulates carbon storage in seagrass sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricart, Aurora M.; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has increased interest in seagrass systems as natural carbon sinks and recent studies have estimated the carbon stocks associated with seagrass meadows. However, the factors that affect their variability remain poorly understood. This paper assesses how landscape-level attributes (patch size and matrix composition) influence carbon storage in seagrass sediments. We quantified the organic carbon (Corg) content and other geochemical properties (δ13C and particle size) in surface sediments of continuous Posidonia oceanica meadows, patchy meadows interspersed with rocky-algal reefs and patchy meadows on sedimentary bottoms. We also took samples of potential carbon sources for isotopic composition determination. Our results indicate that the continuous meadows accumulated larger amounts of Corg than patchy meadows, whether embedded in a rock or sand matrix. The Corg from continuous meadows was also more 13C enriched, which suggests that a high proportion of the carbon was derived from plant material (autochthonous sources); in contrast in patchy meadows (especially in a sand matrix), lower δ13C values indicated a higher contribution from allochthonous sources (mainly suspended particulate organic matter, SPOM). These findings suggest that the sediment of continuous meadows stores more Corg in than that of patchy meadows. This is probably due to the increased contribution from seagrass leaves, which are much more refractory than SPOM. In general, certain landscape configurations, and especially patchiness, appear to reduce the carbon storage capacity of seagrasses. Since the current decline of seagrass is leading to habitat fragmentation, our results increase the argument for the promotion of effective measures to preserve the integrity of these natural carbon sinks.

  15. Does increasing rotation length lead to greater forest carbon storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Mikaelian, M. T.; Colombo, S. J.; Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Forest management is a key factor affecting climate change mitigation by forests. Increasing the age of harvesting (also referred to as rotation length) is a management practice that has been proposed as a means of increasing forest carbon sequestration and storage. However, studies of the effects of increasing harvest age on forest carbon stocks have mostly been limited to forest plantations. In contrast, this study assesses the effects of increased harvest age of managed natural forests of Ontario (Canada) at two scales. At the stand level, we assess merchantable volume yield curves to differentiate those for which increasing the age of harvest results in an increase in total forest carbon stocks versus those for which increased harvest age reduces carbon stocks. The stand level results are then applied to forest landscapes to demonstrate that the effect of increasing the age of harvest on forest carbon storage is specific to the forest growth rates for a given forest landscape and depends on the average age at which forests are harvested under current (business-as-usual) management practice. We discuss the implications of these results for forest management aimed at mitigating climate change.

  16. Mineral Availability as a Key Regulator of Soil Carbon Storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanghui; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Shuijin; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Zhao, Fangjie; McGrath, Steve P; Li, Huan; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-05-02

    Mineral binding is a major mechanism for soil carbon (C) stabilization, and mineral availability for C binding critically affects C storage. Yet, the mechanisms regulating mineral availability are poorly understood. Here, we showed that organic amendments in three long-term (23, 154, and 170 yrs, respectively) field experiments significantly increased mineral availability, particularly of short-range-ordered (SRO) phases. Two microcosm studies demonstrated that the presence of roots significantly increased mineral availability and promoted the formation of SRO phases. Mineral transformation experiments and isotopic labeling experiments provided direct evidence that citric acid, a major component of root exudates, promoted the formation of SRO minerals, and that SRO minerals acted as "nuclei" for C retention. Together, these findings indicate that soil organic amendments initialize a positive feedback loop by increasing mineral availability and promoting the formation of SRO minerals for further C binding, thereby possibly serving as a management tool for enhancing carbon storage in soils.

  17. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389

  18. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  19. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  20. [Effects of climate change on forest soil organic carbon storage: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Cheng-yi; Guo, Guang-fen

    2010-07-01

    Forest soil organic carbon is an important component of global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition directly affect terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and global carbon balance. Climate change would affect the photosynthesis of forest vegetation and the decomposition and transformation of forest soil organic carbon, and further, affect the storage and dynamics of organic carbon in forest soils. Temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and other climatic factors all have important influences on the forest soil organic carbon storage. Understanding the effects of climate change on this storage is helpful to the scientific management of forest carbon sink, and to the feasible options for climate change mitigation. This paper summarized the research progress about the distribution of organic carbon storage in forest soils, and the effects of elevated temperature, precipitation change, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on this storage, with the further research subjects discussed.

  1. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; ...

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  2. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomass can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.

  3. Indicators of carbon storage in U.S. ecosystems: baseline for terrestrial carbon accounting.

    PubMed

    Negra, Christine; Sweedo, Caroline Cremer; Cavender-Bares, Kent; O'Malley, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers, program managers, and landowners need information about net terrestrial carbon sequestration in forests, croplands, grasslands, and shrublands to understand the cumulative effects of carbon trading programs, expanding biofuels production, and changing environmental conditions in addition to agricultural and forestry uses. Objective information systems that establish credible baselines and track changes in carbon storage can provide the accountability needed for carbon trading programs to achieve durable carbon sequestration and for biofuels initiatives to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. A multi-sector stakeholder design process was used to produce a new indicator for the 2008 State of the Nation's Ecosystems report that presents metrics of carbon storage for major ecosystem types, specifically change in the amount of carbon gained or lost over time and the amount of carbon stored per unit area (carbon density). These metrics have been developed for national scale use, but are suitable for adaptation to multiple scales such as individual farm and forest parcels, carbon offset markets and integrated national and international assessments. To acquire the data necessary for a complete understanding of how much, and where, carbon is gained or lost by U.S. ecosystems, expansion and integration of monitoring programs will be required.

  4. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  5. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    PubMed Central

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-01-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan. PMID:27241616

  6. Fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015 largest since 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, V.; Wooster, M. J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Gaveau, D. L. A.; Flemming, J.; Parrington, M.; Inness, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Main, B.; van Weele, M.

    2016-05-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño. We estimate carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest seen in maritime southeast Asia since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997. Compared to that event, a much better constrained regional total carbon emission estimate can be made for the 2015 fires through the use of present-day satellite observations of the fire’s radiative power output and atmospheric CO concentrations, processed using the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and combined with unique in situ smoke measurements made on Kalimantan.

  7. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  9. [Vegetation carbon storage in Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains].

    PubMed

    Qi, Guang; Wang, Qing-Li; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Qi, Lin; Wang, Qing-Wei; Ye, Yu-Jing; Dai, Li-Min

    2011-02-01

    Through sampling site investigation, this paper studied the carbon storage of arbor, herb, and whole vegetation in 10-, 12-, 15-, 26-, and 61-year old Larix gmelinii plantations in Huzhong Forestry Bureau of Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, and 'temporal for spatial' method was employed to approach the variations of the vegetation carbon storage during the growth of the plantations. The results revealed that the vegetation carbon storage in the plantations increased with stand age, and reached 105.69 t x hm(-2) at age of 61 years, representing a marked role as a carbon sink. The L. gmelinii plantations at the ages from 15 to 26 years had the strongest capability in carbon sequestration, in which, the carbon storage in trunk occupied 54.3% -73.9% of the total carbon storage of arbor, and, with the increase of stand age, the trunk's carbon storage to the total carbon storage of arbor as well as the trunk's carbon density increased. As for the other organs, the rate of their carbon storage to the total carbon storage of arbor decreased with stand age, while their carbon density increased first but eventually leveled off or had a slight decrease till at age of 61 years. Based on these results, the rotation age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains would properly be lengthened to at least 60 years.

  10. [Contribution of tropical upland forests to carbon storage in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Yepes, Adriana; Herrera, Johana; Phillips, Juan; Galindo, Gustavo; Granados, Edwin; Duque, Alvaro; Barbosa, Adriana; Olarte, Claudia; Cardona, María

    2015-03-01

    The tropical montane forests in the Colombian Andean region are located above 1500 m, and have been heavily deforested. Despite the general presumption that productivity and hence carbon stocks in these ecosystems are low, studies in this regard are scarce. This study aimed to (i) to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in forests located in the South of the Colombian Andean region, (ii) to identify the carbon storage potential of tropical montane forests dominated by the black oak Colombobalanus excelsa and to identify the relationship between AGB and altitude, and (iii) to analyze the role of tropical mountain forests in conservation mechanisms such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). Twenty six 0.25 ha plots were randomly distributed in the forests and all trees with D > or =10 cm were measured. The results provided important elements for understanding the role of tropical montane forests as carbon sinks. The information produced can be used in subnational initiatives, which seek to mitigate or reduce the effects of deforestation through management or conservation of these ecosystems, like REDD+ or PES. The AGB and carbon stocks results obtained were similar to those reported for lowland tropical forests. These could be explained by the dominance and abundance of C. excelsa, which accounted for over 81% of AGB/carbon. The error associated with the estimates of AGB/carbon was 10.58%. We found a negative and significant relationship between AGB and altitude, but the higher AGB values were in middle altitudes (approximatly = 700-1800 m), where the environmental conditions could be favorable to their growth. The carbon storage potential of these forests was higher. However, if the historical rate of the deforestation in the study area continues, the gross emissions of CO2e to the atmosphere could turn these forests in to an important emissions source. Nowadays, it is clear that tropical

  11. Historic Land Use and Carbon Estimates for South and Southeast Asia: 1880-1980

    DOE Data Explorer

    Richards, John F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Flint, Elizabeth P. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Daniels, Richard C. [Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    1994-01-01

    This data base contains estimates of land use change and the carbon content of vegetation for South and Southeast Asia for the years 1880, 1920, 1950, 1970, and 1980. These data were originally collected for climate modelers so they could reduce the uncertainty associated with the magnitude and time course of historical land use change and of carbon release. For this data base, South and Southeast Asia is defined as encompassing nearly 8 × 106 km2 of the earth's land surface and includes the countries of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines.The most important change in land use over this 100-year period was the conversion of 107 × 106 ha of forest/woodland to categories with lower biomass. Land thus transformed accounted for 13.5% of the total area of the study region. The estimated total carbon content of live vegetation in South and Southeast Asia has dropped progressively, from 59 × 109 Mg in 1880 to 27 × 109 Mg in 1980. Throughout the study period, the carbon stock in forests was greater than the carbon content in all other categories combined, although its share of the total declined progressively from 81% in 1880 to 73% in 1980. The data base was developed in Lotus 1-2-3TM by using a sequential bookkeeping model. The source data were obtained at the local and regional level for each country from official agricultural and economic statistics (e.g., the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization); historical geographic and demographic texts, reports, and articles; and any other available source. Because of boundary changes through time and disparities between the validity, availability, and scale of the data for each country, the data were aggregated into 94 ecological zones. The resulting data base contains land use and carbon information for 94 ecological zones and national totals for 13 countries.The directory to which the above link

  12. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance. PMID:26601241

  13. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance.

  14. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using MOZART gas-phase chemistry and GOCART aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINNv1) model. WRF-chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 20% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16%, respectively, when comparing the March biomass burning period to December with low biomass burning emissions. The simulations show that none of the anthropogenic emission inventories are better than the

  15. Novel Carbons as Electrodes for Electrical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk I will speculate about directions for carbon materials as the electrode(s) in EES systems such as ultracapacitors and Li ion batteries. Perhaps the penultimate electrode material for ultracapacitors (based on charge storage by electrical double layer capacitance, EDLC) would be a ``negative curvature carbon'' (NCC, akin to the Schwartzite structures) with atom thick walls, and possibly substitutionally doped with, e.g., N atoms in case the all-carbon structure were limited by quantum (i.e., intrinsic) capacitance. Such an NCC would have a distribution of pore sizes that would likely (for optimal performance) span ``mesoscale'' and ``microscale'' pores, which in the parlance of porous materials means pores ``above 2-3 nanometers'' and pores ``below about 2 nanometers,'' respectively. Making such materials offers exciting challenges for materials chemists/synthetic chemists, and to date only the ``basic'' Schwarzite structures (ideal crystals studied by DFT with periodic boundary conditions and relatively simple unit cells) have been modeled in terms of properties such as their electronic states and in some cases, potential as all carbon ferromagnets. I identified the NCCs as candidates for EES for ultracapacitors, in a paper published in Science in 2011 with coauthors. We made an aperiodic carbon that had atom thick walls and surface areas as high as 3200 m2/g, along with ``good'' powder electrical conductivity, high carbon content, and apparently close to 100% trivalently bonded carbon in the walls of this very porous carbon. We have learned in one set of experiments, as published in Energy and Environmental Science, that doping with N atoms can increase the EDLC, which we suggest could be a consequence of limiting quantum capacitance in the all-carbon analogue.

  16. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  17. Carbon sequestration kinetic and storage capacity of ultramafic mining waste.

    PubMed

    Pronost, Julie; Beaudoin, Georges; Tremblay, Joniel; Larachi, Faïçal; Duchesne, Josée; Hébert, Réjean; Constantin, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Mineral carbonation of ultramafic rocks provides an environmentally safe and permanent solution for CO(2) sequestration. In order to assess the carbonation potential of ultramafic waste material produced by industrial processing, we designed a laboratory-scale method, using a modified eudiometer, to measure continuous CO(2) consumption in samples at atmospheric pressure and near ambient temperature. The eudiometer allows monitoring the CO(2) partial pressure during mineral carbonation reactions. The maximum amount of carbonation and the reaction rate of different samples were measured in a range of experimental conditions: humidity from dry to submerged, temperatures of 21 and 33 °C, and the proportion of CO(2) in the air from 4.4 to 33.6 mol %. The most reactive samples contained ca. 8 wt % CO(2) after carbonation. The modal proportion of brucite in the mining residue is the main parameter determining maximum storage capacity of CO(2). The reaction rate depends primarily on the proportion of CO(2) in the gas mixture and secondarily on parameters controlling the diffusion of CO(2) in the sample, such as relative saturation of water in pore space. Nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate for reactions at 21 °C, whereas dypingite was most common at 33 °C.

  18. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM

  20. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tour, James M; Kittrell, Carter

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  1. Progress and new developments in carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Litynski, J.T.; McIlvried, H.G.; Srivastava, R.D.

    2009-07-01

    Growing concern over the impact on global climate change of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has resulted in proposals to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at large point sources and store it in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations, referred to as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are three options for capturing CO{sub 2} from point sources: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Several processes are available to capture CO{sub 2}, and new or improved processes are under development. However, CO{sub 2} capture is the most expensive part of CCS, typically accounting for 75% of overall cost. CCS will benefit significantly from the development of a lower cost post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process that can be retrofitted to existing power plants. Once captured, the CO{sub 2} is compressed to about 150 atm and pipelined at supercritical conditions to a suitable storage site. Oil and gas reservoirs, because they have assured seals and are well characterized, are promising early opportunity sites. Saline formations are much more extensive and have a huge potential storage capacity, but are much less characterized. Several commercial and a number of pilot CCS projects are underway around the world.

  2. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Difference Between Present and Future of Spatial and Seasonal Carbon Budget Control Factor in Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obikawa, H.; Sasai, T.

    2014-12-01

    IPCC reported that warming over the 21st century in Eastern Asia was grater than the global mean and precipitation seasonal variability likely intensified along with extent of warming. Flux tower measurements showed that photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration in the region were easily influenced by air temperature and/or precipitation generally than in the other regions. Therefore, the future energy and water condition probably alter the present relationship between vegetation and soil activities and meteorological phenomena. However, there are few quantitative analysis which demonstrates terrestrial ecosystem response to future climate change in Eastern Asia. For this research, we estimated present (2001 - 2010) and future (2091 - 2100) seasonal NEP control factor with 10km-grid in Eastern Asia. We created future 10km-grid climate data by combining present satellite and climate datasets with CMIP5 GCM outputs and vegetation data by using empirical method considering extension of growing length. The terrestrial biosphere model BEAMS was used for NEP control factor analysis. As a result, difference of primary NEP control factor between present and future was characteristic by seasons. In spring and autumn, temperature precedence area in the high latitudes decreased in future. While in summer, most of the area showed radiation precedence except water precedence in arid area in both periods, but radiation contribution for NEP in the middle latitudes decreased. We found that primary NEP control factor changed by terrestrial sensitivity to climate change and a capacity of climate to drive carbon cycle. Future warming mitigated the photosynthetic activity restriction which caused by cold stress. Terrestrial carbon cycle demand for radiation in summer might be approaching satisfaction in future. Our simulation provided quantitative evidence that unique climate feedback via terrestrial ecosystem activity will behave variedly in each region and season.

  4. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  5. Characteristics and source of black carbon aerosols at Akedala station, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqin; He, Qing; Liu, Tao; Chen, Feng; Liu, Xinchun; Zhong, Yuting; Yang, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Black carbon concentration and weather data were online monitored continuously from March 2008 to February 2009 at the Akedala regional atmosphere station in the arid region of Central Asia. We present the daily, monthly and seasonal variations of BC concentration in the atmosphere and discuss the possible emission sources. Black carbon concentration in this region varies in the range of 43.7-1,559.2 ng/m3. A remarkable seasonal variation of BC in the aerosol was observed in the order of winter > spring > autumn > summer. The peak value of BC appeared at 10:00-13:00 while the lowest one at 7:00-9:00 each day. Air masses backward trajectories show the potential emission sources in the northwest from spring to autumn. Through back trajectory also revealed that BC in winter might be attributed to the emission from the anthropogenic activities, including domestic heating, cooking, combustion of oil and natural gas, and the medium-range transport from those cities in northern slope of Tianshan Mountains and Siberia. Some BC aerosols from the arid region of Central Asia were transported to the Pacific Ocean by the Westerlies.

  6. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  7. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the coastal habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable site specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.

  8. Volumetric hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Yang, Q. H.; Tong, Y.; Cong, H. T.; Cheng, H. M.

    2002-04-01

    Macroscopically long ropes of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), synthesized by a hydrogen and argon arc discharge method, were cold pressed into tablets without any binder for measurements of their volumetric hydrogen storage capacity. The typical apparent density of the tablets was measured to be around 1.7 g/cm3 with respect to a molding pressure of 0.75 Gpa. A volumetric and mass hydrogen storage capacity of 68 kg H2/m3 and 4.0 wt %, respectively, was achieved at room temperature under a pressure of 11 MPa for suitably pretreated SWNT tablets, and more than 70% of the hydrogen adsorbed can be released under ambient pressure at room temperature. Pore structure analysis indicated that the molding process diminished the mesopore volume of the SWNT ropes, but exerts little influence on their intrinsic pore textures.

  9. Guidelines for carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a set of preliminary guidelines and recommendations for the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in the United States. The CCS Guidelines are written for those who may be involved in decisions on a proposed project: the developers, regulators, financiers, insurers, project operators, and policymakers. Contents are: Part 1: introduction; Part 2: capture; Part 3: transport; Part 4; storage; Part. 5 supplementary information. Within these parts, eight recommended guidelines are given for: CO{sub 2} capture; ancillary environmental impacts from CO{sub 2}; pipeline design and operation; pipeline safety and integrity; siting CO{sub 2} pipelines; pipeline access and tariff regulation; guidelines for (MMV); risk assessment; financial responsibility; property rights and ownership; site selection and characterisation; injection operations; site closure; and post-closure. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 4 apps.

  10. Nanopores of carbon nanotubes as practical hydrogen storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sang Soo; Kim, Hyun Seok; Han, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jai Young; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Woo, Seong Ihl; Duin, Adri C.T. van; Goddard, William A. III

    2005-11-21

    We report on hydrogen desorption mechanisms in the nanopores of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The as-grown MWCNTs show continuous walls that do not provide sites for hydrogen storage under ambient conditions. However, after treating the nanotubes with oxygen plasma to create nanopores in the MWCNTs, we observed the appearance of a new hydrogen desorption peak in the 300-350 K range. Furthermore, the calculations of density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that this peak could be attributed to the hydrogen that is physically adsorbed inside nanopores whose diameter is approximately 1 nm. Thus, we demonstrated that 1 nm nanopores in MWCNTs offer a promising route to hydrogen storage media for onboard practical applications.

  11. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ∼10(6) m s(-1). Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.

  12. Computational Modeling of Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Qiao, Rui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for electrical double layers formed by ion adsorption in nanoscale carbon pores. In this work a combination of computational methods, including first-principles and classical modeling, are used to explain the onset of an anomalous increase in capacitance for small pores. The study highlights the key role played by pore curvature and nanoconfinement on the capacitance performance. We emphasize the role of modeling in providing a precise understanding of the processes responsible for capacitive energy storage, and how simulations can be used to enhance desired properties and suppress unwanted ones.

  13. A comparative study on the lithium-ion storage performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xi; Cui, Guanglei; Zhu, Bo; Weinberg, Gisela; Schlögl, Robert; Maier, Joachim; Su, Dang Sheng

    2010-03-22

    A comparative study of the electrochemical performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes reveals a dependence effect of lithium-ion storage behavior on the detailed nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. In particular, the impurity that graphitic particles or graphene fragments inherently present in carbon nanotubes plays a crucial role in the lithium-ion storage capacity of the carbon nanotubes. Compared to acid-washed carbon nanotubes, the assembly of graphitic impurity fragments in the tube-in-tube structures hinders lithium-ion diffusion, thus drastically decreasing the rate performance of lithium-ion storage. Significantly, our results indicate that the lithium-ion storage capacity of carbon nanotubes as anode electrodes can be improved or controlled by optimizing the microstructure composition of impurity graphitic nanoparticles or graphene fragments in the matrix of the carbon nanotubes.

  14. 3 CFR - A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture... Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary... deployment of clean coal technologies, particularly carbon capture and storage (CCS), will help position...

  15. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  16. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  17. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  18. Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

    2005-12-01

    Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very

  19. Faster decomposition under increased atmospheric CO₂ limits soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Qi, Xuan; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-05-02

    Soils contain the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon (C) and are a major source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, they may play a key role in modulating climate change. Rising atmospheric CO2 is expected to stimulate plant growth and soil C input but may also alter microbial decomposition. The combined effect of these responses on long-term C storage is unclear. Combining meta-analysis with data assimilation, we show that atmospheric CO2 enrichment stimulates both the input (+19.8%) and the turnover of C in soil (+16.5%). The increase in soil C turnover with rising CO2 leads to lower equilibrium soil C stocks than expected from the rise in soil C input alone, indicating that it is a general mechanism limiting C accumulation in soil.

  20. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  1. Storage of Hydrogen in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A. C.; Jones, K. M.; Bekkedahl, T. A.; Kiang, C. H.; Bethune, D. S.; Heben, M. J.

    1997-03-27

    Pores of molecular dimensions can adsorb large quantities of gases owing to the enhanced density of the adsorbed material inside the pores, a consequence of the attractive potential of the pore walls. Pederson and Broughton have suggested that carbon nanotubes, which have diameters of typically a few nanometres, should be able to draw up liquids by capillarity, and this effect has been seen for low-surface-tension liquids in large-diameter, multi-walled nanotubes. Here we show that a gas can condense to high density inside narrow, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). Temperature-programmed desorption spectroscopy shows that hydrogen will condense inside SWNTs under conditions that do not induce adsorption within a standard mesoporous activated carbon. The very high hydrogen uptake in these materials suggests that they might be effective as a hydrogen-storage material for fuel-cell electric vehicles.

  2. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  3. Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in East Asia reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.

  4. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  5. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly considered as an option to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere. There is today a significant interest from Swedish heavy industry in CCS-technology. Large point sources are found within process industry related to e.g. production of paper and steel (operating under European Union regulations). There is also significant emission of CO2 from burning of biomass for energy production. However, this process is considered to be climate neutral and thus the emissions are not included in the carbon trading schemes. Based on recent work at the Geological Survey of Sweden and by other organizations we discuss the possibilities for geological storage of CO2 in Sweden, including the locations of the potential storage sites and the main CO2 emitters. In this context, we also review the relevant geophysical data available at the Geological Survey, focusing on the seismic data but also including gravity and magnetic data. Deep saline aquifers are presently considered as the most realistic storage alternative in Sweden. Sedimentary bedrock containing such layers and which could be suitable for CO2 storage is mainly found within the southern Baltic Sea and around southernmost Sweden, close to Denmark. The knowledge about the sedimentary bedrock in these areas is mainly based on seismic measurements and drilling in connection with hydrocarbon prospecting during the 70’s and the 80’s. Approximately 40.000 km’s of seismic reflection profiles were acquired, mostly in the potential CO2 storage areas mentioned above. Data from these profiles are now archived at the Geological Survey, and currently the magnetic tapes (8000-9000 reels) are being transcribed to modern storage media, a work that will likely be finished during 2011. Despite the hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas there are remaining uncertainties regarding the suitability of the sedimentary bedrock for CO2 storage, in particular related to the porosity and

  6. Global Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen enrichment on carbon fluxes and storage in terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Tao, B.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Wei, Y.; Michalak, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) enrichment has been recognized as one of most important global changes and largely affected terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics over the past century. A wide range of scientific studies have focused on estimation of carbon sink resulting from N deposition at global scale, and confirmed that atmospheric N input has substantially stimulated terrestrial CO2 uptake, particularly in part of North America, western Europe, and East and Southeast Asia. However, ecosystem models have distinct strategies in partitioning and describing the pools/fluxes and C-N interactions, as well as in simulating 'N-saturated status'. Whether a model's representation of C-N coupling can truly reflect the C and N cycling in the real world is a hard nut to crack for most models involving C-N interactions. Little is known on how various C-N coupling processes represented by models have led to divergence in the estimated magnitude of N-induced C sink. Here we combine field observations and model ensembles from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) to examine how enhanced N deposition affected global C fluxes and storage during the period 1860-2010, and what explore the major sources of uncertainty responsible for various modeling estimates. Model behavior in simulating key C-N coupling processes has been evaluated through data-model and model-model intercomparison. Future research needs for filling our knowledge gaps and for reducing uncertainties are discussed as well.

  7. Global Impact of Land Use on Soil Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Hengl, T.; Fiske, G. J.; Cheney, E.

    2016-12-01

    Land use and land cover change has resulted in substantial losses of carbon from soils globally. This historic loss in soil organic carbon now represents a significant climate mitigation opportunity. Current estimates of the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sink strength generally come from simplistic bookkeeping calculations that have been disaggregated to at best the continental scale. Others have taken a modeling approach whereby agroecosystem models have been run using alternative management practices to estimate SOC sequestration potential. A third approach which is adopted here is to use a data-driven spatial modeling approach whereby measured SOC stocks from minimally distrubed regions are projected across the highly managed regions of the world. The International Soil Reference and Information Center (www.isric.org) curates the largest repository of spatially explicit soil data which now includes data from over 150,000 soil profiles globally. From this dataset, we have masked out data from profiles collected from used parts of the globe. Then SOC stocks were related to factors which are known to control SOC storage using machine learning algorithms. Spatially continuous data layers included climate, topography, lithology and potential vegetation class. The trained machine learning algorithms were then used to project potential SOC stocks across the entire global land surface at a resolution of 1 km. In addition to an assessment of model performance in the development stage, an independent test set of over 400 paired-plot (native v. agricultural) measurements of SOC stocks within major agricultural regions was collected to help validate model output. Land area with the largest carbon debit and thus the greatest potential of SOC storage was revealed by comparison of this potential SOC map with a map of actual SOC values (SoilGrids250m) that was produced using a consistent spatial modeling approach.

  8. [Long-term effects of thinning on carbon storage in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Liang; Mao, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Mu-Kui

    2014-07-01

    The stand environment and tree growth could be changed as well as carbon storage be affected by thinning. Thus it is important to conduct the research on changes of carbon stock in plantations after thinning for assessing the dynamics of forest ecosystem carbon pool. The carbon storage and its distribution of various components in 22-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations were studied with control and different treatments such as moderate and heavy thinning. Moderate (thinning intensity was 35%) and heavy (thinning intensity was 50%) thinning treatments were conducted twice at the age of 7 and 14 years, respectively. The stand of control was thinned 15% in the 14th year. The results showed that the proportion of stem carbon storage increased with the increasing thinning intensity, while the proportion of carbon storage in branches, leaves and roots slightly decreased, which suggested that thinning was beneficial for carbon stocking in stem. However, the carbon storage in arbor layer decreased with the thinning intensity in C. lanceolata plantation under moderate and heavy thinning treatments, accounted for 89.0% and 83.1% of the control, respectively. The arbor carbon storage decreased in followed two years after the first thinning. The carbon storage in arbor layer had a fast recovery rate within eight years after the second thinning, and the increment of carbon storage in arbor layer had no difference with the control for the heavy thinning treatment. The carbon storage in understory vegetation, litter and soil layers also had no significant difference under the different thinning treatments. Generally total ecosystem carbon storage under the control, moderate and heavy thinning treatments reached 169.34, 156.65 and 154.37 t x hm(-2), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three treatments. Therefore, it could be concluded that the carbon storage in C. lanceolata plantation did not reduce after thinning in more than 15 years.

  9. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  10. Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hans; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav S

    2003-07-24

    The total amount of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans and other near-surface reservoirs is thought to be negligible compared to that stored in the Earth's mantle. Although the mode of carbon storage in the mantle is largely unknown, observations of microbubbles on dislocations in minerals from mantle xenoliths has led to the suggestion that carbon may be soluble in silicates at high pressure. Here we report measurements of carbon solubility in olivine, the major constituent of the upper mantle, at pressures up to 3.5 GPa. We have found that, contrary to previous expectations, carbon solubility in olivine is exceedingly low--of the order of 0.1 to 1 parts per million by weight. Together with similar data for pyroxenes, garnet and spinel, we interpret this to imply that most carbon must be present as a separate phase in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, probably as a carbonate phase. Large-scale volcanic eruptions tapping such a carbonate-bearing mantle reservoir might therefore rapidly transfer large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, consistent with models that link global mass extinctions to flood basalt eruptions via a sudden increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  11. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  12. Hierarchical cellulose-derived carbon nanocomposites for electrostatic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, V.; Saleem, A. M.; Bhaskar, A.; Staaf, H.; Desmaris, V.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of energy storage and its continuous delivery on demand needs new effective solutions. Supercapacitors are viewed as essential devices for solving this problem since they can quickly provide high power basically countless number of times. The performance of supercapacitors is mostly dependent on the properties of electrode materials used for electrostatic charge accumulation, i.e. energy storage. This study presents new sustainable cellulose-derived materials that can be used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Nanofibrous carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats were covered with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in order to get composite CNF/CNT electrode material. The resulting composite material had significantly higher surface area and was much more conductive than pure CNF material. The performance of the CNF/CNT electrodes was evaluated by various analysis methods such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic stability. The results showed that the cellulose-derived composite electrodes have fairly high values of specific capacitance and power density and can retain excellent performance over at least 2 000 cycles. Therefore it can be stated that sustainable cellulose-derived CNF/CNT composites are prospective materials for supercapacitor electrodes.

  13. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  14. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  15. Can reductions in logging damage increase carbon storage over time? Evaluation of a simulation model for a pilot carbon offset project in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Pinard, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Selective timber harvesting operations, if uncontrolled, can severely degrade a forest. Although techniques for reducing logging damage are well-known and inexpensive to apply, incentives to adopt these techniques are generally lacking. Power companies and other emitters of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases soon may be forced to reduce or otherwise offset their net emissions; one offset option is to fund programs aimed at reducing logging damage. To investigate the consequences of reductions in logging damage for ecosystem carbon storage, I constructed a model to simulate changes in biomass and carbon pools following logging of primary dipterocarp forests in southeast Asia. I adapted a physiologically-driven, tree-based model of natural forest gap dynamics (FORMIX) to simulate forest recovery following logging. Input variables included stand structure, volume extracted, stand damage (% stems), and soil disturbance (% area compacted). Output variables included total biomass, tree density, and total carbon storage over time. Assumptions of the model included the following: (1) areas with soil disturbances have elevated probabilities of vine colonization and reduced rates of tree establishment, (2) areas with broken canopy but no soil disturbance are colonized initially by pioneer tree species and 20 yr later by persistent forest species, (3) damaged trees have reduced growth and increased mortality rates. Simulation results for two logging techniques, conventional and reduced-impact logging, are compared with data from field studies conducted within a pilot carbon offset project in Sabah, Malaysia.

  16. Variability of fire carbon emissions in equatorial Asia and its nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frederic; Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Broquet, Gregoire; Boesch, Hartmut; Cozic, Anne; Hauglustaine, Didier; Szopa, Sophie; Wang, Yilong

    2016-10-01

    The large peatland carbon stocks in the land use change-affected areas of equatorial Asia are vulnerable to fire. Combining satellite observations of active fire, burned area, and atmospheric concentrations of combustion tracers with a Bayesian inversion, we estimated the amount and variability of fire carbon emissions in equatorial Asia over the period 1997-2015. Emissions in 2015 were of 0.51 ± 0.17 Pg carbon—less than half of the emissions from the previous 1997 extreme El Niño, explained by a less acute water deficit. Fire severity could be empirically hindcasted from the cumulative water deficit with a lead time of 1 to 2 months. Based on CMIP5 climate projections and an exponential empirical relationship found between fire carbon emissions and water deficit, we infer a total fire carbon loss ranging from 12 to 25 Pg by 2100 which is a significant positive feedback to climate warming.

  17. Bibliography on tropical rain forests and the global carbon cycle: Volume 2, South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, E.P.; Richards, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography covers the literature on tropical rain forests,tropical deforestation, land-use change, tropical forest conversion, and shifting cultivation in South Asia (predominantly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh but also including contributions in Burma, Ceylon, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka). It covers not only rain-forest ecosystems but also other ecosystems that border, derive from, or influence rain forests. The literature included was selected because of its contribution to understanding the global carbon cycle, changes in that cycle, and rain forests' role in that cycle. Journal articles, books, and reports from 1880 to 1988 are included. The more than 4200 entries of this bibliography are ordered alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject and author.

  18. Organic Carbon Transport through Holocene and Pleistocene Sediment from Southeast Asia: Implications for Arsenic Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanimirova, R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Sun, J.; Bostick, B. C.; Mulvihill, C.; van Geen, A.; Mihajlov, I.; Magyar, J. S.; Ahmed, K.; Choudhury, I.; Stute, M.

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation of organic carbon coupled to the reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides is causing the mobilization of arsenic from sediment to groundwater in Southeast Asia and has resulted in a public health crisis. Recent results indicate that advected organic carbon could be a primary source of the reactive OC to the subsurface. Little is known about OC transport through aquifer sediments and its impact on aquifer geochemistry. The goal of this work was to perform column experiments using intact sediments from Holocene and Pleistocene drinking water aquifers of Southeast Asia in which unreactive OC, Eliot soil Humic Acid (ESHA), was flushed through the column and effluent geochemistry was monitored. In field-run columns flushed with anaerobic site groundwater and no ESHA, As, Fe, and Mn aqueous concentrations remained constant or decreased with flushing, indicating that redox reactions were not occurring within the columns and these elements appear to just be slowly mobilized and flushed from the sediment. In anaerobic laboratory run columns with ESHA a large range of redox responses occurred. In site F sediment complete breakthrough of ESHA occurred within 5 PV and Mn reduction occurred during the injection of ESHA, but no response of Fe and As occurred, indicating flushing of these elements. In site K sediment, complete breakthrough of ESHA occurred in 20 PV and redox reactions occurred with increases in concentration of As, Fe, and Mn, indicating that the in situ microbial population was stimulated. In Cambodian Pleistocene sediment ESHA breakthrough occurred with bromide breakthrough and no redox reactions were observed and only flushing occurred. Fluorescence analysis indicates that the ESHA mobilized in situ sediment OC during initial breakthrough in each column. These results indicate that OC can be transported through Bangladesh sediments, but that more interactions between ESHA and the sediment result in more redox reactions and As mobilization and it is this

  19. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  20. Structural evolution of turbostratic carbon: Implications in H2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Priyanka; Banerjee, Seemita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.; Sastry, P. U.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Structural evolution of turbostratic carbon samples as a function of annealing temperature has been investigated in detail using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. From these studies, it is established that, samples heated at lower temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) consist carbon particles with rough surfaces forming structure of surface fractal in nature. Whereas the sample heated at higher temperature (900 °C) consists of larger clusters with nearly smooth surface as well as smaller size particles forming dense mass fractal structure. For this sample, solid state NMR and Raman Spectroscopic studies indicate an increased extent of overlapping of 2pz orbital of carbon atoms due to improved long range ordering and clustering. Hydrogen adsorption studies further substantiated that energetically more homogeneous surface exists for particles of 900 °C heated sample as compared to those of 700 °C and 800 °C heated samples. A highest hydrogen storage capacity of 0.152 H/M has been observed at 123 K and 45 bar pressure for the sample heated at 900 °C.

  1. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selmants, Paul C.; Giardina, Christian P.; Jacobi, James D.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-05-04

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to improve understanding of factors influencing carbon balance in ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Ecosystem carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and carbon balance were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems on the seven main Hawaiian islands in two time periods: baseline (from 2007 through 2012) and future (projections from 2012 through 2061). The assessment incorporated observed data, remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment has been completed for the conterminous United States, using methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, with results provided in three regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897), and for Alaska, with results provided in PP 1826.

  2. [Characteristics of carbon storage and its allocation in Erythrophleum fordii plantations with different ages].

    PubMed

    Ming, An-Gang; Jia, Hong-Yan; Tian, Zu-Wei; Tao, Yi; Lu, Li-Hu; Cai, Dao-Xiong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Wang, Wei-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Carbon storage and its allocation of 7-, 29- and 32-year-old Erythrophleum fordii plantation ecosystems in Guangxi were studied on the basis of biomass survey. The results showed that the carbon contents in different organs of E. fordii, ranging from 509.0 to 572.4 g x kg(-1), were in the order of stem > branch > root > bark > leaf. No significant differences in carbon content were observed among the shrub, herb and litter layers of the E. fordii plantations with different ages. Carbon content in the soil layer (0-100 cm) decreased with increasing the soil depth, but increased with increasing the stand age. The carbon storage of the arbor layer was 21.8, 100.0 and 121.6 t x hm(-2) for 7-, 29- and 32-year-old stands, respectively, and the order of carbon storage allocation in different organs was same as the order of carbon content. The 7-, 29- and 32-year-old E. fordii plantation ecosystems stored carbon at 132.6, 220.2 and 242.6 t x hm(-2), respectively. The arbor layer and soil layer were the main carbon pools, accounting for more than 97% of carbon storage in the ecosystem. Carbon storage allocation increased in arbor layer but decreased in soil layer with increasing the stand age. The influence of stand age on carbon storage allocation in shrub, herb and litter layers did not show a obvious regular pattern.

  3. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites.

    PubMed

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B

    2016-08-01

    The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = -ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1-1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites. This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites.

  4. Maximizing carbon storage in the Appalachians: A method for considering the risk of disturbance events

    Treesearch

    Michael R. Vanderberg; Kevin Boston; John. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for the probability of loss due to disturbance events can influence the prediction of carbon flux over a planning horizon, and can affect the determination of optimal silvicultural regimes to maximize terrestrial carbon storage. A preliminary model that includes forest disturbance-related carbon loss was developed to maximize expected values of carbon stocks...

  5. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes produced by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A.; Pierard, N.; Tollis, S.; Bister, G.; Konya, Z.; Nagaraju, N.; Nagy, J. B.

    2002-06-01

    Single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of methane and acetylene, respectively were studied for their hydrogen adsorption capacity in their hollow and on their outer surface. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples was measured for pressures 0-9 bar at 295 K and at 77 K. The results at different temperatures on the crude sample (closed tubes 10-50 um long), on the purified sample (open tubes 10-50 μm long) and on the purified and broken sample (open tubes 0.1-0.7 pm long) show that breaking the nanotubes allows one to adsorb hydrogen in their hollow. In addition, the relative amounts of hydrogen adsorbed in the hollow and outer parts of the nanotubes can be distinguished.

  6. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    PubMed

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO < 10 ppm) CO2 and H2. The reaction takes place under mild experimental conditions and it is able to generate high pressure H2 (up to 600 bar). The cleavage of HCOOH is catalysed by several hydrophilic Ru(II) phosphine complexes (meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, mTPPTS, being the most efficient one), either in homogeneous systems or as immobilised catalysts. We have also shown that the iron(II)--hydrido tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine complex catalyses with an exceptionally high rate and efficiency (turnover frequency, TOF = 9425 h(-1)mol(-1); turnover number, TON = 92400) the formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this

  7. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  8. Integrated Assessment Modeling for Carbon Storage Risk and Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromhal, G. S.; Dilmore, R.; Pawar, R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Gastelum, J.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Zhang, Y.; Chu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) has developed tools to perform quantitative risk assessment at site-specific locations for long-term carbon storage. The approach that is being used is to divide the storage and containment system into components (e.g., reservoirs, seals, wells, groundwater aquifers), to develop detailed models for each component, to generate reduced order models (ROMs) based on the detailed models, and to reconnect the reduced order models within an integrated assessment model (IAM). CO2-PENS, developed at Los Alamos National Lab, is being used as the IAM for the simulations in this study. The benefit of this approach is that simulations of the complete system can be generated on a relatively rapid time scale so that Monte Carlo simulation can be performed. In this study, hundreds of thousands of runs of the IAMs have been generated to estimate likelihoods of the quantity of CO2 released to the atmosphere, size of aquifer impacted by pH, size of aquifer impacted by TDS, and size of aquifer with different metals concentrations. Correlations of the output variables with different reservoir, seal, wellbore, and aquifer parameters have been generated. Importance measures have been identified, and inputs have been ranked in the order of their impact on the output quantities. Presentation will describe the approach used, representative results, and implications for how the Monte Carlo analysis is implemented on uncertainty quantification.

  9. Ecosystem carbon storage and flux in upland/peatland watersheds in northern Minnesota. Chapter 9.

    Treesearch

    David F. Grigal; Peter C. Bates; Randall K. Kolka

    2011-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage and fluxes (inputs and outputs of C per unit time) are central issues in global change. Spatial patterns of C storage on the landscape, both that in soil and in biomass, are important from an inventory perspective and for understanding the biophysical processes that affect C fluxes. Regional and national estimates of C storage are uncertain because...

  10. A temporal analysis of urban forest carbon storage using remote sensing

    Treesearch

    Soojeong Myeong; David J. Nowak; Michael J. Duggin

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying the carbon storage, distribution, and change of urban trees is vital to understanding the role of vegetation in the urban environment. At present, this is mostly achieved through ground study. This paper presents a method based on the satellite image time series, which can save time and money and greatly speed the process of urban forest carbon storage...

  11. Mineral carbon storage in peridotite bodies: insights from natural carbonation of peridotite in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Spiegelman, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of solid carbonate minerals offers a safe and permanent storage solution for the disposal of CO2, and injection of CO2 into peridotite bodies may provide an effective and economical method of mineral carbon sequestration. The natural formation of carbonate minerals is quite common in weathering and alteration of tectonically exposed peridotite bodies. In the Oman ophiolite, we observe extensive and rapid formation of carbonate minerals in peridotite: ongoing reaction between peridotite and ground water forms carbonate veins and drives up the pH of the water, leading to the precipitation of extensive travertine terraces where this groundwater emerges at the surface in alkaline springs. These carbonate veins are surprisingly young, and suggest that 10,000 to 100,000 tons CO2/year are consumed by these weathering reactions in Oman. Additionally, large outcrops of listwanite—peridotite in which the peridotite has been completely carbonated—are common in the Oman ophiolite, highlighting that it is possible for the natural system to access a regime of highly efficient conversion to carbonate minerals. The natural carbonation rate could be enhanced and the system pushed to more efficient carbonation of peridotite in several ways. Drilling and hydraulic fracture will increase the volume of peridotite available for reaction, and field observations suggest that the solid volume expansion of the reaction may drive further fracture. Increasing the pCO2 will also yield higher reaction rates and higher carbonation efficiency by stabilizing magnesite and quartz, instead of talc or serpentine as the silicate phase which is usually the case in the observed carbonate veins. Finally, the carbonation of olivine has a maximum reaction rate at a temperature of 185C. 'Clumped isotope' thermometry in the carbonates suggests that the carbonate veins formed at near ambient temperatures while the completely carbonated listwanites formed at temperatures closer to the

  12. Induced seismicity and carbon storage: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua A.; Foxall, William; Bachmann, Corinne; Chiaramonte, Laura; Daley, Thomas M.

    2016-01-28

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Like all technologies, however, sequestration projects create a number of potential environmental and safety hazards that must be addressed. These include earthquakes—from microseismicity to large, damaging events—that can be triggered by altering pore-pressure conditions in the subsurface. To date, measured seismicity due to CO2 injection has been limited to a few modest events, but the hazard exists and must be considered. There are important similarities between CO2 injection and fluid injection from other applications that have induced significant events—e.g. geothermal systems, waste-fluid injection, hydrocarbon extraction, and others. There are also important distinctions among these technologies that should be considered in a discussion of seismic hazard. This report focuses on strategies for assessing and mitigating risk during each phase of a CO2 storage project. Four key risks related to fault reactivation and induced seismicity were considered. Induced slip on faults could potentially lead to: (1) infrastructure damage, (2) a public nuisance, (3) brine-contaminated drinking water, and (4) CO2-contaminated drinking water. These scenarios lead to different types of damage—to property, to drinking water quality, or to the public welfare. Given these four risks, this report focuses on strategies for assessing (and altering) their likelihoods of occurrence and the damage that may result. This report begins with an overview of the basic physical mechanisms behind induced seismicity. This science basis—and its gaps—is crucial because it forms the foundation for risk assessment and mitigation. Available techniques for characterizing and monitoring seismic behavior are also described. Again, this technical basis—and its limitations—must be factored into the risk

  13. Variability in tropospheric carbon monoxide over an urban site in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, L. K.; Sheel, Varun; Kajino, M.; Nedelec, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper analyses MOZAIC (Measurements of Ozone aboard Airbus in-service airCraft) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) profiles over Bangkok to discuss the seasonality in vertical distribution during year 2005-2006. The mixing ratios of CO were enhanced in the lower troposphere being highest in winter followed by summer and wet seasons. During all the seasons, the mixing ratio of CO decreased rapidly and remained low in the middle troposphere. At higher altitudes (6-12 km), CO shows enhanced values particularly during wet and early winter seasons. The strong seasonality in CO was caused by the seasonal shift in the patterns of the long-range transport and biomass burning (BB) in South and Southeast Asia (S-SE Asia). Flow of cleaner air and negligible BB resulted in the lowest mixing ratio of CO in the wet season. In addition to anthropogenic influence, the long-range transport and BB caused the higher CO in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Despite extensive local BB activities in Thailand during the summer season, the moderate levels of CO were attributed to the dilution due to flow of cleaner marine from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We have also compared the observations with the Model for Ozone And Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) simulations. Mostly the observations lie between the MOZART-2 and MOZART-4 simulations as they underestimate and overestimate the observed CO, respectively. In the middle and upper troposphere, both the observed and simulated mixing ratios of CO during September-November of year 2006 were higher by 15-30 ppbv compared to the same period of year 2005. Our analysis indicates the impact of El Niño induced extensive BB in Indonesia during the year 2006.

  14. Anthropogenic emissions and space-borne observations of carbon monoxide over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this study is to understand anthropogenic emissions, spatiotemporal variability and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) over South Asia by using datasets from MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, MACC and megaCITY - Zoom for the Environment, CityZEN), REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). MACCity anthropogenic emissions show an overall increase of 16.5% during 2000-2010. Elevated levels of MACCity CO are found in Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), eastern mining region of India, Bangladesh and large urban areas. Some of the major contributors of these emissions have been identified as agricultural waste burning, land transport, industrial production, and energy generation and distribution. An area averaged mean value of AIRS CO at 600 hPa is found to be 114 ± 2 ppbv (slope -0.48 ± 0.2 ppbv yr-1, y-intercept 117 ± 1 ppbv and r = 0.68) with a minor declining trend at -0.41 ± 0.18% yr-1 over the region during 2003-2015. A strong seasonality in AIRS CO concentration is observed with spring season peak in March 129 ± 1.9 ppbv, whereas low values have been observed in summer monsoon with sturdy dip in July 99.6 ± 1.94 ppbv. AIRS CO and SCIAMACHY CO Total Column (CO TC) over the study region show spatial patterns similar to MACCity and REAS emissions. An analysis of SCIAMACHY CO TC tendencies has been performed which indicates minor rising trends over some parts of the region. Background CO, Recent Emissions (RE), and spatial anomalies in RE over high anthropogenic activity zones of Indus Basin, Ganges Basin and Eastern Region were analyzed using AIRS and SCIAMACHY CO data.

  15. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  16. Development of Large Capacity Lead-Carbon Hybrid Ultracapacitors for Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    storage devices. Among various hybrid ultraultracapacitors, PbO2 ? Activated Carbon is an attractive system owing to its high cell voltage that...provides it both high energy and power densities. In this project, we have designed and developed 12V / kF-range Lead-Carbon (LC) HUCs with absorbent-glass...electrode. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ultra capacitors, ultra capacitors, power storage, power storage, Magneto-optical imaging , Magneto-optical imaging , lead

  17. Changes in carbon storage and net carbon exchange one year after an initial shelterwood harvest at Howland Forest, ME

    Treesearch

    Neal A. Scott; Charles A. Rodrigues; Holly Hughes; John T. Lee; Eric A. Davidson; D Bryan Dail; Phil Malerba; David Y. Hollinger

    2004-01-01

    Although many forests are actively sequestering carbon, little research has examined the direct effects of forest management practices on carbon sequestration. At the Howland Forest in Maine, USA, we are using eddy covariance and biometric techniques to evaluate changes in carbon storage following a shelterwood cut that removed just under 30% of aboveground biomass....

  18. Banking carbon: A review of organic carbon storage and physical factors influencing retention in floodplains and riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Nicholas A. Sutfin; Ellen E. Wohl; Kathleen A. Dwire

    2016-01-01

    Rivers are dynamic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle and provide important functions in ecosystem processes. Although rivers act as conveyers of carbon to the oceans, rivers also retain carbon within riparian ecosystems along floodplains, with potential for long-term (> 102 years) storage. Research in ecosystem processing emphasizes the...

  19. Accounting carbon storage in decaying root systems of harvested forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, G Geoff; Van Lear, David H; Hu, Huifeng; Kapeluck, Peter R

    2012-05-01

    Decaying root systems of harvested trees can be a significant component of belowground carbon storage, especially in intensively managed forests where harvest occurs repeatedly in relatively short rotations. Based on destructive sampling of root systems of harvested loblolly pine trees, we estimated that root systems contained about 32% (17.2 Mg ha(-1)) at the time of harvest, and about 13% (6.1 Mg ha(-1)) of the soil organic carbon 10 years later. Based on the published roundwood output data, we estimated belowground biomass at the time of harvest for loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina. We then calculated C that remained in the decomposing root systems in 2005 using the decay function developed for loblolly pine. Our calculations indicate that the amount of C stored in decaying roots of loblolly-shortleaf pine forests harvested between 1995 and 2005 in South Carolina was 7.1 Tg. Using a simple extrapolation method, we estimated 331.8 Tg C stored in the decomposing roots due to timber harvest from 1995 to 2005 in the conterminous USA. To fully account for the C stored in the decomposing roots of the US forests, future studies need (1) to quantify decay rates of coarse roots for major tree species in different regions, and (2) to develop a methodology that can determine C stock in decomposing roots resulting from natural mortality.

  20. Impacts of climatic change on carbon storage in the Sahara?Gobi desert belt since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioubimtseva, E.; Simon, B.; Faure, H.; Faure-Denard, L.; Adams, J. M.

    1998-05-01

    Reconstructions of palaeolandscapes for intervals with different climatic conditions help define regional trends in palaeobiomass and carbon storage due to global climatic change. The Sahara-Gobi desert belt stretches for about 15,000 km from the Atlantic coast to Northern China. Natural vegetation zones have undergone a number of significant shifts and complex qualitative changes under the contrasting climatic conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene Climatic Optimum (HCO). The results presented here are based on palynological, pedological and sedimentological evidence, which indicate that the amount of carbon stored in vegetation and soils would have been much smaller during the Glacial Maximum than in the interglacial and post glacial times. Comparison of a set of palaeogeographic maps of this region for the chosen time-slices (ca. 20-18 ka, 9-8 ka and the present) allows us to discuss land biomass changes. Dry and cool conditions during the LGM resulted in the spread of arid and semi-arid ecosystems at northern and southern margins of the desert belt. The southern limit of the Sahara migrated southward at least 400 km relative to its present position, and almost 1000 km south compared to the mid-Holocene. The northern margin of the temperate deserts and dry steppes of Central Asia shifted northward for not less than 200-300 km over Kazakhstan, southern Siberia and Mongolia. In this study we have quantified variations of the main ecosystems from the LGM to the HCO in terms of changes in carbon storage. Each vegetation zone has been assigned a carbon density for living and dead (soil) organic matter. During the last world deglaciation, the Sahara-Gobi desert belt was a sink for approximately 200 Gt of atmospheric carbon, but since the mid-Holocene, it has been a source of carbon.

  1. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y

    2013-05-21

    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  2. Increased fire frequency optimization of black carbon mixing and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Lacey; Masiello, Caroline; Clark, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon makes up a substantial part of the global carbon budget and black carbon (BC - produced from incomplete combustion of biomass) can be significant fraction of soil carbon. Soil BC cycling is still poorly understood - very old BC is observed in soils, suggesting recalcitrance, yet in short term lab and field studies BC sometimes breaks down rapidly. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of fires, which will increase global production of BC. As up to 80% of BC produced in wildfires can remain at the fire location, increased fire frequency will cause significant perturbations to soil BC accumulation. This creates a challenge in estimating soil BC storage, in light of a changing climate and an increased likelihood of fire. While the chemical properties of BC are relatively well-studied, its physical properties are much less well understood, and may play crucial roles in its landscape residence time. One important property is density. When BC density is less than 1 g/cm3 (i.e. the density of water), it is highly mobile and can easily leave the landscape. This landscape mobility following rainfall may inflate estimates of its degradability, making it crucial to understand both the short- and long term density of BC particles. As BC pores fill with minerals, making particles denser, or become ingrown with root and hyphal anchors, BC is likely to become protected from erosion. Consequently, how quickly BC is mixed deeper into the soil column is likely a primary controller on BC accumulation. Additionally the post-fire recovery of soil litter layers caps BC belowground, protecting it from erosional forces and re-combustion in subsequent fires, but still allowing bioturbation deeper into the soil column. We have taken advantage of a fire chronosequence in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey to investigate how density of BC particles change over time, and how an increase in fire frequency affects soil BC storage and soil column movement. Our plots have

  3. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates.

  4. [Carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of natural vegetation in wetland ecosystem on east beach of Chongming Island].

    PubMed

    Mei, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Feng

    2007-04-01

    Vegetation is an important biological factor in the ecological succession of wetland, and the main factor affecting the carbon storage and carbon fixation in wetland ecosystem. By the methods of field survey and lab analysis, this paper studied the carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of wetland vegetation on east beach of Chongming Island, and the results showed that there existed greater differences in the existing carbon storage and its allocation in wetland vegetation at its different succession stages. The existing carbon storage of the pioneer plant Scirpus mariqueter was much less than that of Phragmites australis, only accounted for about 13% of the latter. The underground rhizome of P. australis and the aboveground part of S. mariqueter were the main sites of existing carbon storage. P. australis at the later succession stage of wetland vegetation had a stronger capability of carbon fixation than S. mariqueter at the earlier succession stage of the vegetation, with the values being (1.63 +/- 0.39) kg x m(-2) x a(-1) and (0.63 +/- 0.28) kg x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively, suggesting that during the succession of S. mariqueter community to P. australis community, the carbon fixation capability of the wetland ecosystem became stronger.

  5. Investigation of Hydrogen Storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cells-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    1 Final Report Title: Investigation of hydrogen storage in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for fuel cells - 2 AFOSR/AOARD...SUBTITLE Investigation of hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes for fuel cells-2 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914157 5b. GRANT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in 2-propanol are deposited on the alumina substrate using drop caste

  6. Deployment models for commercialized carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Richard A; Monroe, Larry S; Friedman, Julio S

    2011-01-01

    Even before technology matures and the regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been developed, electrical utilities will need to consider the logistics of how widespread commercial-scale operations will be deployed. The framework of CCS will require utilities to adopt business models that ensure both safe and affordable CCS operations while maintaining reliable power generation. Physical models include an infrastructure with centralized CO(2) pipelines that focus geologic sequestration in pooled regional storage sites or supply CO(2) for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and a dispersed plant model with sequestration operations which take place in close proximity to CO(2) capture. Several prototypical business models, including hybrids of these two poles, will be in play including a self-build option, a joint venture, and a pay at the gate model. In the self-build model operations are vertically integrated and utility owned and operated by an internal staff of engineers and geologists. A joint venture model stresses a partnership between the host site utility/owner's engineer and external operators and consultants. The pay to take model is turn-key external contracting to a third party owner/operator with cash positive fees paid out for sequestration and cash positive income for CO(2)-EOR. The selection of a business model for CCS will be based in part on the desire of utilities to be vertically integrated, source-sink economics, and demand for CO(2)-EOR. Another element in this decision will be how engaged a utility decides to be and the experience the utility has had with precommercial R&D activities. Through R&D, utilities would likely have already addressed or at least been exposed to the many technical, regulatory, and risk management issues related to successful CCS. This paper provides the framework for identifying the different physical and related prototypical business models that may play a role for electric utilities in

  7. Toward an effective governance regime for geologic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, B. K.; Socolow, R. H.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is currently poised to play a significant role in mitigating CO2 emissions from future fossil fuel combustion, especially from coal-fired power plants, which are expected to rapidly increase in number over the next several decades. At the same time, large-scale deployment of CCS continues to be impeded by concerns about the long-term integrity of geologic storage reservoirs. In this study, we apply established concepts of learning-by-doing to the problem of reservoir leakage. Our results suggest that when learning is present, traditional measures of (initial) reservoir integrity do not sufficiently capture the time- integrated behavior of the system that is most relevant to the global CO2 problem. In one formulation, we find that when learning is explicitly incorporated into a reservoir model, total leakage is always finite and scales approximately quadratically with the learning time constant and inversely with the initial retention time constant. To highlight the policy relevance of this study, we consider the implications of these results for the larger site licensing process. We expect that an upper bound on total allowable leakage will be decided by policymakers. Armed with this number and some informed, expert-driven judgments about the rate at which learning will proceed, a regulator could use our model, or a more sophisticated variant, to calculate an upper bound on the maximum initial leakage rate. This criterion would then be one of several prerequisites to certification. The entire process could be amended over time as new data is made available. We hope that our model will provide a platform for scholars from different fields to engage one another and to work toward an acceptable, compelling and long-lasting management framework for CCS.

  8. Hierarchically structured carbon nanotubes for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng

    As the world population continues to increase, large amounts of energy are consumed. Reality pushes us to find new energy or use our current energy more efficiently. Researches on energy conversion and storage have become increasingly important and essential. This grand challenge research has led to a recent focus on nanostructured materials. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play a critical role in all of these nanotechnology challenges. CNTs have a very large surface area, a high electrochemical accessibility, high electronic conductivity and strong mechanical properties. This combination of properties makes them promising materials for energy device applications, such as FETs, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and lithium batteries. This study focuses on exploring the possibility of using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) as the electrode materials in these energy applications. For the application of electrode materials, electrical conductive, vertically aligned CNTs with controllable length and diameter were synthesized. Several CVD methods for VA-CNT growth have been explored, although the iron / aluminum pre-coated catalyst CVD system was the main focus. A systematic study of several factors, including growth time, temperature, gas ratio, catalyst coating was conducted. The mechanism of VA-CNTs was discussed and a model for VA-CNT length / time was proposed to explain the CNT growth rate. Furthermore, the preferential growth of semiconducting (up to 96 atom% carbon) VA-SWNTs by using a plasma enhanced CVD process combined with fast heating was also explored, and these semiconducting materials have been directly used for making FETs using simple dispersion in organic solvent, without any separation and purification. Also, by inserting electron-accepting nitrogen atoms into the conjugated VA-CNT structure during the growth process, we synthesized vertically aligned nitrogen containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs). After purification of

  9. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  10. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  11. Carbon storage by urban soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pouyat, Richard V; Yesilonis, Ian D; Nowak, David J

    2006-01-01

    We used data available from the literature and measurements from Baltimore, Maryland, to (i) assess inter-city variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools (1-m depth) of six cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Oakland, and Syracuse); (ii) calculate the net effect of urban land-use conversion on SOC pools for the same cities; (iii) use the National Land Cover Database to extrapolate total SOC pools for each of the lower 48 U.S. states; and (iv) compare these totals with aboveground totals of carbon storage by trees. Residential soils in Baltimore had SOC densities that were approximately 20 to 34% less than Moscow or Chicago. By contrast, park soils in Baltimore had more than double the SOC density of Hong Kong. Of the six cities, Atlanta and Chicago had the highest and lowest SOC densities per total area, respectively (7.83 and 5.49 kg m(-2)). On a pervious area basis, the SOC densities increased between 8.32 (Oakland) and 10.82 (Atlanta) kg m(-2). In the northeastern United States, Boston and Syracuse had 1.6-fold less SOC post- than in pre-urban development stage. By contrast, cities located in warmer and/or drier climates had slightly higher SOC pools post- than in pre-urban development stage (4 and 6% for Oakland and Chicago, respectively). For the state analysis, aboveground estimates of C density varied from a low of 0.3 (WY) to a high of 5.1 (GA) kg m(-2), while belowground estimates varied from 4.6 (NV) to 12.7 (NH) kg m(-2). The ratio of aboveground to belowground estimates of C storage varied widely with an overall ratio of 2.8. Our results suggest that urban soils have the potential to sequester large amounts of SOC, especially in residential areas where management inputs and the lack of annual soil disturbances create conditions for net increases in SOC. In addition, our analysis suggests the importance of regional variations of land-use and land-cover distributions, especially wetlands, in estimating urban SOC pools.

  12. Carbon Storage in an Extensive Karst-distributed Region of Southwestern China based on Multiple Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Ni, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon storage is crucial to better understand the processes of global and regional carbon cycles and to more precisely project ecological and economic scenarios for the future. Southwestern China has broadly and continuously distribution of karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats which might lead to rocky desertification, an ecological disaster which has significantly hindered vegetation succession and economic development in karst regions of southwestern China. In this study we evaluated the carbon storage in eight political divisions of southwestern China based on four methods: forest inventory, carbon density based on field investigations, CASA model driven by remote sensing data, and BIOME4/LPJ global vegetation models driven by climate data. The results show that: (1) The total vegetation carbon storage (including agricultural ecosystem) is 6763.97 Tg C based on the carbon density, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage (above 20cm depth) is 12475.72 Tg C. Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) possess the highest carbon storage in both vegetation and soil (1736.47 Tg C and 4056.56 Tg C, respectively) among the eight political divisions because of the higher carbon density and larger distribution area. The vegetation carbon storage in Hunan Province is the smallest (565.30 Tg C), and the smallest SOC storage (1127.40 Tg C) is in Guangdong Province; (2) Based on forest inventory data, the total aboveground carbon storage in the woody vegetation is 2103.29 Tg C. The carbon storage in Yunnan Province (819.01 Tg C) is significantly higher than other areas while tropical rainforests and seasonal forests in Yunnan contribute the maximum of the woody vegetation carbon storage (account for 62.40% of the total). (3) The net primary production (NPP) simulated by the CASA model is 68.57 Tg C/yr, while the forest NPP in the non-karst region (account for 72.50% of the total) is higher than that in the karst region. (4) BIOME4 and LPJ

  13. Directed precipitation of hydrated and anhydrous magnesium carbonates for carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Edward J; Fricker, Kyle J; Sun, Michael; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2014-11-14

    Magnesite is the most desirable phase within the magnesium carbonate family for carbon storage for a number of reasons: magnesium efficiency, omission of additional crystal waters and thermodynamic stability. For large-scale carbonation to be a viable industrial process, magnesite precipitation must be made to occur rapidly and reliably. Unfortunately, the formation of metastable hydrated magnesium carbonate phases (e.g. MgCO3·3H2O and Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) interferes with the production of anhydrous magnesite under a variety of reaction conditions because magnesite crystals are slower to both nucleate and grow compared to the hydrated carbonate phases. Furthermore, the reaction conditions required for the formation of each magnesium carbonate phases have not been well understood with conflicting literature data. In this study, the effects of both magnesite (MgCO3) and inert (Al2O3) seed particles on the precipitation of magnesium carbonates from a Mg(OH)2 slurry were explored. It was interesting that MgCO3 seeding was shown to accelerate anhydrous magnesite growth at temperatures (80-150 °C), where it would normally not form in short time scale. Since the specific surface areas of MgCO3 and Al2O3 seeding particles were similar, this phenomenon was due to the difference in the surface chemistry of two seeding particles. By providing a template with similar chemistry for the growth of magnesite, the precipitation of anhydrous magnesite was demonstrated. The effect of temperature on seeded carbonation was also investigated. A comparison with published MgCO3 precipitation rate laws indicated that the precipitation of magnesite was limited by either CO2 adsorption from the gas phase or the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)2.

  14. Biomass and carbon storage of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoungho; Oh, Junyeong; Kim, Sangchul; Huang, Jianhui; Wang, Pengyun

    2014-09-01

    Marine macroalgae can absorb carbon and play an important role in carbon sequestration. As an important economic macroalga, Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has the potential to significantly affect carbon absorption and storage in wave-sheltered intertidal reef systems. However, detailed knowledge on seasonal biomass changes and carbon storage of G. lemaneiformis is lacking, especially in many small and scattered ecosystems. Considering the influence of human activities on wild distribution of G. lemaneiformis, the understanding of seasonal dynamics of an economically important species in nature is necessary. In this study, we first investigated seasonal variations in biomass, coverage area, and carbon storage during low tide from August 2011 to July 2012 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao, China. Furthermore, we estimated the carbon storage potential of wild G. lemaneiformis using light use efficiency (LUE). The results show that the standing biomass and coverage area changed significantly with season. However, seasonal variations in carbon content and water content were not obvious, with an average content of 35.1% and 83.64%, respectively. Moreover, carbon storage in individual months varied between 0.67 and 47.03 g C/m2, and the value of carbon storage was the highest in August and June and the lowest in February. In Zhanshan Bay, LUE of G. lemaneiformis was only 0.23%. If it is increased to the theoretical maximum (5%-6%), the carbon storage will have an increase of at least 21 times compared with the current, which suggested that carbon storage of wild G. lemaneiformis had a high enhancement potential. The study will help to assess a potential role of G. lemaneiformis in reducing atmospheric CO2.

  15. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = −ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1–1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites.  Implications: This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:27111469

  16. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  17. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  18. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  19. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  20. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b...

  1. Contribution of Increasing CO2 and Climate to Carbon Storage by Ecosystems in the United States

    Treesearch

    David Schimel; Jerry Melillo; Hanqin Tian; A. David McGuire; David Kicklighter; Timothy Kittel; Nan Rosenbloom; Steven Running; Peter Thorton; Dennis Ojima; William Parton; Robin Kelly; Martin Sykes; Ron Neilson; Brian Rizzo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink...

  2. [Carbon storage of forest stands in Shandong Province estimated by forestry inventory data].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Mei; Yang, Chuan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Nian; Ge, Li-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Based on the 7th forestry inventory data of Shandong Province, this paper estimated the carbon storage and carbon density of forest stands, and analyzed their distribution characteristics according to dominant tree species, age groups and forest category using the volume-derived biomass method and average-biomass method. In 2007, the total carbon storage of the forest stands was 25. 27 Tg, of which the coniferous forests, mixed conifer broad-leaved forests, and broad-leaved forests accounted for 8.6%, 2.0% and 89.4%, respectively. The carbon storage of forest age groups followed the sequence of young forests > middle-aged forests > mature forests > near-mature forests > over-mature forests. The carbon storage of young forests and middle-aged forests accounted for 69.3% of the total carbon storage. Timber forest, non-timber product forest and protection forests accounted for 37.1%, 36.3% and 24.8% of the total carbon storage, respectively. The average carbon density of forest stands in Shandong Province was 10.59 t x hm(-2), which was lower than the national average level. This phenomenon was attributed to the imperfect structure of forest types and age groups, i. e., the notably higher percentage of timber forests and non-timber product forest and the excessively higher percentage of young forests and middle-aged forest than mature forests.

  3. Mapping the ethical landscape of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Philip; Gough, Clair

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a method of scoping for potential ethical contentions within a resource constrained research environment where actor participation and bottom-up analysis is precluded. Instead of reverting to a top-down analytical structure, a data-led process is devised. This imitates a bottom-up analytic structure in the absence of the direct participation of actors, culminating in the construction of a map of the ethical landscape; a high-resolution ethical matrix of coded interpretations of various actors' ethical framings of the technology. Despite its limitations, which are discussed, the map can subsequently support the identification of areas where ethical contentions may be raised. Here, the method is described with reference to the construction and analysis of a map of the ethical landscape of carbon capture and storage technology. Taken as a preliminary stage of a larger study, it can support the design and initiation of more sophisticated analyses which may integrate stronger bottom-up participation and facilitate a reflective, deliberative process amongst actors.

  4. Distribution, input pathway and mass inventory of black carbon in sediments of the Gulf of Thailand, SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Bai, Yazhi; Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Qiao, Shuqing; Liu, Shengfa; Yang, Gang; Kornkanitnan, Narumol; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat

    2016-03-01

    The coastal margins around Southeast Asia (SE Asia) may serve as an ideal location to study the source-sink process of sedimentary black carbon (BC) because SE Asia has been identified as one of the major BC emission source regions in the world. This study provides an extensive picture of recent regional-scale sedimentary BC sequestration in the Gulf of Thailand (GOT), a tropical marine system in SE Asia. Generally, the sedimentary BC concentrations (0.07-3.99 mg/g) were in the low to moderate ranges of those obtained in other coastal sediments around the world. Regional variability of the BC and its correlation with the sediment grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) content indicated a general hydrodynamic constraint on BC occurrence in the lower Gulf in contrast to the upper Gulf with a more source dependence due to the direct land-based input. BC/TOC% values and the varied BC components (char and soot), as well as their correlations suggested that char was the predominant constituents of sedimentary BC both in the upper and lower Gulf, which could be mainly derived from biomass burning and entered into the nearshore region through direct fluvial transport and surface run-off. The estimated BC burial flux (∼212 μg/cm2/y) and mass inventory (∼200 Gg/y) in the GOT on the hundred-year timescale were of the same order of magnitude compared with other oceanic margins, and thus the tropical shelf sediments from SE Asia could serve as an important sink of land-emitted BC.

  5. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid assessment of U.S. forest and soil organic carbon storage and forest biomass carbon-sequestration capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3–7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within ±1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0–0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  7. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  8. Hypothetical high-surface-area carbons with exceptional hydrogen storage capacities: open carbon frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Bogdan; Firlej, Lucyna; Mohammadhosseini, Ali; Boulet, Pascal; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-09-12

    A class of high-surface-area carbon hypothetical structures has been investigated that goes beyond the traditional model of parallel graphene sheets hosting layers of physisorbed hydrogen in slit-shaped pores of variable width. The investigation focuses on structures with locally planar units (unbounded or bounded fragments of graphene sheets), and variable ratios of in-plane to edge atoms. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on these structures was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with appropriately chosen adsorbent-adsorbate interaction potentials. The interaction models were tested by comparing simulated adsorption isotherms with experimental isotherms on a high-performance activated carbon with well-defined pore structure (approximately bimodal pore-size distribution), and remarkable agreement between computed and experimental isotherms was obtained, both for gravimetric excess adsorption and for gravimetric storage capacity. From this analysis and the simulations performed on the new structures, a rich spectrum of relationships between structural characteristics of carbons and ensuing hydrogen adsorption (structure-function relationships) emerges: (i) Storage capacities higher than in slit-shaped pores can be obtained by fragmentation/truncation of graphene sheets, which creates surface areas exceeding of 2600 m(2)/g, the maximum surface area for infinite graphene sheets, carried mainly by edge sites; we call the resulting structures open carbon frameworks (OCF). (ii) For OCFs with a ratio of in-plane to edge sites ≈1 and surface areas 3800-6500 m(2)/g, we found record maximum excess adsorption of 75-85 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and record storage capacity of 100-260 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and 100 bar. (iii) The adsorption in structures having large specific surface area built from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot be further increased because their energy of adsorption is low. (iv) Additional increase of hydrogen

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increase soil carbon storage: molecular signatures of mycorrhizal competition driving soil C storage at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, C.; Barry, B. K.; Hawkes, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon storage and decay is regulated by the activity of free-living decomposer microbes, which can be limited by nitrogen availability. Many plants associate with symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi on their roots, which produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes and may be able to compete with free-living decomposers for soil organic nitrogen. By doing so, ectomycorrhizal fungi may able to induce nitrogen limitation and reduce activity of free-living microbial decomposition by mining soil organic nitrogen. The implication is that ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems should have increased soil carbon storage relative to non-ectomycorrhizal systems, which has been confirmed at a global scale. To investigate these effects, we analyzed 364 globally distributed observations of soil fungal communities using 454 sequencing of the ITS region, along with soil C and N concentrations, climate and chemical data. We assigned operational taxonomic units using the QIIME pipeline and UNITE fungal database and assigned fungal reads as ectomycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal based on current taxonomic knowledge. We tested for associations between ectomycorrhizal abundance, climate, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Sites with greater soil carbon had quantitatively more ectomycorrhizal fungi within the soil microbial community based on fungal sequence abundance, after accounting for soil nitrogen availability. This is consistent with our hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal fungi induce nitrogen-limitation of free-living decomposers and thereby increase soil carbon storage. The strength of the mycorrhizal effect increased non-linearly with ectomycorrhizal abundance: the greater the abundance, the greater the effect size. Mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture and soil pH were also significant predictors in the final AIC selected model. This analysis suggests that molecular data on soil microbial communities can be used to make quantitative biogeochemical predictions. The

  10. Toward quantifying the deep Atlantic carbon storage increase during the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations during peak glacial time were ~30% lower than the levels during interglacial periods. The terrestrial biosphere carbon stock was likely reduced during glacials. Increased carbon storage in the deep ocean is thought to play an important role in lowering glacial atmospheric CO2. However, it has been challenging to quantify carbon storage changes in the deep ocean using existing proxy data. Here, we present deepwater carbonate ion reconstructions for a few locations in the deep Atlantic. These data allow us to estimate the minimum carbon storage increase in the deep Atlantic Ocean during the last glaciation. Our results show that, despite its relative small volume, the deep Atlantic Ocean may contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2 variations at major climate transitions. Furthermore, our results suggest a strong coupling of ocean circulation and carbon cycle in the deep Atlantic during the last glaciation.

  11. Sustained growth of the Southern Ocean carbon storage in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takamitsu; Bracco, Annalisa; Deutsch, Curtis; Frenzel, Hartmut; Long, Matthew; Takano, Yohei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the mechanisms controlling the evolution of Southern Ocean carbon storage under a future climate warming scenario. A subset of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models predicts that the inventory of biologically sequestered carbon south of 40°S increases about 18-34 Pg C by 2100 relative to the preindustrial condition. Sensitivity experiments with an ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model illustrates the impacts of the wind and buoyancy forcings under a warming climate. Intensified and poleward shifted westerly wind strengthens the upper overturning circulation, not only leading to an increased uptake of anthropogenic CO2 but also releasing biologically regenerated carbon to the atmosphere. Freshening of Antarctic Surface Water causes a slowdown of the lower overturning circulation, leading to an increased Southern Ocean biological carbon storage. The rectified effect of these processes operating together is the sustained growth of the carbon storage in the Southern Ocean, even under the warming climate with a weaker global ocean carbon uptake.

  12. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X; Bhatti, Jagtar S

    2015-11-30

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  13. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-11-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC.

  14. Sample storage-induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil labile organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Cai, Hui-Ying; Chang, Scott X.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of sample storage methods on the quantity and quality of labile soil organic carbon are not fully understood even though their effects on basic soil properties have been extensively studied. We studied the effects of air-drying and frozen storage on cold and hot water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Cold- and hot-WSOC in air-dried and frozen-stored soils were linearly correlated with those in fresh soils, indicating that storage proportionally altered the extractability of soil organic carbon. Air-drying but not frozen storage increased the concentrations of cold-WSOC and carbohydrate in cold-WSOC, while both increased polyphenol concentrations. In contrast, only polyphenol concentration in hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying and frozen storage, suggesting that hot-WSOC was less affected by sample storage. The biodegradability of cold- but not hot-WSOC was increased by air-drying, while both air-drying and frozen storage increased humification index and changed specific UV absorbance of both cold- and hot-WSOC, indicating shifts in the quality of soil WSOC. Our results suggest that storage methods affect the quantity and quality of WSOC but not comparisons between samples, frozen storage is better than air-drying if samples have to be stored, and storage should be avoided whenever possible when studying the quantity and quality of both cold- and hot-WSOC. PMID:26617054

  15. Managing carbon sequestration and storage in northern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Eunice A. Padley; Deahn M. Donner; Karin S. Fassnacht; Ronald S. Zalesny; Bruce Birr; Karl J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Carbon has an important role in sustainable forest management, contributing to functions that maintain site productivity, nutrient cycling, and soil physical properties. Forest management practices can alter ecosystem carbon allocation as well as the amount of total site carbon.

  16. [Carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Yun; Fan, Wei; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Wan, Meng

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain, the poplar-crop ecosystems with different ages (5, 9, 11, and 13 years old) of poplar were selected, and each of them was further divided into four subsystems, i. e. , forest, crop, litterfall, and soil. In the poplar-crop ecosystems with 5, 9, 11, and 13 years old poplar, the carbon storage of the subsystems forest and litterfall was summed as 7.86, 42.07, 44.31, and 60.71 t x hm(-2), respectively. Subsystem crop averagely sequestrated 6. 8 t x hm(-2) of CO2 per year, and the carbon storage of subsystem soil achieved 45.55, 51.06, 55.94, and 60.49 t x hm(-2), respectively. The total carbon storage of these four poplar-crop ecosystems reached 60.81, 100.09, 106.76, and 127.34 t x hm(-2), respectively, much higher than that in mono-cultured farmland (49.36 t x hm(-2)). For the test poplar-crop ecosystems, the carbon storage of subsystems forest and soil occupied a large proportion, accounting for 87.1%-93.1% of the total carbon storage, while that of subsystems crop and litterfall occupied a relatively small proportion, being 6.9%-12.9% of the total, illustrating that agroforestry ecosystem had a high potential in carbon absorption and sequestration.

  17. [Impact of land-use change on soil carbon storage].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Xu, Deying

    2004-04-01

    Through comparing the concentration and inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its distribution in soil profiles under cropland, rangeland, natural secondary forest (brushwood, natural secondary forest dominated by Querces liaotungensis or Populus davidiana) and larch plantations (13, 18 and 25 years old Larix principisrupprechtil), this paper studied the effect of land use change from natural secondary forest to cropland or rangeland as well as from cropland or rangeland to plantation on SOC storage in the Liupan mountain forest zone. The results showed that the concentration of SOC in 0-110 cm soil layer under cropland and rangeland was 54% and 27% lower than that under natural secondary forest, respectively. The difference of SOC concentration between natural secondary forest and cropland or rangeland was greater in 0-50 cm than in 50-110 cm soil layer, while that between larch plantations and cropland or rangeland was greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-110 cm soil layer. The inventory of SOC in 0-110 cm soil layer under cropland and rangeland was respectively 35% and 14% lower than that under natural secondary forest, while 23% lower under cropland and 4% higher under rangeland than that under larch plantations. The difference of SOC inventory between natural secondary forest and cropland or rangeland was greater in 0-50 cm than in 50-110 cm soil layer, while that between plantations and cropland or rangeland was greater in 0-30 cm than in 30-110 cm soil layer. The decreasing magnitude of SOC storage with soil profile depth under natural secondary forest or larch plantations was greater than that under cropland or rangeland. The above-mentioned facts resulted from the changes of SOC input or output and the distribution of roots in soil. The results indicated that the SOC concentration and inventory would decline (mainly in 0-50 cm soil layer) after converting from natural secondary forest to cropland or rangeland, but increase (mainly in 0-30 cm soil layer

  18. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Total Storage and Landscape Partitioning of Soil Organic Carbon and Phytomass Carbon in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, M. B.; Hanisch, J.; Weiss, N.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) from two study sites in Siberia. The study sites in the Tundra (Kytalyk) and the Taiga (Spasskaya Pad) reflect two contrasting environments in the continuous permafrost zone. In total 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 per study site respectively) have have been sampled for SOC and PC along transects cutting across different land covers. In Kytalyk the sampling depth for the soil pedons was 1 m depth. In Spasskaya Pad where the active layer was significantly deeper, we aimed for 2 m depth or tried to include at least the top of the permafrost. Here the average depth of soil profiles was 152 cm. PC was sampled from 1x1 m ground coverage plots. In Spasskaya Pad tree phytomass was also estimated on a 5x5 m plot. The SOC storage was calculated separately for the intervals 0-30 cm, 30-100 cm and 100-200 cm (the latter only for Spasskaya Pad), as well as for organic layer vs. mineral soil, active layer vs. permafrost and for cryoturbated soil horizons. Landscape partitioning was performed by thematic up-scaling using a vegetation based land cover classification of very high resolution (2x2 m) satellite imagery. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was used to explore the relationship of SOC with PC and different soil and permafrost related variables. The results show that the different land cover classes can be considered distinct storages of SOC, but that PC is not significantly related to total SOC storage. At both study sites the 30-100 cm SOC storage is more important for the total SOC storage than the 0-30 cm interval, and large portions of the total SOC are stored in the permafrost. The largest contribution comes from wetland pedons, but highly cryoturbated individual non-wetland pedons can match these. In Kytalyk the landscape partitioning of SOC mostly follows large scale geomorphological features, while in Spasskaya pad forest type also has a large

  20. Rates of mineral fluid interaction in a carbon storage environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, B.; Kilpatrick, A.; Rosenqvist, J.

    2013-12-01

    The design of geological carbon storage projects will seek to maximise rapid trapping in more stable forms than simple stratigraphic or structural trapping, and minimise damage to caprocks. In order to do this, the mineral-fluid interactions that arise through CO2 injection must be understood in the context of the injection environment, rather than simply extrapolated from classic mineral dissolution studies. For example, pore waters are unlikely to dissolve additional Si as a consequence of acidification, but will increase their load of metal cations. We have investigated rates of mineral reaction in response to the introduction of CO2 at a range of conditions relevant to undersaturated pore waters close to a CO2 plume. Addition of CO2 to water results in a drop in pH, but where calcite is present, pH rises again rapidly. At room temperature and 3.3 MPa, pH in CO2-saturated water rises from c. 3.4 to 4.5 in 20 hours. Once pore water has been displaced by CO2 and the remaining, residually-trapped water has 'dried out' by evaporation into the flowing CO2, reactions effectively cease, even at 70 degrees C with water-saturated CO2. Dolomite reacts less rapidly than calcite, and continues to dissolve extensively after pH has almost stabilised. Silicate reactivity is slower than for carbonates and leads to progressive transformation of one silicate phase to another via the medium of the pore fluid over an extended period if PCO2 remains high. The cation imbalance generated by rapid carbonate dissolution can be corrected by ion-exchange with clay minerals, if present, thereby accommodating further conversion of silicates. Permeability contrasts between beds mean that injected CO2 advances along the most permeable layers, rapidly displacing water ahead of it but retaining more stable contacts with water in less permeable layers above and below. While calcite dissolution may still be significant ahead of the advancing plume within permeable beds, silicate reactions will be

  1. Organoaqueous calcium chloride electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in carbon nanotubes at sub-zero-temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Qin, Zhanbin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xiaomian; Chen, George Z

    2015-07-11

    Solutions of calcium chloride in mixed water and formamide are excellent electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in partially oxidised carbon nanotubes at unprecedented sub-zero-temperatures (e.g. 67% capacitance retention at -60 °C).

  2. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  3. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  4. Estimating Carbon Storage in Eelgrass Meadows in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J.; McDowell, B.; Sacarny, M.; Colarusso, P.

    2014-12-01

    Seagrass meadows can be hotspots for carbon storage and sequestration, but the data currently available shows an enormous amount of variability. Carbon storage varies with seagrass species and region, and with meadow condition, where healthy meadows sequester carbon but those that are declining may be sources of inorganic carbon to the atmosphere. Very little is known about carbon storage in Zostera marina (eelgrass) meadows in the Gulf of Maine, where they are threatened by poor water quality and physical disturbance. In 2014 we studied two eelgrass meadows in coastal Massachusetts, U.S.A. We sampled biomass and measured carbon content in above- and below-ground plant tissues, sediments, and particulate organic matter in the water column. We estimated bed density and extent using a combination of sonar, visual imaging, and diver surveys. To investigate persistence of carbon storage in sediments, we also sampled sediments from an area where a meadow had historically existed, but had died back in 2012. Results of this work will not only support eelgrass restoration and protection measures locally, but will also help clarify our global understanding of carbon storage in blue habitats.

  5. Land Use Effects on Carbon Storage in Thailand Tropical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, F.; Tostado, E.; Chidthaisong, A.; Tyler, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of stable isotopes of C have proved to be of value in estimating soil organic C turnover times and in partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) from different sources. Typically, the contrast between sources and estimates of C turnover have been studied in ecosystems where C-3 photosynthetic plants such as hardwoods have been replaced by C-4 photosynthetic plants from agriculture such as corn or sugarcane. Here we report concentrations and stable C isotope ratios of SOC from Thailand coastal mangrove forests and intrusive coastal aquaculture in the form of shrimp and wastewater treatment ponds. There are clear changes in both magnitude and 13C/12C of SOC at former mangrove sites which have been altered to make ponds for shrimp farming and wastewater treatment. For instance, total per cent C from 0-40 cm soil depth (average of four 10 cm layers at 2 sites) was 6.2±2.8% for mature mangrove, while it was only 0.5±0.4% for a 10-year old shrimp pond and 1.3±0.4% for an 8-year old water treatment pond. Previous studies of mangrove organic C balance have indicated that these inter-tidal forest ecosystems are a sink for C and that significant C is vested in both above- and below-ground biomass and stored in sediments. Mangrove forest disturbance by human activities clearly has the potential to affect C storage. Our data indicates that stable C isotope tracing will be of value in tracking changes in coastal forest-aquaecosystems just as it has been for forest-agroecosystems

  6. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  7. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  8. Soil carbon storage estimation in a forested watershed using quantitative soil-landscape modeling

    Treesearch

    James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Carbon storage in soils is important to forest ecosystems. Moreover, forest soils may serve as important C sinks for ameliorating excess atmospheric CO2. Spatial estimates of soil organic C (SOC) storage have traditionally relied upon soil survey maps and laboratory characterization data. This approach does not account for inherent variability...

  9. Comparison of methods for estimating carbon dioxide storage by Sacramento's urban forest

    Treesearch

    Elena Aguaron; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    Limited open-grown urban tree species biomass equations have necessitated use of forest-derived equations with diverse conclusions on the accuracy of these equations to estimate urban biomass and carbon storage. Our goal was to determine and explain variability among estimates of CO2 storage from four sets of allometric equations for the same...

  10. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  11. Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios

    Treesearch

    M. Hurteau; M. North

    2009-01-01

    Forests are viewed as a potential sink for carbon (C) that might otherwise contribute to climate change. It is unclear, however, how to manage forests with frequent fire regimes to maximize C storage while reducing C emissions from prescribed burns or wildfire. We modeled the effects of eight different fuel treatments on treebased C storage and release over a century,...

  12. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  13. Coarse woody debris carbon storage across a mean annual temperature gradient in tropical montane wet forest

    Treesearch

    Darcey K. Iwashita; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina

    2013-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD; defined here as fallen and standing dead trees and tree ferns) is a critical structural and functional component of forest ecosystems that typically comprises a large proportion of total aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, CWD estimates for the tropics are uncommon, and little is known about how C storage in CWD will respond to climate...

  14. Microporous carbon nanosheets with redox-active heteroatoms for pseudocapacitive charge storage.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y S; Kim, D-H; Hong, S J; Park, M H; Park, Y W; Kim, B H; Jin, H-J; Kang, K

    2015-10-07

    We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors.

  15. [Prediction of spatial distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province using spatial error model].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng-Ri; Zhen, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract: Based on the data from Chinese National Forest Inventory (CNFI) and Key Ecological Benefit Forest Monitoring plots (5075 in total) in Heilongjiang Province in 2010 and concurrent meteorological data coming from 59 meteorological stations located in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Inner Mongolia, this paper established a spatial error model (SEM) by GeoDA using carbon storage as dependent variable and several independent variables, including diameter of living trees (DBH), number of trees per hectare (TPH), elevation (Elev), slope (Slope), and product of precipitation and temperature (Rain_Temp). Global Moran's I was computed for describing overall spatial autocorrelations of model results at different spatial scales. Local Moran's I was calculated at the optimal bandwidth (25 km) to present spatial distribution residuals. Intra-block spatial variances were computed to explain spatial heterogeneity of residuals. Finally, a spatial distribution map of carbon storage in Heilongjiang was visualized based on predictions. The results showed that the distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang had spatial effect and was significantly influenced by stand, topographic and meteorological factors, especially average DBH. SEM could solve the spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity well. There were significant spatial differences in distribution of forest carbon storage. The carbon storage was mainly distributed in Zhangguangcai Mountain, Xiao Xing'an Mountain and Da Xing'an Mountain where dense, forests existed, rarely distributed in Songnen Plains, while Wanda Mountain had moderate-level carbon storage.

  16. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  17. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  18. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Simultaneous reproduction of global carbon exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial carbon cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both carbon exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial carbon budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, carbon exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of carbon budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial carbon fluxes and often neglected carbon storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to carbon fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial carbon cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as carbon fluxes in the system of carbon cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the global assessment of both carbon budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of carbon allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. Carbon allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as carbon fluxes by controlling the carbon content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of carbon budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the

  20. Impacts of Soil Organic Stability on Carbon Storage in Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands store vast amounts of organic carbon, globally, and are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of anthropogenic sea level rise. Recently, we used ramped pyrolysis/oxidation decomposition characteristics as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC) stability to understand the fate of carbon storage in coastal wetlands (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes) comprising the Mississippi River deltaic plain, undergoing rapid rates of local sea level rise. At equivalent soil depths, we observed that fresh marsh SOC was more thermochemically stable than brackish and salt marsh SOC. The differences in stability imply stronger carbon sequestration potential of fresh marsh soil carbon, compared to that of salt and brackish marshes. Here, we expand upon these results of differential organic carbon stability/reactivity and model how projected changes in salinity due to sea-level rise and other environmental changes will impact carbon storage in this region with implications globally.

  1. [Changes of the storage stability of ketones collected on activated coconut carbon in environmental ketone measurement].

    PubMed

    Sakamroto, Takayuki; Hinoue, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    The storage stability for six ketones was studied on four activated coconut carbons commonly used for air sampling in Japan. As the ratios of the enol form of cyclohexanone and methyl ethyl ketone are high, the ketones showed drastic losses during storage (storage stability), which could be attributed to catalytic oxidation and chemisorption. Moreover, adsorbed water caused a further decrease in recoveries of the ketones from the carbons. Because keto-enol tautomerism and hydration are catalyzed by acid or base, the relationships between the recoveries of the ketones from the carbons and pH in the aqueous solution of the carbons and the ignition residue of the carbons were investigated. As a result, the intensity of acidity or basicity of the carbons correlated with the loss of the ketones during storage, but the ignition residue of the carbons did not. Therefore, these results lead us to the conclusion that a more neutral coconut carbon is more suitable for the collection of aliphatic ketones, and activated coconut carbons are not suitable for cyclohexanone.

  2. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  3. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Paul E.; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  4. Overview of carbon storage and exchange in arid lands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Arid and Semi-arid ecosystems comprise about 30% of the Earth's surface, and contain substantial stores of carbon, especially in inorganic form (CaCO3) in soil carbonate. The global pool of pedogenic carbon may exceed 1000 Pg, exceeding the stock of carbon in soil organic matter in arid lands by a factor of about 5. Despite several recent reports to the contrary, the exchange of carbon between desert ecosystems and the atmosphere is rather limited, producing long turn-over times (e.g., 85,000 years) for soil carbonates. In most cases, there is no indication that additional carbon uptake has occurred in recent years, so the sink for carbon in desert ecosystems cannot be considered as a contribution to the "Missing sink" that still eludes the carbon balance of the atmosphere.

  5. Spatial Simulation of Land Use based on Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Coastal Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Wang, Wanjing; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2014-01-01

    This paper optimises projected land-use structure in 2020 with the goal of increasing terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and simulates its spatial distribution using the CLUE-S model. We found the following: The total carbon densities of different land use types were woodland > water area > cultivated land > built-up land > grassland > shallows. Under the optimised land-use structure projected for 2020, coastal Jiangsu showed the potential to increase carbon storage, and our method was effective even when only considering vegetation carbon storage. The total area will increase by reclamation and the original shallows will be exploited, which will greatly increase carbon storage. For built-up land, rural land consolidation caused the second-largest carbon storage increase, which might contribute the most as the rural population will continue to decrease in the future, while the decrease of cultivated land will contribute the most to carbon loss. The area near the coastline has the greatest possibility for land-use change and is where land management should be especially strengthened. PMID:25011476

  6. Effect of Forest Structural Change on Carbon Storage in a Coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides Stand

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2013-01-01

    Forest structural change affects the forest's growth and the carbon storage. Two treatments, thinning (30% thinning intensity) and underplanting plus thinning, are being implemented in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest shelterbelt in Eastern China. The vegetation carbon storage significantly increased in the underplanted and thinned treatments compared with that in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The soil and litterfall carbon storage in the underplanted treatment were significantly higher than those in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The total forest ecosystem carbon storage in the underplanted and thinned treatments increased by 35.3% and 26.3%, respectively, compared with that in the unthinned treatment, an increase that mainly came from the growth of vegetation aboveground. Total ecosystem carbon storage showed no significant difference between the underplanted and thinned treatments (P > 0.05). The soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was significantly higher at the 0–15 cm soil layer in the thinned and underplanted stands compared with that in the unthinned stand (P < 0.05). The soil respiration of the underplanted treatment was significantly higher than that of the unthinned treatment only in July (P < 0.05). This study concludes that 30% thinning and underplanting after thinning could be more favorable to carbon sequestration for M. glyptostroboides plantations in the coastal areas of Eastern China. PMID:24187525

  7. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26–44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage. PMID:27278688

  9. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-06-09

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26-44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage.

  10. Increased carbon flux with rising mean annual temperature does not alter ecosystem carbon storage in a tropical montane wet forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmants, P.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory and existing studies agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in the absence of water and nutrient limitations. However, it remains unclear how increased carbon input to and loss from terrestrial ecosystems will affect overall ecosystem carbon storage, which has important implications for potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we use a well-constrained model ecological gradient to quantify how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects carbon fluxes and ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across nine permanent plots representing a 5.2ο C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Aboveground net primary productivity increased by 1 Mg ha-1 y-1 and the residence time of carbon in the forest floor declined by ~3 months for each 1ο C rise in MAT across the gradient, indicating a substantial increase in both carbon input and output with rising MAT. Despite these large increases in carbon flux, ecosystem carbon storage showed minimal sensitivity to MAT. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of temperature. Detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg ha-1 for each 1ο C rise in temperature, but this decline was driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter, which together make up < 10% on average of total ecosystem C across the MAT gradient. The largest detrital pool, soil carbon, did not vary with MAT, averaging 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the gradient. Overall, total ecosystem carbon storage did not vary with MAT, averaging ~550 Mg ha-1 across the gradient. In addition, the distribution of ecosystem carbon in live biomass vs. detritus remained relatively constant at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. Because our MAT gradient does not vary with respect to factors other than temperature (i.e., dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), these

  11. Carbon Flux Estimation in Southeast Asia using a Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Inversion System and Observational Data from Multiple Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, M.; Shirai, T.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.; Nomura, S.; Mohamad, M.; Jahaya, M. F.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, O.; Zhuravlev, R.; Ganshin, A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia is rich in tropical forest and biodiversity. Previous inversion studies show large inter-annual variability in the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange attributable to climate anomalies. However, the magnitudes of estimated fluxes are significantly different among the inversions. On the other hand, land-use change has been accelerating the anthropogenic emissions. For the sustainable development in Southeast Asia under the on-going climate change, it is important to understand the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and access the regional emissions. One of the reasons for the large uncertainty in flux estimate is a limited coverage of atmospheric observation against the large variety of ecosystems and the geographical complexity. Recently, the number of measurements has been increasing, including ground-based and satellite-based measurements. We estimated the regional CO2fluxes using a Eulerian-Lagrangian inverse modeling system and examined the characteristics of observational constraints and their impacts on the flux estimate in Southeast Asia. The results show that the temporal variations and source/sink strength of estimated regional fluxes are sensitive to the observational constraints. As a control run, we used the Observational Package (ObsPack) data product since 2001 as a global dataset of atmospheric CO2 measurement. In the addition to Bukit, Sumatra Island (BKT) in ObsPack, we included a stationary CO2 data at Danum Valley in Borneo Island (DMV) since late 2009. Compared to BKT, DMV shows a clear seasonal cycle. The inversion including DMV tends to increase the regional carbon sink in the second half of year. Remotely the aircraft measurements over Rarotonga (RTA) in the tropical Pacific Ocean see the signals from Southeast Asia through an atmospheric convection. The sensitivity test shows RTA impacts on the inter-annual variations of estimated flux, which might be associated with ENSO events. Since June 2009, Greenhouse gases Observing

  12. Metal oxide-carbon composites for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya Dulip

    The exponential growth of the population and the associated energy demand requires the development of new materials for sustainable energy conversion and storage. Expanding the use of renewable energy sources to generate electricity is still not sufficient enough to fulfill the current energy demand. Electricity generation by wind and solar is the most promising alternative energy resources for coal and oil. The first part of the dissertation addresses an alternative method for preparing TiO2 nanotube based photoanodes for DSSCs. This would involve smaller diameter TiO2 nanotubes (˜10 nm), instead of nanoparticles or electrochemically grown larger nanotubes. Moreover, TiO2 nanotube-graphene based photocatalysts were developed to treat model pollutants. In the second part of this dissertation, the development of electrical energy storage systems, which provide high storage capacity and power output using low cost materials are discussed. Among different types of energy storage systems, batteries are the most convenient method to store electrical energy. However, the low power performance of batteries limits the application in different types of electrical energy storage. The development of electrical energy storage systems, which provide high storage capacity and power output using low cost materials are discussed.

  13. Evaluating carbon storage, timber harvest, and habitat possibilities for a Western Cascades (USA) forest landscape

    Treesearch

    Jeff Kline; Mark E. Harmon; Thomas A. Spies; Anita T. Morzillo; Robert J. Pabst; Brenda C. McComb; Frank Schnekenburger; Keith A. Olsen; Blair Csuti; Jody C. Vogeler

    2016-01-01

    Forest policymakers and managers have long sought ways to evaluate the capability of forest landscapes to jointly produce timber, habitat, and other ecosystem services in response to forest management. Currently, carbon is of particular interest as policies for increasing carbon storage on federal lands are being proposed. However, a challenge in joint production...

  14. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield; Robert E. Hoehn; Elizabeth. Lapoint

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine...

  15. Impact of dissolution and carbonate precipitation on carbon storage in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. K.; Xiong, W.; Tadeoye, J.; Menefee, A.; Ellis, B. R.; Skemer, P. A.; Giammar, D.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial evolution of silicate mineral dissolution, carbonate precipitation, and the transport of fluids influence the viability of carbon storage in basalt reservoirs. Dissolution of natural basalt and subsequent carbonate precipitation in systems with different transport processes operating were characterized using static and flow-through (5 mL/hr) experiments at 50, 100, and 150 °C, and 100 bar CO2. Intact samples and cores with milled pathways that simulate fractures were tested. Spatial and mineralogical patterns in dissolution and precipitation were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy, microCT scanning, and surface roughness data. Precipitates and fluid chemistry were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDS, and ICP-MS. Analysis of the bulk solution and surface topography suggests dissolution of olivine and pyroxene grains begins within hours of the start of the experiments. In flow-through experiments, total effluent cation concentrations reach a peak concentration within a few hours then drop towards a steady state within a few days. In static experiments, the initial rate of cation release is faster than it is after several weeks. In both cases Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ are the dominant cations in solution in the initial stages of reaction. Lower concentrations of Na2+, K+, and Al3+, and the preservation of feldspar and matrix grains after several weeks of reaction indicate the slow reactivity of these minerals. As the reaction progresses, the surface roughness increases steadily with cavities developing at the sites of olivine and pyroxene grains. Post-reaction analysis of basalt samples reacted at static conditions with milled pathways reveals that both siderite and amorphous silica precipitated within diffusion-limited zones as early as 4-6 weeks. Siderite abundance varies with distance along the pathway with the highest concentration of carbonates 1-2 cm below the fracture opening. Siderite precipitates are large enough to fill fracture

  16. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Nitash Balsara

    2016-07-12

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  17. Geological storage of captured carbon dioxide as a large-scale carbon mitigation option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celia, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS), involves capture of CO2 emissions from power plants and other large stationary sources and subsequent injection of the captured CO2 into deep geological formations. This is the only technology currently available that allows continued use of fossil fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Although the subsurface injection and subsequent migration of large amounts of CO2 involve a number of challenges, many decades of research in the earth sciences, focused on fluid movement in porous rocks, provides a strong foundation on which to analyze the system. These analyses indicate that environmental risks associated with large CO2 injections appear to be manageable.

  18. Carbon in conurbations: Afforestation and carbon storage as consequences of urban sprawl in Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubiewski, Nancy Ellen

    In the arid western United States, urbanization transforms landscapes from sparsely vegetated grasslands with tree-lined riparian corridors into matrices of asphalt, concrete, turf grass, and multi-strata wooded stands. This research sought to understand the consequences of urbanization upon carbon pools in the Front Range of Colorado, a metropolitan area undergoing expansive urban transformation. Vegetative and edaphic C, as well as biomass and other soil physical/chemical properties, were measured throughout the Denver-Boulder metropolitan area in 2000 and 2001. Anthropogenic activities leave clear signatures on all three C compartments measured. The comparison of C storage in the vegetated spaces of urban areas to that in grasslands and agricultural fields reveals a marked increase as well as a proportional shift in storage from belowground to aboveground. Lawn grass produces more biomass and stores more C than local prairie or agricultural fields. Introduced woody vegetation comprises a substantial C pool in urban greenspaces and represents a wholly new ecosystem feature. Established urban greenspaces harbor larger C pools than native grasslands on a per area basis. Rather than map the urban land-cover types, regional detection of the proportion of the urbanized landscape occupied by vegetated and anthropogenic components extracted biophysical information of the urban/rural matrix. Convex geometry and partial unmixing algorithms were used to extract major landscape elements from an AVIRIS image of Boulder, including six vegetation endmembers. Other scene components were also identified, including soil, water, and five impervious surfaces. The fractional abundance of urban vegetation equaled or exceeded that of vegetation in surrounding areas. In order to understand the effect of the per-area C increase in anthropogenic landscapes regionally, the distribution of carbon in land covers across the landscape was investigated. Regional C estimates were based on both

  19. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity for all unconventional reservoirs may be modeled using a volumetric equation starting with the extent of the rock unit and adjusted using these key factors and reaction terms. The ideas that were developed during this workshop can be used by USGS scientists to develop a methodology to assess the CO2 storage resource in unconventional reservoirs. This methodology could then be released for public comment and peer review. After completing this development process, the USGS could then use the methodology to assess the CO2 storage resource in unconventional reservoirs.

  20. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  1. Tailoring of nanoscale porosity in carbide-derived carbons for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Gogotsi, Yury; Dash, Ranjan K; Yushin, Gleb; Yildirim, Taner; Laudisio, Giovanna; Fischer, John E

    2005-11-23

    The poor performance of hydrogen storage materials continues to hinder development of fuel cell-powered automobiles. Nanoscale carbons, in particular (activated carbon, exfoliated graphite, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanohorns), have not fulfilled their initial promise. Here we show that carbon materials can be rationally designed for H2 storage. Carbide-derived carbons (CDC), a largely unknown class of porous carbons, are produced by high-temperature chlorination of carbides. Metals and metalloids are removed as chlorides, leaving behind a collapsed noncrystalline carbon with up to 80% open pore volume. The detailed nature of the porosity-average size and size distribution, shape, and total specific surface area (SSA)-can be tuned with high sensitivity by selection of precursor carbide (composition, lattice type) and chlorination temperature. The optimum temperature is bounded from below by thermodynamics and kinetics of chlorination reactions and from above by graphitization, which decreases SSA and introduces H2-sorbing surfaces with binding energies too low to be useful. Intuitively, pores of different size and shape should not contribute equally to hydrogen storage. By correlating pore properties with 77 K H2 isotherms from a wide variety of CDCs, we experimentally confirm that gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity normalized to total pore volume is optimized in materials with primarily micropores ( approximately 1 nm) rather than mesopores. Thus, in agreement with theoretical predictions, a narrow size distribution of small pores is desirable for storing hydrogen, while large pores merely degrade the volumetric storage capacity.

  2. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  3. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  4. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export.

  5. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723

  6. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  7. The U. S. DOE Carbon Storage Program: Status and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, D.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is taking steps to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through clean energy innovation, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) research. The Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from stationary sources. The Program is developing and advancing geologic storage technologies both onshore and offshore that will significantly improve the effectiveness of CCS, reduce the cost of implementation, and be ready for widespread commercial deployment in the 2025-2035 timeframe. The technology development and field testing conducted through this Program will be used to benefit the existing and future fleet of fossil fuel power generating and industrial facilities by creating tools to increase our understanding of geologic reservoirs appropriate for CO2 storage and the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The Program is evaluating the potential for storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, unmineable coal, organic-rich shale formations, and basalt formations. Since 1997, DOE's Carbon Storage Program has significantly advanced the CCS knowledge base through a diverse portfolio of applied research projects. The Core Storage R&D research component focuses on analytic studies, laboratory, and pilot- scale research to develop technologies that can improve wellbore integrity, increase reservoir storage efficiency, improve management of reservoir pressure, ensure storage permanence, quantitatively assess risks, and identify and mitigate potential release of CO2 in all types of storage formations. The Storage Field Management component focuses on scale-up of CCS and involves field validation of technology options, including large-volume injection field projects at pre-commercial scale to confirm system performance and economics. Future research involves commercial-scale characterization for regionally significant storage locations

  8. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end.

  9. The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation Membrane Proteomics Initiative. Preparation and characterization of the carbonate-washed membrane standard

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lifeng; Kapp, Eugene A.; Fenyö, David; Kwon, Min-Seok; Jiang, Pu; Wu, Songfeng; Jiang, Ying; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Ahmed, Nikhat; Baker, Mark S.; Cai, Zongwei; Chen, Yu-Ju; Van Chi, Phan; Chung, Maxey C. M.; He, Fuchu; Len, Alice C. L.; Liao, Pao-Chi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ngai, Sai Ming; Paik, Young-Ki; Pan, Tai-Long; Poon, Terence C. W.; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Simpson, Richard J.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Dreyer, Florian S.; McLauchlan, Danyl; Rawson, Pisana; Jordan, T. William

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation has embarked on a Membrane Proteomics Initiative with goals of systematic comparison of strategies for analysis of membrane proteomes and discovery of membrane proteins. This multi-laboratory project is based on analysis of a subcellular fraction from mouse liver that contains endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles. Here we present the strategy used for preparation and initial characterisation of the membrane sample, including validation that the carbonate-washing step enriches for integral and lipid-anchored membrane proteins. Analysis of seventeen independent datasets from five types of proteomic workflows is in progress. PMID:20486120

  10. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-11

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g(-1) and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  11. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g−1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage. PMID:28074899

  12. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g‑1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  13. The potential storage of carbon caused by eutrophication of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. J.; Melillo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase has been reduced due to increased net storage of carbon in forests, coastal oceans, and the open sea, caused by eutrophication of the biosphere with nitrogen and phosphorus, is examined. The potential for carbon storage, the balance of C, N, and P, and man's influence on the forests, rivers, coastal oceans, and the open sea is studied and discussed. It is concluded that biotic carbon sinks are small relative to the rate of CO2 release from fossil fuel; therefore, storage is limited. Man has reduced the stocks of carbon held in forests and soils and there is a redistribution of C, N, and P from the land to the oceans.

  14. Microbial Carbon Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134

    2010-12-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools

  15. Using conservative and reactive tracers to monitor and verify permanent carbon dioxide storage in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. L.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Bausch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage methods can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming. Long term, thermodynamically stable storage of carbon dioxide through mineral carbonation is one such method, in which divalent cations released from rocks such as basalt react with CO2 to form carbonates. [1] Currently used monitoring techniques for geologic CO2 storage fail to detect dissolved or chemically transformed CO2. We use conservative and reactive tracers in an ongoing pilot CO2 injection project in Iceland to characterize subsurface CO2 transport and in situ CO2-water-rock reactions. The Carbfix project in Iceland is a field scale pilot project where CO2 and H2S emissions from the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant are dissolved in groundwater and injected into a permeable basalt formation at ~500 m depth below surface. Trifluormethylsulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) are added as conservative tracers to the injected CO2 for the purpose of characterizing the migration of the injected CO2 in the basaltic storage reservoir. Furthermore, the injected CO2 is labeled with radiocarbon (14C) to monitor the extent of CO2-water-rock reactions and mineral carbonation. Initial results from the monitoring wells show a fast dispersion and reaction of the injected CO2. Breakthrough curves of SF6, SF5CF3 and 14C can be observed in nearby monitoring wells from samples collected and analyzed by gas chromatography or accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Changes in the ratios between reactive and conservative tracers demonstrate that mixing and CO2-water-rock reactions are occurring. The use of conservative and reactive tracers contributes to the monitoring, verification and accounting information needed to establish the extent and security of carbon storage and be helpful in furthering the public acceptance of geological CO2 storage via mineral carbonation as a contribution to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. [1] Oelkers, et

  16. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles.

  17. FeS@C on Carbon Cloth as Flexible Electrode for Both Lithium and Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Li, Weihan; Shi, Jin-an; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-12-23

    Flexible and self-supported carbon-coated FeS on carbon cloth films (denoted as FeS@C/carbon cloth) is prepared by a facial hydrothermal method combined with a carbonization treatment. The FeS@C/carbon cloth could be directly used as electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). The synthetic effects of the structure, highly electron-conductive of carbon cloth, porous structure for electrolyte access, and uniform carbon shell on FeS surface to accommodate the volume change lead to improved cyclability and rate capability. For lithium storage, the FeS@C/carbon cloth electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 420 mAh g(-1) even after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.15 C and 370 mAh g(-1)at a high current density of 7.5 C (1 C = 609 mA g(-1). When used for sodium storage, it keeps a reversible capacity of 365 mAh g(-1)after 100 cycles at 0.15 C. Similar process can be utilized for the formation of various cathode and anode composites on carbon cloth for flexible energy storage devices.

  18. Preparation and characterization of ordered porous carbons for increasing hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-10-15

    We prepared ordered porous carbons (PCs) by using a replication method that had well-organized mesoporous silica as a template with various carbonization temperatures in order to investigate the possibility of energy storage materials. The microstructure and morphologies of the samples are characterized by XRD, TEM, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms are analyzed by the t-plot method, as well as the BET and the H-K method in order to characterize the specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the samples, respectively. The capacity of the hydrogen adsorption of the samples is evaluated by BEL-HP at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results, we are able to confirm that the synthesis of the samples can be accurately governed by the carbonization temperature, which is one of the effective parameters for developing the textural properties of the carbon materials, which affects the behaviors of the hydrogen storage. - Graphical abstract: It is described that the considerable long-range ordering and the presence of mono-dimensional aligned channels between the two aligned nanorods of the porous framework from the SBA-15 was retained in the T-950 sample during the carbonization process. Highlights: > Ordered porous carbons (PCs) are synthesized with various carbonization temperatures by using a replication method. > Carbonization temperature plays an important role in shrinking the micropores during the carbonization process of PCs. > The textural and structural properties of the PCs are good parameters for enhancing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  19. Constructing hierarchical sulfur-doped nitrogenous carbon nanosheets for sodium-ion storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejun; Hou, Hongshuai; Huang, Caijin; Ji, Xiaobo; Qiu, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-04

    Hierarchical sulfur-doped nitrogenous carbon (S/NC) and nitrogenous carbon (NC) nanosheets are successfully fabricated by carbonization of their corresponding precursor polymers which are synthesized through the polymerization reaction of dianhydride and multi-amine compounds. The hierarchical S/NC nanosheets deliver much enhanced reversible capacity, compared with the hierarchical NC nanosheets, of 280 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1after 300 cycles. It is found that the introduction of sulfur species in carbon skeleton results in increasing the turbostratic structures, rather than enlarging the interlayer distances, for boosting the specific capacity of sodium-ion storage. The turbostratic structures and sulfur dopant existed in the carbon can offer more active sites for the sodium-ion storage. Carbon-based materials doped with sulfur are capable of improving the sodium-ion storage property, which can broaden the horizon of designing a string of outstanding carbon materials for the future energy storage technologies. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow of High Mountain Asia: Implications for glaciers and water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Thomas; Qian, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Snow and ice of High Mountain Asia provide critical freshwater supply to over a billion people and provide climate influence through higher albedo and lower thermal conductivity. High Mountain Asia holds the greatest amount of ice outside of Earth's polar region and as such has great potential to contribute to sea level rise. Snow cover and glaciers have been in general negative trend across the Anthropocene, yet there are large uncertainties in the scale of that retreat, the magnitude of the resulting contribution to sea-level rise, and in particular the causes. Our overarching science goal is to better understand the physical processes that are driving changes in High Mountain Asia snow and ice. Here, we present analysis of our NASA remote sensing retrievals of radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow and ice from MODIS, VIIRS, and Landsat 8 in the study domain of the NASA High Mountain Asia program. We also evaluate the simulations of radiative forcing by impurities in snow from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with its chemistry component (Chem), the land surface scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), and the snow, ice, and aerosol radiative transfer model SNICAR. The unique suite of remote sensing products are (1) the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) from which we calculate fractional snow covered area and the spatial bulk surface snow grain size of that fractional cover, and (2) the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) from which we calculate clear-sky radiative forcing by impurities in snow. The analysis will be cast in context of our understanding of at-surface radiative forcing by anomalies in greenhouse gases and give us insight into the controls on snow and glacier retreat.

  1. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  2. Changes in Carbon Storage and Net Carbon Exchange After a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. A.; Rodrigues, C. A.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Dail, D. B.; Goltz, S. M.; Malerba, P.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2003-12-01

    While many forests are actively sequestering carbon, little research has examined the direct effects of forest management practices on carbon sequestration. This is a critical issue in North America, where a large proportion of forests are managed. At the Howland Forest in Maine, we are using eddy covariance, biometric techniques and modeling to evaluate changes in carbon storage following a shelterwood cut that removed just under 30% of aboveground biomass. This management regime is becoming increasingly common throughout the region. Prior to harvest, the stand contained about 76 Mg C ha-1 (30 m2ha-1 basal area) in above- and below-ground live biomass. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=2.1), and created about 5.3 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index and litterfall declined by about 40% with harvest. Approximately half of the harvested wood was used for paper products (half-life of 3.5 years) and half for longer-lived wood products (half-life of 45 years). In a nearby, unharvested stand, eddy covariance measurements indicated that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) averages about 1.8 Mg C ha-1 y-1. A comparison of NEE at unharvested and harvested stands, both pre- and post-harvest, indicated that NEE declined following the harvest by about 18%, which is less than expected based on basal area and LAI changes. Both daily uptake and nocturnal respiration declined after harvest. Soil respiration declined slightly with harvest, suggesting no major soil C loss after harvest; harvesting had little effect on soil moisture and temperature. When decay of paper and wood products is included in a preliminary carbon budget, we predict that the forest will be a net C source to the atmosphere for at least 5 years, assuming pre-harvest growth rates of trees. How quickly the carbon balance becomes positive will depend largely on whether post-harvest tree growth rates increase.

  3. Estimating urban tree aboveground carbon storage using LiDAR and field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Pu, R.; Landry, S.

    2016-12-01

    As a hotspot of human-environment interaction, urban trees are an important component of local and global carbon cycle. Accurate and efficient mapping and estimating of urban tree carbon storage can help us better understand the role of urban trees in mitigating local urban heat islands and global warming. Given the highly complex and fragmented landscapes and restricted accessibility in urban environment, studies in urban tree carbon storage mapping are limited and are greatly lagging behind similar studies in natural environments. In this context, the aim of this study is to better map urban tree aboveground carbon storage, and evaluate the impacts of different land use/ land cover (LULC) classes on mapping accuracies in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. Our study used digital surface model (DSM) derived from aerial LiDAR (1-m spatial resolution), field inventory data (diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree species) of 111 plots (0.1 acre each), and i-Tree derived tree aboveground carbon storage. We linked a series of height-related metrics within plots (i.e., lowest top of canopy height (TCH), highest TCH, mean TCH, and standard deviation of TCH) to their basal area (BA) and found that the mean TCH could best predict BA (R2=0.51). We then used predicted BA and other height-related metrics (besides mean TCH) to construct the optimum plot-aggregate allometric model through stepwise regression analysis. The optimum allometric model, consisting of predicted BA, lowest TCH, and standard deviation of TCH, could predict aboveground carbon storage with a R2 of 0.60. But its predicting capacity varies with LULC background and species composition. This paper illustrates the potential of using LiDAR to accurately and reliably estimate urban tree aboveground carbon storage and the need to involve other variables such as LULC. As a hotspot of human-environment interaction, urban trees are an important component of local and global carbon cycle. Accurate and efficient

  4. [Biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes under six types of young coniferous forest plantations].

    PubMed

    Bao, Weikai; Lei, Bo; Leng, Li

    2005-10-01

    This paper studied the biomass and carbon storage of the ground bryophytes under young Picea balfouriana (P), Pinus tabulaeformis (Y), Pinus armandii (H), Larix kaempferi (L), Picea balfouriana-Pinus tabulaeformis (P-Y), and Pinus tabulaeformis-Pinus armandii (Y-H) forest plantations in the upper reach of Minjiang River, Sichuan Province. The results showed that total biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes were relatively low, being 3.11 - 460.36 kg x hm(-2) and 1.12 +/- 0.03 x 168.95 +/- 0.92 kg x hm(-2), respectively. On plot level, only the bryophyte biomass between forest P and others, and the carbon storage between forest L and others were significantly different. The ground bryophyte had the highest biomass and carbon storage under forest P, while the lowest ones under forest H. Comprehensive analysis suggested that forest type and its structural feature might be the important factors determining the biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes, and thinning was an important measure to improve ground bryophyte growth and biomass production.

  5. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Chen, A; Peng, C; Zhao, S; Ci, L

    2001-06-22

    The location and mechanisms responsible for the carbon sink in northern mid-latitude lands are uncertain. Here, we used an improved estimation method of forest biomass and a 50-year national forest resource inventory in China to estimate changes in the storage of living biomass between 1949 and 1998. Our results suggest that Chinese forests released about 0.68 petagram of carbon between 1949 and 1980, for an annual emission rate of 0.022 petagram of carbon. Carbon storage increased significantly after the late 1970s from 4.38 to 4.75 petagram of carbon by 1998, for a mean accumulation rate of 0.021 petagram of carbon per year, mainly due to forest expansion and regrowth. Since the mid-1970s, planted forests (afforestation and reforestation) have sequestered 0.45 petagram of carbon, and their average carbon density increased from 15.3 to 31.1 megagrams per hectare, while natural forests have lost an additional 0.14 petagram of carbon, suggesting that carbon sequestration through forest management practices addressed in the Kyoto Protocol could help offset industrial carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Schnitzer, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests. PMID:26460031

  7. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Lovett, Jon C.; Ahrends, Antje; Bayliss, Julian; Doggart, Nike; Doody, Kathryn; Fanning, Eibleis; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Jaclyn; Howell, Kim L.; Marchant, Rob; Marshall, Andrew R.; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Munishi, Pantaleon K. T.; Owen, Nisha; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Topp-Jorgensen, Elmer J.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as ‘lowland tropical forest’ are often used, termed ‘Tier 1 type’ analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon) for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC ‘Tier 2’ reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92–6.74) Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced for

  8. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    PubMed

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L; Platts, Philip J; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D; Lovett, Jon C; Ahrends, Antje; Bayliss, Julian; Doggart, Nike; Doody, Kathryn; Fanning, Eibleis; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Jaclyn; Howell, Kim L; Marchant, Rob; Marshall, Andrew R; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Munishi, Pantaleon K T; Owen, Nisha; Swetnam, Ruth D; Topp-Jorgensen, Elmer J; Lewis, Simon L

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon) for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74) Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced for a relatively

  9. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  10. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Treesearch

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  11. Carbon storage in Chinese grassland ecosystems: Influence of different integrative methods.

    PubMed

    Ma, Anna; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui; Wen, Ding; Peng, Shunlei

    2016-02-17

    The accurate estimate of grassland carbon (C) is affected by many factors at the large scale. Here, we used six methods (three spatial interpolation methods and three grassland classification methods) to estimate C storage of Chinese grasslands based on published data from 2004 to 2014, and assessed the uncertainty resulting from different integrative methods. The uncertainty (coefficient of variation, CV, %) of grassland C storage was approximately 4.8% for the six methods tested, which was mainly determined by soil C storage. C density and C storage to the soil layer depth of 100 cm were estimated to be 8.46 ± 0.41 kg C m(-2) and 30.98 ± 1.25 Pg C, respectively. Ecosystem C storage was composed of 0.23 ± 0.01 (0.7%) above-ground biomass, 1.38 ± 0.14 (4.5%) below-ground biomass, and 29.37 ± 1.2 (94.8%) Pg C in the 0-100 cm soil layer. Carbon storage calculated by the grassland classification methods (18 grassland types) was closer to the mean value than those calculated by the spatial interpolation methods. Differences in integrative methods may partially explain the high uncertainty in C storage estimates in different studies. This first evaluation demonstrates the importance of multi-methodological approaches to accurately estimate C storage in large-scale terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands. | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. We provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales and describe how soil carbon stocks vary by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. To estimate the quantity and distribution of carbon stocks in wetlands of the conterminous US, we used data gathered in the field as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) conducted by USEPA. During the growing season, field crews collected soil samples by horizon from 120-cm deep soil pits at 967 randomly selected wetland sites. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density and organic carbon. We applied site carbon stock averages by soil depth back to the national population of wetlands and to several subpopulations, including five geographic areas and anthropogenic disturbance level. Disturbance levels were categorized by the NWCA as least, intermediately, or most disturbed using a priori defined physical, chemical, and biological indicators that were observable at the time of the site visit.Results/Conclusions We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US, with the greatest soil ca

  13. GEOLOGIC CARBON STORAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE RULES OF THE UNDERGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2), an emerging option for carbon management. Few studies have explored the regulatory needs of GS or compared these needs with regulations governing underground injection on the U.S. mainland. Our treatment...

  14. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios in Atmospheric VOC across the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone obtained during the OMO-ASIA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebsbach, Marc; Koppmann, Ralf; Meisehen, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The automated high volume air sampling system (MIRAH) has been deployed during the atmospheric measurement campaign OMO-ASIA (Oxidation Mechanism Observations) with the German High Altitude - Long-range research aircraft (HALO) in July and August 2015. The intensive measurement period with base stations in Paphos (Cyprus) and Gan (Maldives) focussed on oxidation processes and air pollution chemistry downwind of the South Asia summer monsoon anticyclone, a pivot area critical for air quality and climate change, both regionally and worldwide. The measurement region covered the Eastern Mediterranean region, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, and the Arabian Sea. In total 194 air samples were collected on 17 flights in a height region from 3 km up to 15 km. The air samples were analysed for stable carbon isotope ratios in VOC with GC-C-IRMS in the laboratory afterwards. We determined stable carbon isotope ratios and mixing ratios of several aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and aromatics. The large extent of the investigated area allowed for encountering air masses with different origin, characteristic, and atmospheric processing, e.g. Mediterranean air masses, crossing of polluted filaments and remnants of the Asian monsoon outflow, split of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. In this presentation we will show first results and interpretations supported by HYSPLIT backward trajectories.

  15. Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, Margaret S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Hendricks, David M.

    1997-09-01

    A large source of uncertainty in present understanding of the global carbon cycle is the distribution and dynamics of the soil organic carbon reservoir. Most of the organic carbon in soils is degraded to inorganic forms slowly, on timescales from centuries to millennia. Soil minerals are known to play a stabilizing role, but how spatial and temporal variation in soil mineralogy controls the quantity and turnover of long-residence-time organic carbon is not well known. Here we use radiocarbon analyses to explore interactions between soil mineralogy and soil organic carbon along two natural gradients-of soil-age and of climate-in volcanic soil environments. During the first ~150,000 years of soil development, the volcanic parent material weathered to metastable, non-crystalline minerals. Thereafter, the amount of non-crystalline minerals declined, and more stable crystalline minerals accumulated. Soil organic carbon content followed a similar trend, accumulating to a maximum after 150,000 years, and then decreasing by 50% over the next four million years. A positive relationship between non-crystalline minerals and organic carbon was also observed in soils through the climate gradient, indicating that the accumulation and subsequent loss of organic matter were largely driven by changes in the millennial scale cycling of mineral-stabilized carbon, rather than by changes in the amount of fast-cycling organic matter or in net primary productivity. Soil mineralogy is therefore important in determining the quantity of organic carbon stored in soil, its turnover time, and atmosphere-ecosystem carbon fluxes during long-term soil development; this conclusion should be generalizable at least to other humid environments.

  16. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  17. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  18. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1993-05-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  19. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1991-09-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is therefore especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  20. Microporous carbon nanosheets with redox-active heteroatoms for pseudocapacitive charge storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y. S.; Kim, D.-H.; Hong, S. J.; Park, M. H.; Park, Y. W.; Kim, B. H.; Jin, H.-J.; Kang, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors.We report microporous carbon nanosheets containing numerous redox active heteroatoms fabricated from exfoliated waste coffee grounds by simple heating with KOH for pseudocapacitive charge storage. We found that various heteroatom combinations in carbonaceous materials can be a redox host for lithium ion storage. The bio-inspired nanomaterials had unique characteristics, showing superior electrochemical performances as cathode for asymmetric pseudocapacitors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04231c

  1. A comparative theoretical study of metal functionalized carbon nanocones and carbon nanocone sheets as potential hydrogen storage materials.

    PubMed

    Shalabi, A S; Soliman, K A; Taha, H O

    2014-09-28

    The hydrogen storage of Ti functionalized carbon nanocones and carbon nanocone sheets is investigated by using the state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations. The Ti atom prefers to bind at the hollow site of the hexagonal ring. The average adsorption energies corrected for dispersion forces are -0.54 and -0.39 eV per hydrogen molecule. With no metal clustering, the system gravimetric capacities are expected to be as large as 9.31 and 11.01 wt%. The hydrogen storage reactions are characterized in terms of simulated infrared spectra, projected densities of states, kinetics, and statistical thermodynamics. The free energies and enthalpies of the Ti functionalized carbon nanocone meet the ultimate targets of the Department of Energy for all temperatures and pressures. The closest reactions to zero free energy occur at 378.15 K/2.961 atm for carbon nanocones and 233.15 K/2.961 atm for carbon nanocone sheets. The translational component is found to exert a dominant effect on the total entropy change with temperature. More promising thermodynamics are assigned to the hydrogenation of Ti functionalized carbon nanocone sheets at 233.15 K. As the temperature is increased, the lifetimes of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at the surface drop and the rate constants increase. At fixed pressure, the rate constants of hydrogenation of Ti functionalized carbon nanocones are smaller than those of Ti functionalized carbon nanocone sheets, while the lifetimes are greater.

  2. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China.

  3. In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Matter, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    The rate of natural carbonation of tectonically exposed mantle peridotite during weathering and low-temperature alteration can be enhanced to develop a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail ophiolite, an uplifted slice of oceanic crust and upper mantle in the Sultanate of Oman, is surprisingly rapid. Carbonate veins in mantle peridotite in Oman have an average 14C age of ≈26,000 years, and are not 30–95 million years old as previously believed. These data and reconnaissance mapping show that ≈104 to 105 tons per year of atmospheric CO2 are converted to solid carbonate minerals via peridotite weathering in Oman. Peridotite carbonation can be accelerated via drilling, hydraulic fracture, input of purified CO2 at elevated pressure, and, in particular, increased temperature at depth. After an initial heating step, CO2 pumped at 25 or 30 °C can be heated by exothermic carbonation reactions that sustain high temperature and rapid reaction rates at depth with little expenditure of energy. In situ carbonation of peridotite could consume >1 billion tons of CO2 per year in Oman alone, affording a low-cost, safe, and permanent method to capture and store atmospheric CO2.

  4. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  5. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  6. High-performance energy-storage architectures from carbon nanotubes and nanocrystal building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dieqing; Wang, Xiaolei; Jia, Xilai; Wei, Fei; Li, Hexing; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-04-17

    High-performance energy-storage architectures are fabricated by forming conformal coatings of active nanocrystal building blocks on preformed carbon nanotube conductive scaffolds for lithium ion electrodes. This unique structure offers effective pathways for charge transport, high active-material loading, structure robustness, and flexibility. This general approach enables the fabrication of a new family of high-performance architectures for energy storage and many other applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and graphene-based materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Hu, Chuangang; Dai, Liming

    2016-12-13

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene-based nanomaterials functionalized by different strategies have attracted great attention for energy storage due to their large specific surface area, high conductivity, and good mechanical properties. This feature article presents an overview of the recent progress in the functionalization of CNTs and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications in supercapacitors and batteries, along with challenges and perspectives in this exciting field.

  8. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: role in the global carbon budget

    Treesearch

    N.S. Zimov; S.A. Zimov; A.E. Zimova; G.M. Zimova; V.I. Chuprynin; F.S. Chapin

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in preindustrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the...

  9. Capture and storage of Carbon dioxid: a method for countering climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the options aimed at preventing climatic changes is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide, a method with a great potential for reducing greenhouse gases. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide in the soil involves new benefits for the communities in the respective areas. Those benefits also follow from the fact that the organic compound has an essential factor in the soil, determining its properties. The paper presents several results concerning the determination of the quantity of carbon dioxide in different types of soil and it is intended to be the beginning of the process of data collection and the analysis of the reserves and the flow of carbon.

  10. Spatial Variations in Carbon Storage along Headwater Fluvial Networks with Differing Valley Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Polvi, L. E.; Sutfin, N. A.; Bazan, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    We distinguish multiple valley types along headwater fluvial networks in the Colorado Front Range based on valley geometry (downstream gradient and valley-bottom width relative to active channel width) and the presence of biotic drivers (beaver dams or channel-spanning logjams associated with old-growth forest) capable of creating a multi-thread channel pattern. Valley type influences storage of fine sediment, organic matter, and carbon. Deep, narrow valleys have limited storage potential, whereas wide, shallow valleys with multi-thread channels have substantial storage potential. Multi-thread channels only occur in the presence of a biotic driver. Given the importance of headwater streams in the global carbon cycle, it becomes important to understand the spatial distribution and magnitude of carbon storage along these streams, as well as the processes governing patterns of storage. We compare carbon stored in three reservoirs: riparian vegetation (live, dead, and litter), instream and floodplain large wood, and floodplain soils for 100-m-long valley segments in seven different valley types. The valley types are (i) laterally confined valleys in old-growth forest, (ii) partly confined valleys in old-growth forest, (iii) laterally unconfined valleys with multi-thread channels in old-growth forest, (iv) laterally unconfined valleys with single-thread channels in old-growth forest, (v) laterally confined valleys in younger forest, (vi) recently abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with multi-thread channels and willow thickets, and (vii) longer abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with single-thread channels and very limited woody vegetation. Preliminary results suggest that, although multi-thread channel segments driven by beavers or logjams cover less than 25 percent of the total length of headwater river networks in the study area, they account for more than three-quarters of the carbon stored along the river network. Historical loss of beavers and old-growth forest has

  11. Characteristics of soil stability and carbon sequestration under water storage and drainage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Han, J. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the influence of saline alkali soil on soil physical properties, stability and organic carbon storage under water storage and drainage, and to provide scientific basis for improving soil quality in Fuping County of Shaanxi Province, China. Saline alkali soil model test was conducted and the process was assessed with two different methods: i) traditional drainage and ecological water storage, measure and analyze 0-30 cm soil bulk density, porosity, field water capacity, mean mass diameter (MWD), geological mean diameter (GMD), stability of water stable aggregate (WASR), aggregate destruction rate (PAD), fractal dimension (D) and; ii) organic carbon storage, comprehensively analyze the relationship between stability index and soil organic carbon. The results show that: (1) compared with traditional drainage treatment, water treatment may effectively reduce the soil bulk density by 1.3%-4.2%, and improve soil porosity and field capacity at the same time; (2) under dry and wet screen treatment, soil stability, the water storing treatment is higher than the drainage treatment. Performance trend of soil MWD and GMD increases with the increase of soil depth. The stability of soil water stable aggregates increased 14.5%-53.4%. The average aggregate destruction rate was 3.2% lower than that of the drainage treatment and the difference is obvious (P< 0.05). (3) Soil organic carbon content and organic carbon storage in 0-30 cm soil layer could be increased effectively by water storage. Both of them were 13.4%-27.9% and 9.9%-18.8% higher than the drainage treatment. (4) There is a negative correlation among average aggregate destruction rate, fractal dimension and soil organic carbon storage. The correlation coefficient is, respectively, R2=0.86 and R2=0.94, and the difference is obvious (P<0.05). To sum up, the water storage treatment can effectively improve the soil quality, improve soil stability and soil organic carbon storage

  12. The production, storage, and flow of carbon in Amazonian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Girardin, Cecile; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    The carbon stores and dynamics of tropical forests are the subject of major international scientific and policy attention. Research associated with the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has generated substantial advances in our understanding of the cycling of carbon at selected forest sites in Brazilian Amazonia and generated new insights into how these processes may vary across the wider Amazonian region. Here we report on aspects of this new understanding. We present, in particular, a comprehensive synthesis of carbon cycling in three focal LBA sites (Manaus, Tapajõs, and Caxiuanã), drawing on studies of productivity, litterfall, respiration, physiology, and ecosystem fluxes. These studies are placed in the context of the wider Amazonian region by utilizing the results of the Amazon Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) and other forest plots. We discuss the basin-wide distribution of forest biomass derived by combining these plots and a suite of satellite data, and examine the dynamics of carbon cycling in the context of regional carbon stores in the forest. Particular attention is drawn to the strong relationship between forest productivity and turnover, which suggests that higher levels of forest productivity increase forest dynamism rather than forest biomass. We conclude by discussing what the scientific priorities should be for a synthetic region-wide understanding of the carbon dynamics and stores of Amazonian forests.

  13. Deep carbon storage potential of buried floodplain soils.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Amanda H; Liles, Garrett C; Viers, Joshua H; Smart, David R

    2017-08-15

    Soils account for the largest terrestrial pool of carbon and have the potential for even greater quantities of carbon sequestration. Typical soil carbon (C) stocks used in global carbon models only account for the upper 1 meter of soil. Previously unaccounted for deep carbon pools (>1 m) were generally considered to provide a negligible input to total C contents and represent less dynamic C pools. Here we assess deep soil C pools associated with an alluvial floodplain ecosystem transitioning from agricultural production to restoration of native vegetation. We analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations of 87 surface soil samples (0-15 cm) and 23 subsurface boreholes (0-3 m). We evaluated the quantitative importance of the burial process in the sequestration of subsurface C and found our subsurface soils (0-3 m) contained considerably more C than typical C stocks of 0-1 m. This deep unaccounted soil C could have considerable implications for global C accounting. We compared differences in surface soil C related to vegetation and land use history and determined that flooding restoration could promote greater C accumulation in surface soils. We conclude deep floodplain soils may store substantial quantities of C and floodplain restoration should promote active C sequestration.

  14. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  15. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  16. Coupled Socio-Ecological Drivers of Carbon Storage in South African Coastal Lowland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The amount of carbon stored in African terrestrial ecosystems is unknown, varying from 30 to >250 Mg C ha-1 in tropical forests. Several prominent efforts are improving this estimate through forest inventories and modeling, but carbon storage varies across ecosystems and some ecosystems remain vastly understudied. This is critical given that Africa's net carbon flux ranges from a source to a substantial carbon sink, making it one of the weakest links in the global carbon cycle. One such understudied ecosystem is the coastal lowland forest along the Eastern Cape of South Africa, which lies between two internationally recognized biodiversity hotspots and is a current focus of conservation efforts in the region. Six permanent forest plots were established within two nature reserves during February 2011. Using empirical wood density estimates, aboveground tree carbon was estimated using established allometric equations. Results indicated that forests store between 50 and 100 Mg C ha-1, with significant variability among sites. However, the landscapes of the nature reserves differ significantly in the amount of forest cover due to differences in fire frequencies (ranging from <3 to >100 years), which are largely determined by rates of wildlife poaching within nature reserves. Thus, although estimates of forest carbon storage are heterogeneous within Eastern Cape forests, landscape-scale carbon storage is governed largely by human activities and reflects strongly coupled socio-ecological drivers. Estimates of landscape-scale carbon storage can help guide conservation management strategies and form the basis of future modeling efforts exploring interactions of climate, disturbance, and human livelihoods.

  17. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  18. On the use of data mining for estimating carbon storage in the trees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forests contribute to climate change mitigation by storing carbon in tree biomass. The amount of carbon stored in this carbon pool is estimated by using either allometric equations or biomass expansion factors. Both of the methods provide estimate of the carbon stock based on the biometric parameters of a model tree. This study calls attention to the potential advantages of the data mining technique known as instance-based classification, which is not used currently for this purpose. The analysis of the data on the carbon storage in 30 trees of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) shows that the instance-based classification provides as relevant estimates as the conventional methods do. The coefficient of correlation between the estimated and measured values of carbon storage in tree biomass does not vary significantly with the choice of the method. The use of some other measures of method performance leads to the same result. In contrast to the convention methods the instance-based classification does not presume any specific form of the function relating carbon storage to the biometric parameters of the tree. Since the best form of such function is difficult to find, the instance-based classification could outperform the conventional methods in some cases, or simply get rid of the questions about the choice of the allometric equations. PMID:23758745

  19. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  20. [Spatiotemporal variation of carbon storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong-De; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tang, Xiao

    2007-12-01

    Based on the modeling of forest biomass and timber volume and the 1974-2004 forest inventory data, the spatiotemporal variation of carbon density and storage in forest vegetation in Sichuan Province was studied. The results showed that the forest carbon storage was increased from 300.02 Tg in 1974 to 469.96 Tg in 2004, with an annual increment of 1.51%, which suggested that the forests in Sichuan Province were the sink of CO2. However, owing to the increase of plantations, the average carbon density of forest vegetation decreased from 49.91 Mg x hm(-2) to 37.39 Mg x Shm(-2), implying that Sichuan forests had a great potential of carbon sequestration through artificial forest management. The carbon storage in Sichuan forests had a spatial heterogeneity, and the ranked order was northwest alpine gorge area > southwest mountainous area > low-mountain area > hilly area > western plain. Forest carbon density increased from southwest area to northwest area, with the order of hilly area < northern plain < southwest mountain area < low-mountain area < northwest alpine gorge area. It was suggested that forest management according to different sub-regions would improve the potential of carbon sequestration in Sichuan forests.

  1. Role of rock/fluid characteristics in carbon (CO2) storage and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2005-01-01

    The presentation ? Role of Rock/Fluid Characteristics in Carbon (CO2) Storage and Modeling ? was prepared for the meeting of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Houston, Tex., on April 6?7, 2005. It provides an overview of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and a summary of their effects on the Earth?s atmosphere. It presents methods of mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases, and the role of rock and fluid properties on CO2 storage mechanisms. It also lists factors that must be considered to adequately model CO2 storage.

  2. Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    PubMed Central

    Szulczewski, Michael L.; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Herzog, Howard J.; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 y. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century. PMID:22431639

  3. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-12-30

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  4. [Effects of land use change on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingcheng; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Pan, Qingmin

    2003-08-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem is an important carbon pool, which plays a crucial role in carbon biogeochemical cycle. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and land use change have resulted in carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystem to the atmosphere, which increased the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and reinforced the greenhouse effect. Land use change affects the structure and function of the terrestrial ecosystem, which causes its change of carbon storage. To a great extent, the change of carbon storage lies in the type of ecosystem and the change of land use patterns. The conversion of forest to agricultural land and pasture causes a large reduction of carbon storage in vegetation and soil, and the decrease of soil carbon concentration is mainly caused by the reduction of detritus, the acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition, and the destroy of physical protection to organic matter due to agricultural practices. The loss of soil organic matter appears at the early stage after deforestation, and the loss rate is influenced by many factors and soil physical, chemical and biological processes. The conversion of agricultural land and pasture to forest and many conservative agricultural practices can sequester atmospheric carbon in vegetation and soil. Vegetation can sequester large amounts of carbon from atmosphere, while carbon accumulation in soil varies greatly because of farming history and soil spatial heterogeneity. Conservative agricultural practices such as no-tillage, reasonable cropping system, and fertilization can influence soil physical and chemical characters, plant growth, quality and quantity of stubble, and soil microbial biomass and its activity, and hence, maintain and increase soil carbon concentration.

  5. The diversity of methoxyphenols released by pyrolysis-gas chromatography as predictor of soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-González, Marco A; Álvarez, Ana M; Carral, Pilar; González-Vila, Francisco J; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2017-07-28

    The variable extent to which environmental factors are involved in soil carbon storage is currently a subject of controversy. In fact, justifying why some soils accumulate more organic matter than others is not trivial. Some abiotic factors such as organo-mineral associations have classically been invoked as the main drivers for soil C stabilization. However, in this research indirect evidences based on correlations between soil C storage and compositional descriptors of the soil organic matter are presented. It is assumed that the intrinsic structure of soil organic matter should have a bearing in the soil carbon storage. This is examined here by focusing on the methoxyphenols released by direct pyrolysis from a wide variety of topsoil samples from continental Mediterranean ecosystems from Spain with different properties and carbon content. Methoxyphenols are typical signature compounds presumptively informing on the occurrence and degree of alteration of lignin in soils. The methoxyphenol assemblages (12 major guaiacyl- and syringyl-type compounds) were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was chosen to describe the complexity of this phenolic signature. A series of exploratory statistical analyses (simple regression, partial least squares regression, multidimensional scaling) were applied to analyze the relationships existing between chemical and spectroscopic characteristics and the carbon content in the soils. These treatments coincided in pointing out that significant correlations exist between the progressive molecular diversity of the methoxyphenol assemblages and the concentration of organic carbon stored in the corresponding soils. This potential of the diversity in the phenolic signature as a surrogate index of the carbon storage in soils is tentatively interpreted as the accumulation of plant macromolecules altered into microbially reworked structures not readily recognized by soil enzymes. From

  6. Whole ecosystem estimates of carbon exchange and storage in a New England salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are wetlands situated at the interface of land and ocean. They are among the most productive ecosystems worldwide and store substantial amounts of carbon as peat. Their long-term stability is dependent on sediment accretion and carbon accumulation to avoid submergence when sea level is rising. Currently, estimates of carbon storage in salt marshes are uncertain because our understanding of the coupling between marsh plant productivity and carbon release to the adjacent ocean is limited. To evaluate the capacity to store carbon as well as the resilience of the ecosystem, long-term studies of carbon cycling considering both vertical and lateral fluxes are necessary. To study the net exchange between marsh and atmosphere, we chose the non-intrusive eddy covariance which allows nearly continuous half hourly flux measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on the ecosystem scale. Since spring 2012, we have been investigating the marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a Spartina patens high marsh at the Plum Island Ecosystems Long-Term Ecological Research site. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 exchange during summer were controlled by the phenology of S. patens. Preliminary estimates for seasonal carbon storage range from 185 to 228 g C m-2 (5/1/2012 to 10/31/2012). During the winter months we observed small fluxes, but carbon uptake still occurred during the day. We attribute this to microalgae productivity. Winter carbon release is estimated to be approximately 130 g C m-2 (12/6/2012 to 4/30/2013), when uptake by microalgae is not taken into account. This emphasizes the relevance of transitional and cold season carbon cycling for the carbon storage capacity of northern salt marshes, since a large proportion of fixed carbon is released during these periods. Direct tidal effects on the marsh-atmosphere carbon exchange are visible especially during monthly spring tides, when both daytime carbon uptake and night time respiration were reduced during

  7. Impact of land use change on the land atmosphere carbon flux of South and South East Asia: A Synthesis of Dynamic Vegetation Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, M.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Stocker, B.; Arneth, A.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Wiltshire, A.; Koven, C.; Sitch, S.; Zeng, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding our present day carbon cycle and possible solutions to recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide is dependent upon quantifying the terrestrial carbon budget. Currently, global land cover and land use change is estimated to emit 0.9 PgC yr-1 compared to emissions due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production of 8.4 PgC yr-1. South and Southeast Asia (India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Singapore) is a region of rapid land cover and land use change due to the continuous development of agriculture, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and the increased demand of land for people to live. In this study, we synthesize outputs of nine models participated in Global Carbon Budget Project to identify the carbon budget of South and southeast Asia, diagnose the contribution of land cover and land use change to carbon emissions and assess areas of uncertainty in the suite of models. Uncertainty is determined using the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of net ecosystem exchange and its component parts. Results show the region's terrestrial biosphere was a source of carbon emissions from the 1980 to the early 1990s. During the same time period, land cover and land use change increasingly contributed to carbon emission. In the most recent two decades, the region became a carbon sink since emission due to land cover land use changes. Spatially, the greatest total emissions occurred in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Additionally, this is the subregion with the greatest uncertainty and greatest biomass. Model uncertainty is shown to be proportional to total biomass. The atmospheric impacts of ENSO are shown to suppress the net biosphere productivity in South and Southeast Asia leading to years of increased carbon emissions.

  8. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Physical and chemical changes during carbon dioxide injection and storage (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, D. R.; Armitage, P. J.; Blake, O. O.; Worden, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the lessons learnt from carbon capture and storage projects can be instructive for other applications, such as geothermal energy. More than 3M tonnes of carbon dioxide was injected at In Salah, Algeria between 2004 to 2011. We have tested rocks from this field to investigate the change in properties resulting from geomechanical and geochemical changes produced by injection and storage. Injection produced inflation of the reservoir that was recorded at the surface by satellite measurements. The uplift was asymmetrical around the injection wells indicating an inherent permeability anisotropy of around 15. Laboratory measurements of permeability indicate that a maximum horizontal permeability anisotropy of a factor of 2 is possible from the differential stress field alone. The permeability anisotropy can be explained by fracture damage produced by sub-failure stresses, as shown in laboratory experiments. The base of the caprock to the storage reservoir shows significant increases in permeability during flow of carbon dioxide-saturated water. The acidic fluid rapidly dissolves siderite and chlorite within the pore throats. Precipitation of the dissolved material is likely where lower carbon dioxide concentrations are present and may produce a lower permeability caprock at some distance from the injection well. Identifying changes that occur within carbon dioxide storage sites not only helps with future planning of these sites but can also provide valuable insights into likely processes in geothermal fields.

  10. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  11. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...Sam Neua District. This did not include the small shops in front of houses. In one month they were able to collect 500,000 kip in taxes . The tax

  12. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes on metal oxides and energy storage application.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Li, Xianglin; Cao, Xiehong; Fan, Yu; Xia, Xinhui; Pan, Guoxiang; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-01-29

    Nanostructured carbon is widely used in energy storage devices (e.g., Li-ion and Li-air batteries and supercapacitors). A new method is developed for the generation of carbon nanoflakes on various metal oxide nanostructures by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and glucose carbonization. Various metal oxide@nanoflake carbon (MO@f-C) core-branch nanostructures are obtained. For the mechanism, it is proposed that the ALD Al2 O3 and glucose form a composite layer. Upon thermal annealing, the composite layer becomes fragmented and moves outward, accompanied by carbon deposition on the alumina skeleton. When tested as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode, the hierarchical MO@f-C nanostructures exhibit better properties compared with the pristine metal oxides or the carbon coating without ALD. The enhancement can be ascribed to increased specific surface areas and electric conductivity due to the carbon flake coating. This peculiar carbon coating method with the unique hierarchical nanostructure may provide a new insight into the preparation of 'oxides + carbon' hybrid electrode materials for energy storage applications.

  13. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  14. Studies on electrochemical sodium storage into hard carbons with binder-free monolithic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, George; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Kannari, Naokatsu; Ozaki, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Hard carbons emerge as one of the most promising candidate for an anode of Na-ion batteries. This research focuses on the carbon monolith derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gels as a model hard carbon electrode. A series of binder-free monolithic carbon electrodes heat-treated at varied temperatures allow the comparative investigation of the correlation between carbon nanotexture and electrochemical Na+-ion storage. The increase in carbonization temperature exerts a favorable influence on electrode performance, especially in the range between 1600 °C and 2500 °C. The comparison between Li+- and Na+-storage behaviors in the carbon electrodes discloses that the Na+-trapping in nanovoids is negligible when the carbonization temperature is higher than 1600 °C. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintering at 2500-3000 °C enlarges the resistance for Na+-insertion into interlayer spacing as well as Na+-filling into nanovoids. In addition, the study on the effect of pore size clearly demonstrates that not the BET surface area but the surface area related to meso- and macropores is a predominant factor for the initial irreversible capacity. The outcomes of this work are expected to become a benchmark for other hard carbon electrodes prepared from various precursors.

  15. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  16. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Muhamad, N.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ~70 t C ha-1. Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region.

  17. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  18. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    PubMed

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  19. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    PubMed

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  20. Changes in Carbon Storage Efficiency Following a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Davidson, E. A.; Rodrigues, C. A.; Dail, B.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest disturbance has a major impact on forest carbon (C) cycling processes, yet few measurements exist of the direct impact of disturbances such as forest management practices on whole-ecosystem C exchange. We are evaluating the impact of a commercial shelterwood harvest on whole-ecosystem C sequestration at a spruce-hemlock dominated forest in Howland, Maine. Harvesting began in fall of 2001, and was completed in the spring of 2002. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=2.1) (~30%) of live biomass, and created about 5.3 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index and litterfall declined initially by about 40% with harvest. Net ecosystem carbon storage, measured using eddy covariance, went from about 1.9 Mg C ha-1y-1 (long-term average in a control stand) to 0.2 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2003, then increased to 1.1 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005 in spite of respiratory carbon losses of about 0.6 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005. Simulation results predicted annual net storage of about 0.8 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005, so carbon storage recovered faster than expected post-harvest. Forest inventory data showed that annual tree growth was similar in the harvested stand (1.8 Mg C ha-1y-1) to that in the control stand (1.6 Mg C ha-1y-1) between 2001 and 2003, then slightly higher in the harvested stand between 2003 and 2005. This was true in spite of the fact that stand basal area and leaf area index were still lower in the harvested stand in 2005 than in the control stand. This was apparently due to much higher light-use efficiency in the harvested stand, leading to a growth `release' following the harvest. Per unit of basal area, trees in the harvested stand were roughly two-fold more efficient at converting solar radiation into `stored' carbon. Trees in the harvested stand experienced a decline in water-use efficiency in order to increase carbon dioxide fixation. Whether whole-ecosystem carbon storage rates will ultimately be higher in the

  1. Mechanism of Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon Anodes Revealed by Heteroatom Doping

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhifei; Bommier, Clement; Chong, Zhi Sen; ...

    2017-05-23

    Hard carbon is the candidate anode material for the commercialization of Na-ion batteries the batteries that by virtue of being constructed from inexpensive and abundant components open the door for massive scale up of battery-based storage of electrical energy. Holding back the development of these batteries is that a complete understanding of the mechanism of Na-ion storage in hard carbon has remained elusive. Although as an amorphous carbon, hard carbon possesses a subtle and complex structure composed of domains of layered rumpled sheets that have local order resembling graphene within each layer but complete disorder along the c-axis between layers.more » Here, we present two key discoveries: first that characteristics of hard carbon s structure can be modified systematically by heteroatom doping, and second, that these changes greatly affect Na-ion storage properties, which reveal the mechanisms for Na storage in hard carbon. Specifically, P, S and B doping was used to engineer the density of local defects in graphenic layers, and to modify the spacing between the layers. While opening the interlayer spacing through P or S doping extends the low-voltage capacity plateau, and increasing the defect concentration with P or B doping high first sodiation capacity is achieved. Furthermore, we observe that the highly defective B-doped hard carbon suffers a tremendous irreversible capacity in the first desodiation cycle. Our combined first principles calculations and experimental studies revealed a new trapping mechanism, showing that the high binding energies between B-doping induced defects and Na-ions are responsible for the irreversible capacity. The understanding generated in this work provides a totally new set of guiding principles for materials engineers working to optimize hard carbon for Na-ion battery applications.« less

  2. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angela L.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Strazisar, Brian; Rodosta, Traci D.; Guthrie, William J.; Allen, Douglas E.; Guthrie, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  3. Limited carbon storage in soil and litter of experimental forest plots under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, W H; Lichter, J

    2001-05-24

    The current rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration is thought to be mitigated in part by carbon sequestration within forest ecosystems, where carbon can be stored in vegetation or soils. The storage of carbon in soils is determined by the fraction that is sequestered in persistent organic materials, such as humus. In experimental forest plots of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) exposed to high CO2 concentrations, nearly half of the carbon uptake is allocated to short-lived tissues, largely foliage. These tissues fall to the ground and decompose, normally contributing only a small portion of their carbon content to refractory soil humic materials. Such findings call into question the role of soils as long-term carbon sinks, and show the need for a better understanding of carbon cycling in forest soils. Here we report a significant accumulation of carbon in the litter layer of experimental forest plots after three years of growth at increased CO2 concentrations (565 microl l(-1)). But fast turnover times of organic carbon in the litter layer (of about three years) appear to constrain the potential size of this carbon sink. Given the observation that carbon accumulation in the deeper mineral soil layers was absent, we suggest that significant, long-term net carbon sequestration in forest soils is unlikely.

  4. Uncertainty assessment of carbon dioxide storage capacity evaluation in deep saline aquifer:a case study in Songliao Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage techniques (CCS) are one of the effective measures for reduction Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere to mitigate the global warming. Among the Carbon dioxide geological storage options, deep saline aquifers offer the largest storage potential and are widely distributed throughout the Earth. Implementation of carbon dioxide capture and geological storage to reduce greenhouse gas emissions requires carbon dioxide storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. The storage capacity estimation depends on the storage trapping mechanisms and the availability, resolution and certainty of data. There are five different types of trapping mechanisms in deep saline aquifers namely structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, solubility trapping, mineral trapping and hydrodynamic trapping in which storage capacity by solubility trapping is the largest. The carbon dioxide storage capacities in deep saline aquifer can be evaluated by the method recommended by Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), which mainly depends on the area of study area, thickness and porosity of sandstone, density and carbon dioxide content (mass fraction) in formation water at initial and saturated state. Hydrogeological parameters in aquifer are uncertainty because of uncertainty of measurement and the spatial variety, which leads evaluation uncertainty of carbon dioxide storage capacity. In this paper, acceptance of evaluated carbon dioxide storage capacity in deep saline aquifer caused by hydrological parameters was discussed based on geostatistical methods and stochastic simulation. The stratum named Yaojialing group in the center depressed area of Songliao Basin was chosen as study area because of the rich data. The porosity of sandstone, thickness ration of sandstone to stratum and the total dissolved solid in formation water were regarded as the main source of the uncertainty of carbon dioxide storage capacity evaluation in deep saline

  5. Black Carbon in South Asia- Role of Megacities-Understanding the Discrepancy between Radiocarbon based Constraints & Emission Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, S.; Andersson, A.; Kirillova, E.; Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Gustafsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Haze pollution events over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are characterized by high soot emissions from fossil-fuel combustion (FF-comb) and biomass burning (BBEs), affecting air quality and climate over South Asia. This study presents the first year-round radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope based (Δ14C and δ13C) source apportionment of elemental carbon (EC, aka. black carbon or "Soot") in the PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 µm) from a megacity, Delhi (28.35 °N, 77.12 °E), in the IGP. The Δ14CEC showed more contemporary biomass signal for winter (-516±102‰) and fall (-552±343‰) seasons compared to those for spring (-709±63‰) and summer (-796±31‰); yet overall there was a predominance of FF-comb sources. The 14C-based estimate of percent fraction biomass (fbio-EC) showed strong seasonality with the highest contribution found in winter (40±8%) and fall (37±3%), while lowest in spring (24±5%) and summer (17±3%). Using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulation based uncertainty estimation, we compared the δ13CEC in PM2.5 with those reported for anthropogenic combustion sources (e.g., liquid fossil, coal and biomass) to apportion their relative contributions. This comparison reveals that vehicular emissions mostly contribute to ambient soot ( 44%), followed by biomass and coal combustion ( 36 and 20%, respectively). Interestingly, biomass combustion source peaked during winter/fall compared to spring/summer, in which case coal-based emissions was the second largest contributor to EC. These results are consistent with those documented for East Asian megacity Beijing, where FF-comb (coal) source dominate (>80%) over BBEs. We thus recommend the need to sharply cut down the FF-comb and BBEs in South Asia to improve the regional air quality and to mitigate associated climate effects of BC. These investigations are contrary to earlier reports over South Asia based on the emission inventories that emphasized the predominance of BC from BBEs.

  6. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N. S.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimova, A. E.; Zimova, G. M.; Chuprynin, V. I.; Chapin, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre-industrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) by 400-1300 Gt. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soils and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the PHT, C-rich frozen loess of Europe and South of Siberia thawed and lost most of its carbon. Soil carbon decreases as tundra-steppe changes to forest, steppes and tundra. As a result, over 1000 Gt C was released to the atmosphere, oceans, and other terrestrial ecosystems. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem would enhance soil C storage, while providing other important ecosystem services.

  7. Estimation of water storage changes in small endorheic lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia); the effect of climate change and anthropogenic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapiyev, Vadim; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Verhoef, Anne; Samarkhanov, Kanat; Jumassultanova, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. It has been observed in recent decades that water-limited steppe regions of Central Asia are among ecosystems found to exhibit enhanced responses to climate variability. In fact, the largest share of worldwide net loss of permanent water extent is geographically concentrated in the Central Asia and Middle East regions attributed to both climate variability/change and human activities impacts. We used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and high resolution Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia, for the period 2000-2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, hydrometeorological network observations as well as regional climate model projections we evaluate the impacts of past thirty years and future climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. The anthropogenic water consumption was estimated based on data collected at a local water supply company and regulation authorities. One the one hand historical in-situ observations and future climate projections do not show a significant change in precipitation in BNNP. On the other hand both observations and the model demonstrate steadily rising air temperatures in the area. It is concluded that the long-term decline in water levels for most of these lakes can be largely attributed to climate change (but only via changes in air temperature, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation) and not to direct anthropogenic influences such as increased water withdrawals. In addition, the two largest lakes, showing the highest historical water level decline, do not have sufficient water drainage basin area to sustain water levels under increased evaporation rates.

  8. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    PubMed Central

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  9. Simulating impacts of Woody Biomass Harvesting on North Temperate Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, D.; Desai, A. R.; Bolstad, P.; Cook, B. D.; Scheller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Woody biomass harvesting is a common feature of forest management given its importance to society for acquisition of pulp and paper, lumber, and wood-based biofuel. Harvest affects many aspects of the forest environment such as biodiversity, soil nutrient quality, physical properties of soil, water quality, wildlife habitat, and climate feedbacks. In this study, we applied a modified CENTURY model to the Willow Creek, Wisconsin Ameriflux site for simulation of the impacts of woody biomass removal on forest carbon and nitrogen storage. Woody biomass harvesting scenarios with different harvesting types, interval, tree species, and soil properties were designed and tested in the model to explore the impact of harvesting on forest productivity, soil and biomass carbon and nitrogen storage, and net carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Comparisons of the impacts among harvesting scenarios indicate that woody biomass harvesting significantly alters long-term net soil carbon and nitrogen storage as well as carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. The simulation results also provide a framework for incorporating carbon management into sustainable forest management practices.

  10. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  11. A general approach towards carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial architecture and its lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Ni, Jiangfeng; Wang, Wencong; Li, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Coaxial architectures consisting of metal oxide and carbon nanotube are promising for many energy applications due to their synergetic interaction. The engineering and development of coaxial structures through a simple approach are highly desirable but remain a challenge. Herein, we present a general and facile ethylene glycol bath approach to fabricate coaxial architectures in which the metal oxide component is sandwiched by carbon nanotube and amorphous carbon. These unique architectures can serve as efficient electrode for lithium storage. The internal carbon nanotube allows rapid electron transport, while the external amorphous carbon acts as flexible buffer to accommodate volume variation upon lithium uptake. When evaluated in lithium cells, the carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial material exhibits a remarkable electrochemical lithium storage. It affords a capacity of 1083 mAh g-1 over 60 cycles, and retains 529 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 5 A g-1, drastically outperforming the pure iron oxide counterpart. This facile approach is in principle applicable to constructing other coaxial electrodes, and thus holds great potential in the manipulation of battery materials for lithium storage application.

  12. Microbial Internal Storage Alters the Carbon Transformation in Dynamic Anaerobic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Batstone, Damien; Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-08-04

    Microbial internal storage processes have been demonstrated to occur and play an important role in activated sludge systems under both aerobic and anoxic conditions when operating under dynamic conditions. High-rate anaerobic reactors are often operated at a high volumetric organic loading and a relatively dynamic profile, with large amounts of fermentable substrates. These dynamic operating conditions and high catabolic energy availability might also facilitate the formation of internal storage polymers by anaerobic microorganisms. However, so far information about storage under anaerobic conditions (e.g., anaerobic fermentation) as well as its consideration in anaerobic process modeling (e.g., IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, ADM1) is still sparse. In this work, the accumulation of storage polymers during anaerobic fermentation was evaluated by batch experiments using anaerobic methanogenic sludge and based on mass balance analysis of carbon transformation. A new mathematical model was developed to describe microbial storage in anaerobic systems. The model was calibrated and validated by using independent data sets from two different anaerobic systems, with significant storage observed, and effectively simulated in both systems. The inclusion of the new anaerobic storage processes in the developed model allows for more successful simulation of transients due to lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (correction for the overestimation of volatile fatty acids), which mitigates pH fluctuations. Current models such as the ADM1 cannot effectively simulate these dynamics due to a lack of anaerobic storage mechanisms.

  13. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  14. Carbon storage in US wetlands | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Nature Communications article is a product of legacy work that contributes to Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research on technical support and research on the enhancement of Office of Water’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) (SSWR 3.01A). The research is also potentially relevant to SHC and ACE research program questions. The research was conducted under USEPA cooperative agreement number 83422601 with Michigan State University in association with Kenyon College. USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment data used for this research are publically available from https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys/data-national-aquatic-resource-surveys. ***This is article is clearing for completion ONLY*** The research and conclusions in this article highlight the role of wetland soils in storing carbon and the implications of disturbance to wetlands for climate change. Specifically, we provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales using field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). This research also describes how soil carbon stocks vary by wetland type and soil depth, and by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fol

  15. Carbon storage in US wetlands | Science Inventory | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Nature Communications article is a product of legacy work that contributes to Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research on technical support and research on the enhancement of Office of Water’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) (SSWR 3.01A). The research is also potentially relevant to SHC and ACE research program questions. The research was conducted under USEPA cooperative agreement number 83422601 with Michigan State University in association with Kenyon College. USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment data used for this research are publically available from https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys/data-national-aquatic-resource-surveys. ***This is article is clearing for completion ONLY*** The research and conclusions in this article highlight the role of wetland soils in storing carbon and the implications of disturbance to wetlands for climate change. Specifically, we provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales using field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). This research also describes how soil carbon stocks vary by wetland type and soil depth, and by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fol

  16. Optimized carbonation of magnesium silicate mineral for CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Eikeland, Espen; Blichfeld, Anders Bank; Tyrsted, Christoffer; Jensen, Anca; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-03-11

    The global ambition of reducing the carbon dioxide emission makes sequestration reactions attractive as an option of storing CO2. One promising environmentally benign technology is based on forming thermodynamically stable carbonated minerals, with the drawback that these reactions usually have low conversion rates. In this work, the carbonation reaction of Mg rich olivine, Mg2SiO4, under supercritical conditions has been studied. The reaction produces MgCO3 at elevated temperature and pressure, with the addition of NaHCO3 and NaCl to improve the reaction rates. A sequestration rate of 70% was achieved within 2 h, using olivine particles of sub-10 μm, whereas 100% conversion was achieved in 4 h. This is one of the fastest complete conversions for this reaction reported to date. The CO2 sequestration rate is found to be highly dependent on the applied temperature and pressure, as well as the addition of NaHCO3. In contrast, adding NaCl was found to have limited effect on the reaction rate. The roles of NaHCO3 and NaCl as catalysts are discussed and especially how their effect changes with increased olivine particle size. The products have been characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy revealing the formation of amorphous silica and micrometer-sized magnesium carbonate crystals.

  17. Carbon storage by urban soils in the United States

    Treesearch

    Richard V. Pouyat; Ian D. Yesilonis; David J. Nowak

    2006-01-01

    We used data available from the literature and measurements from Baltimore, Maryland to (i) assess inter-city variability of soil oganic carbon (SOC) pools (1-m depth) of six cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Oakland, and Syracuse); (ii) calculate the net effect of urban land-use conversion on SOC pools for the same cities; (iii) use the National Land Cover...

  18. Carbon storage in the seagrass meadows of Gazi Bay, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Githaiga, Michael N.; Kairo, James G.; Gilpin, Linda; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks of four dominant seagrass species in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It compared sediment Corg between seagrass areas in vegetated and un-vegetated ‘controls’, using the naturally patchy occurence of seagrass at this site to test the impacts of seagrass growth on sediment Corg. It also explored relationships between the sediment and above-ground Corg, as well as between the total biomass and above-ground parameters. Sediment Corg was significantly different between species, range: 160.7–233.8 Mg C ha-1 (compared to the global range of 115.3 to 829.2 Mg C ha-1). Vegetated areas in all species had significantly higher sediment Corg compared